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SP ig
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SSO SW
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VR a arabeeradPublished by :
FIREWALL MEDIA
(An Imprint of Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.)
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Copyright © 2007 by Firewall Media (An. imprint of Laxmi Publications Put. Ltd.). All rights reserved.
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MGA.6706-250-G, DIFF. EQUATIONS C—13019/06/08.
Typeset at : Goswami Printers, Delhi. Printed at : Sanjeev Offset Press, New Delhi.CONTENTS
Chapters Pages
List of Important Formulae wa _(i)}(wi)
1,__Differential Equations and their Formation an 1
2.__ Solution of Differential Equations of the First Order and First Degree 21
3.__Linear Equations with Constant Co-efficients a 170
4. Application to Geometry and Mechanics es 269
5.__Homogeneous Linear Equations oe 286
“6._ Trajectories . 314
7, Equations of the First Order but not of the First Degree so 326
8.__Linear Equations of Second Order 356
9. Simultaneous Differential Equations se 400
10. Series Solution of Differential Equations as 429
11. Legendre’s Equation os 512
12.__Bessel’s Equation se 533GET 100 OUT OF 100 MARKS
The book has been written with a view to guide the
students in the examination. It ensures 100% marks
‘The student is advised to take this book only as
« help book. He should solve himself as
many questions as possible.
= Special Features :
1. Solutions to all types of important questions have been given.
2. Questions from up-to-date papers of various Universities.
8, The book is useful to bright as well as weak students alike.
4. Approach to the subject matter is systematic.
5. The Book serves triple purpose :
‘Text Book—Help Book—Solved University PapersList of Important Formulae
(TO BE LEARNT BY HEART]
L VARIABLES SEPARABLE
To solve x = XY, where X is a function of x only and ¥ is a function of y only.
Bring all the terms of x and dx on one side, all the terms of y and dy on the other.
Integrate both sides and add an abritrary constant on one side.
2, HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION
dy fsy)
dz f(x,y)
tions of the same degree in x and y.
do
dy
Puty = ox, sothat ST su +x 2
To solve the equation where f(z, 9), f,(, y) are homogeneous func-
Substitute the values of y and a in the given equation.
Separate the variables v and x.
Integrate both sides and add an arbitrary constant on one side.
Substitute back the value of v (- 2) .
8. EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO HOMOGENEOUS
axtbyte ab
= aerbiyre ‘When .
Putx=X+hy=Yok
Equate the constant terms in the numerator and denominator of R.H.S, to zero and find
i dy
To solve
The equation is now homogeneous in X and Y.
Put ¥ = oX and proceed as in the ease of homogeneous equations. Substitute back the
values of v, X,Y, A.and
@(ii)
8‘ dy __axtby+e_
(ii) To solve the equation 7 = Gra biyse'
dy
Put the values of ax + by and ©” in the given equation, Separate the variables z and x
and proceed as in Variables Separable. Substitute back the value of z.
4, LINEAR EQUATION
(i) To solve & + Py = Q, where P, Q are functions of x only.
Make the co-efficient of # unity, if not so already.
Find. LF, = e!?* and remember that cl! = fix)
‘The solution is y . (LF.) =/ Q(LF.) dr +c.
(i) To solve $= + Px = @, where P, @ are functions of y only.
dx
Make the co-efficient of 7, unity, if not so already.
Find ifpseh’
‘The solution is x. (LF.) = J Q(LF.) dy +c.
5. EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO LINEAR
(To eotve + Py = Qy", where P, Q are functions of x only.
Divide throughout by y" to make the R.H.S, a function of x only.
Put yhrez
The equation is now linear in z.
Make the co-efficient of & unity, if not so already.
Find LF. =e! Pe
The solution is 2. (LF) =/Q.0F) de+e
Substitute back the value of z.
(ii) To solve the equation f(y) x +Pily) = Q, where P, Q are functions of x only.
Put fly) = z, then f(y). & &
ae
de.
Given equation becomes < + Pz = Q which is linear in z and can be solved.Giiy
6. EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
aM ol
The equation Mds + Ndy = is exact Se = 2.
Thesolution is f —Mdx+ J (terms in N not containing x) dy =.
-yeonstant
7. INTEGRATING FACTORS
(i) If the equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is homogencous in x and y, then
mw is an integrating factor I Mx +Ny #0
‘The method is used when Mx + Ny consists of only one term.
(ii) If the equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is of the form
Pay y du + fifa y) x dy = 0, then
i
‘Mx -Ny -Ny
(iii) Ifin the equation Md + Ndy = 0,
aM _ oN
a is a function of x only =/ix) (say)
is an integrating factor | Mx —Ny #0
then e!/'*"¢ is an integrating factor.
(jv) If in the equation Mdx + Ndy = 0,
aN aM
oY is a function of y only = fly) (say)
then e!/ "4 is an integrating factor.
8. TO SOLVE THE EQUATION
ay. avy atty
Ser oe oe =
where a,, ay, «.., a, are constants.
Write the given equation in symbolic form
a
D* =p"
nm
Thus (DP +a,D™1 4 a,D"2 4... 4a,y =0
Write down the auxiliary equation (A.E.) by equating to zero the symbolic co-efficient
ofy
Thus D' +a, D144,D"%4.... 44, =0
Solve if for D as if it were an ordinary algebraic quantity.(iv)
From the roots of the A-E., write down the corresponding part of the complete solution
as follows :
Roots of AE. Corresponding part of C.S.
|. One real root m, ce
. Two real and different roots m,, m,, ce™ +ege**
|. Two real and equal roots m,, m,. (ey #e00™"
|. Three real and equal roots m.,, m,, ™m, Cc, tg + e716"
. One pair of complex roots «+ if. ce (e, cos x +e, sin fix)
‘Two pairs of complex and o [(e, + e,¢) cos fr + (cy + eye) sin Be)
equal roots a + i, a iB.
Complete solution is y = corresponding part of C.S.
9. RULE TO SOLVE THE EQUATION
a™ty
tay Gore ton tay
where a, a... 8, are constants and X is a function of x.
and
Write down the given equation in the symbolic form
(* +a,D*+0,D"* +
Auxiliary equation is D* + a,D*! +a,D"* +......
Solve it for D as if it were an ordinary algebraic quantity.
From the roots of the auxiliary equation, write down the complementary function (C.F.)
1 1
Ple pea p sabes .cta, *= 70D) *
1 1
Case l Fi) = Fa) where fla) #0
1 1
Case IL Fon, sin as = Fg) tin ar where fl-a2) #0
1 1
FD®) = Fa?) OH where ft- a2) #0
1
Case IIL. Fp, =" where m is a positive integer.
‘Write AUD) in ascending powers of D and make the first term unity, if not so already.
1 1 1
Let FD 7" * olism "2g tO
Expand it by Binomial Theorem, remembering that
(+ert=1-#+P-8+..
(at sletePet en...
(4 ty? 21-24 3tt- 4 +
(1-07? = 14284 87+ 4P +o,0)
The expansion is to be carried out upto D” only.
Operate on x” with each term of the expansion.
Case Tv. Fi “Ara *
1 Lyd (a a
Case V. Fi *V=* fay) V+ ap LF) Y=" FD
where V is a function of x.
10. CASES OF FAILURE
If by using the above rules for finding the P.I., we get zero in the denominator, then
(fF
a a
Fn ay" when fla) = 0
@
1. 1 .
—— sin ax =x, 4 ___ sin ax when fl- a2) =0
fo?) fp? f
Son
Fah TE hoses when f-a2)=0
ro)
aD
he, x. —————! __ 4" or sin ax or cos ax whatever the case is,
diff, coeffi. of denom. w.r.t.D
If we again get zero in the denominator, repeat the above process.
lL. z = integration.
12, es cosxtisinx
so that cos x is the real part of e* and sin x is the imaginary part of e*.
18, RULE TO SOLVE THE EQUATION
a’ a"!
no BY ayn Ty
where ay, &,, My, ....., 8, are constants and X is a function of x.
{Homogencous Linear Equation of the nth order}
Putx =e" so that z = log x and
sae sare
dd
Dak ae de
a
‘Then Pag =DD-)
23S, = DD - 1D - 2) and so on.