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Water Level Indicator
Submitted by: Anubaav Ghosh 10-EEU-009 Deepash Khaneja 10-EEU-013 Gagandeep Singh Bawa 10-EEU-016 Kshitij Rampotra 10-EEU-022
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 4. APPARATUS USE 2.CONTENTS 1. 4049 . APPL CATION 3.C. WORKING PRINCIPLE 6.E. CIRCUIT WORKING 5. COMPONENT DETAILS (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) TRANSISTOR L. RESISTANCE PIEZO ELECRICAL BUZZER I.D.
L.D.Any colour 3. SIX C RE WIRE 5. I.E.R5 (100 K ohm) ii. R6-10 (100 ohm) 4.APPARATUS 1. Relay 7 amp 6. R1. 4049 2.C. Transistor pnp 7. L1. Piezo Electric Buzzer . RESISTANCE i.L5.
.APPLICATION Water level indicators basically show the level of water tank. we observe the level of water in tank. circuit switch on the L. Voltage from sensor wires is connected to the electronics circuit. As well as electronics circuit receives the signal from wire.E. Six core wire fitted in the water tank on the plastic tube. After fitting this project. Here water acts as a conductor. Main part of this project is six core wire and electronics circuit.D¶S in steps. As well as water increases in tank wires are connected with the voltage with water.
D. contains six inverter.D.E. When these negative outputs are connected to L. Current consumption of IC 4049 is very low approx.C. In water tank we connect all six wires in steps on the plastic probe.C converts these positive inputs into negative. 100 MA. Positive voltage from wires are connected to the input of I. 4049 as a inverter I. Positive reference voltage is connected to the bottom of plastic probe. 4049 sense the input voltage and converts its output into L. . We use five resistances in input and five in output with LED. when there is no water. Out of these six five wires for inverter circuit and one wire for +ve reference voltage. it require a negative output.CIRCUIT WORKING Here we use I. In this circuit we give a positive input through water sensor probe.D¶s are on step by step. This IC If input is negative then output is po sitive as per specification of inverter gate.C. When water fill up in the tank then sensor wires are connected with reference voltage with water.15 volt dc without any problem. its contains 16 pins. all wire are disconnected with reference voltage. IC 4049 is a digital IC. then L. In empty tank.C. IC 4049 is a CMOS IC. In this circuit when we give a negative input then output is positive. At positive output LED¶s are not glowing because cathode point is connected to the output. Here water act a conducting layer between reference voltage and sensor wires. All CMOS IC works on +/-5 volt to +/. Negative output is possible only when we give a positive input. and I. To glow a LED.E.E.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .
50% probe . Then switch S3 of the IC4066 activates the LED3 (yellow). Thus no LED glows because the circuit is not completed. a conductive path is established between the sense electrode and the tank wall/reference electrode . At Full . which is in parallel with the 25% Probe ± Ground Probe path If this second path resistance is also within the range. Then switch S2 of the IC4066 activates the LED2 (white). Arrange the probes in order on a PVC pipe according to the depth and immerse it in the tank.ground path. which is in parallel with the 25% Probe ± Ground Probe & 50% probe . Table 3-1 Operati sequences Water level System response (assuming power supply +V = 6. Thus switch S1 of the IC4066 activates the LED1 (green). Water provides a conductive path between full Probe and Ground Probe. AC voltage is use to prevent electrolysis at the probes. Then switch S4 of the IC4066 activates the LED4 (Red). Water provides a conductive path between 25% Probe and Ground Probe. When the water/liquid comes in contact with the electrode tip.WORKING PRINCIPLE One electrode probe is with 6V AC is placed at the bottom of tank. Next probes are placed step by step above the bottom probe.ground path. which in turn makes the transistors conduct to glow LED and indicate the level of water. If this fourth path resistance is also within the range.0V) Below 25% Probe Between 25% Probe and 50% Probe Between 50% Probe and 75% Probe Between 75% Probe and full There is no conductive path between Ground Probe and other probes. Insulated Aluminum wires with end insulation removed will do for the probe. The ends of probes are connected to corresponding points in the circuit as shown in circuit diagram. Water provides a conductive path between 50% Probe and Ground Probe. If this third path resistance is also within the range. Water provides a conductive path between 75% Probe and Ground Probe. which is in parallel with the 25% Probe ± Ground Probe.
A oltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. Some transistors are packaged individuall but most are found in integrated circuits. The transistor is acting as a switch. and this type of operation is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant. even with higher base voltage and current. Because the controlled (output power can be much more than the controlling (input power. the transistor pro ides amplification of a signal. the supply voltage shown as V If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed switch) then Ic could go no higher than VCC / RC. Hence. or completely on. the voltage across the load (the lamp with resistance RC) VRC + VCE = VCC.TRANSIST R(BC148) A transistor i a s mi t d i e commonl used to ampli or switch electronic si nals. values of input voltage can be chosen such that the output is either completely off. and its presence is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. and the collector voltage drops because of the collector load resistor. such as the light-switch circuit shown. The transistor is then said to be saturated. . in grounded-emitter configuration. The relevant equations: VRC = ICE × RC. Fig: BJT used as an electronic switch. for both high power applications including switched-mode power supplies and low power applications such as logic gates. as the base voltage rises the base and collector current rise e ponentially. A transistor is made of a solid piece of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an e ternal circuit. Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches.In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit.
measured in ohms. symbol . the ratio taken at any particular point. . electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. measured in volts I is the current through the object. the electrical resistance does not depend on the amount of current through or the amount of voltage across the object. the inverse slope of a chord to an I±V curve. symbol S. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm. Discovered by Georg Ohm in the late 1820s. the resistance of an object can be defined as the ratio of voltage to current: In the case of nonlinear objects (not purely resistive. and proportional to the resistivity of the material. An object of uniform cross section will have a resistance proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. Resistance's reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance measured in Siemens. in accordance with Ohm's law: Where R is the resistance of the object. The resistance of a resistive object determines the amount of current through the object for a given potential difference across the object. For a wide variety of materials and conditions. measured in amperes. or not obeying Ohm's law). is sometimes referred to as a "chordal resistance" or "static resistance". meaning that the resistance R is constant for the given temperature and material. this ratio can change as current or voltage changes. equivalent to J·s/C2 V is the potential difference across the object. Therefore.RESISTANCE The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the passage of a steady electric current.
LEDs work by the effect of electroluminescence. When the diode is forward biased (switched on). . The LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical components to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. However. ultraviolet and infra red wavelengths. but modern LEDs are available across the visible. All early devices emitted low-intensity red light. They are used as low-energy indicators but also for replacements for traditional light sources in general lighting. they are relatively e pensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. smaller size and faster switching. while their high switching rates are useful in communications technology. The LED was introduced as a practical electronic component in 19 2. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many kinds of electronics and increasingly for lighting. longer lifetime. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new te t and video displays and sensors to be developed. LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption. with very high brightness. improved robustness.LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is an electronic light source. automotive lighting and traffic signals. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. Applications of LEDs are diverse. electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light. LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. discovered by accident in 1907.
-voltage is e ceeded. Typical on voltages are 2-3 Volt I-V diagram for a diode an LED will begin to emit light when the on .
the distortion of the piezoelectric element e pands in a radial direction. when the piezoelectric element shrinks. etc. A piezoelectric ceramic plate is attached to a metal plate with adhesives Applying D.C.). when AC voltage is applied across electrodes. Conversely. The metal plate bonded to the piezoelectric element does not e pand. A piezoelectric diaphragm consists of a piezoelectric ceramic plate which has electrodes on both sides and a metal plate (brass or stainless steel. And the piezoelectric diaphragm bends toward the direction. For a misshaped piezoelectric element.PIEZO ELECTRIC BUZZER Basically. the piezoelectric diaphragm bends in the direction . . voltage between electrodes of a piezoelectric diaphragm causes mechanical distortion due to the piezoelectric effect. the sound source of a piezoelectric sound component is a piezoelectric diaphragm. producing sound waves in the air. Thus.
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