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Lecture14_OneWayANOVA (3)

# Lecture14_OneWayANOVA (3)

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05/07/2011

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What type of therapy is most

effective in curing phobias?

±General counseling

±Systematic desensitization

±Counter conditioning

Comparing 3 (or more) groups

The IV is nominal (3 categories)

±Regression requires an ordered (ordinal)

IV so we can¶t use that

Comparing 3 (or more) groups

The IV is nominal (3 categories)

±Regression requires an ordered (ordinal)

IV so we can¶t use that

±If we used a t-test, we would have to do

three comparisons:

General counseling vs. Systematic

desensitization

General counseling vs. Counter conditioning

Systematic desensitization vs. counter

conditioning

±What¶s the problem with this?

Comparing 3 (or more) groups:

Problem with t-test approach

Whenever you do more than one

comparison in an experiment, you increase
the chance of a Type I error

±If we used the t-test approach, we would

compare



1&

2 with = .05



2&

3 with = .05



1&

3 with = .05

±So you would end up with an experiment-wise

error rate of .05*3 = .15

±Increasing the number of groups makes this

much worse

One-way ANOVA

A ³one-way ANOVA´ is an

experimental design with one

independent variable that represents

more than 2 levels of groups

One-way ANOVA

A ³one-wayANOVA´ is an experimental

design with one independent variable

that represents more than 2 levels or

groups

One-way ANOVA

A ³one-wayANOVA´ is an experimental

design with one independent variable

that represents more than 2 levels or

groups

±The IV in an ANOVA is called a factor

E.g., Type of therapy, grade level in school (2nd

,

3rd

, or 4th

), dosage of a drug (0mg, 100mg, 500

mg)

One-way ANOVA

A ³one-wayANOVA´ is an experimental

design with one independent variable

that represents more than 2 levels or

groups

±The IV in an ANOVA is called a factor

E.g., Type of therapy, grade level in school (2nd

,

3rd

, or 4th

), dosage of a drug (0mg, 100mg, 500

mg)

³ANOVA´ stands for ³analysis of variance´

Analysis of Variance

When you break up people into groups

(e.g., types of therapy), there are two

sources of variance that are important

Analysis of Variance

When you break up people into groups

(e.g., types of therapy), there are two

sources of variance that are important

±Variance within each group

Even in the same type of therapy, people will

differ on how much improvement they make (for

This is the noise

Analysis of Variance

When you break up people into groups (e.g.,

types of therapy), there are two sources of
variance that are important

±

Variance within each group



Even in the same type of therapy, people will differ on
how much improvement they make (for reasons we

This is the noise

±Variance between each group

We are really interested in the differences between the

groups±does one group improve more than the other
two?

The variance between the groups is our ³signal´

Analysis of Variance

In some ways, ANOVA should be called

³analysis of sums of squares´

±SS

total= Ss

between-groups+ SS

within-groups

The point is to parse out how much of the

variance is happening between the

groups (signal that the group is making a

difference), and how much is happening

within the group (random error, or noise)

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