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Sections

  • Phenomenal Growth in Wireless Voice & Data Services
  • “Anytime Anywhere Anyform” Information Systems
  • Size & Battery Life are Critical in Wireless Devices
  • Where does the Battery Power go?
  • Wireless Systems Design: Key Driving Forces
  • Building a Wireless System on a Chip
  • Challenge to VLSI & CAD
  • Tutorial Goals
  • Part 1:
  • Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems
  • Wireless Spectrum
  • Diversity of Applications in Wireless Communications
  • Characteristics of Wireless Systems
  • Time Varying Wireless Environment
  • Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link
  • Propagation of Radio Waves
  • Log-normal Shadowing Path Loss Model
  • Example Link Budget Calculation
  • Small-Scale Fading
  • Error Bursts due to Raleigh Flat Fading
  • Data Rate Limitation in Frequency Selective Fading
  • Combating the Wireless Channel Problems
  • A Digital Radio Link
  • Evolution of Mobile & RF Wireless Systems
  • Part 2-A:
  • Wireless Systems Design:
  • Basics
  • Digital Modulation & Demodulation - A “User’s View”
  • Commonly Used Digital Modulation Techniques
  • Selecting a Modulation Schemes
  • Metrics to Evaluate Modulation Schemes
  • Choice of a Modulation Scheme
  • A Geometric View of Modulation
  • The Constellation Space
  • Some Examples
  • Comparison of Several Modulation Methods
  • Multiple Access
  • Basestation versus Peer-to-Peer Models
  • Approaches to Wireless Multiple Access
  • Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
  • Some TDMA Systems
  • Hybrid FDMA/TDMA
  • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
  • Spread Spectrum Signalling
  • What is Spread Spectrum Communication?
  • CDMA Using Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum
  • CDMA Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
  • Contention-based Multiple Access
  • Contention-based Multiple Access in Wireless Systems?
  • IEEE 802.11 MAC
  • IEEE 802.11 MAC (contd.)
  • Cellular Systems
  • Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
  • Part 2-B:
  • The Un-wired World
  • Evolution of PCS Technologies, Systems, and Services
  • AMPS System (First Generation Analog)
  • GSM System (Second Generation Digital)
  • Cellular Data Packet Network (CDPD)
  • Designing Mobile Wireless Multimedia Systems
  • Generic Mobile & Wireless System Architecture
  • Radio Design Challenges
  • Partition between Analog and Digital Processing
  • A Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Radio Modem
  • Transceiver Chip Design Issues
  • Costas Loop Filter Optimization
  • IF Wordlength Optimization
  • PN-Acquisition: Complexity/Performance Trade-off
  • A Single-Chip 1.2 Micron CMOS DSSS Radio Modem
  • Integration of Radio into a System
  • Example 1: UCLA’s Wireless Multimedia Node
  • Example 2: Bell Labs’ SWAN Wireless ATM System
  • FAWN Reconfigurable Wireless Adapter
  • Example 3: Personal Mobile Terminal
  • Example 4: Berkeley’s Infopad Project
  • Infopad Terminal Architecture
  • Example 5: Xerox PARCTAB
  • Design Trade-offs in Wireless Nodes
  • Design Issues
  • Adaptive Process Gain Improves Throughput
  • RF Processing: Power Dissipation
  • IF/Baseband Processing: Power Dissipation
  • Multipath Fading Requires Equalization
  • Bit Rate Limited by Equalizer Complexity
  • Physical Layer Processing to Improve Throughput
  • Understanding Energy Efficiency
  • Voltage-Parallelism Trade-Off for Low Power
  • Energy Efficiency is not just an Architecture Issue!
  • Low Power Design for Wireless

ICCAD 1997 Tutorial

Design Technology for Building Wireless Systems
Rajesh Gupta University of California, Irvine rgupta@ics.uci.edu Mani Srivastava UCLA mbs@ee.ucla.edu
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Copyright 1997 © Rajesh Gupta & Mani Srivastava

Phenomenal Growth in Wireless Voice & Data Services
q q q q q q q

35-60% annual growth in PCS users By 2000, one in three phones will be mobile (42% in US) Nordic countries: 10 mobile phones being added for every wireline phone Japan: number of users doubled from 10M to 21M from March to october 1996 600M mobile phone users by 2001 $17B in PCS license auctions 300% growth in wireless data from 1995 to 1997

Big demand for portable computers:
q q

2m ($290M) in 1988 to 74M ($54B) in 1998 20% of all computers sold are laptops
2

E BE

A

ER

•T

“Anytime Anywhere Anyform” Information Systems

PCS & Multimedia Messaging on the road

Fax & email on the beach

mani <1>

UCLA

Wireless Sensors

Multimedia wireless LANs & PBXs in offices, schools, hospitals, homes

Networked sensors everywhere
3

Size & Battery Life are Critical in Wireless Devices
q

Battery technology is a key hurdle - no Moore’s Law here!
Battery Rechargeable? NO NO NO NO YES YES Gravimetric Density (Wh/lb) 65.8 60 105 140 23 65-90 Volumetric Density (Wh/l) 347 500 550 1150 125 300-415

alkaline-MnO2 (typical AA) silver oxide Li/MnO2 zinc air NiCd Li-Polymer

Nominal Capacity (Watt-hours / lb)

40 30 20 10 0 65 70 75 80 Year 85 90 95 4 NiMH

NiCd

Where does the Battery Power go?
Laptop Microprocessor Memory Logic Hard Disk Display Programmable DSP RF Transceiver Commn. Processing Sound/Audio I/O
q q

Cellular Phone

Laptop + Wireless Adapter 1-4 W 1W 2W 1W 2-6 W

Personal Wireless Terminal

1-4 W 1W 2W 1W 2-6 W 0.5 W 2/4W ?

0.3 W 0.185 W 0.6 / 1.8 W 2.5 W 0.085 W

0.6 / 1.8 W 2.5 W ?

Typical laptop: 30% display, 30% CPU + memory, 30% rest Wireless devices: increasing communication & multimedia processing

Low power VLSI are a key to wireless
5

Wireless Systems Design: Key Driving Forces

q

Increasing integration of communication & multimedia system components due to advances in semiconductor technology & circuits - RF CMOS circuits - MEMS structures RF components, display

q

Relentless digitization continues - high speed digital circuits & A/D converters IF and even RF processing in digital domain direct conversion techniques - complex communication algorithms favor digital implementation - increasing CPU MIPS make even a “software radio” possible

A wireless-system-on-a-chip is becoming possible

6

Building a Wireless System on a Chip
RF & IF Transceiver Baseband Processing
Custom ASIC Logic Algorithm Acceleration Coprocessors

DSP Core RAM/ROM

Wireless Network Protocol Processor (Microcontroller)

RAM ROM DRAM

Application Processor

RAM/ROM DRAM

Network/Host/Peripheral Interface
7

Challenge to VLSI & CAD
RF & IF Transceiver Baseband Processing
Custom ASIC Logic Algorithm Acceleration Coprocessors

Computer with Radios analog circuits that minimize special analog process steps maximize digital and minimize analog computation reusable communication & multimedia modules

DSP Core RAM/ROM

Wireless Network Protocol Processor (Microcontroller)

RAM ROM DRAM

energy efficient embedded software synthesis
Application Processor RAM/ROM DRAM

Network/Host/Peripheral Interface

low cost & low power protocol processor cores

8

and analysis tools Pre-designed Core Blocks and IP Issues for Wireless Future Outlook and Conclusions q q q q q 10 .Tutorial Goals Present basics of wireless systems. validation.example designs VLSI Circuits for Wireless Systems . techniques.digital communications: modulation. and tools for building integrated wireless systems This tutorial will NOT describe: .direct-conversion for digital communications using VLSI Design technology for Wireless Systems . coding.detailed CAD algorithms for solving system design problems . multiple access . and VLSI design issues.design entry.theory of radio and communication systems design .micro-architecture for wireless systems-on-a-chip .technological evolution in the design of wireless communication systems Wireless Systems Design .detailed architecture of any wireless communication systems 9 Tutorial Outline q Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems .system and medium characteristics .

825 GHz Cordless (CT-1) Cellular (AMPS.Part 1: Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems Wireless Spectrum Frequency in Hz 104 MF 106 108 UHF 1010 1012 1014 IR 1016 UV Light 1018 1020 X-Ray 1022 1024 LF VHF HF Cosmic Rays Radio 46 49 824-849 869-894 902-928 1850-1990 2400-2483 5. IS-136.5.725 .15 .35 & 5.5. IS-95) ISM PCS ISM U-NII Frequency in MHz 12 .

0 10.01 Office Indoors Wireless ATM Wireless LAN: IEEE 802. PDC. reliable multimedia networking over wide range of environments. computing. Wireless Data: Mobitex. GPS Building Stationary Walking Outdoors Vehicular Environment q Multimega bits/sec throughput for robust.heterogeneous air interfaces . and storage .1 0. disconnections. pACT.0 1. IS95.Diversity of Applications in Wireless Communications Information Content (Mbps) Low Voice Interactive Data Data Rate Video teleconferencing 100. other users) .0 0.11 Cordless: DECT.variable link quality (noise. 13 Characteristics of Wireless Systems q Wireless .small dimensions higher energy efficiency 14 . CDPD. PACS. IS54.user and terminal location dynamically changes . high latency . WLL Mobile Wireless Multimedia Cellular: GSM. PHS.speed of terminal mobility impacts wireless bandwidth .easier snooping necessitates encryption more signal processing q Mobility .limited bandwidth.easier spoofing necessitate authentication more protocol processing q Portability .limited battery capacity.

g. noise-like Rayleigh Fading when multipath signals are summed 15 q Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 16 . frequency collisions Rapid signal fades & distortions as the receiver moves .multipath reflection.Time Varying Wireless Environment LOS R S D No LOS! D q Available wireless resource undergoes dramatic & rapid changes .e. doppler fading.

a “shadowing” q Scattering (diffusion) . polarization.radio wave impinges on an object >> λ (30 cm @ 1 GHz) .  d 0 Path-loss exponent.7 .rough surfaces.6 to 1.g.5 3 to 5 1. frequency.secondary waves “bend” around the obstacle (Huygen’s principle) . foliage. buildings.explains how RF energy can travel even without LOS.if perfect (lossless) dielectric object.similar principles as diffraction.if perfect conductor. lamp posts. n. then 100% reflection .surface of earth. street signs) 17 Log-normal Shadowing Path Loss Model q Assume average power (in dB) decreases proportional to log of distance d PL ( d ) = PL ( d 0 ) + 10n log  ---. small objects (e.radio path obstructed by an impenetrable surface with edges .Propagation of Radio Waves q Line of Sight (LOS) .free space P r = ( P t G t G r λ 2 ) ⁄ ( ( 4π ) 2 d 2 L ) q Reflection (with Transmittance and Absorption) .v.σ says how “good” the model is 18 . angle q Diffraction .reflection a function of material. (in dB) with standard deviation σ (in dB) . then zero absorption .8 4 to 6 2 to 3 q q q Problem: “Environment clutter” may differ at two locations at same d Measurements show that at a given d path loss has a normal distribution d PL ( d ) = PL ( d 0 ) + 10n log  ---. walls. energy reradiated in many directions .when medium has large number of objects < λ (30 cm @ 1 GHz) . + X σ  d 0 . a. depends on propagation environment Environment Free Space Urban area cellular radio Shadowed urban cellular radio In-building LOS Obstructed in building Obstructed in factories n 2 2.3.k. atmospheric layers .X σ is a zero-mean Gaussian r.

diffraction etc. so that: 122 > 91.6W = 27.Example Link Budget Calculation q Maximum separation distance vs. for shadowed urban with n = 4. rapid changes in signal strength (up to 30-40 dB) over small ∆x<λ or ∆t 3. 122 > 91.6W transmit power . and noise figure F = 10 dB What will be the maximum distance? Solution: N = -174 dBm + 10 log 30000 + 10 dB = -119 dBm For SNR > 25 dB. random frequency modulation due to varying Doppler shifts In urban areas.) 2. d < 5.replicas of signals with different delays (reflection. 900 MHz carrier frequency . transmitted power (with fixed BW) Given: .5 km Similarly.5 + 10*2*log(d/(1 km)) or.SNR must be at least 25 dB for proper reception . we must have Pr > (-119+25) = -94 dBm Pt = 0. PL(d0) = 91. n = 2.78 dBm This allows path loss PL(d) = Pt .8 km 19 Small-Scale Fading q Fading manifests itself in three ways 1. d < 33.unity gain antenna. mobile antenna heights << height of buildings .5 + 10*2*log(d/(1 km)) or.Pr < 122 dB λ = c/f = 1/3 m Assuming d0 = 1 km.usually no LOS from basestation Mobile receiver may stop in a deep fade (null) Moving surrounding objects also cause time-varying fading q q q Fading affects available channel data rate 20 .5 dB For free space.receiver BW is B = 30 KHz.cellular phone with 0. time dispersion caused by different delays limits transmission rate .

GSM has a bit period of 3. .otherwise.random phases make the sum behave as noise (Rayleigh Fading) . and re-training during data transmission q GSM example . GSM would be limited to 7 kbps 22 . GSM can tolerate up to 15 µs of delay spread . multiple frequencies 21 Data Rate Limitation in Frequency Selective Fading q “Frequency selective fading” results in inter-symbol interference 0.5s q q Also. a function of frequency.“fades”: intervals of increased BER.equalizer is a signal processing function (filter) cancels the inter-symbol interference usually implemented at baseband or IF in a receiver .must be adaptive since channel is unknown & time varying training.g.multiple antennas. with 15 µs of delay spread.69 µs. and fade depth Diversity techniques help .e. tracking. or a rate of 270 kbps q Data rate can be improved by “equalization” .with its equalizer.g.1 maximum data rate without significant errors = ----------------------------delay spread .a 2 kmph pedestrian in 900 Mhz band: 25 ms long >20dB fade every 2. or reduced channel capacity Good BER = 10-5 In Fade BER = 10-1 q Function of speed of mobile as well as other objects.. e.Error Bursts due to Raleigh Flat Fading q Received signal a sum of contributions from different directions .a 50 kmph car in 900 MHz band: 1 ms long >20dB fade every 100 ms .

Combating the Wireless Channel Problems q Increase transmitter power . combining diversity . selective-repeat etc. separated by λ/2 . two (or more) receiving antennas.g.usually.retransmission protocol for blocks of data (e. go-back-N.“adaptive antenna arrays” or “smart antennas” q Forward error correction .counters flat fading.compensates for intersymbol interference q Antenna or space diversity for “multipath” .stop-and-wait.“coding gain” provides “fading margin” .selection diversity vs. packets) in error .not very effective in slowly varying channels or long fades q Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) protocols .transmit redundant data bits . but costly and greatly reduces battery life q (Adaptive) Equalization . scanning diversity vs. 23 A Digital Radio Link Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 24 .

micro-architecture for wireless systems-on-a-chip . anywhere .digital cordless. IS-136.direct-conversion for digital communications using VLSI Design technology for Wireless Systems . validation.digital communications: modulation. integrated paging (IS-54.cellular phone (AMPS) with manual roaming . ARDIS. 25 Tutorial Outline q Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems .packet radio networks q Second Generation: Digital . multiple access .Evolution of Mobile & RF Wireless Systems q First Generation: Analog .design entry.wireless data LANs (802. IS-95.example designs VLSI Circuits for Wireless Systems . wireless PBXs .11). GSM etc. coding.unified digital wireless access anytime.Voice & Data .Voice . images.) . video.voice. music.technological evolution in the design of wireless communication systems Wireless Systems Design .cordless phones .system and medium characteristics . data.analog modulation .digital modulation . multi-zone cordless. WANs (CDPD. sensor etc. MANs (Metricom). and analysis tools Pre-designed Core Blocks and IP Issues for Wireless Future Outlook and Conclusions q q q q q 26 . RAM) q Third Generation: Digital .cellular & PCS phones with seamless roaming.Multimedia .

Part 2-A: Wireless Systems Design: Basics Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 28 .

SM} of M waveforms of length TS e.g.. S2..g.. fading. obtained by distinctively modifying the phase and/or frequency and/or amplitude of a carrier M=2 is “binary modulation” Otherwise.(0110) (0111) (0000).e. n-bit digital symbol . MOD CHANNEL noise.(0110) (0111) (0000)... DEMOD S1 S2 Set S = {S1... etc....A “User’s View” q q Modulation: maps sequence of “digital symbols” (groups of n bits) to sequence of “analog symbols” (signal waveforms of length TS) Demodulation: maps sequence of “corrupted analog symbols” to sequence “digital symbols” .Digital Modulation & Demodulation .. M-ary modulation SM t=0 t=TS n = floor(log2 M) 29 Commonly Used Digital Modulation Techniques Coherent Phase-shift keying (PSK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Continuous phase modulation (CPM) Hybrids Non-Coherent FSK ASK Differential PSK (DPSK) CPM Hybrids q q Coherent or Synchronous Detection: process received signal with a local carrier of the same frequency and phase Noncoherent or Envelope Detection: requires no reference wave 30 . maximum likelihood decision TS-long analog symbol corrupted best effort output .

10-5) ηP = Eb ⁄ N 0 .non-constant: phase and amplitude modulated may need inefficient linear amplifiers No perfect modulation scheme .measures ability to accommodate data within a given bandwidth q Often a trade-off between power and bandwidth efficiencies.ratio of signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density required required at the receiver for a certain BER (e.modulation schemes with higher values of M decrease B but increase E b for a given BER 32 .measures ability to give low BER at low signal power levels .a matter of trade-offs! 31 Metrics to Evaluate Modulation Schemes q Power Efficiency (or.impacts battery life! q Bandwidth Efficiency η B .g.adding redundancy (FEC) reduces bandwidth efficiency. Energy Efficiency) η P . but reduces the received power required for a given BER .Selecting a Modulation Schemes q q q q q q q q Provides low bit error rates (BER) at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) Occupies minimal bandwidth Performs well in multipath fading Performs well in time varying channels (symbol timing jitter) Low carrier-to-cochannel interference ratio Low out of band radiation Low cost and easy to implement Constant or near-constant “envelope” .constant: only phase is modulated may use efficient non-linear amplifiers .ratio of throughput data rate to bandwidth occupied by modulated signal η B = R ⁄ B bps/Hz . e.g. .

The drawback of using QPSK is in the poor achievable energy efficiency in practice => use GMSK to achieve a bandwidth efficiency of 1. s M(t) } represents points in a vector space Vector space defined by a set of N ≤ M orthonormal (i.5 4.7 10 20. 33 A Geometric View of Modulation q q Signal set S = { s 1(t). Relative to BPSK (M=2) BPSK and QPSK has the same energy efficiency but QPSK has two times more bandwidth efficiency (bit rate gain factor) than BPSK.3.25 with BT = 0.Choice of a Modulation Scheme q At 0. s 2(t).7 42 Bit-Rate Gain Factora 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Penalty Factora 1 1 1. orthogonal and with unit energy) basis signals { φ j(t) j = 1. ….001% BER and a fixed transmission bandwidth: Power Penalty Factora 1 2 4.1 7 M 2 4 8 16 32 64 q q a. …. N } .e.N is the dimension of the vector space q q Every s i(t) can be expressed as a linear combination of basis signals Example: BPSK signals s 1(t) = s 2(t) = 2E b ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ T b and 2E b ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t + π ) can be represented as: φ 1(t) = 2 ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t ) E b φ 1(t) s 1(t) = s 2(t) = – E b φ 1(t) 34 .56 2. 2.

The Constellation Space q Geometric representation of S is called the Constellation Diagram.. for BPSK: Q I – Eb Eb q Bandwidth occupied by the modulation scheme decreases as the number of signal points / dimension increases . bandwidth increases with dimension N q Probability of bit error is a function of the distance between the closest points in the constellation diagram . q M-ary QAM Q d I M=16 6 -E d 2 = ------------.g.however.s M–1 q M-ary PSK Q I d M=4 π d = 2 E s sin ---M 36 .a densely packed modulation scheme is more bandwidth efficient .a densely packed modulation scheme is less power efficient 35 Some Examples. e..

Comparison of Several Modulation Methods q Ref. 1995 37 Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 38 .: Wireless Information Networks by Pahlavan & Levesque.

Multiple Access q Fundamental problem How to share the Time-Frequency space among multiple co-located transmitters? Frequency Shared Time-Frequency Subspace Allocated Spectrum Time 39 Basestation versus Peer-to-Peer Models Basestation (infrastructure . multihop) 40 .fully-connected vs.centralized) Peer-to-Peer (ad hoc network .

continuous transmission implies no framing or synchronization bits needed . PRMA Carrier-sensing e. Token-passing & Polling “Connection Oriented” Scheduled Access e.costly bandpass filters at basestation to eliminate spurious radiation . DQRUMA “Packet Oriented” Controlled Random Access 41 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) q Assign different frequency bands to individual users or circuits . Time-division & Frequency-division Demand-based Assignment Contention-based Conflict-free Random Access e.tight RF filtering to minimize adjacent band interference .no sharing of the frequency bands: idle if not used .Approaches to Wireless Multiple Access Sharing of Time-Frequency Space Slotted-time vs. Non-slotted time Static (Fixed) Assignment e.g.frequency band (“channel”) assigned on demand to users who request service . ALOHA.usually combined with FDD for duplexing f2 Frequency f 2’ f1’ f1 f2’ f1’ f2 f1 Time 42 .g.g.g.usually available spectrum divided into number of “narrowband” channels symbol time >> average delay spread. little or no equalization required .

larger overhead .e.less complex equalizer needed than GSM| q q Need equalization indoors at rates > 2 Mbps (DECT is only 1..adaptive equalization is usually needed due to high symbol rate .transmission for any user is non-continuous: buffer-and-burst digital data & modulation needed.. i.6 kbps 30 kHz 6.e.usually combined with either TDD or FDD for duplexing TDMA/TDD: half the slots in a frame used for uplink.577 ms 8 (or 16) FDD 73% adaptive equalizer training overhead GMSK required IS-54 48.8 kbps 200 kHz 0.7 ms 3 (or 6) FDD 80% adaptive equalizer training overhead π/4 DQPSK required DECT 1. on two frequencies Sync Data Guard slot 2 slot 6 slot 1 slot 5 Frequency frame i-1 1 2 56 frame i frame i+1 Time 43 Some TDMA Systems GSM Bit rate Carrier spacing (b/w) Time slot duration Slots/frame FDD or TDD? % payload in time slot 270. half downlink TDMA/FDD: identical frames. 2 symbols might interfere .728 MHz 0. guard bits guard bits for variations in propagation delay and in delay spread .transmission bandwidth >> channel coherence bandwidth IS-54 handles time dispersion up to 40 µs. 5 bits of ISI .“channel” == particular time slot reoccurring every frame of N slots .152 Mbps) 44 ..Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) q Multiple users share frequency band via cyclically repeating “time slots” . with skew (why?).. lower battery consumption .synchronization bits for each data burst.152 Mbps 1. i.417 ms 12 TDD 67% system control overhead GMSK none PHS 384 kbps 300 kHz 0.625 ms 4 TDD 71% Modulation Adaptive equalizer q π/4 DQPSK none GSM handles time dispersion widths up to 18-20 µs.

require tight timing tolerances q Most TDMA systems actually employ hybrid FDMA/TDMA .may do “frequency hopping” on a frame-by-frame basis to combat multipath interference (Time Division Frequency Hopping: TDFH) increases system capacity (f5. t3) f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 frame i-1 frame i frame i+1 45 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) q Multiplexing in the Code Space .multiple transmitters occupy the same frequency-time space .multiple carriers with multiple channels per carrier . t1) t1 t2 t3 t4 (f1. t1) Frequency (f3. t4) (f2.channel == (frequency band. time slot) tuple .transmissions encoded with codes with very low cross-correlation .receiver retrieves a specific transmission with its corresponding code q CDMA may be combined with TDMA or FDMA Frequency c1 c5 c3 c2 Code 46 .Hybrid FDMA/TDMA q “Pure” TDMA with single frequency band is undesirable .

g.received despread signal spread interference fdata frequency Wide Band Anti-jam -> high capacity CDMA Combats multipath -> diversity LPI -> Privacy LPD -> low power density f spread PG = -------------------f bit 48 .can even exploit multipath signals by combining them q q q q q q Processing Gain: Gp = Bspread / Bsignal .Spread Spectrum Signalling q Spread Spectrum is the most common CDMA encoding technique . spectral density RECEIVE spectral density Adata unspread signal fdata frequency Adata Ai.originally developed for military communication systems .“spread” the signal over a much larger bandwidth than the minimum .delayed versions appear as uncorrelated noise . but multiple users can share band Inherent interference rejection capabilities (e.uniform small energy (W/Hz) over a large bandwidth hides the signal ⇒ Note: use of spread-spectrum does not imply use of CDMA Spreading is done using a unique code Receiver does the “despreading” by using a time-synchronized duplicate of the spreading code Inefficient for a single user. narrowband interferers) Resistant to multipath effects .signal appears pseudo-random with noise like properties .indicates improvement in signal-to-interference ratio due to spreading 47 What is Spread Spectrum Communication? spectral density Ai interference spread signal Aspread fspread frequency TRANSMIT Spreading Code running at f spread .

25MHz in IS-95) .bits sampled.code sequences have little cross-correlation (orthogonal) . at a higher frequency (e.g. or “chipped”.CDMA Using Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum q Spread the narrowband data by multiplying with a wideband pseudorandom code sequence . 1.signal energy is “spread” over a wider frequency (e.available spectrum divided into bands with central frequencies as carriers .code sequences have little correlation with shifted versions of self q q Received signal multiplied by synchronized replica of the code sequence Energy of each “chip” is accumulated over a full data bit time transmitted signal 01101011 X 01101011 = Recovered signal PN Sequence (code) Intended receiver X X Chip digital data 10110010 = Noise .228 Mcps in IS-95) .can be low pass filtered Other receivers 49 CDMA Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum q Transmission frequency is periodically changed .g.bandwidth of a frequency band in the hopset is the instantaneous b/w B .time duration between hops is the hop duration or hopping period Th .sequence of data bursts with time-varying pseudo-random carrier frequencies .processing gain is Wss/B q q Fast frequency hopping: more than one hop during each transmitted symbol Slow frequency hop: one or more symbols transmitted in a hop channel #2 channel #1 f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 Frequency 50 . 1.bandwidth of spectrum over which hopping occurs is total hopping b/w Wss .

. hybrid access Transmitter # 1 Packet B Packet C Transmitter # 2 Packet A One Packet Time (τ) Vulnerable Period (2τ) Time 51 Contention-based Multiple Access in Wireless Systems? q q Ethernet uses contention-based medium access.what matters is the collision at a receiver .effects of spatial distribution of wireless nodes hidden terminal problem exposed terminal problem near-far problem (capture effect) 52 ..delays induced .Contention-based Multiple Access q q q Many transmitters access a channel with no or minimal coordination Transmission in bursts of data Collisions may happen: need ACK or NACK with retransmission . but the transmitter can’t sense the channel at the receiver! . scheduled access. Following attributes make contention-based multiple access interesting with wireless: ..“carrier sensing” is much costlier in wireless 20-30 µs .lower spectral efficiency q Three categories: random access..can’t listen while transmitting therefore cannot detect collisions .

also used in the defer decision 54 .CSMA/CA+ACK for unicast frames with MAC level retransmission Protection against Hidden Terminal problem: Virtual Carrier Sense . co-channel interference) . retransmit frame after a random back-off DIFS source receiver other DATA SIFS ACK DIFS defer access contention window DATA select slot & decrement back-off as long as idle q RTS/CTS with duration: distribute medium reservation information .) q CSMA/CA: direct access if medium free for > DIFS.g.if no ACK.multiple networks in same area and channel space . else defer & back-off DIFS DIFS PIFS DATA SIFS defer access contention window source other q DATA select slot & decrement back-off as long as idle CSMA/CA + ACK: receiver sends ACK immediately if CRC okay .11 MAC q q Support for multiple PHYs: ISM band DSSS and FHSS.11 MAC (contd. IR @ 1 and 2 Mbps Efficient medium sharing without overlap restrictions .IEEE 802.based on carrier sense mechanism called Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) Robust against interferers (e.Distributed Coordination Function: using CSMA /CA .via parameterized use of RTS/CTS frames with duration information Provision for Time Bounded Services via Point Coordination Function Configurations: ad hoc & distribution system connecting access points Mobile-controlled hand-offs with registration at new basestation ad hoc network distribution system q q q q q infrastructure network 53 IEEE 802.

different areas served by different antenna beams may use same frequency (CDMA. time slot.spot beam antennas (sectorized antennas) . TDMA) or different frequencies (FDMA) .mobiles in sufficiently distant basestations may be assigned identical channel (frequency. adaptive antennas 56 . & code) .in future.system capacity may be increased without adding more spectrum q Major conceptual breakthrough in spectral congestion & user capacity .required relatively minor technological changes frequency reuse & co-channel interference channel allocation hand-offs 55 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) q Control radiated energy for each user in space .Cellular Systems MSC Pre-Cellular Post-Cellular PSTN q Replace single high power transmitter covering the entire service area with lots of low power transmitters (basestations) each covering a fraction of the service area (cell) .

Control Cordless Cellular Paging WPABX .DCS1800 .ISM .LEO .11 .CT-0 .Omnitracs .AMR .SSB . and Examples The Un-wired World Wireless Communications Amateur Industrial Consumer Business Military/Aero Long-Haul Automotive . Design Issues.802.Comvik .FPLMTS .AMPS .PHP .CT-2 .Cellular/CDPD ESMR .POSCAG .TETRA PCN/PCS .CT-300 Digital .Part 2-B: Wireless Systems Design: Standards.HIPerLAN .IS-95 .ARDIS .GPS Monitoring .PHP .ERMES .Mobitex Conv .PHP .NMT900 .MIRS .IS-54 .UMTS .DECT .ISM WLAN PMR/SMR Mobile Data .RACE 58 Analog .NMT-0 .USCT .RCR-27 .ISM Analog .GSM .CT-1 .JTACS Digital .IVHS .DECT .NMT450 .ETACS .DECT .CT-2 .IS-136 .Metricom .USCT .

and Services Macro-cellular Cellular Micro-cellular Messaging Phone point Cordless PABX Cordless Wide Area Data Micro-cells Macro-cells WLANs PAST WLANs PRESENT ? ? ? WLANs FUTURE 59 Satellites? Paging ? High-tier PCS Low-tier PCS Grand Unification? AMPS System (First Generation Analog) q q q q q q q q Two 25 MHz bands: 824-849 MHz upstream. signal-to-co-channel interference) Two types of channels: control and voice channels Network controlled handoff . fraud a major problem Proprietary SS7 AMPS Common Air interface BS OMC mobility management MSC (MTSO) BS MS BS BS BS BS MSC (MTSO) PSTN HLR VLR databases AUC 60 .pair needed for a duplex channel FDD+FDMA: 834 duplex channels 7-way frequency reuse (18 dB min.Evolution of PCS Technologies.MSC becomes a bottleneck Capacity constraints .40-50 connections per cell No on-air privacy. Systems. 869-894 MHz downstream Divided into 30 MHz frequency bands .

270.handling over radio link In particular. Data Sense Multiple Access (DSMA) MAC on uplink Variety of connection-less. IP (Internet Protocol) datagram connectivity Mobile controlled handoff. and multipoint services Reliable and unreliable classes .same 30 KHz channels Data packets are sent over unused voice channels Channel hopping ensures non-interference with voice Raw data rate is 19.2 kbps Reed-Solomon coded . 935-960 MHz downstream Divided into 200 KHz frequency bands . data or bearer. short messaging BTS OMC GSM Radio Air interface BSC BTS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS MSC (MTSO) MSC (MTSO) BSC HLR VLR databases PSTN AUC SS7 Abis Interface A Interface 61 Cellular Data Packet Network (CDPD) q q q q q q q q q q Packet data network overlay on AMPS .125 in each direction FDD+TDMA+FH: 8 slots/4.GSM System (Second Generation Digital) q q q q q q q q Two 25 MHz bands: 890-915 MHz upstream. connection-oriented.BSC reduce the load on MSC Features: subscriber identity module and on-air privacy Services: telephone.real rate much less Broadcast downlink.833333 kbps raw.615 ms frame.8 kbps/user Frequency hopping to combat multipath problems Two types of logical channels: traffic channels and control channels Mobile assisted handoff . registration at basestation to reduce paging “Home MD-IS” tunnels incoming traffic to current MD-IS MD-BS MD-BS MD-IS mobility management IS connection-less router IS Data n/w (internet) MD-IS M-ES M-ES MD-BS F-ES 62 MD-BS . 22.

Designing Mobile Wireless Multimedia Systems PSTN BASE STATION WIRED NODE WIRELESS NODE http://www. N modem ethernet transceiver • • • • • • antenna RF + A/D digital transmitter/receiver channel codec source codec network protocols ETHERNET 63 Generic Mobile & Wireless System Architecture Application & Services OS & Middleware Network Data Link Radio. IR Partitioning Source Coding & DSP Context Adaptation Disconnection Mgmnt. Power Management QoS Management Rerouting Impact on TCP Location Tracking Multiple Access Link Error Control Channel Allocation Modulation Schemes Channel Coding RF/Optical Circuits 64 . N PHONE http://www.

Radio Design Challenges q q q q High speed digital processing High performance in Eb/N0 Low complexity Energy efficient (mW/MSps or nJ/OP) Algorithm Fixed Point RF Front-end Architecture Digital Modem IC Architecture Partition 65 Partition between Analog and Digital Processing Analog RF Signal Processing Analog IF Transceiver Baseband Analog-to-Digital Converter Digital Baseband Signal Processing Analog RF Signal Processing IF Analog-to-Digital Converter Digital IF Transceiver Digital Baseband Signal Processing q Advantages allows for adaptability with little component replacements achieves Eb/N0 performance close to optimum (coherent BPSK) parameterizable to provide ease of redesign and upgrade q Challenges digital circuits operate at IF signal rate rather than baseband rate digital implementation can be more complex to minimize loss in Eb/N0 66 .

Chien & R. adaptable. UCLA To SIR Est. Data q Low complexity. 68 . high speed.A Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Radio Modem CODE PROCESS SELECT GAIN Carrier Detect TX Data POWER CONTROL PN Acquisition LOOP Spread Data TX LPF VGA AMP PN GENERATOR BPF FREQ CNTRL FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER LPF LNA CLOCK RECOVERY LOOP CARRIER RECOVERY LOOP Decision A/D 6 AGC Ack.: C. Jain. Recv. and energy efficient transceiver in a single-chip 67 Transceiver Chip Design Issues q Challenge: Implement a complete coherent receiver on a single chip q Circuit Design Issues finite wordlength parameterizability critical path optimization complexity reduction q System Design Issues maintain stability in three feedback loops.

E b ⁄ N 0 ≥ 10 ± 0. UCLA 70 Multiplier Sample Rate (MHz) 40 150 .Costas Loop Filter Optimization INPUT Ec/N0= -17 dB 20 30 Eb/N0 (dB) 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 40 30 10 25 10 dB 20 N2 9 dB 15 0 dB -10 dB N2 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 N1 5 10 15 20 25 30 N1 Coefficient as powers of two shifts: C1 = 2 C2 = 2 –N 1 –N 2 C2 C1 D Optimization Criteria: min ( max ( N 1. Chien & R. Chien & R.: C.8 MHz sample rate requirement 200 100 100 50 0 5 10 15 IF Input Quantization Size (Bits) 0 4 8 12 16 IF Input Quantization Size (Bits) 0 j Minimize IF quantization size reduce complexity and power dissipation at required throughput. N 2 ) ). N DDFS N min ( N ). E b ⁄ N 0 ≥ 10 ± 0. Jain. Jain. UCLA 69 IF Wordlength Optimization 300 Complexity Increase (%) 10 dB Output Eb/N0 (dB) 30 0 dB 20 -11 dB 10 0 -17 dB Complexity increase in receiver Sample rate through the multiplier 50.: C.5 N Ack.5 Ack.

Chien & R. 18.8 MHz INTEGRATE DUMP I1 12. 200. 400.51 K Transistors High Power Efficiency -. UCLA .8 MHz 12.7 mJ/MSample Maximum Chip Rate -. respectively 72 j j j CLOCK RECOVERY 50. 800 kbps at 12.2 Micron CMOS DSSS Radio Modem DIGITAL BASEBAND TRANSMITTER DATA INPUT DIFFERENTIAL ENCODER SPREAD DATA GOLD CODE GENERATOR (PNGEN) DIGITAL IF RECEIVER 50.7 Mchips/sec Scalable Performance -. 21 dB.Data Rates and Processing Gain: 100.PN-Acquisition: Complexity/Performance Trade-off q PN acquisition: correlation between the incoming bits and the P/N sequence of the desired transmitter Serial Acquisition Received PN PN-Code Generator Energy Slope Detection Clock Generation Timing j 800 Gates Match Filter Acquisition Timing Received PN N-Tap Matched Filter Energy Detection Clock Generation Generator PN-Code j Nc * Nif * 12 Gates + 800 Nc = #chips/bit Nif = IF Quantization j 10 000 Gates with Nc = 127 and Nif = 6 71 A Single-Chip 1.7 MHz INTEGRATE DUMP I2 (100-800) kHz DIFFERENTIAL DECODER DATA OUT 100 kHz -12. Jain.21.12.7 MHz DDFS IF SIGNAL LOOP FILTER PHASE DETECTOR PN-ACQUISITION LOOP LATE PN EARLY PN PN TRACK CONTROL IF SAMPLING CLK INTEGRATE DUMP Q1 INTEGRATE DUMP Q2 COSTAS LOOP Performance CHIP DELAY INTEGRATE DUMP Q1 + LOOP FILTER INTEGRATE DUMP I1 j NCO Low Complexity -.7 MHz 406.4 MHz Ack. 15.: C.

: C. Analog-Digital Conversion Ack. UCLA 73 Example 1: UCLA’s Wireless Multimedia Node Video Capture 16-bit YUV Video Buffer Compressed Data Interface Control Frame Buffer VGA 12-bit RGB Host Interface PC-104 Bus Controller Video Codec Network Interface Chip Serial Data Interface Packet Buffer Host Interface Modem Wireless Channel Host CPU 74 . Jain. Chien & R. Adaptation Interface.Integration of Radio into a System Custom Frame Grabber Camera Video Codec FPGA CPU DT Frame Grabber Proxim RangeLAN2 Single-chip DSSS Modem IC Keyboard Memory and Mass Storage Adaptive Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Radio RF Front-end DSSS IF modem. Packet Interface.

4 MByte 10000 Gates equivalent SRAM 76 .8 cm (W) x 1.Example 2: Bell Labs’ SWAN Wireless ATM System Connection Switching ETHER WA RE SYSTEM S/ W Mobility Management Drivers for Adapter Cards BASESTATION CPU Mobile Notebook Peripheral Interface Interface Interface Peripheral Peripheral Host Interface Bus Interface Bus Interface CPU CPU FAWN Flexible Adapter For Wireless Networking Host Interface Peripheral Interface mani <1> MAC PHY BACKBONE ATM ADAPTER CARD CPU CPU Lucent XCVR Interface XCVRInterface Interface XCVR FHSS RF XCVR XCVR Interface FHSS RF XCVR FHSS RF XCVR FHSS RF XCVR Personal Multimedia Terminal To Antenna Personal Communicator BASESTATION ATM SWITCH MOBILE END-POINTS 75 FAWN Reconfigurable Wireless Adapter to host processor ARM CPU Peripheral Interface RF Modem ADC Modem Controller UART Control PAL PCMCIA PCMCIA Interface Dual Port RAM Dimensions Power Consumption of FAWN Power Consumption of radio transceiver Firmware resources Reconfigurable hardware resources 10.0 W 0.9 cm (H) x 11.4 cm (D) 2.8 W (transmit) 20 MIPS.6 W (receive) 1.

& graphics to Infopad http://infopad.berkeley. and text/graphics streams to the terminal Infonet: network infrastructure for Infopads . bar code q Dumb end-point for “network-hosted mobile services” 77 Example 4: Berkeley’s Infopad Project q Infopad: low power wireless multimedia terminal .edu/ q q q 78 .Example 3: Personal Mobile Terminal microphone LCD display Soft keys Personal Terminal 6808 SCANNER ↓ PRESS TO SCAN ↓ Scanner switch Bar code scanner q Simple hardware . soft keys.based on cell.no local general purpose processing (“dumb terminal” model) .eecs. audio. video. pad. and type servers Medley Gateway: transport & coding of video.audio. graphics.peripheral card + FAWN adapter q Multimedia interface .audio.speech and pen controlled user interface .

berkeley. [Narayanaswamy96] Narayanaswamy et. 215 gm.” in IEEE Personal Communications. April ‘96 79 Example 5: Xerox PARCTAB q Extremely portable mobile unit ..edu/research/terminal 2.com/parctab q q q Tab Basestation 80 .6K.7.4K serial link up to 30m with 10 unit daisy chain capability .5 cm2 & 128x64x1 touch screen.2x4.38.9W . 3 buttons .5x2.performs coding/decoding. CSMA MAC .4 cm3. al.8x10.IR communication at 19.12 MHz Signetics 87C524/528 CPU.2475 137 .3800 3900 150 50 2411 75 629 9. “Application and Network Support for Infopad.eecs.297 550 . 6. buffering. 128K memory Basestation transceiver (on ceiling of a room nanocell) .connected to LAN via serial port of nearby workstations Remote host based applications.15W 1 Mbps ARM Custom H/W B&W LCD Low Power Infopad Bus Color LCD VIDEO IF LCD IF ucb <1> PEN IF AUDIO IF Pen Digitizer Codec Voltage Converters Crystals Test H/W Total Color Infopad q References: 1.4K.2K. 19.2 kbaud with CSMA MAC. proxy agents (per tab). 38. PWM modulation . and gateways (datagram service to tab) http://www. http://infopad.ubiq. link level protocol checks .IR with variable data rate: 9.Infopad Terminal Architecture 250 Kbps Proxim Uplink Radio Plessey Downlink Radio Subsystem Radios RX/TX Interface ARM Subsystem mW 1490 877 .

terminal cost .service cost 81 Design Issues q Adaptive process gain improves throughput q Multipath fading requires equalization q Bit rate limited by equalizer complexity Throughput can be improved by physical layer processing 82 .Design Trade-offs in Wireless Nodes Laptops Terminal Complexity Notebooks ra Sto ge Palmtops PDAs Co mp tio uta n Terminals Communication Needs & Infrastructure Dependence q Computation-communication trade-off affects: .

Adaptive Process Gain Improves Throughput 100 Desired PG = 12 dB 80 Throughput (kbps) 60 PG = 15 dB 40 Achieved 20 PG = 21 dB 0 −15 −10 −5 0 5 Signal-to-Interference Ratio (dB) 83 RF Processing: Power Dissipation Top Control Transmit Freq. Synth.87W 84 . Total RF Power = 5.75W Total IF Power = 6.118 W Total Radio Power = 11. Bottom AGC Receive Power Reg.

85 Multipath Fading Requires Equalization 0 2 1 3 t0 t2 t1 t3 10-1 5 2 Transversal equalizer Linear feedback equalizer Transversal equalizer } Wireless Channel Mobile 0 t Probability of error τ • τ > Its / 10 ⇒ ISI causes degradation in BER and will require equalization • τ is a function of transmit power and cluttering in the environment Linear feedback equalizer 10-2 5 2 10-3 5 2 10-4 0 5 10 15 20 1 2 γ = -----.∑ f k No k Linear feedback equalizer Transversal No interference equalizer 31 taps in transversal equalizer 16 feedforward and 15 feedback taps in linear feedback equalizer 25 30 35 SNR. db (10 log γ) Dense Foliage Urban Clutter 86 .75 W Total Radio Power = 11.12W Total RF Power = 5.87W Note: Power budget figures includes power dissipation from regulation inefficiencies.IF/Baseband Processing: Power Dissipation Top Bottom DSSS Analog IF Control Packet Interface Power Regulation DSSS Total IF Power = 6.

τ = 3ms.short training sequence O(100) vs. dB (10 log γ) . M=2. MLSE has high complexity and processing requirements . O(1000) bits q But.complexity ∼ O (4 τ Rs M τRs) .g. Rs = 2 Mbaud = 2 Mbps then.e. min(Theader) capture-time accumulates in multihop networks throughput = max(throughput) ⇒ Theader is protocol dependent • TCP/IP header • ATM header • MAC/link layer header Tpreamble is physical layer dependent • time to acquire / capture packet • settling time of LO frequency Aggressive signal processing can reduce this! 88 .2 GOPS 87 Physical Layer Processing to Improve Throughput preamble header DATA Tdata Tpreamble + Theader + Tdata min(Tpreamble). complexity ~ 1600 operations ~ 30k gates processing ~ 1600 * 2MHz = 3.Bit Rate Limited by Equalizer Complexity q Improved performance using MLSE over DFE/FFE 1 MlSE simulation Probability of error 10-1 10-2 Destination-feedback equalizer Correct bits fed back 10-3 No interference MlSE bounds Detected bits fed back 10-4 0 5 10 15 20 25 SNR.

g..0 7.0 Speedup 1. N Increased parallelism & reduced voltage can increase energy efficiency .0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Supply Voltage. V q Parallelism.0 1.capacitance overhead due to increased communication 90 ..0 5. Speech Coding Video Compression Make f low or 0 Shutdown when inactive Reduce αC Energy efficient s/w System partitioning Efficient Circuits & Layouts e.degradation of speed-up .0 1.0 1.0 3.compiler techniques are the key q Architectural bottlenecks: .g. X Display Server Disk I/O Communication 89 Voltage-Parallelism Trade-Off for Low Power Ideal Speedup Normalized Delay 7.0 3.5 2.5 3.0 2.more processors or functional units or pipelining .Understanding Energy Efficiency P = α C V2 f “Continuous” Only Throughput is Important “Event-Driven” Latency is Important (Burst throughput) Reduce V Increase h/w and algorithmic concurrency e.0 5.

etc.3W Radios need to be actively managed for low power via energy efficient wireless link protocols.6W sleep = 0. • Hard drives.4GHz radio transceiver transmit = 1.48W sleep = 0. 2.Energy Efficiency is not just an Architecture Issue! q Radios consume a significant fraction of node power Lucent’s WaveLAN: 23 dBm 915MHz radio network interface transmit = 3W receive = 1.8W receive = 0.05W Newton PDA active = 1.7W sleep = 0.2W sleep = 0. • Displays. 91 Low Power Design for Wireless • Display HDD • µProc Link Layer Protocols MAC Layer Protocols Radio Modem Hardware has been addressed • Low power CMOS. Low power protocols remain DSPs 92 .18W GEC Plessey DE6003: 20 dBm.164W Magic Link PDA active = 0.

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