August 2009

Detailed project report for developing Solar Power Plant at Bap, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Prepared for

Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi A subsidiary of Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited, New Delhi

Project Report No. 2009RT03 www.teriin.org

The Energy and Resources Institute

Contents
Page No.

Executive Summary Salient features of the project Terminology CHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar power plant ............................... 1 Site details ........................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment .................................................... 5 Preamble ............................................................................................................. 5 Rajasthan............................................................................................................. 5 Solar radiation over Rajasthan ........................................................................6 Solar radiation resource assessment ..................................................................8 Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces .............................9 CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology...........................................................................11 Overview of concentrating solar power technology ..........................................11 Parabolic trough collector...............................................................................11 Central receiver system.................................................................................. 12 Parabolic dish-sterling technology ................................................................ 12 Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) ..................................................................... 12 Infinia Solar System (ISS)................................................................................. 18 Physical data of Infinia Solar System ............................................................... 19 Environmental ratings ...................................................................................... 19 Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS) ...................................................20 De-Rating .......................................................................................................... 21 System Control...............................................................................................23 Operation .......................................................................................................23 Inverter ..........................................................................................................24 General specifications/Interface ......................................................................24 Power Electronics and Control System .........................................................25 Operation and maintenance .............................................................................25 Safety..............................................................................................................26 Foundation ........................................................................................................ 27 Layout................................................................................................................ 27 Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant.........................................29 Estimation of power output ..............................................................................30 CHAPTER 4 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power.................32 Interconnection facility for the proposed plan.................................................32 CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan .......................................................................36 CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis...............................................................................38 Assumptions & estimates..................................................................................38 Project cost break-up & means of finance.....................................................38 Project implementation schedule..................................................................38 Proposed electricity tariff ..............................................................................39

...56 Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant ... 60 Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme .....................................Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Bap........54 Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA .....................64 ....................................................................58 Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of electrical & civil works ............ 40 Annexure II: Product brochures .......................62 Annexure V: Financial sheets..................................................................................... Jodhpur....................

...........30am on 23rd Dec ...................................................12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module .............. 30 Figure 3............................... 3 Figure 2...........................3..............................19 Figure 3...........................................4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS.13 Table 3..................... 29 Figure 3........................ Jodhpur..... 2 Figure 1................21 Figure 3......11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS ............. Jodhpur .......16 Table 3............5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system......List of figures Figure 1.......................3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap................................................................................................... 38 .............. 18 Figure 3............13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS...... 36 Table 6............................... Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours 10 Table 3.......... 29 Figure 3...9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10........................... 28 Figure 3...................19 Table 3.......1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap.............. 22 Figure 3.........2 Comparison between various CSP technologies ...2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan....................... 9 Figure 3.................5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system...............................10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)........2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) .........30am on 23rd Dec (ECOTECH) ........................ 11 Figure 3........................ Jodhpur (from Mani and METEONORM) ..19 Table 3............................6 Expected service life of service items ........1 DNI map of North-west region on India .................1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant .....31 List of tables Table 2.............1 Overview of Concentrating Solar System.................................. 26 Table 3....... 28 Figure 3........ 25 Table 3...3 Major components of the ISS ........................ 28 Table 5..1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW..................................................... 6 Figure 2......5 Performance curve of the system.......................8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap. 7 Figure 2...................................1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW).......................................... Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies..............................................1 Figure 1.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS .................................................................................................................2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies 13 Figure 3......4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap........14 Table 3......1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ......

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To sustain this growth momentum and as being an environmental friendly corporate citizen the company plans to diversify in the renewable energy sector.Executive Summary This proposal is for setting up a 10MW capacity concentrating solar power plant based on innovative parabolic dish sterling technology developed by a US based company. The solar power project is proposed in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. The technology provider’s engineers work closely with clients to develop systems ranging from power for deep-space missions to cryocoolers for research.5 MW. The installed power generation of the company stands at 140. While in the initial period the focus was mainly on documentation and information . The company balance sheet for FY2009 seems to be very strong with reserves of Rs. For more than twenty years.sugar and power businesses.The company has already entered into agreement with the project promoters M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited.which has been successfully developing and delivering innovative Sterling generators and cryocoolers since 1985. which is one of the best suited locations in terms of higher annual direct normal insolation (DNI). About TERI A dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and local focus. TERI was established in 1974. The DCBL has ushered into a higher growth trajectory and has been posting phenomenal financial numbers for the past several quarters. New Delhi as consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report (DPR). Over the past decade the company has commissioned projects worth more than Rs. favourable climatic conditions and land availability. The organization has now identified to tap the solar bliss of the nature and help the nation achieve its solar objectives be at forefront of the green power. it has developed unique hardware and technology based on its proprietary free-piston Stirling designs. They are the pioneers in the cement sector in India. They have engaged M/s The Energy and Resources Institute. 2000 crore in cement. They have assigned to its subsidiary company. M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited. 1252 cr. New Delhi. New Delhi. About Dalmia The Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited is in business for about 70 years now. The group has already experience of the wind power generation and is currently operating 17 MW wind power plant in Tamil Nadu. to explore and take up establishment and operation of solar power plants.

Technology The proposed plant will comprises modular 3kW solar parabolic Dish. In this context the company has following plans for assimilation of the aforesaid technology: 1. Solar Energy Action Plan of Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited. The genesis of these activities lay in TERI’s firm belief that efficient utilization of energy. large-scale adoption of renewable energy technologies. Technology provider has developed and patented innovative oscillating piston Sterling engine technology which has better performance and longer life as compared to conventional cranks shaft type Sterling engine designs. and sustainable development were initiated towards the end of 1982. and reduction of all forms of waste would move the process of development towards the goal of sustainability. To start with installing Solar Power Plant based on this technology imported from the original technology provider. Install large size Solar Power Projects in India based on this. 2. sustainable use of natural resources. . The company intends to implement this nest generation technology now.Sterling technology for power generation. New Delhi/ Dalmia Group The company proposes to set up concentrated solar power generation station using Stirling Engine technology. 3.dissemination activities. The company is looking at 400 MW installed capacity in next 5 years. research activities in the fields of energy. Install manufacturing facility in India to drive down the costs with the indigenization and by going along the learning curve with volume growth. The technology is stand alone type which needs no external power or water source and hence is most appropriate for desert region of Rajasthan. Small amount of processed water is required only for cleaning of the system. This technology has been identified as a “technology of future” in the draft National Solar Mission in the section “mission strategy” page-7. environment.

2202 kWh/m2 9. Project location:.10 MW 6. Project implementation period:. Rajasthan 3.ECOTECH 14. Jhodpur District. Design Optimisation Software used:. Proposed technology:. Site selection:.M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited. Project promoter:.Solar Dish-Sterling 4. Plant capacity:.On approval of the project promoters will approach banks/ IREDA for loan.Rs 230 crore 13. Annual output (expected):.Village Bap.3340 Dish Sterling engine systems each of 3kW capacity. 7. Annual average Direct Normal Insolation (DNI):2240 kWh/m2 8.22. New Delhi 2.26 months from date of approval.The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). New Delhi 5. Annual Effective DNI:.2 MU 10. Design consultant:.70 acre 11.Site identified and suitability confirmed 16. Estimated project cost:. Equity share capital is readily available. 12. . 15. Financial closure:. Agreement with supplier:.Salient features of the project 1. Land area required:. Dish sterling systems required:.Signed and copy enclosed in Annexure II. Tehsil Phalodi.

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Irradiance Irradiance is the rate at which radiant energy is incident on a surface. . Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) It is the direct component of the solar radiation incident on normal to the collector. means the angle of incidence of incident solar radiation with the normal of the collector is zero throughout the day.Terminology Direct solar radiation It is the solar radiation propagating along the line joining the receiving surface and the sun. Global solar radiation The global solar radiation is the sum of the direct and diffuse solar radiation and is sometimes referred to as the global radiation. Diffuse solar radiation It is the solar radiation scattered by aerosols. It is measured by pyrenometer. It is also referred as beam radiation. per unit area of surface. The most common measurements of solar radiation are total radiation on a horizontal surface often referred to as ‘global radiation’ on the surface. It is measured by shading pyrenometer. dust and molecules. It is measured through pyrehiliometer. It does not have a unique direction and also dose not follows the fundamental principals of optics.

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The location is well connected with the National Highway NH15 (Bikaner-Jaiselmer). is near village Bap in Phalodi Tahsil (latitude 27°06’ to 27°09’ North and 72°20’ to 72°23’ East) of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan state. Figures 1.2009RT03 . The distance of this substation from the proposed site is around 4-5 km. The proposed location has shadow free area (almost flat terrain) and located at very close (0.CHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar power plant Site details The proposed location of the solar power plant based on DishSterling technology.2 respectively represent the road and rail connectivity of the proposed project location. where the important locations are marked as Red. In addition another 132/33 kV grid substation is planned near Bap village.5 km) to a 33/11 kV substation from where the power generated through the solar power plant can be feed to the grid. Bap town is situated at distance of 140 km.com) T E R I Report No.5-1. Bap (Latitude 27o 22’N and Longitude 72o22’E) is an up Tahsil of Phalodi and area where land has been selected for proposed solar power plant.mapsofindia. from Jodhpur and connected to JodhpurJaisalmer railway line. Figure 1.1 and 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) (Source: www.

expected electrical output from the proposed 10MW system along with the financial analysis of the project. Jodhpur is presented in Figure 1.mapsofindia. Rajasthan Figure 1. T E R I Report No.com) The land plan of the identified land area for the proposed solar power project at Bap.3. The next chapters cover solar radiation resource potential.2 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. 2009RT03 .2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) (Source: www.

3 Proposed site to setting up of the solar power plants Figure 1. Jodhpur T E R I Report No. 2009RT03 .3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap.

Rajasthan T E R I Report No. 2009RT03 .4 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.

The annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 kWh/m2.000 million GWh of energy per year.239 square kilometres. by Uttar Pradesh in the east.2009RT03 . The daily average global radiation is around 5 . with temperatures ranging from 32 oC to 45 oC. It covers 342. particularly in May and June. by Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Gujarat in the south-west. India is in the sunny belt of the world. by Haryana in the northeast. and the 1 DNI= Direct normal insolation. thereby receiving abundant radiant energy from the sun. A summer. and the number of clear sunny days in a year also being quite high. The climate of Rajasthan can be divided into four seasons. East.0 kWh/m2 in western regions and cold dessert areas with the sunshine hours ranging between 2300 and 3200 per year.0 kWh/m2 in north-eastern and hilly areas to about 7. The country receives solar energy equivalent to more than 5.000 trillion kWh per year.CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment Preamble India is located in the sunny belt of the earth. Rajasthan is bounded by Pakistan in the west and north-west. India being a tropical country is blessed with good sunshine over most parts. 90% of rains occur during this period. In most parts of India. but humidity increases. is the hottest season. The average maximum temperature is 33o C to 38o C. temp drops. clear sunny weather is experienced for 250 to 300 days a year. This chapter covers the detailed-feasibility of solar radiation resource assessment and Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) study for Jodhpur Rajasthan. In western Rajasthan the temp may rise to 48 oC. all concentrating solar power technologies comprises this component of solar radiation only. Rajasthan lies between latitudes 23o 3'and 30o 12'. Post-Monsoon and winter. Rajasthan Rajasthan is situated in the north-western part of India. by the State of Punjab in the north. even when there is slight drop in the temp (35 oC to 40 oC). The second season Monsoon extends from July to September. North and longitudes 69o 30' and 78o 17'. The southern part of Rajasthan is about 225 km from the Gulf of Kutch and about 400 km from the Arabian Sea. which extends from April to June. The direct normal insolation1 (DNI) over Rajasthan varies from 1800 kWh/m2 to 2600 kWh/m2. The Post-monsoon period is from October to November. Monsoon. T E R I Report No. summers. Its equivalent energy potential is about 6.

January is the coolest month of the year.1 DNI map of North-west region on India (Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. hence best suited for solar power generation. predominantly from the north and northeast. In addition the average rainfall is minimum in the state. which is based on the measured data of Indian Metrological Department (IMD) and satellite data through NASA. The north-west part of the country is best suited for solar energy based projects because the location receives maximum amount of solar radiation annually in the country. The global solar radiation map of Rajasthan is presented in Figure 2. USA) Solar radiation over Rajasthan Rajasthan receives maximum solar radiation intensity in India. The map clearly emphasize T E R I Report No. There is slight precipitation in the north and north-eastern region of the state.1 presents the annual average DNI map for the northwest region of India. and 25% to 35% in the afternoon.6 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. The fourth season is winter or the cold season.2. and light winds. 2009RT03 . Figure 2. Bap Figure 2. from December to March. Rajasthan minimum is between 18 oC and 20 oC. relative humidity ranges from 50% to 60% in the morning. There is a marked variation in maximum and minimum temperatures and regional variations across the state. At this time.

Their most immediate use is that the solar azimuth and altitude can be read off directly for any time of the day and day of the year. They also provide a unique summary of solar position that the designer can refer to when considering shading requirements and design options. Bap gives the impression of endless desolation.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan (Source: TERI Analysis) Bap. it is extraordinarily variable. Jodhpur has been presented in Figure 2.7 Solar radiation resource assessment that the western and southern parts of the state receives good amount of annual average solar radiation. Jodhpur is bound by Nagaur in East. with scattered habitation.60% of total area of arid zone of the state. T E R I Report No. 2 Sun path diagrams are a convenient way of representing annual changes in the path of the Sun through the sky within a single 2D diagram. The length of the district from North to South and from East to West is 197 Km. Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts in western Rajasthan. \ Figure 2. Bikaner in North as well as Pali in the South. This district is situated at the height between 250-300 meters above sea level. Jaisalmer in west. A typical sun path diagram2 for Bap. Bap block of Jodhpur district is and situated between Jodhpur. & 208 Km. respectively. 2009RT03 . The district stretches between 2600’ and 27037’ at North Latitude and between 72o55’ and 73o 52’ at East Longitude. Jodhpur Jodhpur is the one of the largest district of Rajasthan is centrally situated in Western region of the State.3. The average rainfall is around 360 millimetres. This district comes under arid zone of the Rajasthan state. km. Located in the heart of the Thar desert. Jodhpur is also one representative location of Rajasthan State. It covers 11. having geographical area of 22850 sq.

73 . 19 5° 18 0° 16 5° 15 0° Figure 2. The direct solar radiation is not measured at many locations of India. Jodhpur (Source: Ecotech Software) Solar radiation resource assessment Resource assessment is the primary and essential exercise towards project evaluation. Rajasthan Stereographic Diagram Lo c a tio n: 26 .8 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. The best way of carrying out the solar radiation resource assessment is to use T E R I Report No. the measuring stations record only global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surfaces.9°. 2009RT03 . while it could be estimated through global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface. which is essentially the solar radiation measured/assessed at a surface normal to Sun rays throughout the day.0 ° S un P o sition : 1 53 . the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) measures the solar radiation and other climatic parameters over various locations across the country however.3 Sun-path Diagram for the location of Bap. The parabolic DishSterling technology utilises infrared component of direct normal component of global solar radiation.6° H SA: 15 3.9 ° VSA: 11 2. 65 . In India.1° 3 30 ° 34 5° N 15 ° 30 ° 1 0° 3 15 ° 2 0° 4 5° 3 0° 3 00 ° 4 0° 1st Jul 1st Aug 2 85 ° 18 7 0° 1st S ep 17 8 0° 16 15 2 70 ° 1st O c t 1 st M ar 10 14 13 12 11 9 0° 9 1st Ap r 8 19 5 0° 6 0° 1 st 5° ay 7M 6 1 st Jun 6 0° 7 1st55 ° 2 N ov 1 05 ° 1st Feb 1 st D ec 1st Ja n 1 20 ° 2 40 ° 2 25 ° 1 35 ° 2 10 ° T ime : 1 2:00 D ate : 1 st A p r (9 1) D otted line s: July-D ec embe r.3°. The direct solar radiation is not measured by IMD in Jodhpur while the global and diffuse solar radiation values are measuring from last 25-30 years.

planners and anyone interested in solar energy and climatology. In order to assess the closeness of the METEONORM data a comparison of the monthly values obtained from ‘Handbook of Solar Radiation’ by A Mani5 with TMY data of METEONORM. The original TMY files are ASCII text files containing one year of weather data (ranging from solar radiation to precipitation) at one hour time intervals.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap.4 presents the global solar radiation over Bap. Jodhpur using the data of A Mani and METEONORM. Figure 2. including polar regions. It is based on over 20 years of experience in the development of meteorological databases for energy applications. temperature. have been modified at the Solar Energy Laboratory for ease of use with the TRNSYS energy system simulation program. 250 Global Solar Radiation (kWh/m ) 200 2 150 100 50 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN MANI JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC METEONORM Figure 2. sunshine duration etc. The annual global solar radiation through Mani and METEONORM database has been obtained as 2201 kWh/m2 and 2051 kWh/m2 respectively. Further the DNI values estimated using METEONORM data base have been compared with the values obtained using IMD data as well as with the NASA satellite data for the location of Jodhpur. wind speed and direction. derived from the widely accepted 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. The database includes climatological data of 7 700 weather stations (60 stations of India) based on measured climatic parameters viz. precipitation. incorporating a catalogue of meteorological data and calculation procedures for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world.. humidity. teachers. Handbook of Solar Radiation. T E R I Report No. 4 METEONORM is a comprehensive meteorological reference. solar radiation. Jodhpur (from Mani and METEONORM) Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces 3 † TMY data sets for 234 U. METEONORM addresses engineers. Allied Publishers.9 Solar radiation resource assessment TMY3 (Typical Meteorological Year weather data files) data files for selected location. A. Since the TMY data files for Indian locations are not available hence in the present study the METEONORM4 database has been used for solar radiation study and DNI estimation. 5 Mani. which are very close (<7% deviation).S. architects. locations. TRNSYS TMY files. 2009RT03 . 1982. containing only the most widely used information from the original files and corrected for known problems. days with precipitation. including complete coverage of the global.

wisc. Table 2.edu/trnsys/ T E R I Report No.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap. It has been estimated that the location receives 2241 kWh/m2 Direct Normal Incidence over the year. 2009RT03 . Jodhpur. diffuse radiation and effective sunshine hours at Bap. which recognizes a system description language in which the user specifies the components that constitute the system and the manner in which they are connected. Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours Month Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal (kWh/m2) 142 154 201 214 226 189 146 135 212 171 134 126 2050 Diffuse Solar Radiation on Horizontal (kWh/m2) 29 31 46 62 79 83 85 88 32 47 39 34 655 Direct Solar Radiation on Horizontal (kWh/m2) 113 123 155 151 147 106 61 47 179 124 95 93 1394 DNI (two axis tracking)(kWh/m2) Effective DNI* (kWh/m2) Effective Sunshine Hours (hrs) 289 274 331 330 361 269 173 131 326 315 270 273 3342 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total 222 215 240 217 204 147 83 65 270 208 182 187 2240 221 213 239 214 202 141 77 56 269 206 179 185 2202 *meeting the performance conditions for selected technology (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) 6 http://sel. sunshine hours.10 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. TRNSYS is well suited to detailed analyses of any system whose behaviour is dependent on the passage of time. Table 2. Rajasthan TMY file for the locations of Jodhpur has been selected from METEONORM database.1 presents the outcome of solar radiation resource assessment for Bap.1. A program has been developed to estimate the direct solar radiation over stationary and tracking surfaces (single axis. The monthly values of global solar radiation. Jodhpur has also been given in the Table 2.me. TRNSYS is a time dependent systems simulation program. as well as component routines to handle input of weather data or other time-dependent forcing functions and output of simulation results. The daily average values of solar radiation. effective DNI and associated climatic parameters especially ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed have been summarized in Annexure-1. The TRNSYS library includes many of the components commonly found in thermal and electrical energy systems. double-axis) using computer software TRNSYS6.

A thermal transfer fluid. receiver (absorber).CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants produce electricity by converting the infrared part of solar radiation into hightemperature heat using various mirror/reflector and receiver configurations. The troughs are usually designed to track the Sun along one axis. transport/ storage and power conversion.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal System Parabolic trough collector Parabolic trough-shaped mirror reflectors are used to concentrate sunlight on to thermally efficient receiver-tubes placed in the trough’s focal line. CSP plants use the high-temperature heat from concentrating solar collectors to drive conventional types of engines turbines. such as synthetic thermal oil. known as ‘power block’. Overview of concentrating solar power technology All CSP are based on four basic essential sub systems namely collector. is circulated in these tubes. Following four CSP technologies have either reached commercialisation stage or are near it: Parabolic Trough Power towers Parabolic Dishes (Dish-Sterling) Compound Linear Fresnel Reflectors (CLFR) FOSSIL – FIRED BACKUP SYSTEM Solar Thermal Energy Thermal Energy SOLAR RADIATION CONCENTRATOR RECEIVER Stored Thermal Energy Concentrated Solar Radiation POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM Figure 3.2009RT03 . commonly known as ‘solar field’ and another that converts heat energy to electricity. The heat is then channelled through a conventional generator. predominantly north– south. The plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat. The fluid is heated to approximately T E R I Report No.

which can either be part of a conventional steam cycle or integrated into a combined steam and gas turbine cycle. This fluid or gas is then used to generate electricity in a small piston or Stirling engine or a micro turbine. fixed fluid joints. Central receiver system A circular array of heliostats (large mirrors two-axis with tracking) concentrates sunlight on to a central receiver mounted at the top of a tower. with the advantages of low costs for structural support and reflectors. Figure 3. This system is lineconcentrating.000°C or more as the heat transfer medium. 2009RT03 . If pressurised gas or air is used at very high temperatures of about 1. Parabolic dish-sterling technology A paraboloid dish-shaped reflector (commonly called as parabolic dish) concentrates sunlight on to a receiver located at the focal point of the dish. similar to a parabolic trough. Water flows through the receivers and is converted into steam. molten salts and air. To date.2 presents the schematic diagram of above CST technologies. it can even be used to directly replace natural gas in a gas turbine. which is used to generate superheated steam for the turbine. The steam is converted to electrical energy in a conventional steam turbine generator. and long focal lengths that allow the use of flat mirrors. attached to the receiver. predominantly north–south and east-west.12 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. Rajasthan 400°C by the sun’s concentrated rays and then pumped through a series of heat exchangers to produce superheated steam. The parabolic dish are designed to track the Sun along both axis. a receiver separated from the reflector system. Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) An array of nearly-flat reflectors concentrates solar radiation onto elevated inverted linear receivers. making use of the excellent cycle (60% and more) of modern gas and steam combined cycles. A heat-transfer medium in this central receiver absorbs the highly concentrated radiation reflected by the heliostats and converts it into thermal energy. The concentrated beam radiation is absorbed into a receiver to heat a fluid or gas (air) to approximately 750°C. T E R I Report No. the heat transfer media demonstrated include water/steam. The technology is seen as a potentially lower-cost alternative to trough technology for the production of solar process heat.

Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies Installed Capacity (MW) CSP Technology Type Parabolic Trough Central Receiver Parabolic Dish-Sterling CLFR till 2009 500 40 <1 5 Appropriate capacity under construction and proposed (MW) > 10.13 Proposed technology Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies On the basis of technological aspects Table 3.000 > 1500 > 500 T E R I Report No.2.000 > 3.1 presents the maturity levels of CSP technologies while inter-comparability of CSP technologies is presented in Table 3. 2009RT03 .

The size of power plant under trough as well as tower technology is dependent on size and economics of steam turbine and such trough as well as tower technology does not have capability and flexibility of development on modular concept for small to large size. Proposals for 100MW and 500 MW in Australia and US) reflector Grid connected plants. (Highest single unit solar capacity to date is 5MW in US.000°C (565°C proven at 10 MW scale) • Storage at high temperatures • Hybrid operation possible • Better suited for dry cooling concepts than troughs and Fresnel • Better options to use non-flat sites • Very high conversion efficiencies – peak solar to net electric conversion over 30% • Modularity • Most effectively integrate thermal storage a large plant • Operational experience of first demonstration projects • Easily manufactured and mass-produced from available parts • No water requirements for cooling the cycle • Readily available • Flat mirrors can be purchased and bent on site. operating temperature potential beyond 1. Total capacity built: over 500 MW and more than 10 GW under construction or proposed) Central receiver Grid-connected plants. 2009RT03 . lower manufacturing costs • Hybrid operation possible • Very high space efficiency around solar noon. Rajasthan Table 3. midium to high-process heat (Highest single unit solar capacity to date: 80 MWe. CLFR technology is new but again similar as above technologies in point of view of modularity. The power tower technology also requires big amount of land as compared with other CSP technologies. with 177 MW installation under development) Advantages • Commercially available over 16 billion kWh of operational experience. operating temperature potential up to 500°C (400°C commercially proven) • Commercially proven annual net plant efficiency of 14% (solar radiation to net electric output) • Commercially proven investment and operating costs • Modularity • Good land-use factor • Lowest materials demand • Hybrid concept proven • Storage capability • Good mid-term prospects for high conversion efficiencies. In addition all these three T E R I Report No. high temperature process heat (Highest single unit solar capacity to date: 20 MWe under construction.14 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. Total capacity ~50MW with at least 100MW under development) Parabolic Dish Stand-alone. small off-grid power systems or clustered to larger grid connected dish parks (Highest single unit solar capacity to date: 100 kWe. or steam generation to be used in conventional thermal power plants.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies Fresnel linear Parabolic trough Applications Grid-connected plants. It has been observed that parabolic trough collector is well proven but the suppliers are not available in India and the projects based on the technology become viable for large capacity.

15 Proposed technology technologies consume a big amount of water for cooling tower and heat transfer medium. rest parts are similar as conventional thermal power plants which comprise steam turbine. 2009RT03 . T E R I Report No. generator and other associated moving parts. In these power plants only thermal energy is collected through solar collectors. Hence the cost of operation and maintenances increases.

The thin films has shown possibilities of cost reduction but also carries sufficient degradation and hence reduction of efficiency. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies Area CSP Technology Concentration Ratio Tracking Singleaxis Solar Radiation Direct radiation over single axis Thermal Input 250-400 oC Total Projects (354 MW) ANDASOL-1 (50 MW) Solar Millenium Abengoa Solar SENER.3.) has selected parabolic-dish sterling technology which is modular and requires no water and heat transfer fluid etc. Table 3. Rajasthan Taking in to account all advantages and limitations of all CSP technologies Shi Rangam Brokers & holdings Limited (Dalmia cement [Bharat] Ltd.16 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. which has lesser potential of cost reduction in near future. M/s Sterling Energy Systems and M/s Sun Power. Sppain Sterlingengine systems Company Luz International Ltd. amorphous silicon (a-Si) or cadmium telluride (CdTe) and other thin film photovoltaic solar cells. The solar photovoltaic route comprises ultraviolet portion and high energy region of solar spectrum. or heliostat field collectors based CSP power plants and other concentrating solar thermal technologies utilizes visible and infrared portion of incident T E R I Report No. concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) plants and parabolic dish sterling engine etc. USA Parabolic trough 80 Central receiver 500-1500 Two-axis Direct Normal Incidence 250-1200 oC Possible 14-15 >25 MW PS-10 (11 MW) Solar Tres (17 MW) Parabolic dish. Thermal Storage Possible Required* Installed (acre/MW) Capacity 7-8 > 400 MW SEGS. The Parabolic trough collector. and mainly utilizes crystalline silicon. polycrystalline silicon. The technological characterises of all CSP technologies are given in Table 3. 2009RT03 . It has been noticed that these materials are based on highly refined silicon or rare earth tellurium. Presently there are three major companies worldwide who are manufacturing parabolic dish-sterling systems of different capacities.500-1500 engine Concentrating Linear Fresnel Reflectors 80 Two-axis Direct Normal Incidence 700 oC Not Possible 7-8 < 1MW NA Singleaxis Direct radiation over single axis 250-400 oC Possible 4-5 1 MW NA Ausra Australia Presently. These are M/s Infinia Solar Systems. solar energy is utilised to generate electricity through solar photovoltaic.3.

T E R I Report No. The company has identified Parabolic Dish-Sterling concentrating solar power technology developed by INFINIA Corp. IP56 (Electrical Enclosures) and IP66 (Bi-axial drive)7. Getting water supply from existing reservoirs or canal might add additional cost in the project and could affect its viability. The technical specifications of this parabolic dish-sterling system of are discusses below. In addition these systems are best suited solar power technology for decentralized and distributed power generation as they are modular units of 3kW capacity. It is therefore the best suited technology for Rajasthan. Heat Drive Chassis Parabolic dish solar Reflector Bi-axial Drive and Solid state Power Electronics & Control System All components are out-door rated and will meet Ingress Progression Standards IP54 (Heat Drive). The Heat Drive consists of a Cavity Receiver that captures the concentrated sunlight from the parabolic reflector. towards supply of the technology. The Product manual and detail specifications are enclosed in Annexure II. has potential of cost reduction by indigenisation. Further being simple mechanical device.. The System consists of following principal components. and a heat rejection system similar to an automotive cooling system (Figure 3.3). is based on sterling cycle instead prior to carnot cycle and hence shows the highest efficiency. The electricity generation through parabolic dish sterling engine system does not require water for operation. The power generation can be effected only because of the availability of water. IP56. Rajasthan receives significant annual average DNI and comprises huge waste/desert land. and IP66 are the international standards applicable for outdoor installation of mechanical/electrical system. 2009RT03 .17 Proposed technology solar radiation to achieve high temperatures and hence generation of steam to run the turbine. INFINIA Corporation. which are the basic requirements to install CSP plant. USA. a Free Piston Stirling Engine that efficiently converts the solar energy to electricity. a USA based company is commercially manufacturing the parabolic dish-sterling systems and has joined hands with Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Ltd. Water requirement for CSP plants might be one of the drawbacks for the region because Rajasthan has limited water resources. The sterling engine has efficiency of 24% compare to the 15% maximum efficiency of solar photovoltaic. 7 IP54. This dish-sterling engine.

The main features of the parabolic dish-sterling system of Infinia Solar System are. Infinia FPSEs convert thermal energy from external energy sources to linear motion which drives an integral linear alternator. and a supporting post. a 3 kW Stirling engine module. a Bi-axial Drive mounted on a Chassis. AC electrical output of the alternator is rectified to DC by the power electronics and automatically inverted to match the AC voltage and frequency of the connected grid. This concentrated thermal energy is converted to linear motion and drives the power piston of a linear alternator. and Power Electronics and Control Systems. T E R I Report No. reliable electricity. thus generating clean. as illustrated in figure 3. The Bi-axial Drive points the system at the sun and tracks the sun throughout the day to concentrate sunlight off the mirrored face of the parabolic dish into the Heat Drive. 3. 2009RT03 . Rajasthan Figure 3.000 W net AC Long-life.initially developed for NASA for space applications.4. a parabolic dish solar Reflector. The system integrates a Stirling engine (Heat Drive). zero-maintenance Free-Piston Stirling Engine Dual Axis Tracking Self-contained power electronics that meet utility interconnection requirements No Cooling Water required The 3 kW Solar System is comprised of a parabolic solar concentrating dish.to convert concentrated solar heat to electricity.18 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.3 Major components of the ISS Infinia Solar System (ISS) Infinia’s Solar System relies on a advanced Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE).

7 m 4. Table 3.19 Proposed technology Figure 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS Dimension Width Length Height Total Weight Position at Horizon 4.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system Operating Parameter Operating temperature range Operating elevation range Operating Range -20oC to 55 oC Up to 1890 m above sea level T E R I Report No. is given in Table 3. Table 3. 2009RT03 .5 as following.4 as following.4 m 5.6 m 864 kg Environmental ratings The range of environmental parameters under which this parabolic dish-sterling system works.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS Physical data of Infinia Solar System The weight and dimensions of this parabolic dish-sterling of are given in Table 3.

0 kW net electrical output at inverter output and 0. Following considerations have been taken in to account for output estimation. CE.000 W at 850 W/m2 of Direct Normal Incidence (after all internal parasitic power T E R I Report No. Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS) Methodology The annual electrical output has been estimated on the basis of hourly DNI values. CEC certifications compliant Power Factor > 0.5 kW auxiliary consumption of the generation system) Stand alone system which does not need any external source of power or water etc Power plant can be built from smaller kW to MW scale with the use of 3 kW module. ambient air temperature and prevailing wind speed along with the rated specifications of Infinia Solar System. Proposed Net efficiency of Infinia Solar System will be 24% Electrical output 3 kW when DNI is greater than 850 W/m2 Efficiency De-rating because of ambient temperature Efficiency De-rating because of wind Efficiency De-rating because of age Peak Power Peak Electrical Power produced is 3.5 kW Sterling Generator (3. 2009RT03 . The company is in the process of setting up mega watt level power plants in Spain. Modular in design hence easy to install and maintain Sealed engine which is practically maintenance free Innovative Sterling engine technology is already commercialised for various waste heat recovery and biomass based combined heating and power applications.20 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.95 3. Rajasthan Operating Parameter Operating relative humidity range Wind speed – no power degradation Wind speed – max operation Wind speed – maximum Operating Range 0 to 100 % 7 m/s 14 m/s 45 m/s Additional features of dish sterling system 3 kW peak at 850 W/m2 output 28% gross efficiency 24 % net efficiency closed-loop tracking & unattended operation Output 120/240 VAC 1 Phase or 208/230 VAC 3 Phase UL.

For elevations above 1890 m [6.200 ft]. 20 °C >> 3. at 850 W/m2 of DNI. In addition the derating factor is also associated with the age of the system. 30 °C >> 3. at an ambient temperature of 20 °C.21 Proposed technology requirements). meters and when DNI increases above 850 W/m2. 850 W/m2. Figure 3. solar DNI) of the ISS is presented in Figure 3.03) = ~2.5-3.5 Performance curve of the system De-Rating The overall performance of the these systems mainly depends on the DNI availability and partially depends upon ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed.910 W T E R I Report No.5. Performance curve The performance curve (power output vs. As DNI increases above 850 W/m2. Over the operating temperature range. Calculating the de-rating factor for high temperature environments is as following. There is no generation till solar insolation of 100 kWh/sq.0% for every temperature increase of 10 °C above 20 °C ambient. the system will defocus reflectors thereby diverting the additional heat input out of the system. increased fan performance may be required. power is de-rated by ~2. The efficiency increases with solar insolation. Temperature De-rating Altitude and ambient temperature affects the performance and energy output of ISS.000 W*(1-0.000 W output. -20 °C to 55 °C . 2009RT03 . the ISS does not increase its power production beyond the nominal 3. Electrical energy output is grid-ready AC 3-phase 208/230 volt.000 W 850 W/m2.

2009RT03 . Figure 3.7% reduction in energy production for the location used in this example. This will result in a 1.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap. Jodhpur. T E R I Report No.5 1.5 0.5 3.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug S ep Oct Nov Dec Figure 3.0 3.0 Wind Speed (m/s) 2.6 presents the pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap. It will operate with practically no power degradation due to no structural deflection for wind speeds up to 7 m/s. Jodhpur The ISS has been designed to structurally withstand wind loading up to a maximum of 45 m/s. Figure 3. Rajasthan The hourly values of ambient temperature have been taken using METEONORM database and day time values have been filtered when system produces electricity. It has been observed that at the location maximum monthly average wind speed at the height of 10 m is 3-3.5 m/s. 4.5 2. Wind Power De-rating In order to assess the pattern of annual prevailing wind speed at the location of Bap.0 0.0 1.22 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. The above criteria have been taken in to account with mentioned de-rating factors. satellite data of wind speed at the height of 10 meter has been taken and analyzed.7 shows the impact of a constant wind during an entire day.

2009RT03 . wind debris or high humidity). System Calibration At initial start-up.g. It operates in following modes. project site meteorological inputs.7 Impact of wind on performance System Age De-rating System Efficiency has been calculated and is expected to modestly degrade over time at a rate of 0. and user defined limits (in terms of time of day or elevation of sun). processes algorithms. and Sensors perform self tests at Operational Wake-Up and when initialized by the user. real time sensor data and environmental conditions (like temperature and wind). T E R I Report No..23 Proposed technology Figure 3. the system efficiency may be reduced as shown in the example here: System Control Infinia Solar System uses a high quality control mechanism to control operations of individual dishes. an electronic calibration table is automatically built to ensure solar tracking accuracy. initiates system alerts. Operation Typical operation starts with a system self check. Over a twenty-five year life. system control automatically monitor ISS/faults.5% or less per year. such as mirror edge degradation or environmental conditions that may affect mirror reflectivity (e. Rectifier. Motor (Azimuth. Using Built In algorithms. Several factors may affect system efficiency over time. the system then “wakes up” and slews to the sun. system calibrations. Elevation) Controllers. System Check Inverter.

suspended dust etc). The voltage and frequency automatically sensed and adjusted according to voltages on output (grid connect) voltage and frequency used adjustable. Slew to Stow In addition to non sun shine hours . etc.e. Tracking is adjusted after predefined interval so that at no stage sun rays do not focus on receiver. Slew to Sun Slew to sun is initiated if user defined conditions of sun shine are met to initiate it after wake up. fault on system (likely to remain uncured for long time). the unit enters the stow position and remains connected to the grid. sun can not be tracked due to environmental conditions other than those of slew to stow (e. The T E R I Report No. slew to sun and slew to stow mode. stand by. The peak power has been estimated at rated input direct normal incidence (DNI) ≥ 850 W/m2 at 20oC ambient temperature and wind speed <7 m/s. Standby If after tracking has commenced during the day.24 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. General specifications/Interface Table 3. occurs system takes a decision to slew to stow”. 2009RT03 .g. 4-wire output (stand alone) Overall System Efficiency and 28% gross efficiency (gross AC output divided by rated direct normal insolation times collector area). parabolic dish remain in stand by mode i.5 presents the output details of the parabolic dishsterling system. the 24-V DC battery provides power to the system electronics and stows the system until the grid is present. Inverter Power output is set and produced compliant with the utility voltage. When the system is off. When the grid is not present.if during sun shine hours supplied by users. Tracking Tracking consists of aligning the axis of parabolic dish with that of incident ray of the sun so that sun rays reflected by parabolic dish is concentrated on receiver. low solar insolation not coinciding with sun shine hours preset say due to cloud cover. Protective relay functions ensure safe system shutdown in the event of grid failure or if system operates beyond specification limits. Rajasthan to make decision for tracking. last tracked position. hail storm. adjusting tracking. if abnormal conditions of high wind.

25 Proposed technology frequency is based on local utility requirements. it automatically matches the AC voltage and frequency that it sees on the system output terminals. Like any power conversion device. Software has adjustable parameters and set points for these protective relay functions which allow the product to be easily configured to meet the interconnect requirements. Table 3. the inverter also performs all the protective relay functions.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system Output Pear power Voltage Frequency Minimum 3. 2009RT03 . AC output from the system shall be connected to the local grid in accordance with local regulations and requirements. The output inverter is housed in the weatherproof (IP56 rating) enclosure mounted on the ISS unit near the ground and also houses the user interface and connections.000 W 208 VC.   Operation and maintenance Preventive maintenance The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device which can provide many years of safe dependable performance. As the inverter is a current source only. preventive maintenance and a few basic safety guidelines are to be followed. Output Inverter “The high efficiency bi-directional output inverter converts high voltage DC produced by the engine controller/rectifier to gridQuality AC. typical 50 W Power Electronics and Control System Engine Controller/Rectifier The high efficiency engine controller/rectifier transforms electrical power from the sterling engine in a closely controlled manner to maintain engine control and maximize Stirling engine energy conversion efficiency. typical 5-10 W Maximum 250 W. In addition. T E R I Report No. The ISS control system is accessed via the key switch and the Ethernet port. and batteries” Interface Voltage and frequency are automatically sensed and adjusted according to voltages on the output/interconnection terminals (grid connect). The resulting high-voltage DC power is an ideal supply source for the functionally independent inverter. 50 Hz 3 Wire 50 Hz or 60 Hz Tracking grid load Slew to Sun/Stow grid connection Input Maximum 50 W. with no-derating for ‘50 Hz +3Hz’ so that the plant operates satisfactorily up to 47 Hz.

the system will either not slew to sun for normal operation or will return to stow during normal operation. must have its oil changed every 10 years to ensure proper operation. however several external components.6). will need to be serviced or replaced if they fail. Table 3. Installation The Infinia Solar System arrives in the field packaged in the following subsystems: Heat Drive Kit Chassis Kit Reflector Kit Bi-axial Drive Kit Power Electronics and Control System Kit Safety Lightning T E R I Report No. has an expected 25-year field life (listed at Table 3. discharge rate and capacity. The ISS. The Bi-axial Drive. which is an integral part of the tracking system. designed with robust fail-safe circuitry that prevents harm to the whole system in the event of component failure.26 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. This system will invert the dish to the “stow” position at night or when environmental conditions are outside of the system’s operating range. with a service life less than the 25-year field life. For example. the batteries are constantly monitored by the Control System to assure proper charge rates.6 Expected service life of service items Components Coolant pump Coolant fan(s) System electronics Receiver sensors Inverter box Sensors Batteries Life 10 years 10 years 7 years 7 years 10 years 7 years 5 years Cleaning Mirror cleaning maintains system efficiency and promotes the long-life. Rajasthan Proper operation of the tracking system is critical. Heat exchanger (radiator) fouling is to be expected in the field life of this product. high output of the ISS. 2009RT03 . A system fault is triggered when the health of a battery declines below safe tolerances. Periodically cleaning the radiator fins will promote maximum efficiency of the system. The tracking system ensures that the reflector is positioned to maximize the solar energy captured by tracking the sun throughout the day.

This condition could exist when the dish has sensed a high wind condition and is moving to stow position. System The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device that will provide many years of safe dependable performance. The foundation loads were calculated for these situations and determined that the highest loads occurs when the dish is at the horizontal position. A 13 mm stainless steel stud/jam-nut is provided at the base of the chassis pole to allow a heavy duty spade eyelet to be connected.9 below. The calculation shows that solar field area of about 60-70 acre is required for the 10 MW capacity plant. TERI has utilised special software named ECOTECH to calculate/ show sun path and sun position in the sky for the selected place (Bap) based on its geographical parameters. while moving from operation position to stow position. T E R I Report No. good sense and a few basic safety guidelines should be heeded. distances between dishes is critical as it influences the output of the system and land area requirement. simulate the shadow pattern for any unit. This can be interconnected to an external ground/ lightning protection system. The system will move to stow position when the wind speed approaches 14 m/s. while too close dishes can reduce land requirement and also electrical cabling losses and cost. but the dishes can cast shadow on each other and solar system performance is reduced. Layout Layout of parabolic solar dishes i. Besides this four lightning masts will be installed in the four corners of the solar field for lighting of the solar field as well as lightning protection.e.27 Proposed technology ISS has built-in lightning protection that requires external grounding. Just as with any power conversion device. Foundation The solar system structures have been designed to a survival wind speed of 45 m/s in stow position.8 and 3. date and time and analyse its impact on adjoining units thereby to optimise the solar plant layout design. 2009RT03 . The pictorial out put of the ECOTECH software are shown in the Figure 3.

Table 3.10.30am on 23rd Dec (ECOTECH) Figure 3. Rajasthan Figure 3.15 70 The 3-D schematic diagram of the solar concentrating power plant of the capacity of 1 MW is presented in Figure 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW Array details Number of Infinia units MW (peak AC capacity) MW/acre (peak AC capacity) Area (acres) 3340 10 0.8 as following.30am on 23rd Dec The performance summary of ISS of the capacity of 10 MW is given in Table 3. T E R I Report No.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10. 2009RT03 .28 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.

Figure 3. There will be 14 such modules (13 full 75 kW module and 1 part module of 45kW .11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS T E R I Report No. 2009RT03 .29 Proposed technology Figure 3. Each module will be made up mainly of sub module of 25 dishes connected in array of 5x5 to produce 75kWp power (vide Figure 3.vide Figure 3.11).10 Illustrative power block (1 MW) Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant Solar dish sterling power plant will be built in 1 MW modules.12) to give 1MW module. The total numbers of Infinia solar system units of 3 kW capacity in each 1 MW module of a solar concentrating power project are estimated as 334.

Prevailing wind speed (m/s) and .Ambient temperature (oC) . As there are 333-334 ISS dishes are used for 1 MW concentrating solar power plant.13. Estimation of power output The efficiency of the ISS system is claimed to be 24 percent.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module The total area required for the ISS based solar power plant of the capacity of 10 MW is approximately as 70 acres. T E R I Report No.0 %) The efficiency distribution pattern of the complete system is shown in Figure 3.30 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. This are includes the inter dish spacing. area of cabling and internal transmission network of the power plant etc.System age Field losses (~ 4. 2009RT03 . Direct normal incidence (DNI) De-rating factors . Hence 3330-3340 ISS dishes are required in the power plant of the capacity of 10 MW. Accordingly the net annual electrical energy output of the ISS parabolic dish-sterling system mainly depends upon the following parameters. Rajasthan TX = 208 v/distribution voltage transformer Figure 3.

Control. 2009RT03 . AC terminals of inverter).22 MU) Units annually at HV end of inverter considering cut off DNI of 150 W/m2 and maximum DNI clamped to 850 W/m2. Jodhpur receives 2202 kWh/m2 annual equivalent effective DNI (150 W/m2 ≤ DNI ≥ 850 W/m2). Transformers up to HV side of 11/33 KV 4% Maximum losses Figure 3. 334) in 1 MW capacity the aggregate electrical output per MW module at sterling engine terminals has been estimated as 2227579. Hence the ISS based solar plant of 10 MW capacities will generate 21. It has been estimate that Bap.6 (2. Taking in to account the efficiency of the system (i. including losses in cables.39 MU sellable units per year. Interconnections. 24 percent) and the respective value of DNI along with the simultaneous de-rating factors due to ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed the annual electrical output of an ISS parabolic dish-sterling system of 3kW capacity has been estimated as 6946 Units per year at sterling engine terminal (i.e.e.e.14 MU per MW annually at PH bus bar. 1600 kvA 208 volt / 11 kV transformer etc.. at 4 percent.31 Proposed technology ISS Parabolic Dish Tracking & Optical Losses Sterling Engine Efficiency = 24% System Losses Inverter Cabling.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS The output of the ISS dish has been estimated on hourly basis incorporating the de-rating due to ambient temperature and prevailing wind speed. T E R I Report No. Further considering the field losses from sterling engine terminal to HV side of 11/33 kV 16000 kVA transformer. The de-rating because of system age has not been taken into account for estimating electrical output in first year only. the effective cumulative electrical output has been estimated as 2. Multiplying with the number of dishes (i.

Energy monitoring and information system: Energy Management Information System (EMIS) is a hardware interconnection of energy meter installed at PH bus bar of 11 kV in phase I and 33 kV in phase II. 33 kV line will be extended to feed the power directly to the 132 kV grid of the state. to interconnect the power generation with commissioning of phase II (9MW) with JdVVNL or Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut Prasaran Nigam Limited (RVPNL)’s grid.5 km up to existing 11/33 kV substation of Jodhpur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited (JdVVNL) at village Bap.3 km). The estimated length of the transmission line will be 1. This circuit breaker will enable us to cut off the particular row from the system in case of any fault. Power station with grid protection system Step up power transformers of 16 MVA.2009RT03 . The estimated length of the double circuit transmission line will be 4. Panel – III: Power panels III with ACB/VCB and protection system for 75 kW modules. transmission and synchronisation with grid will consist of. 16 MVA capacity.6 MVA capacity to interconnect power generation of phase I of 1 MW. The estimated length of the transmission line will be about 2 km. 16 MVA capacity. Transmission line of 11 kV. Panel – II: Power panel II with circuit breaker (MCB/MCCB). junction bus and general protection system including panel earthling for each 3 kW solar generators. The panel will be indoor type along with the necessary protection and safety system. RVPNL is proposing the 132 kV substation at Bap. Panel – I: Power panel I with circuit breaker (MCB/MCCB). 1. junction bus and general protection system for each section consisting 5 nos of solar power generators. If permitted.5 km of 132 kV. Layout of 10 MW power plant is given in Annexure IV (a). and power T E R I Report No. This transmission line will be the interconnection between 33kV substation of JdVVNL and the 10 MW solar power plant. 11/33 kV. Also. internal transmission and evacuation of power Interconnection facility for the proposed plan The electrical generation. Double circuit transmission line of 33 kV. Step up power transformer of 1600 kVA. Jodhpur. Panel – IV: Power panels IV with VCB and necessary protection system for 1 MW modules.CHAPTER 4 Control. to interconnect the 1 MW power generator with local grid of 11 kV (approximate length of 2. 208/11000 V.

Connection substation concept design. Net Metering The Energy accounting metering system will be installed at 11 kV or 33 kV Power Station bus to account electric energy generated by the powerplant and delivered to the local grid of JdVVNL or State Grid of RVPNL and the electrical energy imported from the grid during the non – power period. and Protection design (connection substation and transmission line). if required. Dynamic stability assessment.33 Control. Rajasthan. 2009RT03 . Indian Electricity Rules / CEA’s regulations will be followed and the connection will meet State Grid code requirements. power transformer and internal transmission lines is given in Annexure IV (b). For connection to the 33 kV transmission grid. It is envisaged that the solar generation plant will be connected to the 33 kV high voltage network at Bap. Interfacing scheme proposed The power generated from the power plant will be transmitted through the grid of JdVVNL. This higher rating solar power plant would feed the generated power to high voltage electricity grid of state distribution company. underground cables and overhead lines at 11kV and 33 kV with at least 15 MVA rated capacity. in consultation JdVVNL /RVPNL’ The single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme is given in Appendix IV (c). Further studies would be conducted. The meter will communicate on RS – 485 modbus/RS . internal transmission and evacuation of power distribution panel to PC based data acquisition system for report generation and analysis of energy generation profiling of the solar power generation system. power panels. This study and design is based on the following Load flow studies. The concentrating solar project size is proposed to be 10 MW. T E R I Report No.232 protocol. The data communication may be the Power Line Communication (PLC) or RF communication over the plant. This meter will be sealed by JdVVNL/RVPNL. JdVVNL operates a high voltage transmission and distribution network in the Jodhpur. This involves an 11kV/33 kV power transformer. The network connection is designed to carry rated power on a 24-hour basis. The proposed plant will be connected to the 33 kV transmission systems through an 11kV/33 kV substation. The estimated cost for electrical system like cables. The energy meter will measure import and export energy parameters.

34 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. Rajasthan Additionally energy management and control system will be installed in the solar plant which will monitor and record the performance at each power generator and each 1 MW module. T E R I Report No. and Site specific that need to be considered in metering design. 2009RT03 . Factors to be considered when selecting meters are the Possible harmonics content of metering signals Associated degree of inaccuracy of the meter selected.

35 Control. internal transmission and evacuation of power T E R I Report No. 2009RT03 .

1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant S. Table 5.No Activity 1 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10 Project Approval by SLEC with all prior approvals Tariff Petition Tariff Approval by RERC Site Allotment and possession Financial Closures Detailed Engineering Equipment Supply/ Construction & Installation Commencement of Commissioning (First 1MW) Extension of Transmission line Installation and Commissioning for 9 MW Months M9 J9 Ju9 A9 S9 O9 N9 D9 J10 F10 M10 A10 M10 J10 Ju10 Au10 S10 O10 N10 D10 J11 F11 M11 A11 M11 J11 Ju11 Au11 S11 O11 N11 T E R I Report No. The proposed execution plan is shown below.2009RT03 .CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan Total project can be completed within 26 months from date of sanction of the project.

2009RT03 .37 Transmission of power and evacuation plan T E R I Report No.

Jodhpur. T E R I Report No. Rs. which is estimated at 4% maximum. Lacs phase-2(9MW) phase-1(1MW) 2300 20700 Sr.1.2009RT03 .00 Project implementation schedule Based on international practices and technological advancements.00 125. installation and commissioning cost.00 1876.00 14490.5% every year due to the aging of the plant Project cost break-up & means of finance Apart from machinery. The total project cost is Rs. Interest rate at debt part has been considered at 12. There will be deterioration of 0.00 70% 30% 16884. Therefore. 1 1.00 1132. Estimate cost of the project is Rs. Gross aggregate electricity generation has been arrived at 22. The plant load factor is 25. financial institution fees and margin money for working capital is part of project cost.62 2430.00 6210.379 million kWh. interest during construction.27 million kWh per annum at 3 kW sterling engines’ terminals at the proposed site at Bap. installed and commissioned in 13 months from project approval and additional 9 MW of phase – II of the project will be installed and commissioned in 26 months from project approval. There will be losses between Sterling engines and substation out put. 23. Table 6. Project financial analysis has been carried out considering debt equity ratio of 70:30.2 Particulars Project Cost Imported Component Local Component including EPC charges preoperative costs Interest During Construction (IDC) Financial Institiution Fees Project Cost Total Project Cost Sources of fund Loan Equity 2700 40 23000.15 2300. 230 crores.CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis Assumptions & estimates The proposed solar parabolic Dish-Sterling power project is of 10 MW capacity.0 crores per MW. The total project cost and means of finance are summarized in Table 6.00 690.00 4.00 1610. it is estimated that 1 MW capacity phase of the project will be supplied. No.5%.1 1.1 7.78 24.42%. total annual sellable electricity has been estimated as 21.07 270.2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7.03 217.00 20700.00 2300.00 36.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW) PROJECT COST:BREAK-UP Cost.35 20700.

which can not have thermal storage and thus will be infirm. This tariff has been considered with 16% post tax return on equity. On account of these. 2009RT03 .03/kWhr for the whole project life of 25 years. CDM benefit . Therefore. It is anticipated the average CDM credit of 30 paisa/KWh and corresponding reduction in annual tariff. The Developer shall endeavour for CDM benefit. Developer will share the CDM benefits as per RERC regulations. The solar power plants are entitled to CDM benefit. interalia. depends on non firm/firm nature of supply of power and is market driven. Its certification also involves cost and time. The generation from this power plant. The tariff calculations are at Annexure V. The details of the local components (estimation of cost of electrical & civil works) are attached as Annexure IV(b). 19. it will attract lower CDM credit. it will not be possible to quantify it beforehand. T E R I Report No.The tariff works out to be at Rs.39 Transmission of power and evacuation plan Proposed electricity tariff Project will be implemented as IPP (Independent Power Project) and envisages sale of generated electricity to the grid.The technical and financial parameters are also listed therein.

The effective sunshine hours have also been estimated for DNI more that 850 W/m2. Table 1A presents the daily total values of extraterrestrial solar radiation based on its hourly values. Jodhpur hours are presented in Table 7A. The effective number of sunshine hours has also been carried out and it has been obtained that Bap. while the electrical output becomes constant.4 kWh/m2) and minimum in the month of August (63. Jodhpur receives 2202 kWh/m2 effective DNI in 3342 effective sunshine hours (DNI>150 W/m2).e. Table 8A presents the effective sunshine hours at more T E R I Report No.40 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. Jodhpur which shows that the location receives 2202 kWh/m2 annual effective DNI. diffuse and direct solar radiation on horizontal surface are presented in Tables 2A to Table 4A respectively. Jodhpur It has been estimated that Jodhpur receives 3301 kWh/m2 annual average extraterrestrial solar radiation. It has been noticed that the efficiency of ISS parabolic DishSterling technology reduces when DNI goes above 850 W/m2. The daily total effective sunshine at Bap. parabolic dish-sterling) comprises two axis tracking hence the results have been reported under two axis tracking conditions only. Rajasthan Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Bap. For present Infinia Solar System technology the minimum level of instantaneous direct solar radiation for power generation is 150 W/m2.4 kWh/m2). 2009RT03 . Further the direct solar radiation has been processed using TRNSYS and hourly values of direct radiation have been estimated over tracking surfaces. It has been estimated that the total annual DNI over Jodhpur is 2241 kWh/m2. which is transient and varies with time. It has been observed that in early morning and late evening hours the fraction of beam radiation is quite low. The DNI has been estimated maximum in the month of September (270. Hence ISS Dish-Sterling technology has low efficiency at low irradiance levels. Since the selected technology (i. Jodhpur. direct component is 1395 kWh/m2 and diffuse is 656 kWh/m2 on horizontal surface. Table 6A presents the effective DNI (more than 150 W/m2) over Bap. The parabolic Dish-Sterling technology uses only direct normal incident solar radiation. Jodhpur is 2051 kWh/m2. which has been considered for parabolic dish sterling engine power plant at Bap. It has been estimated that the annual average global solar radiation availability on horizontal surface over Bap. Therefore the analysis has been made considering this aspect also. Table 5A presents the daily total values of direct normal irradiance (DNI) for Bap. Only direct solar radiation is directional and can be reflected /concentrated using mirrors. The daily total along with the monthly total and average values of global.

2009RT03 .6 oC to 34. The daily average values of prevailing wind speed have been presented in Table 10A.Annexures than 850 W/m2 DNI. The annual average wind speed has been observed from 0. The other climatic parameters namely relative humidity (%) and visibility (km) have also analyzed and their daily average values are represented in Tables 11A and Table 12A respectively. Jodhpur are presented in Table 9A.59 m/s in October to 2. etc. T E R I Report No. which indicated that the monthly average temperature varies from 17. The overall performance of the selected technology critically depended on the climatic parameters namely ambient temperature.30 m/s in the month of June. The daily average values of day time ambient temperature of Bap.8oC. prevailing wind speed. It has been estimated that during 846 sunshine hours the DNI remains more than 850 W/m2 at Jodhpur throughout the year.

55 9.29 11.97 10.28 11.03 9.56 6.27 7.08 11.23 9.14 11.30 11.80 10.70 8.76 6.20 11.18 11.27 11.76 10.17 11.24 11.93 9.25 8.15 6.28 11.27 10.95 8.48 6.84 7.30 8.56 8.29 11.38 7.70 6.26 6.16 6.21 11.19 7.00 8.50 6.81 9.31 6.59 7.15 8.57 10.11 11.23 11.45 8.29 10.7 Feb 7.6 285 9.03 203 6.73 9.36 Mar 8.15 8.15 10.57 9.61 10.88 6.23 10.32 6.87 8.62 7.94 7.96 8.18 11.11 11.60 9.50 8.06 11.93 8.40 8.49 9.77 8.89 9.19 10.1 202 6.35 8.73 10.43 7.73 6.04 11.08 9.6 216 7.04 11.20 7.00 11.88 10.62 6.15 6.19 6.69 9.53 6.65 6.06 11.23 6.30 6.54 7.19 11.77 9.35 10.14 9.29 11.58 10.71 10.1 339 11.84 6.46 10.55 10.47 6.85 8.71 6.01 9.03 11.69 9.81 7.97 9.27 11.41 10.98 9.41 6.26 11.38 7.10 11.80 6.08 11.1 Aug 10.30 11.20 6.16 11.30 11.28 11.25 11.16 7.23 11.67 6.66 8.52 10.14 7.19 6.29 6.67 10.73 9.20 11.86 10.15 11.20 8.67 8.83 May 10.43 10.28 11.29 7.07 11.91 7.65 10.84 10.23 9.74 6.68 10.23 6.86 7.29 11.15 6.76 10.17 6.37 9. 2009RT03 .24 11.66 9.16 11.28 11.18 11.82 8.33 6.04 8.12 7.5 Sep 10.69 7.25 6.51 8.26 11.97 10.53 6.66 10.18 6.78 10.27 11.28 Jul 11.09 8.22 11.29 11.99 7.52 10.45 6.87 6.80 10.45 6.30 10.99 11.25 7.60 10.09 11.59 6.77 9.17 6.01 10.95 10.2 311 10.26 6.27 9.21 11.10 11.07 7.18 9.41 9.62 8.16 6.3 Jun 11.91 10.47 7.32 9.38 10.08 10.28 11.86 10.22 Dec 6.98 10.39 6.90 10.26 344 11.28 11.33 10.53 9.36 9.36 6.98 345 11.44 10.89 9.13 11.27 11.97 10.4 Apr 9.18 11.7 Nov 7.84 6.45 9.28 11.27 6.30 8.87 Oct 8.51 9.17 6.15 6.05 10.50 6.81 6.02 6.24 6.22 6.13 11.16 329 10.91 6.34 6.74 7.15 6.46 9.99 8.01 11.49 10.48 7.95 6.76 8.24 11.40 10.08 10.92 10.64 6.10 8.15 6.26 11.62 10.32 9.06 7.29 11.32 10.80 8.66 7.85 284 9.78 6.93 9.79 7.09 9.42 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.41 8.18 6.27 9.55 6.34 6.43 6.95 10.19 11.61 9.07 11.73 10.27 11.23 7.16 6.99 7.40 6.16 6.36 6.20 11.68 6.42 6.19 6.29 11.12 10.30 11.02 11.05 8.61 6.93 10.63 10.82 10.20 6.25 11.89 7.91 6.37 10.26 10.31 7.46 8.89 10.12 11.72 8.22 10.52 7.43 7.14 11.2 T E R I Report No.20 10.34 7.28 11.84 9.33 251 8.49 10.58 6. Rajasthan Table 1A.13 9.21 192 6.93 10.57 7.30 11.76 7.00 10.47 10.28 6.55 10.20 8.18 9.22 11.29 11.12 10.61 8.04 7.42 9.24 11. Daily total values of Extraterrestrial (IExt) solar radiation (kWh/m2) in Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 6.38 6.55 8.71 7.05 10.25 8.24 6.10 7.15 11.29 11.90 8.64 9.27 6.64 7.16 6.

78 6.19 7.65 5.3 189 6.12 7.55 5.71 6.21 7.36 4.74 6.52 7.37 4.11 4.44 7.96 4.65 6.68 6.98 3.96 6.16 6.38 7.13 5.23 3.95 4.69 1.53 4.47 7.26 3.91 4.48 1.75 6.88 4.81 7.3 212 7.99 5.97 5.11 7.52 1.45 4.43 3.11 6.23 7.90 7.11 201 6.34 4.92 May 7.44 5.23 5.87 7.49 4.01 3.79 4.28 6.10 5.01 3.62 7.12 6.27 6.59 7.63 6.89 5.41 5.09 3.54 2.87 4.25 2.14 4.41 4.46 Jul 7.08 4.03 7.70 8.42 6.50 3.18 7.17 7.81 6.07 7.48 3.20 7.46 6.76 3.30 7.17 7.53 7.42 5.26 6.24 7. 2009RT03 .95 4.23 3.92 171 5.75 4.47 4.15 4.57 5.96 6.12 7.85 2.54 7.00 5.97 5.24 4.51 4.95 6.93 4.93 3.68 4.89 226 7.07 6.41 2.97 3.25 7.59 4.5 Feb 5.78 7.11 2.70 4.41 7.04 4.58 4.06 7.09 3.91 7.26 5.74 6.42 6.32 4.53 135 4.05 6.03 3.07 6.66 7.69 6.75 5.03 3.42 4.30 4.54 7.59 1.17 3.63 4.83 6.88 7.60 7.93 5.04 7.16 4.87 3.79 6.30 5.50 5.44 4.16 4.63 5.05 6.72 6.59 4.36 126 4.61 5.49 4.64 7.12 4.93 6.75 7.04 5.48 7.49 7.62 7.01 5.02 5.69 4.21 5.57 7.72 6.61 3.05 7.50 7.88 7.92 6.1 Apr 6.82 4.23 7.28 7.19 7.1 Sep 7.90 4.32 7.42 7.22 5.32 4.69 4.88 6.63 7.32 5.5 214 7.55 4.71 2.40 6.54 3.3 Jun 7.03 4.5 134 4.60 3.39 4.14 5.19 4.03 4.03 4.45 7.06 142 4.78 4.17 7.92 4.57 7.90 7.63 3.68 7.36 5.23 5.71 6.27 2.55 3.33 7.93 3.5 Nov 5.46 5.33 3.03 3.71 3.43 4.15 6.56 5. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 4.74 7.98 4.34 4.71 7.41 3.41 4.31 7.17 5.57 5.79 Dec 3.02 3.29 4.86 7.99 5.79 5.58 4.67 7.07 6.65 5.25 4.87 6.27 7.76 5.14 6.29 6.01 7.16 6.31 6.05 5.84 4.10 2.02 6.89 5.34 7.28 7.22 6.49 5.20 6.99 4.75 5.34 7.23 4.47 5.89 7.36 7.95 7.19 6.15 6.76 5.56 5.44 5.29 5.74 7.37 7.79 2.56 4.37 6.88 6.94 4.75 4.75 6.74 1.46 4.01 3.04 7.17 7.47 7.96 7.03 7.09 4.28 3.56 4.61 4.63 Oct 5.84 5.96 6.78 5.36 7.6 154 5.83 5.70 7.99 6.62 3.82 8.24 6.63 5.62 5.45 6.12 7.48 2.17 4.30 5.Annexures Table 2A Daily total values of global solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap.64 4.43 7.50 4.30 7.55 5.48 4.72 5.70 7.14 5.26 4.89 5.14 7.7 Aug 7.34 5.98 5.57 6.11 4.93 3.11 4.18 6.30 3.95 5.31 5.53 7.97 4.73 5.33 4.78 6.13 6.95 Mar 5.01 4.52 6.98 2.03 7.39 4.63 5.12 5.87 5.04 7.78 5.13 4.06 7.56 4.1 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.15 4.74 146 4.72 6.65 7.50 8.41 4.05 6.35 5.20 6.

96 1.78 1.82 1.77 3.26 0.05 2.71 2.63 2.46 2.10 1.16 1.50 1.14 2.34 1.33 1.28 1.05 1. Daily total values of diffuse solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap.49 1.76 1.35 1.29 1.04 1.68 1.18 Mar 1.79 1.86 2.92 0.65 1.35 1.1 Apr 2.97 1.46 2.72 2.70 3.55 3.23 1. Rajasthan Table 3A.74 2.09 1.31 3.58 1.60 1.50 1.82 0.61 2.37 3.22 1.79 2.41 1.08 1.36 1.31 2.23 1.87 1.19 0.23 1.89 1.61 3.87 0.7 Aug 2.03 3.37 2.04 0.08 2.02 1.32 1.85 2.34 1.36 3.13 1.42 1.53 2.27 2.35 2.51 1.03 2.73 34 1.99 1.13 1.27 0.62 3.73 1.15 2.84 1.82 1.43 2.67 1.84 1.80 2.04 1.99 0.50 May 2.35 3.67 3.8 32 1.20 1.62 1.84 2.49 2.11 1.69 2.76 2.14 1.04 1.38 2.1 Sep 1.80 1.17 1.13 2. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 0.06 1.63 1.66 1.14 Dec 1.69 1.35 2.67 3.45 2.93 1.12 1.22 1.91 2.74 2.39 2.53 1.97 1.92 0.47 2.34 1.91 2.34 3.96 0.14 1.27 2.33 2.13 3.40 2.24 1.16 2.11 0.93 0.11 1.76 3.89 1.83 1.16 3.49 2.27 1.06 1.19 1.19 1.00 3.49 2.12 1.06 1.94 1.86 0.12 1.13 0.60 88 2.35 1.25 1.02 0.08 1.54 47 1.02 1.70 0.36 2.75 1.85 2.17 1.30 3.21 0. 2009RT03 .59 3.76 0.50 1.82 2.19 2.01 1.02 3.94 2.46 0.98 1.18 1.55 2.66 2.14 0.11 1.23 0.79 2.83 1.82 2.72 2.22 1.00 0.69 0.03 1.92 3.52 3.56 2.12 1.48 2.81 0.26 2.86 1.36 2.50 2.67 1.00 1.30 1.28 2.49 1.61 1.45 3.36 1.26 2.47 1.04 1.17 1.28 1.14 0.39 2.18 1.20 1.44 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.26 85 2.88 2.84 1.11 79 2.34 1.07 0.12 2.17 2.29 1.22 2.41 2.48 1.94 2.84 2.81 1.1 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.75 1.89 0.41 3.1 Feb 0.30 2.27 1.14 1.85 0.08 3.48 0.88 3.9 31 1.21 1.18 0.17 1.3 Nov 1.60 2.03 1.71 1.25 1.85 1.83 2.99 2.86 0.08 2.79 1.90 0.69 2.04 1.61 1.5 39 1.45 1.62 Jul 2.88 0.02 0.97 3.24 1.29 1.16 1.94 Oct 2.03 1.79 1.26 3.05 1.00 1.03 2.96 1.05 1.40 1.03 0.10 0.38 1.67 3.65 2.77 1.82 1.33 1.41 2.92 29 0.72 1.14 3.53 1.01 0.43 3.98 1.19 1.50 2.25 1.94 2.19 3.98 1.26 2.09 0.43 3.11 3.07 0.04 1.30 2.22 1.5 62 2.19 0.66 1.52 1.83 0.82 1.51 3.07 1.11 1.47 2.24 1.12 1.32 0.88 1.25 0.53 3.09 0.20 0.04 1.48 2.10 1.61 3.95 2.00 1.78 0.40 2.47 1.30 2.76 2.46 2.41 3.38 1.88 0.06 1.40 1.41 2.27 0.14 1.28 3.8 Jun 2.02 0.07 1.6 83 2.96 2.19 1.93 1.38 46 1.42 3.34 3.22 3.87 2.14 1.81 3.75 1.34 1.07 1.99 0.91 0.13 2.24 1.

08 4.46 5.38 124 4.30 5.57 3.82 5.64 4.83 5.4 Feb 4.83 3.88 5.15 3.63 4.91 4.91 5. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 3.57 2.61 0.79 1.98 4.17 3.01 0.91 2.17 3.97 4.61 5.59 2.82 6.93 4.74 4.52 5.64 3.72 4.75 5.98 0.41 5.10 3.76 5.79 3.25 4.28 5.73 2.74 3.71 4.11 5.75 4.37 2.87 5.83 3.71 6.0 151 5.49 4.41 3.17 5.0 95 3.92 4.63 0.5 Jun 4.05 6.13 2.82 5.08 3.39 4.75 1.04 4.60 6.63 1.13 2.41 4.10 5.81 5.77 3.84 5.64 1.08 2.89 2.01 5.91 4.52 5.90 2.13 4.29 3.64 3.19 3.14 4.73 5.24 5.15 3.65 5.44 3.26 5.04 3.01 2.09 6.49 3.07 0.01 2.70 3.11 6.17 1.93 5.44 3.55 2.16 6.29 3.96 4.0 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.29 1.75 3.73 5.32 4.41 4.49 0.19 5.94 4.40 2.53 4.23 3.05 3.53 5.90 6.38 4.77 4.36 4.14 4.13 4.78 5.54 4.01 5.98 0.86 4.05 0.98 6.7 106 3.27 4.19 4.36 1.94 5.86 3.16 6.24 4.77 5.15 6.29 4.0 Sep 6.49 2.52 5.96 4.68 4.26 0.74 3.17 0.57 1.28 0.41 5.5 179 6.69 5.21 5.91 5.20 6.93 47 1.76 4.92 3.Annexures Table 4A.94 0.61 4.59 5.34 2.35 3.75 3.09 4.49 2.42 May 4.08 0.52 5.22 0.76 0.29 3.58 5.08 6.85 2.61 4.31 5.23 6.65 Dec 2.57 5.51 0.84 4.61 3.81 5.47 3.38 4.11 1.45 3.77 147 4.47 3.48 4.56 1.04 5.03 0.80 5.32 4.20 1.13 0.86 5.19 6.91 3.20 4.78 0.77 5.16 3.64 3.64 2.72 155 5.13 2.12 4.66 4.31 0.94 3.29 4.7 123 4.48 61 2.61 4.15 0.03 1.45 3.50 5.90 3.21 3.78 2.60 6.78 3.14 5.74 5.73 3.65 5.78 0.19 0.44 1.38 4.28 5.92 3.59 3.29 4.32 4.41 3.41 2.80 5.55 4.16 5.85 5.18 5.84 5.33 4.77 Mar 4.08 0.07 3.33 3.44 3.29 4.21 3.62 4.01 3.49 0.87 4.2 Nov 4.96 0.08 5.15 4.84 Jul 5.89 3.88 2.35 3.74 4.47 1.13 4.15 3.04 5.39 0.87 4.40 2.59 0.08 4.12 6.24 3.60 3.06 3.91 5.55 3.31 5.02 5.20 1.80 4.83 1.27 4.0 Apr 4.89 0.15 3.29 4.02 4. Daily total values of direct solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface at Bap.12 3.0 Aug 5.63 2.93 3.12 3.61 0.16 5.76 4.97 5.58 3.38 5.43 2.70 2.43 3.83 4.68 1.24 2.73 3.11 3.43 2.61 5.49 5.26 3.08 3.13 113 3.21 0.69 Oct 3.99 4.96 5.85 4.65 0.18 0.68 2.04 3.54 5.99 2.20 4.86 3.13 0.87 5.75 3.25 0. 2009RT03 .56 4.73 3.91 3.89 1.39 4.79 3.40 5.13 4.12 4.35 4.06 6.35 4.27 4.19 4.07 4.13 3.76 5.12 0.51 4.82 3.77 4.17 6.68 5.54 3.01 2.05 0.17 4.31 3.05 3.40 6.90 6.84 5.62 0.62 93 3.11 2.14 3.61 0.

48 6.57 0.64 7.68 5.53 3.42 5.79 9.36 6.02 8.34 8.34 7.15 9.13 7.42 7.70 3.59 7.40 0.34 7.21 208 6.89 4.83 6.42 7.35 0.78 5.49 0.36 7.40 7.05 5.99 7.40 7.60 7.76 5.25 5.91 6.38 7.65 4.31 8.33 7.48 5.49 5.66 6.88 6.55 6.80 83 2.23 4.38 6.80 8.48 0.26 6.10 0.66 6.25 7.52 1.00 0.34 7.13 6.40 2.86 7.99 7.07 9.34 7.37 7.72 7.29 7.06 8.08 6.88 6.33 222 7.6 147 4. Rajasthan Table 5A.28 May 6.28 6.73 8.12 8.40 7.41 6.43 7.28 3.10 0.35 0.70 9.74 7.91 4.05 7.1 270 9.04 6.89 1.51 8.02 5.54 6.90 7.44 7.53 2.65 8.87 0.68 6.08 6.56 2.01 5.94 8.91 6.24 4.75 9.40 6.06 0.65 8.09 3.03 2.41 8.28 7.99 7.84 7.43 6.90 5.33 6.77 7.39 6.7 182 6.83 7.54 6.60 7.86 7.66 6.95 6.10 5.83 7.14 1.53 5.59 6.29 Mar 6.78 5.52 8.33 7.85 6.7 217 7.54 7.07 1.13 4.14 8.27 1.00 6.76 7.96 7.15 0.78 6.03 0.05 7.94 6.35 7.17 8.41 8.44 6.18 8.81 6.87 9.96 6.93 6.83 6.28 6.22 7.80 9.50 7.78 6.28 5.78 4.47 9.57 65 2.32 7.81 3.03 7.01 0.11 3.37 0.52 6.95 0.79 9.87 6. Daily total values of direct normal incidence (DNI) at Bap.10 7.78 6.09 6.38 1.03 3.55 3.16 8.28 5.25 204 6.25 7.85 1.70 7.72 0.05 8.71 8.0 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.15 9.16 8.36 6.66 6.73 6.31 6.59 5.01 8.69 7.41 6.59 7.22 0.86 7.58 6.96 0.47 2.27 6.56 7.16 6.74 6.45 0.83 8.04 7.35 8.2 Apr 7.98 8.51 0.85 1.44 8.85 9.79 1.02 3.65 3.26 8.69 9.00 8.46 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.83 0.45 7.82 1.16 7.43 7.48 2.31 5.02 8.05 4.86 7.99 Oct 5.68 7.82 8.95 6.86 9.20 1.09 8.43 8.03 1.27 9.47 6.48 7.47 187 6.93 8.35 5.59 9.30 7.41 0.55 6.45 6.45 Dec 4.90 8.7 Aug 7.24 8.81 8.71 6.7 Feb 7.53 0.96 7.51 0.82 6.97 8.32 7.19 7.31 6.87 4.25 9.42 4.78 4.80 4.78 4.09 9.99 6.38 3.43 1.46 7.30 6.45 7.99 8.93 5.61 7.77 6.58 7.21 6.18 9.19 240 7.05 9. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 6.13 8.06 6.86 7.76 7.55 8.66 5.17 9.77 9. 2009RT03 .2 215 7.45 6.97 8.99 Jul 6.40 3.38 7.87 2.19 5.95 6.9 Jun 6.59 5.26 0.35 6.69 5.55 6.44 8.11 7.07 6.34 8.65 6.85 6.07 6.85 8.00 1.78 8.42 7.22 8.24 7.08 9.29 5.68 6.75 0.05 8.60 9.50 7.1 Nov 7.46 5.76 7.52 7.56 2.10 7.40 6.70 8.03 7.50 4.82 0.09 8.06 8.89 1.69 7.84 7.07 3.68 0.82 5.68 6.09 8.92 7.70 7.57 5.05 8.0 Sep 9.27 8.97 5.01 6.84 6.16 3.44 6.18 4.55 6.20 8.75 7.32 7.15 2.26 0.

25 9.45 6.28 6.43 3.95 Nov 7.75 8.17 2.28 7.24 7.59 5.24 7.96 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.04 3.66 6.64 8.75 7.45 7.00 2.35 6.93 8.64 7.66 6.28 0.95 6.50 141 4.99 6.23 6.21 7.15 2.31 6.97 8.30 7.69 5.43 7.76 4.60 6.11 6.00 4.29 7.57 7.56 2.96 8.11 6.20 6.71 6.97 5.83 6.19 6.17 May 6.16 8.59 8.37 7.20 6.13 4.38 8.64 7.18 9.05 7.22 5.43 4.47 0.84 6.94 7.22 3.76 7.63 9.41 8.00 6.45 6.34 7.07 2.39 6.34 0.37 6.67 7.00 0.99 9.99 7.48 7.64 179 5.25 4.50 5.22 7.38 6.19 239 7.48 7.88 6.75 6.24 6.64 0.44 7.09 8.00 0.33 56 1.49 Aug 7.99 8.82 8.27 1.24 5.15 0.28 7.01 8.64 6.23 4.80 6.18 0.87 5.95 7.62 6.63 4.77 9.97 7.28 5.84 6.10 7.75 8.23 6.76 6.30 77 2.00 0.78 4.05 4.79 269 8.25 6.62 2.14 Apr 7.16 6.00 0.36 6.76 5.24 0.90 0.97 Sep 8.69 7.13 8.05 8.00 2.84 7.50 7.99 7.57 7.51 0.08 8.13 4.25 7.59 0.82 7.40 6.40 6.28 221 7.68 6.42 5.95 7.65 7.24 7.73 214 7.86 8.91 6.40 7.08 6.80 6.93 6.53 5.95 8.58 1.17 0.73 5.90 6.35 7.70 8.02 9.41 5.09 7.13 9.17 5.90 5.68 3.13 6.87 Oct 5.79 0.34 8.04 7.85 8.69 6.02 8.89 8.23 0.23 8.37 6.82 7. Daily total values of effective direct normal incidence (IB>150W/m2) at Bap.60 Feb 7.89 3.30 6.55 6.95 6.13 6.39 185 5.91 8.10 7.07 7.27 9.95 6.34 7.69 9.20 7.47 9.22 8.87 7.54 6.41 8.21 2.70 7.60 8.68 5.34 7.16 5.53 6.21 3.84 5.93 6.66 0.99 0.24 7.00 2.33 6.00 0.40 8.57 1.96 7.79 6.57 6.66 6.19 0.18 7.12 8.25 5.99 206 6.11 Mar 6.75 8.55 7.35 6.24 8.11 5.52 7.60 9.56 0.09 9.00 0.26 7.27 7.76 9.27 8.85 0.52 7. 2009RT03 .83 8.17 8.71 8.41 6.96 7.66 6.27 7.72 0.55 6.44 8.67 9.92 7.99 Jul 6.40 5.94 5.04 9.53 9.68 7.76 4.45 7.15 4.40 6.45 6.10 5.44 2.33 6.77 9.07 5.76 7.00 0.22 7.29 7.38 7.66 6.25 1.74 6.85 6.83 6.15 202 6.76 7.84 1.59 5.04 5.85 6.98 Dec 4.18 0.31 1.38 7.69 3.91 8.06 7.09 6.02 6.30 2.85 9.69 7.00 0. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 6.66 7.31 8.59 5.69 Jun 6.10 0.85 0.53 3.70 7.78 5.15 0.27 7.Annexures Table 6A.50 5.45 6.78 4.18 8.41 0.36 7.70 7.88 6.14 8.12 213 7.38 8.59 7.88 4.46 9.89 4.91 6.80 9.97 7.33 5.05 8.79 7.83 0.20 8.30 7.78 3.39 3.25 7.17 0.12 0.73 0.31 7.43 2.12 0.59 5.02 8.29 5.61 7.69 6.28 7.18 7.34 0.53 8.17 6.60 0.41 1.26 8.95 6.59 7.53 4.63 6.46 6.91 5.57 8.31 8.04 8.

6 Aug 12 8 2 1 1 3 8 6 11 2 0 0 1 9 11 3 1 1 0 0 2 8 0 2 3 2 1 11 2 10 10 131 4. Rajasthan Table 7A.2 326 10. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>150W/m2) at Bap.7 Dec 8 9 8 9 9 9 9 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 273 8.48 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 9 10 10 9 10 9 9 9 9 10 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 9 10 10 9 289 9.6 Jun 11 12 11 9 13 12 12 12 11 5 11 1 6 1 1 7 11 11 12 3 13 7 12 1 12 11 12 12 4 13 0 269 8.8 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.7 330 11 Apr 11 8 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 11 12 May 12 9 12 11 11 12 7 12 11 10 13 13 11 12 13 11 12 11 11 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 12 13 12 361 11.7 Jul 10 12 13 0 0 8 10 5 0 3 2 11 13 11 0 7 3 1 0 10 1 12 11 11 1 3 0 1 7 3 4 173 5.3 274 9.9 Sep 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 Oct 11 10 9 11 9 10 11 8 11 11 11 10 10 11 10 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 315 10.2 Nov 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 10 9 10 9 10 10 9 9 9 8 5 9 9 9 10 9 9 9 9 9 4 0 270 8. 2009RT03 .8 Feb 10 10 9 9 9 10 10 9 10 9 10 10 10 9 10 10 10 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 10 10 11 9 Mar 11 10 11 11 11 10 10 11 11 11 10 11 10 11 11 10 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 11 10 11 331 10.

5 65 2.2 Nov 5 2 2 3 3 5 6 1 3 2 0 3 0 5 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3 1 6 3 4 0 Dec 1 4 5 1 4 4 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 6 4 1 2 3 0 2 3 3 1 0 5 1 1 0 0 2 5 66 2.3 Jun 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 Jul 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 Apr 2 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 2 5 4 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 May 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 3 2 13 0. 2009RT03 .7 Sep 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 Oct 0 0 0 1 5 2 3 0 1 2 3 1 3 3 5 1 1 1 6 5 4 1 6 3 2 2 6 3 5 1 0 76 2.1 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.5 39 1. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>850W/m2) at Bap.3 133 4.4 10 0.Annexures Table 8A.0 Aug 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total Average Jan 2 4 4 5 2 0 3 5 6 3 6 5 6 6 3 4 5 5 3 2 5 6 2 6 4 5 4 4 6 6 5 132 4.1 200 6.8 Feb 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 7 3 6 7 5 3 5 8 3 0 4 2 2 7 8 5 5 7 5 Mar 3 4 7 6 5 4 5 5 2 2 1 4 1 1 0 2 0 5 5 1 5 7 0 5 4 4 6 0 5 6 4 109 3.

8 28.7 21.1 29.2 28.0 34.8 30.6 30.9 29.9 29.1 33.6 17.1 38.4 22.5 Jun 34.1 30.2 29.2 20.8 25.5 25.3 32.2 34.9 18.0 26.4 22.0 31.2 29.7 27.2 22.8 35.8 28.6 30.7 32.4 38.2 30.9 23.9 31.3 32.3 30.1 33.5 34.1 28.8 30.5 28.0 32.4 21.0 19.3 32.8 23.5 29.9 18.3 Nov 21.1 19.7 19.5 30.2 28.3 19.1 Jul 33.5 18.0 24.4 32.7 33.3 20.5 23. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Average Jan 23.8 33.6 33.3 29.9 29.0 21.5 32.7 24.4 33.1 32.7 23.1 34.3 30.4 33.5 May 34.5 16.5 25.2 23.2 26.9 16.4 32.4 16.7 31.4 30.1 19.4 31.5 31.8 26.3 24.7 20.7 17.0 29.4 30.5 17.0 27.4 28.6 30.6 29.6 20.1 26.0 35.0 22.8 31.2 29.4 Mar 25.0 24.4 28.1 21.6 17.8 36.8 17.4 35.5 31.8 22.9 21.0 21.6 33.1 26.4 15.9 30.0 29.7 30.8 29.7 30.2 38.3 28.6 17.6 21.3 28.5 28.8 24.1 33.0 17.1 22.1 29.8 23.3 31.2 20.3 20.7 31.9 18.7 20.5 25.7 31.9 25.6 30.8 32.2 22.8 20.4 27.5 22.3 23.7 33.9 27.9 32.1 31.2 30.0 28.8 34.8 32.3 26.0 20. Rajasthan Table 9A.3 36.2 23.6 24.1 36.0 33.2 35.4 33.7 19.6 24.4 23.6 27.2 21.4 27.2 33.3 Aug 29.2 29.1 25.4 22.1 22.8 19.0 30.6 37.2 28.4 33.5 34.3 30.4 32. Average day time daily values of ambient air temperature (oC) at Bap.8 22.9 29.3 24.7 30.9 27.2 37.2 33.7 18.6 Apr 25.0 31.4 27.3 21.8 24.2 30.4 18.4 35.8 30.4 34.7 37.7 28.5 21.7 30.1 29.4 32.9 21.5 28.5 19.3 35.2 19.9 27.5 32.3 28.4 25.7 30.6 16.2 28.3 28.3 31.3 34.8 17.7 37.7 28.5 21.0 26.6 27.1 27.1 26.5 30.7 24.3 32.7 Dec 21.0 32.0 18.0 30.6 26.8 31.7 26.4 34.7 23.5 20.0 29.6 36.0 20.9 Sep 31.7 31.7 33.6 30.3 Feb 21.8 33.4 29.8 31.2 28.4 30.1 23.3 32.7 33.0 32.1 35.1 26.7 30.8 29.1 17.5 36.4 23.5 29.5 30.1 31.1 32.1 32.9 26.50 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. 2009RT03 .6 30.6 37.1 23.5 22.1 27.8 Oct 28.3 23.9 32.5 30.4 29.0 35.7 18.9 34.5 24.2 31.4 23.3 32.8 17.7 29.9 22.6 26.5 36.2 16.9 28.2 28.6 33.2 30.5 35.6 34.2 28.6 37.3 23.2 29.7 16.5 18.9 34.6 29.4 33.7 34.3 16.6 21.8 39.2 25.0 18.8 27.7 20.8 18.6 24.7 30.7 33.6 29.9 38.4 36.3 29.4 20.3 19.4 32.0 30.6 29.1 28.1 27.6 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.4 32.6 18.5 26.6 17.6 34.8 28.4 29.2 35.3 20.7 33.9 36.6 15.4 15.9 19.2 22.0 33.5 27.2 33.9 37.3 39.2 24.8 19.8 31.7 28.1 34.4 28.6 21.4 30.6 30.3 23.0 35.0 31.0 30.7 14.3 18.

92 1.45 0.32 1.24 0.78 0.29 1.16 1.32 0.71 0.67 0.49 0.74 1.29 1.20 1.43 0.18 0.70 1.29 0.66 0.96 1.16 1.40 1.15 0.68 0.83 1.14 1.76 0.05 0.76 0.73 0.04 1.15 2.05 1.24 2.71 1.72 2.52 1.54 2.93 1.46 0.13 0.29 3.08 1.37 0.12 1.49 1.61 1.05 2.28 0.58 0.43 0.90 2.95 1.11 1.55 3.02 0.43 1.06 1.00 1.44 1.68 1.40 0.36 2.50 1.25 1.53 0.61 1.90 1.78 0.97 1.66 0.97 0.75 1.95 0.39 0.81 1.39 0.64 0.07 2.34 1.93 1.45 0.76 0.43 1.06 1.81 1.07 2.76 1.55 0.06 1.56 2.48 0.76 0.19 1.46 1.11 1.33 2.81 Mar 1.55 2.32 2.94 0.23 1.54 2.44 1.98 1.49 1.40 2.50 2.59 1.67 0.96 2.21 1.39 0.96 1.77 0.16 1.50 1.97 0.56 1.66 2.22 1.89 1.18 1.12 1.83 1.09 1.89 1.23 2.62 0.70 Nov 0.05 1.91 3.17 1.35 2.84 1.26 1.62 3.36 0.15 0.90 1.64 0.75 0.11 1.55 0.13 3.13 2.10 1.26 1.48 0.82 1.80 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.82 1.33 2.54 1.21 1.88 1.54 0.19 1.34 May 2.36 1.25 0.23 0.00 1.41 1.26 0.49 0.63 1.05 0.52 0.47 2.39 3.60 2.65 0.05 0.06 1.55 5.53 0.05 1.99 1.06 1.07 0.64 1.50 0.35 1.76 2.62 0.04 1.62 0.84 1.30 Jun 2.52 2.47 0.36 1.88 0.71 1.95 0.35 1.77 1.00 1.98 1.26 2.39 2.30 0.67 1.88 0.69 0.69 0.76 1.60 Aug 1.33 1.71 0.95 1.33 0.37 0.73 2.89 1.76 0.26 1.49 1.24 Jul 2.86 1.69 0.89 0.24 1.48 1.88 0.70 2.94 2.84 0.00 1.82 1.81 0.40 1.64 0.24 2.35 1.43 0.17 0.68 3.79 0.75 0.46 0.23 1.78 0.87 0.88 2.54 1.80 1.30 1.49 0.65 0.93 Oct 0.87 1.53 1.71 1.44 0.26 1.16 0.60 0.11 0.26 1.19 1.96 0.39 0.70 0.56 0.30 2.00 0.80 0.25 1.45 0.65 0.63 2.74 1.24 0.69 0.78 0.41 0.52 0.00 1.51 2.65 1.01 1.99 1.03 1.46 1.15 1.95 1.45 0. Average daily values of wind speed (m/s) at Bap.79 1.85 0.04 1.40 Apr 1. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Average Jan 0.53 1.96 1.64 0.29 0.42 2.71 0.25 0.27 2.99 1.53 1.78 1.31 1.30 0.38 1.68 0.16 0.71 1.20 Feb 0.48 0.70 0.35 Dec 0.77 1.60 0.46 0.35 0.80 0.53 0.35 1.80 1.58 2.62 0.00 Sep 1.60 0.44 0.00 0.39 0.02 1.94 1.30 0.08 1.53 0.11 0.95 1.29 1.30 1. 2009RT03 .62 0.76 0.74 0.11 1.06 2.99 0.86 0.26 0.88 0.12 1.59 0.90 0.78 1.73 1.69 1.80 0.59 1.96 0.67 1.Annexures Table 10A.73 0.77 0.73 2.42 0.81 1.90 0.58 1.09 1.51 0.40 0.39 1.42 0.05 1.14 1.41 1.48 0.37 1.09 1.04 1.95 2.

Average daily values of Relative Humidity (%) values at Bap. Rajasthan Table 11A. 2009RT03 .52 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Average Jan 60 67 51 51 54 59 74 59 54 41 44 30 43 42 46 56 50 54 42 40 44 46 52 49 46 65 65 52 52 50 57 51 50 Feb 46 51 58 49 45 47 41 42 42 44 43 44 60 69 76 64 59 45 46 52 56 55 50 49 41 44 37 40 Mar 29 32 47 52 51 41 34 24 36 34 24 23 28 25 20 25 28 39 34 41 47 51 40 43 30 30 33 25 30 37 33 34 34 Apr 46 71 63 47 38 34 36 49 43 36 28 27 38 27 23 20 22 29 32 32 26 20 20 26 32 25 30 36 36 34 May 28 23 24 37 48 42 33 40 38 34 31 29 36 36 39 35 33 42 44 39 21 14 20 30 54 58 58 64 62 65 65 39 48 Jun 24 26 27 28 31 36 41 45 49 57 56 55 58 55 52 51 52 54 56 55 52 53 51 48 53 48 56 55 55 56 Jul 61 58 64 73 74 73 71 67 64 64 66 69 72 65 63 63 63 67 66 63 61 60 59 60 59 58 73 78 78 72 69 66 Aug 81 79 81 80 78 67 58 59 60 60 61 62 77 79 71 84 81 84 78 82 84 77 74 78 74 72 71 67 65 63 73 73 56 Sep 67 68 70 67 64 67 64 60 59 55 62 60 55 59 57 60 59 59 56 49 45 50 56 53 50 49 43 47 38 44 Oct 31 24 29 46 63 69 61 43 46 42 38 38 27 21 22 27 23 23 33 33 34 31 27 38 34 32 32 32 34 35 28 35 50 Nov 37 38 40 38 35 50 70 69 61 59 52 57 62 59 59 55 65 62 49 51 48 44 40 36 36 40 40 38 53 47 Dec 33 33 32 33 32 46 24 26 31 29 52 56 58 47 41 39 34 29 27 26 24 26 26 36 60 37 50 45 43 37 40 37 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.

0 6.9 4.7 2.5 2.0 4.4 3.1 3.6 5.5 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 2.0 2.7 4.0 4.2 3.5 1.1 May 4.0 4.0 4.8 4 Aug 3.0 4.0 3.4 3.0 5.5 2.4 1.3 3.0 4.Annexures Table 12A.9 2.0 2.0 2.5 3.5 Dec 4.0 3.5 4.7 5 3 Apr 4.0 4.2 6.0 4.8 2.8 3.2 1.3 2.0 3.0 4.5 3.5 3.4 4.5 2.0 5.2 3.8 3.2 4.4 6.0 4.0 3.0 4.7 4.0 4.4 2.0 2.9 2.8 3.0 4.9 1.0 3.8 5.9 2.9 2.0 Oct 4.0 4.3 3.8 2.6 3.5 3.0 4.2 5.9 1.0 4.8 8.7 4.8 6.8 3.0 4 3 Nov 2.5 6.5 2.0 4.0 4.3 2.7 4.8 2.9 3.7 6.0 3.2 4.8 Jul 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4 (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database) T E R I Report No.2 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.0 4.6 4.0 4.8 3.7 1.0 4.7 2.0 4.0 4.6 2.0 3.5 2.1 4.1 2.1 5.2 4.2 2.0 2 3 Feb 2.0 3.8 2.0 3.0 2.9 4.0 2.5 1.0 4.0 4.2 2.0 4.5 3.0 2.0 4.2 3.8 2.0 2.0 4.8 3.0 2.0 3.9 2.0 4.0 4.5 2.0 4.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 1.8 2.7 4.0 4.0 4.6 3.9 3.4 6.7 3.3 3.9 2.0 3.0 4.4 3.9 2.1 4.5 2.1 2.0 1.8 4.2 2.0 4.5 2.0 4.7 4.0 4.0 2.6 2.7 4.9 3.0 4.3 2.8 2.5 2.1 3.2 3.1 2. 2009RT03 .0 4.7 4.7 1.6 3.0 4.0 4.3 2.0 2.0 3.2 2.7 3.5 3.0 3.0 6.0 3.5 3.7 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.3 2.0 4. Average daily values of visibility (km) values at Bap.0 4.0 4.1 3.2 4.1 2.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 3.2 2.9 5.9 3.7 4.9 4.0 4.0 3.2 3.5 3.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 4.9 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.2 2.4 2.0 4.2 2.0 2.0 4.0 3.2 3.4 3.0 4.3 3.0 4.8 3.3 3.0 4.7 3.2 4.7 1.0 4.8 4.9 5.0 3.6 4.0 4.3 6.4 3.3 3.0 2.0 3.5 3.7 3.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 2.7 1.2 5.1 2.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.4 4.2 3.9 3 2 Jun 2.0 4.9 1.2 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.7 2.2 2.8 3.2 2.2 4.5 4.7 4.2 Mar 3.0 4.5 4.0 4.3 1.3 2.8 3.6 3.8 6.0 4.0 4.2 3.4 4.6 0.6 3.2 3.7 4. Jodhpur Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Average Jan 1.4 2.9 4.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 1.1 3.0 3.8 2.6 3.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 3.3 4.2 2.0 4.0 4.9 1.0 2.7 3.0 4.0 4 4 Sep 4.0 1.5 3.0 4.0 4.8 4.0 2.0 4.0 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.0 4.0 0.8 4.0 4.5 3.0 4.9 2.0 4.0 4.2 6.0 4.0 4.5 2.4 3.

54 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.pdf T E R I Report No. 2009RT03 . Rajasthan Annexure II: Product brochures Please refer the attached file Product_Specification.

2009RT03 .Annexures T E R I Report No.

Rajasthan Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA T E R I Report No.56 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. 2009RT03 .

2009RT03 .Annexures T E R I Report No.

58 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur. 20 mt. 1 MW solar power plant HT Substation and Transmission Station 350 mt. 200 mt. 2009RT03 . 250 mt. General facility Zone 11 kV internal Transmission Line T E R I Report No. Rajasthan Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant 20 mt. 30 mt.

2009RT03 .Annexures T E R I Report No.

Substation rooms and generation station along with the basic equipments like area lighting. No. ground mat and trenches. Generators and Invertors foundation Land planning.0 T E R I Report No. expenses 35000000 1500000 12275000 1. safety and security system. INR Grand Total. land acquisition.208/11 kV 10 Nos & 16 MVA/11/33 kV 02 Nos Total length of the internal transmission line is approximate 2. power backup to the facility etc.3 km. area fencing Included the and necessary facilities for the operation and maintenance team like accommodation. contour survey. Cr Rupees twenty seven crore only 199646500 70346488 27. Individual generator level and data communication line Include the panel earthling of generation and transmission facility. other necessary construction for the project. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars Power Distribution Cables Power Distribution Panels Power Transformers Transmission Line (11 kV) EMIS Other Electrical Work Hardware Cost INR 44052500 75425000 42500000 819000 36850000 EPC Charges (INR) 4184988 5656875 2337500 102375 1289750 2500000 Remarks 7 Civil Works System) (Electrical 5500000 8 9 10 Civil Works (Generator) Land Planning and Civil Work Misc. leveling. Rajasthan Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of electrical & civil works Sr. main control station and other necessary civil work. Total. 2009RT03 . soil testing.60 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.6 MVA/0.

Annexures

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03

62 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03

Annexures

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03

Rajasthan Annexure V: Financial sheets Assumptions Table 1: Assumptions and Financials of the Project 1 Project Specifications 1.000 10 222.2 Country where the project is situated 1.1 8.00% Edu.33% 33.100.3 8.1 9.28% 2. Lacs Rs.900.79 19.42% 4. 2009RT03 .0 10.000 16.4 8 8. Lacs Rs.5 8.5 2.50% 25 10 5.25% 5.00 11.3 Project Capacity 2 Generation and sale of energy 2. Lacs Rs.0% 213.99% 23.4 2.5% 287.3 2.05% 10.2 9.00% Surcharge 30% Surcharge Rs.00 0.000.03 Solar Dish Stirling India 10.50 19.2 7.79 213.0% 10.000 10.1 Annual power generation from the 2.Cess 3% Percent Rs in Lacs Percent % Rs per kWhr 5 6 T E R I Report No.3 7.1 Name of the project 1.00 23.300.3 Maximum field Losses Net power generated Net power sold Tariff Required (levelised for 25 Escalation in selling rate from 20th to 25th year Annual Degration in efficiency (%) Operation and maintenance(incl insurance) O& M Per year per centage of Project cost Annual Escalation Long term loan The interest rate Depreciation Plant life assumed for working of Salvage value Rate of Depreciation (1st 12 years) Rate of Depreciation (From 13th years) Financial Parameters Debt / equity ratio Equity Long Term loan Total cost Cost Per MW Income tax holiday Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) Income tax rate after 11th year Project Cost Results Financial Parameters ROE Discounting Rate Levelized cost of generation (Tariff)(25 years basis) month of commissioning ph-2 in Financial Year month of commissioning ph-1 in Financial Year Unit KW MW Lacs kWhr Percent Percent Lacs kWhr Rs/kWhr Rs/kWhr % Rs lacs/Year % percentage Percent Year % % % Debt 70% Equity 30% 6.4 8.6 2.50 1. Cess 3%Percent 10.3 2.7 3 3.9 9 9.7 25.2 8.00% Edu. Lacs Years 10.8 8.00% 12.7 8.1 7 7.2 4 4.00 16.2 Plant Load Factor 2.64 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.1 7.6 8.1 3.00 2.

Annexures T E R I Report No. 2009RT03 .

85 2.883.93 0.58 4.02 0.70 14.183 2.596.111.22 287.886.874.58 197.86 FY-31 22 19.823.31 3.54 20.83 22.42 3.20 2.205.950.80 19.864.44 175.523.58 FY-33 24 19.099.15 173.28 0.975.837.819 18.06 190.65 0.04 4.984.60 2.680.01 4.30 302.83 0.905 20.62 456.26 392.34 174.22 FY-23 14 20.302 5.01 203.54 210.790.03 2.066.62 21.903.34 306.731.62 2.136 2.67 FY-18 9 20.38 0.815.273 5.66 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur.60 2.80 2.132.37 310.89 3.08 4.549 11.609.926.166 2.40 402.837.95 189.37 3.75 4.85 205.29 362.50 429.22 2.054.20 3. 2009RT03 .07 14.56 2.87 16.95 FY-21 12 20.35 388.85 188.13 182.00 237.28 3.79 4.56 2.407 7.25 294.63 FY-19 10 20.20 2.79 3.49 211.03 0.26 FY-25 16 19.51 470.647.62 14.37 199.23 290.368.702.64 186.90 3.42 14.842.63 T E R I Report No.80 FY-22 13 20.76 3.718.542.62 FY-24 15 19.15 4.24 379.69 10.73 3.268.024.35 19.27 298.25 2.31 18.615.79 2.19 192.35 FY-35 26 170.24 2.342.11 19.70 196.81 3.20 0.31 0.18 2.22 296.53 15.569.21 3.63 0.802.01 3.47 0.65 0.009.84 0.81 2.93 204.27 112.497 9.03 181.18 0.73 0.71 207.368 6.24 133.642.68 3.41 14.96 171.250.32 191.04 2.34 22.29 3.34 240.406.67 2.93 2.16 20.86 FY-17 8 20.935.09 202.64 FY-27 18 19.24 174.03 FY-11 2 21.66 2.966.73 178.93 180.562.855.111 1.71 4.945.77 18.40 0.61 2.55 2.98 17.53 3.83 179.93 194.82 2.16 0.09 3.070.21 285.81 195.02 2.35 FY-12 3 21.247 3.914.48 198.25 3.99 19.69 2.581.53 176.795.14 3.20 289.617.53 2.405.786.20 FY-29 20 19.65 208.78 206.32 375.53 2.756.60 170.34 0.450 8.63 177.887.05 172.224 3.32 16.69 240.075 1.20 FY-16 7 20.20 286.08 4.78 3.70 FY-20 11 20.18 201.624.73 4.59 209.150 2.909.67 2.83 3.40 FY-14 5 20.13 2.40 FY-28 19 19.47 0.45 212. Rajasthan Tariff calculation for 10 MW plant Tariff Calculation for 10 MW plant: Financial Year ----> Generation Phase-1 Generation Phase-2 Total Generation Annual Expences Phase-1 Annual Expences Phase-2 Total Annual Expences Cost of Generation Discounting factor Discounted Tariff Levellised Tariff Net Annual expences in case CDM Benefit availed Levelised Tariff with CDM Benefit availed FY-10 1 10.82 2.997.40 0.81 16.642.54 185.18 14.990.46 190.224.44 0.73 0.48 0.520.479.671 14.72 FY-32 23 19.42 315.854.44 184.21 15.947.51 4.63 2.81 15.850.607 12.796.741 16.082 1.31 2.202 2.90 0.46 3.45 0.24 2.09 2.849.93 FY-26 17 19.56 0.654.583.29 3.101 1.21 292.24 14.46 FY-34 25 18.38 2.17 191.27 200.06 193.14 18.81 2.488.682.44 415.89 18.61 3.730.87 22.32 FY-13 4 21.123 1.091 1.79 4.333 5.669.75 187.02 FY-30 21 19.33 183.70 3.55 443.852.23 183.20 3.20 2.70 FY-15 6 20.

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