1

E225C – Lecture 16
OFDM Introduction
EE225C EE225C
Introduction to OFDM
l Basic idea
» Using a large number of parallel narrow-band sub-
carriers instead of a single wide-band carrier to
transport information
l Advantages
» Very easy and efficient in dealing with multi-path
» Robust again narrow-band interference
l Disadvantages
» Sensitive to frequency offset and phase noise
» Peak-to-average problem reduces the power
efficiency of RF amplifier at the transmitter
l Adopted for various standards
– DSL, 802.11a, DAB, DVB
2
Multipath can be described in two domains:
time and frequency
time
time
Sinusoidal signal as input
time
time
Sinusoidal signal as output
f
Frequency response
Time domain: Impulse response
Frequency domain: Frequency response
time
Impulse response
time
time
Modulation techniques:
monocarrier vs. multicarrier
To improve the spectral efficiency:
To use orthogonal carriers (allowing overlapping)
Eliminate band guards between carriers
– Selective Fading
– Very short pulses
– ISI is compartively long
– EQs are then very long
– Poor spectral efficiency
because of band guards
Drawbacks
– It is easy to exploit
Frequency diversity
– Flat Fading per carrier
– N long pulses
– ISI is comparatively short
– N short EQs needed
– Poor spectral efficiency
because of band guards
Advantages
Furthermore
– It allows to deploy
2D coding techniques
– Dynamic signalling
N carriers
B
Pulse length ~ N/B
Similar to
FDM technique
– Data are shared among several carriers
and simultaneously transmitted
B
Pulse length ~1/B
– Data are transmited over only one carrier
Channel
Guard bands
Channelization
3
Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation
Data coded in frequency domain
N carriers
B
Transformation to time domain:
each frequency is a sine wave
in time, all added up.
f
Transmit
Symbol: 8 periods of f
0
Symbol: 4 periods of f
0
Symbol: 2 periods of f
0
+
Receive
time
B
Decode each frequency
bin separately
Channel frequency
response
f
f
Time-domain signal Frequency-domain signal
OFDM uses multiple carriers
to modulate the data
N carriers
B
Modulation technique
A user utilizes all carriers to transmit its data as coded quantity at each
frequency carrier, which can be quadrature-amplitude modulated (QAM).
Intercarrier Separation =
1/(symbol duration)
– No intercarrier guard bands
– Controlled overlapping of bands
– Maximum spectral efficiency (Nyquist rate)
– Very sensitive to freq. synchronization
– Easy implementation using IFFTs
Features
Data
Carrier
T=1/f
0
Time
f
0
B
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
One OFDM symbol
Time-frequency grid
4
OFDM Modulation and Demodulation
using FFTs
b0
b1
b2
.
.
.
.
bN-1
Data coded in
frequency domain:
one symbol at a time
IFFT
Inverse fast
Fourier transform
Data in time domain:
one symbol at a time
d0
d1
d2
d3
.
.
.
.
dN-1
time
f
P/S
Parallel to
serial converter
Transmit time-domain
samples of one symbol
d0, d1, d2, …., dN-1
Receive time-domain
samples of one symbol
d0’, d1’, …., dN-1’
S/P
Serial to
parallel converter
d0’
d1’
d2’
.
.
.
.
dN-1’
time
FFT
Fast Fourier
transform
b0’
b1’
b2’
.
.
.
.
bN-1’
f
Decode each
frequency bin
independently
Loss of orthogonality (by frequency offset)
ψ
k
(t) · exp( jk 2πt / T ) y ψ
k +m
( t) · exp j2π (k + m)t / T ( )
ψ
k+m
δ
(t) · exp j2π(k + m+δ) / T ( ) con δ ≤1/ 2
Transmission pulses
Reception pulse with offset δ
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
-60
-55
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
Total ICI due to loss of orthogonality
Carrier position within the band (N=16)
I
C
I

i
n
d
B
δ=0.05
δ=0.02
δ=0.01
δ=0.005
δ=0.002
δ=0.001
Practical limit
δ assumed r.v.
Gaussian σ=δ
0
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Frequency offset: ∂
I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
:

I
m
(
?
)
/
T

e
n
d
B
Loss for 8 carriers
m=1
m=3
m=5
m=7
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
I
m
(δ ) · exp jk2πt / T ( )exp − j(k +m +δ )2πt / T ( )dt
0
T

·
T 1 −exp(− j2πδ ) ( )
j 2π(m+δ)
I
m
(δ) ·
Tsinπδ
π m+δ
I
m
2
(δ)
m

≈ Tδ ( )
2
1
m
2
m·1
N−1

≈ Tδ ( )
2
23
14
for N >>1 (N >5
Is enough )
Interference between
channelsk and k+m
Summing up
∀ m
Asymetric
5
Loss of orthogonality (time)
X
i
· c
0
ψ
k
(t )ψ
l
*
(t − τ )dt
−T /2
− T /2+ τ

+ c
1
ψ
k
(t )ψ
l
*
(t − τ )dt
−T / 2+τ
T/ 2

Let us assume
a misadjustment τ
2 consecutive
symbols
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Typical deviation for the relative misadjustment
I
C
I

i
n
d
B
N=8
N=64
ICI due to loss of orthogonaliy
τ assumed an Uniform r.v.
Max. practical limit
Doubling N means 3 dB more ICI
E
X
i
2
T
2



]
]
]
· 4
τ
T
|
.
`
,
2
1
2
+ 0
1
2
· 2
τ
T
|
.
`
,
2 ICI ≈ 20log 2
τ
T
|
.
`
,
, τ << T
Per carrier
In average, the interfering
power in any carrier is
X
i
T

2mπ
τ
T

· 2
τ
T
Or approximately,
when τ<<T
independent
on m
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Relative misadjustment τ
I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
e
n
d
B
Loss for 16 carriers
m=1
m=5
m=10
Then
X
i
·
2T
senmπ
τ
T

, c
0
≠c
1
0, c
0
·c
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
Zone of interest
i f m=k-l
Including a “cyclic prefix”
CP
P
a
s
s
in
g

t
h
e

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
h
(
n
)
Ψi(t)
Ψj (t)
h(n)=(1)
– n
/ n n=0, …,23
Ψj(t)
Ψi(t)
≠Ψi(t)
To combat the time dispersion: including ‘special’ time guards in the symbol transitions
CP
T
Tc
τ
copy
Furthemore it converts Linear conv. = Cyclic conv.
(Method: overlap-save)
CP functions:
– It acomodates the decaying transient of the previous symbol
– It avoids the initial transient reachs the current symbol
Including the Cyclic Prefix
Symbol: 8 periods of f
i
Symbol: 4 periods of f
i
Initial transient
remains within
the CP
Final transient
remains within
the CP
The inclusion of a CP
maintains the orthogonality
P
a
s
s
in
g

t
h
e

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
h
(
n
)
Initial transient Decaying transient
Channel:
Symbol: 8 periods of f
i
Symbol: 4 periods of f
i
Without the Cyclic Prefix
Loss of orthogonality
6
Cyclic Prefix
T
g
T
τ
max
T
x
Multi-path components
T
Sampling start
802.11a System Specification
l Sampling (chip) rate: 20MHz
l Chip duration: 50ns
l Number of FFT points: 64
l FFT symbol period: 3.2µs
l Cyclic prefix period: 16 chips or 0.8µs
» Typical maximum indoor delay spread < 400ns
» OFDM frame length: 80 chips or 4µs
» FFT symbol length / OFDM frame length = 4/5
l Modulation scheme
» QPSK: 2bits/sample
» 16QAM: 4bits/sample
» 64QAM: 6bits/sample
l Coding: rate ½convolutional code with constraint length 7
GI2 T1 GI OFDM Symbol GI OFDM Symbol T2 t1t2 t3 t4 t5 t6
t7 t8 t9t10
Short training sequence:
AGC and frequency offset
Long training sequence:
Channel estimation
7
Frequency diversity using coding
Random errors: primarily introduced by thermal and circuit noise.
Channel-selected errors: introduced by magnitude distortion in
channel frequency response.
Data bits
Bad carriers
T=1/f0
Time
f
0
B
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Time-frequency grid
Frequency response
Errors are no longer random. Interleaving is often used to scramble
the data bits so that standard error correcting codes can be applied.
f
Spectrum Mask
Frequency (MHz)
f carrier
Power Spectral Density
9 11 20 30 -9 -11 -20 -30
-20 dB
-28 dB
-40 dB
• Requires extremely linear power amplifier design.
8
Adjacent Channel and
Alternate Channel Rejection
• Requires joint design of the anti-aliasing filter and ADC.
D a t e
r a t e
M i n i m u m
S e n s i b i l i t y
A d j a c e n t C h a n n e l
R e j e c t i o n
Al t e r n a t e
C h a n n e l r e j e c t i o n
6 M b p s - 8 2 d B m 1 6 d B 3 2 d B
1 2 M b p s - 7 9 d B m 1 3 d B 2 9 d B
2 4 M b p s - 7 4 d B m 8 d B 2 4 d B
3 6 M b p s - 7 0 d B m 4 d B 2 0 d B
5 4 M b p s - 6 5 d B m 0 d B 1 5 d B
16 dB blocker
32 dB blocker
Signal
Frequency
OFDM Receiver Design
Yun Chiu, Dejan Markovic, Haiyun Tang,
Ning Zhang
EE225C Final Project Report, 12 December
2000
9
OFDM System Block Diagram
Synchronization
l Frame detection
l Frequency offset compensation
l Sampling error
» Usually less 100ppm and can be ignored
– 100ppm = off 1% of a sample every 100 samples
T
g
T
Frame start
10
System Pilot Structure
IEEE 802.11a OFDM Txer
Short Preamble Gen.
Long Preamble Gen.
OFDM Data Path
Signal Data Data 2 1 4 7 3 5 9 8 6 T1 GI2 GI GI GI 10
Signal Detection, AGC,
Diversity Selection
10 x 0.8 = 8 uS
T2
2 x 0.8 + 2 x 3.2 = 8 uS
Channel & Fine Freq.
Offset Estimation
Coarse Freq. Offset
Est.,Timing Sync.
0.8 + 3.2 = 8 uS 0.8 + 3.2 = 8 uS 0.8 + 3.2 = 8 uS
Rate, Length Data Data
11
Short & Long Preambles
f
-24
1+j
-20
-16
-12
-1-j
f
-1
-16
-26
+1
-24
-12
Short Preamble
Long Preamble
Period = 16 Chips
Period = 64 Chips
Correlation of Short Preamble
Correlation
Coarse Timing
Fine Timing
Auto-
Correlation
12
Synchronization
16T
d
* Σ
T
d
T
d
T
d
...
* * *
...
T
d
T
d
T
d
T
d
...
T
d
From AGC
* Σ
T
d
T
d
T
d
...
* * *
...
Shor t Pr eambl e ( LUT)
...
T
d
Fr om AGC
Moving Auto-
Corr. Unit
Moving SP
Corr. Unit
Impairments: Multi-Path Channel
t
T
0
2T
t
0
t
0
T
2T
3T
4T
T
c
T
c
Ch. Impulse
Response
t
0
t
0
T
2T
3T
4T
T
c
t
5T
T
2T
3T
4T
t
0
T
2T
3T
4T
5T
t
t
0
T
2T
3T
4T
5T
Auto-Correlation w/
Multi-Path Channel
Response.
13
Impairments: Frequency Offset
t
0
T
2T
3T
4 T
t
0
T
2T
3T
4 T
t
t
0
T
2T
3T
4 T
Fine Frequency Offset Est.
Complex
Multiplier
Sync. Signal
Accumulator
14
Coarse-Fine Joint Estimation &
Decision Alignment Error Correction
0
π
0
π
0
π
0
π
1
2 3
7 6
4
8 5
π
−π
0
π
A
D
B
C
Vin
Fol di ng Si gnal
π
0
0 π 0 π Folding ADC
Coarse
Fine
±100ppm∆f
c
@ 5.8GHz
Average over
16 chips
Average over
64 chips
Frequency Offset Compensation
Joint Coarse-
Fine Est.
Offset Corr.
Decision
Alignment
Channel
15
Performance Summary
± 5π = ± 100ppm@ 5.8 GHz
Freq. Offset Est. Range
1% (@ 15dB SNR) Freq. Offset Est. Accuracy
12.7 ns Critical path delay
397,080 µm
2
Silicon area
3.4 mW @ 20 MHz Total power consumption
≤ 8 chips (CP = 16
chips)
Sync. Frame Start Accuracy
20 MHz Sampling clock freq.
BPSK up to 64-QAM Modulation Scheme
4 µs OFDM symbol freq.
48 data +4 pilot Number of sub-carriers
Metrics Parameters

multicarrier Channel Channelization Guard bands N carriers Similar to FDM technique B Pulse length ~ N/B – Data are shared among several carriers and simultaneously transmitted Advantages Furthermore – Flat Fading per carrier – N long pulses – ISI is comparatively short – N short EQs needed – Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards – It is easy to exploit Frequency diversity – It allows to deploy 2D coding techniques – Dynamic signalling B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier Drawbacks – Selective Fading – Very short pulses – ISI is compartively long – EQs are then very long – Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards To improve the spectral efficiency: Eliminate band guards between carriers To use orthogonal carriers (allowing overlapping) 2 .Multipath can be described in two domains: time and frequency Time domain: Impulse response time time time Impulse response Frequency domain: Frequency response time time time Sinusoidal signal as input f Frequency response time Sinusoidal signal as output Modulation techniques: monocarrier vs.

all added up. which can be quadrature-amplitude modulated (QAM).Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation N carriers Symbol: 2 periods of f0 Transmit f B Symbol: 8 periods of f0 + Symbol: 4 periods of f0 f Data coded in frequency domain Transformation to time domain: each frequency is a sine wave in time. T=1/f0 One OFDM symbol Time Intercarrier Separation = 1/(symbol duration) 3 . synchronization Modulation technique A user utilizes all carriers to transmit its data as coded quantity at each frequency carrier. Channel frequency response Decode each frequency bin separately Receive time f B Time-domain signal Frequency-domain signal OFDM uses multiple carriers to modulate the data Time-frequency grid Frequency N carriers Data B f0 Carrier B Features – No intercarrier guard bands – Controlled overlapping of bands – Maximum spectral efficiency (Nyquist rate) – Easy implementation using IFFTs – Very sensitive to freq.

3 0. . . f . dN-1’ S/P Serial to parallel converter Receive time-domain samples of one symbol time d0’ d1’ d2’ .3 -0. . f . Transmit time-domain .001 Gaussian σ=δ -55 -60 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Carrier position within the band (N=16) ICI in dB limit Asymetric -0. d1.v.OFDM Modulation and Demodulation using FFTs d0 b0 d1 P/S IFFT b1 d2 d0.. serial converter .2 0. . Fourier transform .4 Loss for 8 carriers m=1 m=3 m=5 m=7 Total ICI due to loss of orthogonality -10 -15 δ =0. dN-1 b2 Inverse fast d3 Parallel to .005 -40 Practical -45 δ =0. .002 δ assumed r. -50 δ =0.05 -20 -25 δ =0. samples of one symbol . time bN-1 dN-1 Data coded in Data in time domain: frequency domain: one symbol at a time one symbol at a time Decode each b0’ frequency bin b1’ independently b2’ .. . ….02 -30 δ =0. d2. dN-1’ FFT Fast Fourier transform Loss of orthogonality (by frequency offset) Transmission pulses Reception pulse with offset δ ψ k (t) = exp( jk 2π t / T ) y ψ k +m ( t) = exp ( j2π (k + m )t / T ) ψ k+ m (t) = exp ( j2π (k + m + δ ) / T ) con δ ≤ 1 / 2 δ Interference between channels k and k+m I m (δ ) = ∫ exp( jk2πt / T ) exp(− j(k + m + δ )2πt / T )dt = T 0 T ( − exp(− j2πδ )) 1 j 2π(m + δ ) I m (δ) = T sin πδ π m+δ Summing up ∀m ∑I m 2 m (δ ) ≈ (Tδ)2 ∑ m= 1 N− 1 1 23 ≈ (Tδ )2 14 m2 for N >> 1 (N > 5 Is enough ) 0 Interference: Im(? )/T en dB -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -0. …. .4 4 .1 0.2 -0. d1’.01 -35 δ =0.1 Frequency offset: ∂ 0 0. bN-1’ d0’.

c0 = c1  X 2 E i2  T Or approximately.02 0.5 0.8 0. the interfering power in any carrier is 2 2  1 τ 1 τ  = 4 T  2 + 0 2 = 2 T   ICI ≈ 20log τ  2  . practical limit 0.2 3 ≠Ψ i(t) Passing the channel h(n) Initial transient Loss of orthogonality Decaying transient Initial transient remains within the CP The inclusion of a CP maintains the orthogonality Final transient remains within the CP Ψj (t) Ψ j(t) Symbol: 4 periods of fi Symbol: 4 periods of fi CP functions: – It acomodates the decaying transient of the previous symbol – It avoids the initial transient reachs the current symbol 5 .07 0.7 Relative misadjustment τ 0. τ << T  T Per carrier Loss for 16 carriers 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 0 45 ICI due to loss of orthogonaliy 40 35 ICI in dB m=1 Doubling N means 3 dB more ICI τ assumed an Uniform r.1 0. c ≠c 0 1 Xi =  mπ  0.08 Typical deviation for the relative misadjustment Including a “cyclic prefix” To combat the time dispersion: including ‘special’ time guards in the symbol transitions co p y CP τ Tc T Furthemore it converts Linear conv. = Cyclic conv.3 0. when τ<<T τ Xi 2mπ T τ ≈ =2 T T mπ independent on m In average. ….01 0.2 Zone of interest 0.Loss of orthogonality (time) Let us assume a misadjustment τ Xi = c 0 ∫ − T /2+ τ −T /2 ψ k (t )ψ l (t − τ )dt + c 1 ∫ * T/ 2 −T / 2+τ ψ k (t )ψ l (t − τ )dt * 2 consecutive symbols Then if m=k-l τ  senmπ 2 T T .04 0.6 0. Interference en dB m=5 m=10 30 25 20 15 N=8 N=64 Max.4 0.03 0. (Method: overlap-save) Without the Cyclic Prefix Symbol: 8 periods of fi Including the Cyclic Prefix CP Symbol: 8 periods of fi Ψi(t) Passing the channel h(n) Ψi(t) Channel:h(n )=(1 ) – n / n n =0 .06 0.v .9 1 10 0 0.05 0.

Cyclic Prefix Tg T Multi-path components τmax Tx Sampling start T 802.2µs Cyclic prefix period: 16 chips or 0.8µs » Typical maximum indoor delay spread < 400ns » OFDM frame length: 80 chips or 4µs » FFT symbol length / OFDM frame length = 4/5 l Modulation scheme » QPSK: 2bits/sample » 16QAM: 4bits/sample » 64QAM: 6bits/sample l Coding: rate ½ convolutional code with constraint length 7 6 .11a System Specification t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 GI2 T1 T2 GI OFDM Symbol GI OFDM Symbol Short training sequence: AGC and frequency offset l l l l l Long training sequence: Channel estimation Sampling (chip) rate: 20MHz Chip duration: 50ns Number of FFT points: 64 FFT symbol period: 3.

Spectrum Mask Power Spectral Density -20 dB -28 dB -40 dB -30 -20 -11 -9 f carrier 9 11 20 30 Frequency (MHz) • Requires extremely linear power amplifier design. Data bits Time-frequency grid Frequency B f0 Bad carriers f Frequency response T=1/f0 Time Errors are no longer random. Channel-selected errors: introduced by magnitude distortion in channel frequency response. Interleaving is often used to scramble the data bits so that standard error correcting codes can be applied.Frequency diversity using coding Random errors: primarily introduced by thermal and circuit noise. 7 .

Dejan Markovic. 12 December 2000 8 .Adjacent Channel and Alternate Channel Rejection Date rate 6 Mbps 12Mbps 24Mbps 36Mbps 54Mbps M inimum Sensibility -82 d B m -79 d B m -74 d B m -70 d B m -65 d B m Adjacent Channel Rejection 16 dB 13 dB 8 dB 4 dB 0 dB Alternate Channel rejection 32 dB 29 dB 24 dB 20 dB 15 dB 32 dB blocker 16 dB blocker Signal Frequency • Requires joint design of the anti-aliasing filter and ADC. OFDM Receiver Design Yun Chiu. Haiyun Tang. Ning Zhang EE225C Final Project Report.

OFDM System Block Diagram Synchronization l Frame detection Tg T Frame start l l Frequency offset compensation Sampling error » Usually less 100ppm and can be ignored – 100ppm = off 1% of a sample every 100 samples 9 .

11a OFDM Txer Short Preamble Gen.System Pilot Structure IEEE 802. Channel & Fine Freq.8 = 8 uS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 GI2 2 x 0.8 + 2 x 3.2 = 8 uS 0. Length Data Data 10 .. Long Preamble Gen.Timing Sync.2 = 8 uS T1 T2 0. OFDM Data Path 10 x 0.2 = 8 uS 0.8 + 3. Diversity Selection Offset Estimation Coarse Freq.8 + 3.2 = 8 uS GI Signal GI Data GI Data Signal Detection. Offset Est.8 + 3. Rate. AGC.

Short & Long Preambles 1+j -24 -20 -12 -1-j -16 f Short Preamble +1 Period = 16 Chips -26 -24 -16 -1 -12 f Long Preamble Period = 64 Chips Correlation of Short Preamble Correlation Fine Timing AutoCorrelation Coarse Timing 11 .

. Unit * * ... Td Td Moving AutoCorr..Synchronization From AGC 16Td Td Td Td * Td Td * Td .. 12 ... T . Unit From AGC Td Td Moving SP Corr. T . * * d Σ ...... Short Preamble (LUT) Impairments: Multi-Path Channel Tc 0 2T T 0 T 0 2T 3T 4T t t T c t 0 T T 2T 2T 3T 4T t 3T 4T t 5T t 0 0 T 0 2T 3T 4T T T t c t 5T 2T 3T 4T t 5T Ch. * * d Σ . Impulse Response Auto-Correlation w/ Multi-Path Channel Response.

Impairments: Frequency Offset 0 T 2T 3T 4T t 0 T 2T 3T 4T t t 0 T 2T 3T 4T t Fine Frequency Offset Est. Accumulator Complex Multiplier Sync. Signal 13 .

Offset Corr.Coarse-Fine Joint Estimation & Decision Alignment Error Correction 0 3 4 5 2 1 8 π 0 π π −π B A C D Average over 64 chips π 0 Folding ADC 0 Frequency Offset Compensation π Vin Average over 16 chips 6 7 π Coarse Folding Signal Channel Joint CoarseFine Est.8GHz π 0 0 π 0 π Decision Alignment 14 . 0 Fine ±100ppm ∆fc @ 5.

Frame Start Accuracy Freq. Accuracy Critical path delay Silicon area Total power consumption Metrics 48 data +4 pilot 4 µs BPSK up to 64-QAM 20 MHz ≤ 8 chips (CP = 16 chips) ± 5π = ± 100ppm @ 5. Sync.Performance Summary Parameters Number of sub-carriers OFDM symbol freq. Offset Est. Range Freq.080 µm2 3.8 GHz 1% (@ 15dB SNR) 12. Modulation Scheme Sampling clock freq. Offset Est.7 ns 397.4 mW @ 20 MHz 15 .

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