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Part 1 and Part 2
Stephen C. Bayne
Department of Operative Dentistry School of Dentistry University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450
What are tolerable limits for “error” in indirect procedures? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Impressions Casts, Dies Waxing Investing Casting Finishing, Polishing Cementation = = = = = = = +/- 0 +/- 0 +/- 0 + 1.5% − 1.5% +/- 0 +/- 0
Prepped Tooth Width
8 mm (=8,000 µ m) 8,000 µ m x 0.5% = 40 µ m = 20 µ m/side Typical clinical error = >100 µ m/side
Polysulfide (Rubber Base. Condensation) 8. Thiokol) 7. 2. Polyvinyl Siloxane (Addition Silicone) . Water-Based Gel: 4. Silicone (Conventional. 3. Agar-Agar (Reversible Hydrocolloid) Elastomers: 6. Polyether 9.CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Based on Properties of Set Materials Properties: Impression Plaster Impression Compound Zinc Oxide/ Eugenol Rigid Rigid Rigid Flexible Flexible Flexible Flexible Flexible Flexible Reaction: Set: Irrev Rev Irrev Irrev Rev Irrev Irrev Irrev Irrev (Chem) (Phys) (Chem) (Chem) (Phys) (Chem) (Chem) (Chem) (Chem) Rigid: 1. Alginate (Irreversible Hydrocolloid) 5.
b. Accuracy = ability to replicate the intraoral surface details. Dimensional Stability = ability to retain its absolute dimensional size over time. Tear Resistance = ability to resist tearing in thin sections (such as through the feather-edged material within the gingival sulcus.IMPRESSION MATERIALS Key Properties a. c. Impression Tray Impression Accuracy Dimensional Stability Tear Resistance .
Flavoring Agents. Plasticizers. Retarders. . Colorants) Filler or Extender (Dispersed Phase): Polymer (high shrinkage) Filled Polymer (low shrinkage) 2. Crosslinking Agent c. Flexible Matrix (Continuous Phase): a. Multifunctional Pre-Polymer or Polymer b.GENERAL FORMULATION For Elastic Impression Materials 1. Modifiers (Accelerators. Curing Agent (Catalyst or Initiator) d.
Impression Dies tend to be oversize and so the casting is oversize. distortion of impression is toward tray.ELASTOMERIC IMPRESSIONS Management of Shrinkage Impression Tray Impression Use 2-step techniques: (a) Light-Heavy Body. . OR (b) Wash-Putty Load tray with heavy-bodied IM Cover prep with light-bodied IM from syringe During setting shrinkage.
ELASTOMERIC MATERIALS Mixing and Delivery Systems Polyether. Silicone Rubber 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 256 folds Mixing Options: 2 Pastes on Mixing Pad 2 Pastes in Mixing Gun 2 Pastes in Mixing Machine . Polyvinylsiloxane Polysulfide Rubber.
IMPRESSION MATERIALS Management of Distortion During Tray Removal Strain rate sensitive elastomers ! Impression Tray Impression Fast removal VERY FAST (SNAP) Slow removal .
Silicone REACTION CONVERSION (%) 100 log TIME (minutes) .IMPRESSION MATERIALS Distortion Time Related to Setting Reaction VPS Pe PS.
Exothermic. Affected by temperature .POLYSULFIDE RUBBER Chemistry and Setting Reaction CONTINUOUS PHASE: Polymer Crosslinking Agent Catalysts DISPERSED PHASE: Fillers = Mercaptan Functional Polysulfide = Sulfur and/or Lead Peroxide = PbO2 or Copper Hydroxides (Type I) Zinc Peroxide or Organic Hydroperoxide (Type II) = TiO2 or Zinc Sulfate or Lithopone or Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate SETTING REACTION: Stepwise (relatively slow).
Set impression should be removed quickly . but distortion due to continued reaction. Two-step techniques recommended: Reduces air entrapment and surface tension effects.do not rock tray.* d. (1) Adhesive must be thin (2) Adhesive must be dry Paste-Paste Mixing Recommendations: (1) Dispense pastes at the top of the mixing pad (2) Mix pastes with tip of spatula only for 5 seconds (3) Transfer mass to fresh surface at center of mixing pad (4) Wipe spatula off with paper towel. Strop mass for 15s to constant color (5) Load syringe or tray (6) Use pad excess to monitor setting time Pouring of models: (1) Wait 20-30 minutes before pour for stress relaxation to occur (2) RB is non-reactive with model and die materials (3) Be careful of glove powder contamination of impression (4) RB can be electroplated g. e. saliva. and blood. . No syneresis or imbibition.POLYSULFIDE RUBBER Manipulation and Technique Considerations a. Ideally need uniform thickness and at least 2 mm thick for accuracy. Material adversely affected by H2O. f. c. b.
Exothermic. tin octoate) (but not dibutyl tin dilaurate) = Colorants. Affected by temperature H2O by-products . Flavorants = Silica SETTING REACTION: Stepwise (relatively slow)..g.SILICONE RUBBER Chemistry and Setting Reaction CONTINUOUS PHASE: Polymer Crosslinking Agent Catalysts Modifiers DISPERSED PHASE: Fillers = Polydimethyl Siloxane = Alkyl Orthosilicate or Organo H-Silane = Organo Tin Compounds (e.
e. b. Requires mechanical retention or special tray adhesives No syneresis or imbibition. d. Limited shelf-life: Unstable in tubes. Better dimensional stability than RHC but more expensive Pouring of models: (1) More flexible so more chance for distortion during removal (2) Wait 20-30 minutes before pour for stress relaxation to occur .Manipulation and Technique Considerations SILICONE RUBBER a. but continued polymerization shrinkage. c.
Exothermic. Glycol Plasticizers. Flavorants = Silica SETTING REACTION: Stepwise (relatively slow). Affected by temperature .POLYETHER RUBBER Chemistry and Setting Reactions CONTINUOUS PHASE: Polymer Crosslinking Agent Catalysts Modifiers DISPERSED PHASE: Fillers = Amine-terminated Polyether = Aromatic Sulfonate = = Colorants.
d. saliva. Negatively affected by H2O. (1) Since hydrophobic. Stiff and therefore difficult to remove without rocking. and blood.Manipulation and Technique Considerations a. b. Excellent impression accuracy and dimensional stability. c. moisture increases marginal discrepancy (2) Increased water absorption occurs if use thinning agents Can be dispensed from automated extruder and mixer (ESPE PentaMix) POLYETHER RUBBER . e. Break seal and rock slightly to prevent tearing: Low tear resistance.
.POLYVINYL SILOXANE Chemistry and Setting Reactions CONTINUOUS PHASE: Polymer Crosslinking Agent Catalysts Modifiers DISPERSED PHASE: Fillers = Double-bond-functional Silicone Polymer = Chloroplatinic Acid = = Colorants. Flavorants. Plasticizers = Silica SETTING REACTION: Chain (very fast). Exothermic. Affected by temperature Hydrogen gas released by decomposition of crosslinking agent.
Manipulation and Technique Considerations a. BEST impression material for dimensional stability: Pouring should be delayed at least 4 hours for H2 out-gassing. Stiffness makes removal difficult. Pouring can be delayed up to 7-to-10 days (or indefinitely). Most material dispensed using auto-mixing gun and mixing tips POLVINYLSILOXANE . b. c.
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS 1980-1995 Predominantly POLYSULFIDE and SILICONE elastomers before 1995. .
.COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS 1996-2004 Predominantly POLYETHER and PVS elastomers after 1996.
SIL < PS . Elastic Deformation b. RHC. Thermal Shrinkage c.IMPRESSION MATERIALS Comparison of Key Properties Poor >---------------------------------> Good 1. Wetting of Tissues: b. Wetting by Dental Stone: Dimensional Stability: (Resistance to Distortion): a. PVS < PS < PE <= ALG. PVS 2. RHC ALG <= RHC < PS. Strain Rate Sensitivity ALG < SIL. PE < PVS . PS < PE <= RHC. Stress Relaxation Tear Resistance (Elasticity): a. Polymerization Shrinkage b. PVS SIL. Accuracy (Reproduction of Detail): a. ALG. SIL < PE. 3. Loss of Components d.
IMPRESSION IMPRESSIONS Dimensional Stabilty PERCENT CHANGE (%) PRODUCT EXAMPLES .
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