Tiv people

Tiv are an ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. They constitute approximately 2.5% of Nigeria's total population, and number over 5.6 million individuals throughout Nigeria and Cameroon. The Tiv are the 4th largest ethnic group in Nigeria. Tiv language is spoken by about 6 million people in Nigeria, with a few speakers in Cameroon. Most of the language's Nigerian speakers are found in Benue State of Nigeria. The language is also widely spoken in the Nigerian States of Plateau, Taraba, Nasarawa as well as the FCT Abuja. It is part of the Southern Bantoid Tivoid family, a branch of Benue-Congo and ultimately of the Niger-Congo phylum. In precolonial times, the Hausa ethnic group referred to the Tiv 'Munchi' a term not accepted by Tiv people. They depend on agricultural produce for commerce and life.

The Tiv people from the middle-belt region of Nigeria in West Africa can be found along Latitude 6 degrees 30 minutes to 8 degrees North and Longitude 8 degrees to 10 degrees East of the equator. The Tiv people are said to have originated from south-central Africa, with over 20 generations recorded from Tiv himself to the present. Although time has obscured the exact dates of the landmarks that make Tiv history, colonial historians made efforts to tally times with significant events that make the history of a nation factual. For example, evangelists have revealed that the migration of Tiv from the southern part of Central Africa began around 1800. By 1850 Tiv descendants were seen in large numbers in the south of what we now know as River Benue. The Tiv people are in every country of the world, but mainly in Benue, Taraba, Nassarawa and Plateau State in Nigeria, West Africa. The Tiv, who are mostly agrarian farmers numbered more than 2,2m in the 1991 census. Their language is also Tiv and, even though the states mentioned above are ruled by political state governors, their paramount ruler is the Tor Tiv. Tiv are speakers of a ³Bantu related language´. Their early history is covered by three theories of origin. These are the Creation, Bantu and Family theories of origin. The outline of the Tiv Creation theory attributes the creation of the world (tar) to God (Aondo). In Tiv mythology, Aondo (God) had created the world and settled closer to it until He was hit with a pestle by a woman who was pounding food. In response, He moved into the skies (kwav Aondo), which are his present abode. Though there are different versions of the creation theory, and there does not seem to be any particular sequence in the creation process, in at least, one version, Takuruku rather than Aondo is argued to have been responsible for creation. In all the versions however, Swem is identified as the ³place´ of ³creation´. Language Classification: Tiv language is classified under the the Tiv-Bantu (sub-group) of the Bantoid branch of the Benue-Congo subdivision of Niger-Congo. Tiv Administration:

Chieftaincy and Politics: The Tor Tiv in the Politics and Administration of Tivland. composed of closely related patri-families. Ikenga-Metuh. New York. Kaduna: Government Printer. David C. Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization (CBAAC). Ehusani. & Laura.C. called a µtar¶. 1933. The community (tar) is typically equated with a minimal lineage (ipaven). East. (1940). L. T. Agbaje. The Tiv People. The Groundwork of Nigerian History. R. An Afro-Christian Vision ³Ozovehe!. Mvendaga. 301±315 David. E. R. Akiga¶s Story. Gbor. Lagos: 1933. Frankfurt: Peter Lang AG. The Tiv Kwagh-Hir.. 325 pp.H. Anifowose. J. Evans Pritchard. M.'The local community. ed. Paul J.O.T. ed. Jibo.A. ³Political Aspects of Tiv Social Organisation´ in Tribe Without Rules. Bohannan. I. R. (1969). O. Maryland: University Press of America. London: 1965. The Nuer. Europäische Hochschulschriften. Africans and Christianity. 1953. A. 2001." (Murdock 1958: 8) Each community is a neighbourhood of compounds. 1987. 1900 1949".A. Laura (1952) "A Genealogical Charter" Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 22(4): pp. Dorward. The compounds are scattered over the countryside. F. Tthe current Tor-Tiv is Orchiviligh (HRH) Alfred Akawe Torkula. Reihe 31: Politikwissenschaft Vol. 1993. London: 1958. Arinze. ed. typically a localized patrilineage. and each compound contains an extended family. 1990. Violence and Politics in Nigeria: The Tiv and the Yoruba Experience. The Tiv of Central Nigeria London: International African Institute. Ikima. Onitsha: Imico Publishers. J. Ejiofor. Oxford Univ. 422 . Zaria: Gaskiya Publishing Corporation. Rev. Capt. In modern politics and administration. (for the Historical Society of Nigeria). eds African Traditional Political Thought and Institutions. "is a patri-local clan community. G. Downes. Press. New York: NOK. 1982. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Nig Ltd. E. References y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Abraham. Bohannan. Tiv Politics Since 1959. Mdugh U Tiv Man Mnyer Ve Ken Benue. Comparative Studies of African Traditional Religion. ed.M. African Affairs 68:316 333. 1980. Jibo. Hagher. Ayoade. Ibadan: CBAAC.W.E. R. 1990. 1989.´ Lanham. 1978. "The development of the British colonial administration among the Tiv. Nsukka: Optimal Computer Solutions Ltd. The Tiv Tribe. 1991. the Tiv are headed by a Tor-Tiv with lower Chiefs in a sequence of hierarchies across the entire Tivland. Katsina-Ala: Mandate International Limited.

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