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% Function ybus
% THIS IS THE PROGRAM FOR CREATING Ybus MATRIX.c

function [yb,ych]=ybus

% The line impedances arec

zz=[0 0.02+0.1i 0 0 0.05+0.25i


0.02+0.1i 0 0.04+0.2i 0 0.05+0.25i
0 0.04+0.2i 0 0.05+0.25i 0.08+0.4i
0 0 0.05+0.25i 0 0.1+0.5i
0.05+0.25i 0.05+0.25i 0.08+0.4i 0.1+0.5i 0];c

% The line chargings arec

ych=j*[0 0.03 0 0 0.02


0.03 0 0.025 0 0.020
0 0.025 0 0.02 0.01
0 0 0.02 0 0.075
0.02 0.02 0.01 0.075 0];c

% The Ybus matrix is formed herec

for i=1:5
for j=1:5
if zz(i,j) == 0
yb(i,j)=0;
else
yb(i,j)=-1/zz(i,j);
end
end
endc

for i=1:5
ysum=0;
csum=0;
for j=1:5
ysum=ysum+yb(i,j);
csum=csum+ych(i,j);
end
yb(i,i)=csum-ysum;
c
endc
 !   %

+ !  $       9$ ((+ 


 
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% Program loadflow_gs
% THIS IS A GAUSS-SEIDEL POWER FLOW PROGRAMc

clear allc

d2r=pi/180;w=100*pi;c

% The Y_bus matrix isc

[ybus,ych]=ybus;
g=real(ybus);b=imag(ybus);c

% The given parameters and initial conditions arec

p=[0;-0.96;-0.35;-0.16;0.24];
q=[0;-0.62;-0.14;-0.08;-0.35];
mv=[1.05;1;1;1;1.02];
th=[0;0;0;0;0];
v=[mv(1);mv(2);mv(3);mv(4);mv(5)];c

acc=input('Enter the acceleration constant: ');


del=1;indx=0;c

% The Gauss-Seidel iterations starts herec

while del>1e-6c

% P-Q busesc

for i=2:4c

tmp1=(p(i)-j*q(i))/conj(v(i));
tmp2=0;
for k=1:5
if (i==k)
tmp2=tmp2+0;
else
tmp2=tmp2+ybus(i,k)*v(k);
end
endc

vt=(tmp1-tmp2)/ybus(i,i);
v(i)=v(i)+acc*(vt-v(i));c

endc

% P-V busc

q5=0;
for i=1:5
q5=q5+ybus(5,i)*v(i);
end
q5=-imag(conj(v(5))*q5);
tmp1=(p(5)-j*q5)/conj(v(5));
tmp2=0;
for k=1:4
tmp2=tmp2+ybus(5,k)*v(k);
endc

vt=(tmp1-tmp2)/ybus(5,5);
v(5)=abs(v(5))*vt/abs(vt);c

% Calculate P and Qc

for i=1:5
sm=0;
for k=1:5
sm=sm+ybus(i,k)*v(k);
end
s(i)=conj(v(i))*sm;
endc

% The mismatchc

delp=p-real(s)';
delq=q+imag(s)';

delpq=[delp(2:5);delq(2:4)];
del=max(abs(delpq));
indx=indx+1;
if indx==1
pause
endc

endc

'GS LOAD FLOW CONVERGES IN ITERATIONS',indx,pause


'FINAL VOLTAGE MAGNITUDES ARE',abs(v)',pause

'FINAL ANGLES IN DEGREE ARE',angle(v)'/d2r,pause


'THE REAL POWERS IN EACH BUS IN MW ARE',(real(s)+[0 0 0 0
0.24])*100,pausec

'THE REACTIVE POWERS IN EACH BUS IN MVar ARE',(-imag(s)+[0 0 0 0



0.11])*100c


!  $  #  $ P %

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% Program nwtraph
% THIS IS A NEWTON-RAPHSON PROGRAM
% We have to solve three nonlinear equations given by
%
% g1=x1^2-x2^2+x3^2-11=0
% g2=x1*x2+x2^2-3x3-3=0
% g3=x1-x1*x3+x2*x3-6=0
%
% Let us assume the initial conditions of x1=x2=x3=1
%
% The Jacobian matrix is
%
% J=[2x1 -2x2 2x3
% x2 x1+2x2 -3
% 1-x3 x3 -x1+x2];c

clear allc

x=[1;1;1];c

% The Newton-Raphson iterations starts herec

del=1;
indx=0;
while del>1e-6c

g=[x(1)^2-x(2)^2+x(3)^2-11;x(1)*x(2)+x(2)^2-3*x(3)-
3;x(1)-x(1)*x(3)+x(2)*x(3)-6];
J=[2*x(1) -2*x(2) 2*x(3);x(2) x(1)+2*x(2) -3;1-x(3)
x(3) -x(1)+x(2)];
delx=-inv(J)*g;
x=x+delx;c

del=max(abs(g));
indx=indx+1;c

endc

'NEWTON-RAPHSON SOLUTION CONVERGES IN


ITERATIONS',indx,pausec

'FINAL VALUES OF x ARE',xc


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% Program loadflow_nr
% THIS IS THE NEWTON-RAPHSON POWER FLOW PROGRAMc

clear allc

d2r=pi/180;w=100*pi;c

% The Ybus matrix isc

[ybus,ych]=ybus;c

g=real(ybus);b=imag(ybus);c

% The given parameters and initial conditions arec


p=[0;-0.96;-0.35;-0.16;0.24];
q=[0;-0.62;-0.14;-0.08;-0.35];
mv=[1.05;1;1;1;1.02];
th=[0;0;0;0;0];c

del=1;indx=0;c

% The Newton-Raphson iterations starts herec

while del>1e-6
for i=1:5
temp=0;
for k=1:5
temp=temp+mv(i)*mv(k)*(g(i,k)-j*b(i,k))*exp(j*(th(i)-th(k)));
end
pcal(i)=real(temp);qcal(i)=imag(temp);
endc

% The mismatchesc

delp=p-pcal';
delq=q-qcal';c

% The Jacobian matrixc

for i=1:4
ii=i+1;
for k=1:4
kk=k+1;
j11(i,k)=mv(ii)*mv(kk)*(g(ii,kk)*sin(th(ii)-th(kk))-
b(ii,kk)*cos(th(ii)-th(kk)));
end
j11(i,i)=-qcal(ii)-b(ii,ii)*mv(ii)^2;
endc

for i=1:4
ii=i+1;
for k=1:4
kk=k+1;
j211(i,k)=-mv(ii)*mv(kk)*(g(ii,kk)*cos(th(ii)-th(kk))-
b(ii,kk)*sin(th(ii)-th(kk)));
end
j211(i,i)=pcal(ii)-g(ii,ii)*mv(ii)^2;
end
j21=j211(1:3,1:4);

j12=-j211(1:4,1:3);
for i=1:3
j12(i,i)=pcal(i+1)+g(i+1,i+1)*mv(i+1)^2;
end

j22=j11(1:3,1:3);
for i=1:3
j22(i,i)=qcal(i+1)-b(i+1,i+1)*mv(i+1)^2;
end
jacob=[j11 j12;j21 j22];c

delpq=[delp(2:5);delq(2:4)];c

corr=inv(jacob)*delpq;c

th=th+[0;corr(1:4)];c

mv=mv+[0;mv(2:4).*corr(5:7);0];c

del=max(abs(delpq));c

indx=indx+1;c

endc

preal=(pcal+[0 0 0 0 0.24])*100;c

preac=(qcal+[0 0 0 0 0.11])*100;c

% Power flow calculationsc

for i=1:5
v(i)=mv(i)*exp(j*th(i));
endc

for i=1:4
for k=i+1:5
if (ybus(i,k)==0)
s(i,k)=0;s(k,i)=0;
c(i,k)=0;c(k,i)=0;
q(i,k)=0;q(k,i)=0;
cur(i,k)=0;cur(k,i)=0;
else
cu=-(v(i)-v(k))*ybus(i,k);
s(i,k)=-v(i)*cu'*100;
s(k,i)=v(k)*cu'*100;
c(i,k)=100*abs(ych(i,k))*abs(v(i))^2;
c(k,i)=100*abs(ych(k,i))*abs(v(k))^2;
cur(i,k)=cu;cur(k,i)=-cur(i,k);
end
end
endc

pwr=real(s);
qwr=imag(s);c

q=qwr-c;c

% Power lossc
ilin=abs(cur);c

for i=1:4
for k=i+1:5
if (ybus(i,k)==0)
pl(i,k)=0;pl(k,i)=0;
ql(i,k)=0;ql(k,i)=0;
else
z=-1/ybus(i,k);
r=real(z);
x=imag(z);
pl(i,k)=100*r*ilin(i,k)^2;pl(k,i)=pl(i,k); ql(i,k
)=100*x*ilin(i,k)^2;ql(k,i)=ql(i,k);
end
end
c
endc