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Numeric Water Level Indicator With Display
Most water level indicators are equipped to indicate and detect only a single level. The Numeric Water Level Indicator implemented here can indicate up to nine such levels and displays the level no. on a seven segment display. Hence, not only is the circuit capable of cautioning a person that the water tank has been filled up to a particular level,
Truth Table for the Priority encoder 74HC147
Fig. 1: Block diagram of the Numeric Water Level Indicator with Display
it can also indicate that the water level has fallen below the minimum level. This circuit exploits the simple fact that water is a good conductor of electricity. The placement of nine probes (having connections to the circuit) at different heights inside the water tank determines the nine different detectable levels. When the water reaches a particular height in the tank; the seven segment display shows the corresponding level no., digit ‘9’ representing the “tank full” condition and digit ‘0’ representing the “tank empty” condition.
in the tank through its nine input terminals (which are ‘active low’ inputs). These inputs are further converted to ‘active low’ BCD output. These are inverted by the four NPN transistors and then fed to the input pins of the latch decoder driver IC CD4511. BCD to 7-segment latch decoder drivers CD4511: The CD4511 is a BCD to seven segment latch decoder and driver. The circuit provides the functions of a 4-bit storage latch, an 8421 BCD-to-seven segment decoder, and an output drive capability. It has a total of 4 inputs namely A, B, C and D.
10 to 4 Line Priority Encoders 74HC147: The 74HC147 priority encoder accepts data from nine active LOW inputs (A0 to A8) and provides a binary representation on the four active LOW outputs (Y0 to Y3). A priority is assigned to each input so that when two or more inputs are simultaneously active, the input with the highest priority is represented on the output, with the input line A8 having the highest priority. The device features 10-line to 4line priority encoding function by use of the implied decimal “zero”. The “zero” is encoded when all nine data inputs are HIGH, forcing all four outputs HIGH. All inputs are equipped with protection circuits against static discharge and transient excess voltage. In the Numeric Water Level Indicator circuit, this priority Fig. 2: Pin out of the 74HC147 Priority Encoder IC encoder IC senses the water level
Truth table for the bCD to seven segment latch decoder drivers CD4511
Fig. 3: Pin-Out of the CD4511 IC
NPN transistor BC547: The BC547 is a general purpose transistor used for switching and amplification purposes. In the Numeric Water Level Indicator circuitry, these transistors are being basically used as
The level sensing is done by a set of nine probes which are placed at nine different levels on the tank walls (with probe9 to probe1 placed in decreasing or- Completed prototype after assembling the components and soldering (indicating “tank empty”) der of height. the following inputoutput sequence is achieved: • When the input is high (+Vs) the output is low (0V) • When the input is low (0V) the output is high (+Vs). Common Cathode 7-Segment LED Display LTS 547AP: The LTS 547AP is a general-purpose seven segment LED Display. in other words they can be used to generate any voltage from an initial bigger voltage by dividing it. Resistors can also be used as voltage divider. COM probe is placed on the base of the tank). Fig. all the inputs to the priority © Kits‘n’Spares . Inverters (NOT gates) are available on logic ICs but since only one logic inversion is required at each of the four outputs of the priority encoder. possibly operating at different power supply voltages. Basically. Similarly for level 2. precisely controlling the quantity of electrical current that is going to flow through a device or a conductor.do-it-yourself Resistors (R1-R24) Printed Circuit Board (PCB) IC Sockets Decoder Drivers (IC2) Fig. With these connections. 6: Segments of G.e. The Numeric Water Level Indicator uses this display to show the number associated with the water level in the tank. the common-cathode LTS543 NPN Transistors (T1 to T4) Component Identification Level Probes (L1to L9) Display (showing digit ‘9’) Connections to +5V DC Completed prototype after assembling the components and soldering (indicating “tank full”) Resistors: The most basic role of resistors is current limiting i. They may also be used at the interface between two different types of logic devices. D light up and so forth. to implement the NOT gate logic. When the tank is empty. Level Probes (L1to L9) Display (showing digit ‘0’) Connections to +5V DC WORKING PRINCIPLE The Numeric Water Level Indicator employs a simple mechanism to detect and indicate the water level in a tank or any other container. the segments A. If water is at level 1 in the tank. They are also used as pull-up resistors in electronic logic circuits to ensure that inputs to logic systems settle at expected logic levels if external devices are disconnected or high-impedance. E. level9 represents the “tank full” condition while COM represents the “tank empty” condition.e. the segments B and C light up to indicate this. the simple arrangement shown in fig5 can be used. B. 5: Connection of a NPN Transistor to Implement NOT Gate Logic Priority Encoder (IC1) Display (DIS1) inverters i. 4: Pin Configuration of a BC547 Fig.
while keeping the joint still.Priority Encoder IC • Hold the soldering iron like a as inputs to the decoder driver CD4511 74HC147 IC2 . This causes all the inputs to IC2 a ‘shiny’ look about them. Printed Circuit Board (PCB) • Remove the solder. • Wait a few minutes for the soldering iron to warm up. 7: Circuit Diagram of the Numeric Water Level Indicator with Display encoder 74HC147 (IC1) remain high. check is a ‘1’. Connectivity in circuit can cating a “tank full” condition. then the (DCBA). not the Segment Display (LTS543) fed to the input pins of IC2 are 0001 iron. R1 to R9 . You can check if it is ready by trying to melt a little solder on the tip. the bits Apply the solder to the joint. Inspect your work careWhen the tank is full. • It is preferable to use multi-thread wires as jumpers rather than single thread copper wires since they tend to break upon soldering.BCD to Seven Segment (IC2). After inversion. pin11 (A0) seconds and feed a little solder onto the R18 to R24 . • After all the components have been soldered. Seven Segment Display Since these outputs are inverted and fed IC1 . Make sure it touches both the Resistors (all ¼-watt. Soldering the components: • Use the component overlay on the PCB to insert the components and solder them in the following order: 1.560 kilo-ohm R10 to R13 . The pen. near the base of the handle. indicating that the tank is made. This will clean the tip. The solder joints should have all its outputs also go low. all inputs to IC2 are low. when the water reaches R14 to R17 . Resistors Precautions to be taken: • Please note the connection of jumper wires on the PCB. as 2. DIS1 .33 kilo-ohm level1 (but is below level2).do-it-yourself Fig. • Dampen the sponge in the stand. component lead and the track. the corresponding digit displayed by the seven segment display iron. Touch Decoder IC CD4511 seven segment display correspondingly the soldering iron onto the joint to be T1 to T4 . thereby indibridges between adjacent pads. all inputs to IC1 become low and fully under a bright light. Semiconductors: 4. • The pins of the IC sockets and the seven-segment display may have to be adjusted and bent in order to insert them into the drill-holes prior to soldering. It should flow smoothly onto the Miscellaneous: put generated at pin9 (Y0) of IC1 also lead and track to form a volcano shape. These are denoted on the PCB with the letter “J” along straight lines indicating the drills where they are to be soldered. this is to make the mounting and dismounting of the ICs easy while testing and trouble-shooting) • The three-legged transistor should be carefully © Kits‘n’Spares .NPN Transistor BC547 shows a ‘0’. Check that there are no solder to go high and hence the display shows a ‘9’.470 ohm of IC1 is pulled to ground and the outjoint. Hence. be tested by the help of a multi-meter ASSEMBLING THE KIT Preparing the soldering iron: • Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in. The same mechanism applies to the detection of all the other levels.Common Cathode Seven becomes low. Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron. IC Sockets a result its output also remains high. • Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge.12 kilo-ohm • Hold the tip there for a few For example. The iron will take a few minutes to reach its operating temperature of about 400°C. the soldering closely for any breaks. ±5% carbon): empty. (The sockets and not the ICs are soldered on the PCB. Transistor Parts List 3.
take a look at our website: www. Take care to not to bend any of the IC pins while doing so. If the ICs appear to have heated then replace them. • Check the connections of the base. while keeping the other three inputs low. 9) represented in Table2. • Check the display for each of the other nine conditions (i. PRE-TEST Do not insert any ICs into their sockets yet. 6. Perform this test for each of the 9 levels. fill the tank/container with water so as that the water level is above or at probe1.e. the display CONTACT DETAILS For full range of available kits. It should show the digit ‘0’. If all these are displayed correctly for the corresponding input then the circuit stages beyond IC2 are working fine. The water-level indicator described here can be implemented to overcome this problem. check the power supply to be applied and its polarity with a multi-meter before connecting it. the display should show the digit ‘1’. 7. TRY THIS OUT NEXT! During summer months. connect this requisite +5V DC supply and measure the voltage across pin 16 (+V cc) and pin 8 (GND) of IC1 and IC2. Accidentally applying a larger voltage to the circuit can burn the IC’s or some other sensitive component on it. • Next. 8. Each time the desert cooler has been filled to the brim i. should show a ‘1’. When the tank is full. Verify that you have the right components in the right place. the problem of over-flow while filling desert coolers is common. note the display when the tank is empty. TESTING • Now apply the supply voltage of +5V to the circuit again. Once the circuit problem has been resolved your Numeric Water Level Indicator is ready to be installed and used. In this case.com Documented by Aditi Goswami © Kits‘n’Spares . the level indicator will display the digit 9 on the 7-segment display thereby checking the wastage of water! TROUBLESHOOTING If the circuit is not working as desired then proceed as below: • It is preferable to begin trouble-shooting process from output stage onwards and then proceed to the input side. 3. The voltage between pin16 and pin 8 of IC1 and IC2 should be approximately +5V. place the probes on the walls of the tank (at 9 discrete levels) in the manner described earlier. display of digits 0. 2. level 9. • Remove the IC from the IC socket and check that no IC pins are bent up under the body of the ICs. Check for voltages at characteristic socket-pins. To begin. the display should show the digit ‘9’ to represent this. Other characteristic values can be checked for by referring to the datasheets. This can sometimes happen when inserting ICs into sockets. 4. 5. • To perform a test on the level indication mechanism. emitter and collector of the transistors and whether all the resistances being used are of the required value. Proceed with the next step. apply a high to pin7 (input A) of IC2.do-it-yourself placed into the correct drill holes on the PCB. If this reading is ok then remove power and insert the ICs. In this case. Next.e. It should read approximately 5 volts.kitnspares. First. After this placement.
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