Digital Communication Systems

H. S. Jamadagni, CEDT, IISc, Bangalore

Jamadagni H S

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Topics in Digital Communications Digital communication system advantages and disadvantages Digital communication system classification Digitization of analog signals Digital transmission systems Data communication systems Integrated Services Digital Network and other advanced digital communication systems

Jamadagni H S

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Digital Communication advantages Reliable communication; less sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions (temperature, etc.) Easy multiplexing Easy signaling Hook status, address digits, call progress information Voice and data integration Easy processing like encryption and compression Easy system performance monitoring QOS monitoring Integration of transmission and switching Signal regeneration, operation at low SNR, superior performance Integration of services leading to ISDN

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character. frame synchronization needed Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue conversions Very often non-linear ADC and DAC used.Digital Communication System Disadvantages Increased bandwidth 64 KB for a 4 KHz channel. some performance degradation Higher complexity Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 4 . less with compression) Need for precision timing Bit. without compression (However.

LANs Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 5 .Types of Digital Communication Systems Signal Type Analog Analog Digital Digital Transmission Analog Digital Analog Digital Example Classical telephony PCM TDM Modems ISDN.

Digitization of analogue signals Signal sampling Amplitude Amplitude Time Time Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 6 .

Aliasing Amplitude Original signal Time Amplitude Aliased signal Time Nyquist sampling rate fs > 2.Nyquist Criterion. fb Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 7 .

Spectrum of baseband signals Amplitude

+B -B Frequency Spectrum of the properly sampled base band

Spectrum of the under sampled base band
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Speech signal digitisation

Input signal

PAM samples

Output signal

Pulse train Pulse amplitude modulation

LPF

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Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) PAM samples Analog input
Low pass filter

A/D Digitally encoded samples

D/A

Low pass filter

Analog Output

Sample clock

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Quantisation of speech signal samples 011 010 001 000 100 101 110 111 010 011 010 000 011 001 001 Quantisation of analog samples 101 101 000 Quantisation errors Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 11 .

Quantisation error in PCM Decoder output Quantized output signal Input signal Input amplitude Jamadagni H S Quantisation error as a function of amplitude DC/V1/2004 12 .

Line rate 193/125 µsec = 1.PCM system . 2 channels management Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 13 .Typical parameters 4 KHz Speech signal 8 KHz Sampling 8 bits / sample digitising per speech channel 8 x 8 bits = 64 kbps T1 carrier: 24 channels.048 Mbps 30 channels info.544 Mbps ITU ( EUROPEAN) 32 Channels 8 bits/ 125 µss / channel 32 X 8 bits / 125 µs = 2. 8 bits in 125 µs / channel 24 x 8 = 192 bits in 125 µs / frame. 1 bit per frame for sync 193 bits in 125 µs.

Idle channel noise minimisation Idle channel noise: Caused by uncertainty in coding a sample near zero value Mid-riser quantizer Mid-tread quantizer Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 14 .

Signal to quantizing noise of uniform PCM 80 60 SNR (dB) number of bits / sample 13 11 40 20 9 -40 -30 A/Amax -20 (dB) -10 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 15 .

Non-linear AD conversion Uniform Quantisation Compressed sample values Jamadagni H S Input sample values DC/V1/2004 16 .

0 6.Compression law .0 tupni desil amroN 6.0 4.0 0 2.0 8.0 0 1 17 .0 4.0 2.µ law tuptuo desilamroN Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 8.

0 1 0 .0 8.0 tupni desilamroN 6.0 6.0 4.A law tuptuo desilamroN Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 18 8.Compression law .0 2.0 4.0 0 2.

Non linear AD conversion laws used in PCM for speech µ law |x|A )x(ngs = )x( A F A nl + 1 A law Jamadagni H S )|x|. + 1(nl )x(ngs = )x( F ) + 1(nl DC/V1/2004 19 .

Differential PCM Sampler quantizer encoder Differentiator Band limiting filter + Σ - Speech signal A/D Encoded difference samples Previous input estimate Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 D/A Accumulator 20 .Low bit rate coding: DPCM.

DPCM implementation ADC DAC S&H LPF + - Σ + Σ + Decoder LPF + Σ S&H + Encoder DAC Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 21 .

Delta modulation Input + LPF Σ + - "1" Integrator - LPF Output Decoder 1 Integrator 0 Pulse generator Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 22 .

Slope overload distortion in Delta modulation Slope over load Granular noise Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 23 .

Low Data Rate Modulation CVSD (Continuous Variable Slope Delta Modulation) Sample clock + S + P 1 G 0 C2 All 1s Step size control P G C1 Encoder All 0s Decoder P G 1 0 Receive clock FF P G Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 24 .

Conceptual view of ISDN Telephone Customer ISDN interface Data terminal "Digital pipe" "Digital pipes" Packet switched network Circuit switched network Other networks PBX Alarm Subscriber loop and ISDN channel structures Data bases Other services Local area network Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 .

Block diagram of ISDN functions Integrated Digital Network Digital circuit switched backbone Common physical interface ISDN central office Packet-switched backbone Subscriber loop to ISDN channel structures: Basic = 64 kbps + 64 kbps + 16 kbps Primary = multiplexed 64 kbps channels Network-based processing services Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 2 .

TDM switching and or SDM switching.ISDN principles ISDN is based on concepts developed for telephony. Therefore. Present ITU standards part of new standards In early development of ISDN interim measures needed for interfacing with present networks Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 3 . evolutionary changes Transition from the present network to ISDN may require about one decade. End-to-end digital connectivity to be obtained using digital transmission.

) Supports a wide range of voice and non-voice applications Switched and non-switched connections Circuit switching and packet switching Based on 64 Kbps channels Intelligence for providing service features.Principles of ISDN (Cont. maintenance and management integrated Layered protocol used Flexibility for implementation at specific national situations Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 4 .

ISDN evolution Digital exchanges commissioned in late 60's and 70's Integrated digital transmission and switching established (IDN) Integrating services in IDN is the latest step leading to ISDN INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 5 .

ISDN services: Definition of attributes All services on the ISDN network are characterised by "attributes" defined in ITU 1.130 standards Attributes have a definition and allowable values Any service has a set of valid attributes Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 6 .

transfer rate Info. transfer capability Values Circuit.1 KHz audio 7 KHz audio 15 KHz audio Video Other values Bit error rate DC/V1/2004 7 Connection performance Jamadagni H S . transfer mode Info.ISDN services: Attributes Attribute Name Info. packet Bit rate Speech. 3.

ISDN service classification Services defined by attributes Bearer services Teleservices Secondary services Bearer services provide capability to transfer information between ISDN access points and involve only low level layers (1.2 and 3) Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 8 .

ISDN teleservices Low layer attributes High layer attributes Type of user information Layer 4 protocols Layer 5 protocols Layer 6 protocols Layer 7 protocols General attributes Quality of service Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 9 .

Customer access to services supported by ISDN 5 3 2 S 1 T TEI NT2 NT1 TE2 4 R TA S Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 10 .

PBX applications NT1: S/T interface to U interface Interface structure 2B + D 192 Kbps line rate 23B + 4536 Kbps line rate Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 11 .Functional grouping TE: Terminal equipment TE1: S interface terminal TE2: R interface terminal TA: Terminal adapter adapts TE2 to S interface NT: Network termination NT2: Optional.

bit transmission channel structure mutiplex. DC/V1/2004 12 Layer 2: Jamadagni H S . sequence control. Data link connection establishment.Network functional principles Services to be internationally compatible UNI standardised so that TE is portable Standardise network capability High Layer Low Layer Operation & manage Layer 1: Physical layer connection activation deactivation. error. frame sync. Data link congestion handling How control.

Access channel and rate Channel name D Bit rate 16 Kbps 64 Kbps 64 Kbps 384 Kbps 1536 Kbps 1920 Kbps DC/V1/2004 13 B H0 H1 H11 H12 Jamadagni H S .

Bearer services 64 Kbps unrestricted. 3. 8 KHz structured 64 Kbps 8 KHz structured.1 KHz audio 384 Kbps unrestricted 1536 Kbps unrestricted 1920 Kbps unrestricted Packet . speech 64 Kbps 8 KHz structured.mode services Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 14 .

ISDN subscriber premises connections <1 km TE T R T R NT (a) Point-to-point < 100-200m TE T R TE TE T R NT (b) Short passive bus TR = Terminating Resistor Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 15 .

Extended passive bus < 500m < 25-50m T R TE TE T R NT Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 16 .

NT1 star TE T R <1 km T R NTI T R TE Jamadagni H S T R DC/V1/2004 17 .

Activating and deactivating Frame structure and organisation Line code: Pseudo . two channels Bit timing and rate: 192 Kbps Octet timing Frame alignment D channel: 16 Kbps Power feeding : 40 V DC 1--mW max.ternary D channel access control : Similar to HDLC Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 18 .Network Interface: Layer 1 specifications B channel: 64 Kbps.User .

Multiplexing of channels to form basic or primary access transmission structure.Layer 1 functions Encoding of digital data for transmission across the interface. Terminal identification. D channel contention access Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 19 . Faulty terminal isolation. Activation and deactivation of physical circuit. Full-duplex transmission of B channel data Full-duplex transmission of D channel data. Power feeding from network termination to the terminal.

ISDN Layer 2 Traffic over D channel (control Info and data over D) Q 921 Q921 services Convey user Info between layers entities using D channel Support multiple terminals at user-NW installation Multiple layer 3 entity support two types of transfer Unacknowledged transfer (un no: frames) Acknowledged transfer (like X 25) HDLC Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 20 .

management session .Function of other layers layer 3 : routing network connection establishment release multiplexing congestion control addressing error detection / recovery flow control layer 4 connection. etc. release.transport management encryption / decryption compression / expansion application related functions DC/V1/2004 21 layer 4 : Layer 5 : layer 6 : Layer 7 : Jamadagni H S . muxing session connection.

430/1.931 Messages Basic Service Protocol (Q.431 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 22 .430/1.931 Messages LAPD 1.931) Q.Modelling of basic and supplementary services Terminal Call Processing Supplementary Services Protocol (Facility) Exchange Call Processing Supplementary Services Protocol (Facility) Basic Service Protocol (Q.431 LAPD 1.931) Q.

Basic Call Control interact with layer 2 (LAPD) to transmit / receive messages generate & interpret layer 3 messages admin of times and logical entities (call reference) used in control admin of resources (like B ch1) check to provide proper service consistent with user requirements routing / relaying network connection control error detection (sequences) error recovery sequencing layer 3 information Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 23 .

switched connection under common channel signalling Packet .g. Transmitted transparently through ISDN or processed (encrypted for e.end signalling for users Combinations for multimedia comm. 2. Protocol reference model I320 Circuit . User Info: digitised voice. Types of Info flow 1. Control Info : acted upon this Info switching a connection / clearing change service characteristics Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 24 .to .) End .Protocol reference model I 320 1. data between users.switched comm over B/D/H Signalling between users and network based facilities (data base fores.) 2.

Frame format in ISDN layer 2 FLAG ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION FCS FLAG 8 bits 16 8 or 16 Variable 16 8 (a) Frame format 0 C/R SAPI 1 TEI C/R is Command/response SAPI is Service access point identifier TEI is Terminal endpoint identifier Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 25 .

LAPD format 0 1 0 SS0 N(S) 0 0 0 P/F P/F N(R) N(R) Information transfer Supervisory 1 1 M M P/F M M M Unnumbered N(S) N(R) S M P/F = Transmitter send sequence number = Transmitter receive sequence number = Supervisory function bit = Modifier function bit = Poll/final bit DC/V1/2004 26 Jamadagni H S .

ready to receive I-frame 10100000*-N(R)-C/R Positive ack. go back N C/R Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 27 .LAPD commands and responses Name Control Field C/R Description Information format I (Information) 0-N(S)--P-N(R)-.C Exchange user data Supervisory Format RR (Receive Ready) 10000000*-N(R)-RNR (Receive Not Ready) REJ (Reject) Positive ack. not ready top receive 10010000*-N(R)-C/R Negative ack.

Unnumbered format SABME (Set Asyn 1111P110 chronous Balanced Mode) DM (Disconnected 1111F000 Mode) UI (unnumbered 1100P000 Information) DISC (Disconnect) 1100P010 UA (Unnumbered 1100F110 Acknowledgement) FRMR (Frame Reject) 1110F001 XID (Exchange IDidentification) 1111*101 C Request logical connection R Unable to establish or main maintain logical connection C Used for unacknowledged information transfer service C Terminate logical connection R Acknowledge SABME or DISC Reports receipt of unacceptable frame Exchange identification information R C/R Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 28 .

Q931 message types Circuit .user signalling messages with global call reference functions are 4 types call establishment set up a call on B chl. call information user-NW Info transfer after set-up call clearing miscellaneous Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 29 .mode connection control functions needed for circuit-switched connections to ISDN packet-switched node.mode connection control functions needed for circuit-switched B channel calls Packed . User .

2 for PRI) call reference call reference value (assigned by TE for 0/9 NT for calls) (local significance) flag: 0: originator .network.Messages Signalling exchanged between user . 1: remote end call reference length = 0 CRF = φ global CRF supp.network.services Q932 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 30 . network . Protocol discriminator (0001000) for Q931 call reference message type length (1 for BRI.

SAPI and TEI assignments SAPI Value 0 16 32-61 63 All others (a) SAPI Assignments Related Protocol or Management Entity Call-control procedures packet communication conforming to X.25 level 3 Frame relay communication Layer 2 management procedures Reserved for future standardisation TEI Value 0-63 64-126 127 Jamadagni H S (b) TEI Assignments User Type Nonautomatic TEI assignment user equipment Automatic TEI assignment user equipment Used during automatic TEI assignment DC/V1/2004 31 .

Q931 messages for circuit mode connections Call Establishment Messages Message Significance Direction Function ALERTING global CALL PROCEEDING local CONNECT CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE PROGRESS set-up set-up ACKNOWLEDGE global local both both both both global both global both local both Indicates that user alerting has begun Indicates that call establishment has been initiated Indicates call acceptance by called TE Indicates that user has been awarded the call Reports progress of a call Initiates call establishment Indicates that call establishment has been initiated but requests more information Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 32 .

Call information phase messages Message Significance Direction Function RESUME local RESUME local ACKNOWLEDGE RESUME REJECTlocal SUSPEND local SUSPEND local ACKNOWLEDGE SUSPEND REJECT local Requests resumption of previously suspended call n u Indicates requested call has been re-established n u Indicates failure to resume suspended call u n Requests suspension of a call n u Indicates call has been suspended n u Indicates failure of requested call suspension u n Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 33 .

sent by network to indicate connection clearing Indicates intent to release channel and call reference Indicates release of channel and call reference Provides additional information Indicates information pertaining to a call Sent in response to a STATUS INQUIRY or at any time to report an error Solicits STATUS message Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 34 .Call clearing messages Message Significance Direction Function DISCONNECT global both RELEASE RELEASE COMPLETE INFORMATION NOTIFY STATUS STATUS INQUIRY local local local access local local both both both both both both Sent by user to request connection clearing.

Digital Signal Encoding Format in ISDN 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 NRZ-L Bipolar-AMI Pseudoternary Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 35 .

Physical connector in ISDN Contact Assignments for Plugs and Jacks of ISDN Contact Number a b c d e f g h TE Power Source 3 Power Source 3 Transmit Received Received Transmit Power Sink 2 Power Sink 2 NT Power Sink 3 Power Sink 3 Receive Transmit Transmit Received Power Source 2 Power Source 2 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 36 .

no limitation on length . direction handling 2 wire interface full duplex operation. simple termination. echo cancellation. no echo cancellation. limited lengths. only one cable pair.The U interface Fixed by local administration 4 wire interface no echo cancellation procedures. simple line termination 2 wire interface Ping-Pong operation. extensive processing for echo cancellation Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 37 . extra processing for comm. only one cable pair.

U interface circuit Line Encoding TX Data Echo Cancellor Hybrid DSL RX Data Decision Feedback Equalisation Σ + AD Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 38 .

11=+1. 01= -1. 10 = +3 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 39 .ANSI U interface frame and superframe structure 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ISW SW SW SW SW SW SW SW 18 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 18 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 18 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 6 total 240 bits M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 SW = Sync Word = +3+3-3-3-3+3-3+3+3 ISW= Inverted SW=-3-3+3+3+3-3+3-3-3 2B+D = |B1 |B2 |D | (|8|8|2) M1 to M6 over head bits Data are encoded as 00 = -3.

127 SI: Signalling information PD: Packet data Jamadagni H S SAPI = 0 SAPI = 16 DC/V1/2004 40 . 8.TEI and SAPI assignment User Customer premises TE(2) Layer 3 TE(1) Network ET/NT2 Connection endpoint suffix PD B 1 B S I 1 S I B1 2 S I 321 B **** PD 1 16 * * B Data link layer TEI = 5 TEI = 127 * * 16 * * 0 Data link layer *** 0 Data link layer 0 SAP identifier TEI = 5 TEI = 127 TEI = 3.

Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 .

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and profitable. Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 4 . remote CD-ROMs. for telephone companies and application suppliers alike.ADSL basics (contd 1) ADSL will play a crucial role over the next ten or more years for delivering information in video and multimedia formats. By bringing movies. and the Internet into homes and small businesses. New broadband cabling will take decades to reach all prospective subscribers. video catalogs. Success of these new services will depend upon reaching as many subscribers as possible during the first few years. ADSL will make these markets viable. television. corporate LANs.

lower rate channels. Consistent with North American and European digital hierarchies Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 5 . The POTS/ISDN channel is split off from the digital modem by filters. Each channel can be submultiplexed to form multiple.ADSL basics (contd 2) Three information channels a high speed downstream channel Speed ranges from 1.5 to 6. even if ADSL fails. thus guaranteeing uninterrupted POTS/ISDN. depending on the system.1 Mbps a medium speed duplex channel Speed range from 16 to 640 kbps a POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or an ISDN channel.

1Mbps 6.5 mm 0.1 Mbps Distance 18.000 ft 15.4 mm Distance 5.5 km 4.6 km 3.5 or 2 Mbps 6.7 km Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 6 .000 ft 12.000 ft 9.ADSL reach Data Rate 1.7 km 2.5 mm 0.4 mm 0.5 or 2 Mbps 1.000 ft Wire Size 0.

Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 7 .

IN FACT TWO WAY COMM. PRIVACY NEEDED EAVES DROPPING TO BE AVOIDED PRIVATE DATA. INFO EXCHANGE REQUIRES ESTABLISHMENT OF PATH BETWEEN PARTIES THIS PATH ESTABLISHMENT IS CALLED "SWITCHING" REQUIRES "SIGNALLING" BROADCAST ONE SOURCE MANY SINKS FOR INFORMATION SINKS PRIVACY PROHIBITED NO SUCH REQUIREMENT PUBLIC INFO TRANSFER NO NO SWITCHING NO Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 .Communication Systems POINT-TO-POINT ONE SOURCE ONE SINK FOR INFORMATION FEED BACK FROM SINKS.

through operator Step-by-Step Strowger First "big" strowger exchange # 1 Cross bar # 5 Cross bar # 3 Cross bar ESS I ESS II ESS III ESS ZB ESS IA 1880 onwards ~1897 1919 1938 1948 1974 1965 1970 1976 1976 1980 onwards PAX : Private automatic exchange useful for local connections only PABX: Private automatic branch Exchange useful for local and trunk connections Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 2 .History of Switching Manual .

NON-CIRCUIT SWITCHES For example: X25 service Mainly for noninteractive communication Data terminals Computer communication Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 3 . Video. etc.Types of Switching Systems SWITCHING SYSTEMS CIRCUIT SWITCHES Mainly for interactive communication Voice.

Switching system topology EPABX Local Exchange 1000's of lines Primary Trunks 10 to 15% of sub lines Secondary Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 4 .

etc. Data. FAX.6 Kbps Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 5 .Signals in Switching Systems Switching system objective: To interconnect two circuits for information exchange Information: Voice. moving video. Still Video. Type of signal Voice Data Bandwidth 4 KHz Data rate 64 Kbps 300 bps to several mbps Still video Moving video Mbps FAX 150 Mbps 1 to 4 MHz 4 to 10 MHz 1 to 30 30 to 9.

ROUTING INFO DIGITS.LINE SIGNALLING .Tasks of a Switch 1. SWITCHING: ESTABLISHING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SUBSCRIBERS 2. DIAGNOSTICS. MANAGEMENT METERING . SIGNALLING CHANNEL ASSOCIATED .. CLASS OF SERVICE Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 6 . COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALLING SEPARATE CHANNEL FOR SIGNALS 3.COMMUNICATION CHANNEL (ZW) USED FOR SIGNALLING FEED TONES REMOVE TONES DTMF. C-O-S INFO ETC. PULSE DIALLING FLASH DETECTION TONE OVER CONVERSATION.SIGNALS TRANSMITTED BETWEEN EQUIPMENT THAT TERMINATE & CONTINUOUSLY MONITOR TRAFFIC CIRCUIT OFF-HK. ON-HK ETC. ARE EXAMPLES SELECTION SIGNALLING .

Call processing in a Switch CALLING OFF-HOOK (ORIGINATE) DIAL TONE SWITCH IDENTITY SUBSCRIBER ALLOCATE COMMON RESOURCES DIGIT COLLECT ANALYSE PATH SET UP DISCONNECT TONES DISCONNECT RETURN RESOURCES RINGING CURRENT OFF-HOOK CONVERSE DISCONNECT CALL CALLED DIAL DIGITS RING BACK TONE CONVERSE ON-HOOK (FORWARD CLEAR) Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 7 .

contact remains till disconnection dedicated paths expansion requires additional "paths" The actual switch is called a "CROSS POINT" TIME DIVISION establish connections through data exchange in a memory contact between two parties at specific "time-slot" dedicated time-slot Expansion requires additional "time-slots" The actual switch is called a "SPEECH MEMORY" SLOT ALLOTTED TO #6 SLOT ALLOTTED #1 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 8 .Switching System Architectures SPACE DIVISION establish connection through' galvanic connections once established.

using computation facilities and a few added equipment Performance measurement .using error free communication Facilities .offering extensive facilities to subscribers Tariff computation .Switching System Operations Path establishment .using computation facilities and a few added equipment Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 9 .using computation facilities Maintenance .using extensive signalling Information interchange .using extensive signalling Tearing down the path after information exchange is complete using signalling Billing .

Electronic Stored Program Control Switches COMMON CONTROL CONTROL through' COMPUTER HW + SW BOTH TIME DIVISION & SPACE DIVISION POSSIBLE SPACE DIVISION SWITCHING USING REED CONTACTS FOR CROSS POINTS USING SOLID STATE (JFETS/MOS FETs) FOR CROSS POINTS USING THYRISTORS/TRIACS FOR CROSS POINTS Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 10 .

Analogue Switch Features Low cost for small switches (say up to 64 subscribers) Low distortion due to direct speech switching Introducing tones very easy Cost vs service trade-off possible Fairly good bandwidth Blocking switch. particularly for large number of subscribers Cost increases with number of switches Expansion is difficult Handling data difficult Lower reliability due to switches Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 11 .

A generic N by N switch N input lines N output lines Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 12 .

Space division switch

First stage

Second stage

Third stage

Three-stage space-division switch
Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 13

Number of cross points for a non-blocking switch

Lines 128 512 2,048 8,192 32,768 131,072

Single-Stage 7,680 63,488 516, 096 4.2 x 10e6 3.3 x 10e7 2.6 x 10e8

Three stage 16,384 262,144 4.2 x 10e6 6.7 x 10e7 1 x 10e9 1.7 x 10e10

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SPC Digital Switch Block schematic

SUB

SUB LINE TERMINATE

SWITCH MATRIX

ANALOG TRUNK TERMINATE ANALOG TRUNKS

SUB LINE CONTROL

SWITCH CONTROL SYSTEM

TERMINALS CONSOLES

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X Y 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Time Y X Y X 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Time * One Frame delay Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 16 .Time slot interchange I/P Stream Channel No. O/P Stream Channel No.

Implementation of a digital TSI switch PCM INPUT BUS CONTROL 1 1 INFORMATION MEMORY 8 19 8 19 8 19 24 24 PCM output bus) Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 CONTROL MEMORY 17 .

TDM Bus switch n inlets n I O Pairs A Simple Time-Division Switch A Simple Folded Time-Division Switch Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 n outlets 18 .

. . . .Time-space-time Switch TML 1 5 38 2 14 38 5 TML output 1 TML output 2 TML 20 2 14 2 20 . . . . . . . . TML n k TML output n 19 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 .

TML OUTPUT 2 . . . . TML OUTPUT n 20 TML n Jamadagni H S K DC/V1/2004 . . . . . . . .Space-time-space switch SPACE TML 16 1 3 TIME 1 16 SPACE 3 TML OUTPUT 1 TML 3 2 16 2 3 16 .

Overview • • • • • • Copper Access Bandwidth Requirements Distance vs. Rate ADSL Modulation Techniques Competing Technologies Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 .

32 // V.34 1.800 bps (33.600 bps) Full Duplex Data communications 56kbps modems are not full duplex (asymmetric much like ADSL) Core Network Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 2 .200 to 28.22 // V.Copper Access Technologies // Voice • Voice Grade Modems V.

26 V.32bis V.19 V.29 V.26ter V.27bis V.8K PSTN V.21 V.27ter V.26 V.23 V.Copper Access Technologies // Voice (V-series) <300 600 1200 2400 4800 9600 14.22bis V.33 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 3 .27 V.20 V.34 Leased Lines V.22bis V.32 V.4K 28.

Copper Access Technologies // DSL (ISDN) • Digital Subscriber Line DSL (ISDN BRI) 160 kbps (two 64 kbps (B) + one 16 kbps (D) + 16 kbps operation and maintenance channel [OMC]) Full Duplex ISDN. voice and data communications DSL DSL Core Network DSL DSL Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 4 .

telco feeders.544 Mbps // 2. WAN SDSL (single twisted pair) Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 5 .048 Mbps Full Duplex T1/E1.Copper Access Technologies // HDSL and SDSL • High Data Rate and Single Line (Symmetric) HDSL and SDSL 1.

5 Mbps (upstream) Internet access. multimedia RADSL = adapt speeds based on conditions and distances Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 6 . video on demand.5 Mbps to 9 Mbps (downstream) 16 kbps to 1. remote LAN access.Copper Access Technologies // ADSL and RADSL • Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (Rate Adaptive) ADSL // RADSL 1.

3 s 125k 34.6 s 5.16 s 7.1 s Yes 25.3 s 1.2 s 1.1 m 5.0 m Yes 1.6 s 0.Bandwidth Requirements Application Type E-mail Digitized Photo Documents 384k No No Video Conferencing 5M 23.0 s Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 7 .3 s 2.7 s 250k 69.144 Mbps 0.9 s 0.8 s 15.6 s 2.2 m X-Ray Bulk File Transfer 20M 1.7 m Yes 52.2 s 0.3 s DSL 6.5 m 1.5 h 20.4 s 6.5 s File Size 30k Modem ISDN DSL DSL DSL 128kbps 384kbps 768kbps 1.63 s 0.9 s Yes 6.04 s 0.31 s 0.544M bps 8.6 s 1.9 m 3.7 m 26.

000 ft 8.000 ft 2.84 Mbps @ 1.448 Mbps @ 9.82 Mbps @ 3.000 ft 6.96 Mbps @ 4.000 ft Distance is from Central Office or RT (repeater terminal) unit Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 8 . Rate (downstream) • ADSL (24g wire) 1.312 Mbps @ 12.000 ft 51.000 ft • VDSL (24g wire) 12.Distance vs.500 ft 25.544 Mbps @ 18.048 Mbps @ 16.

ADSL • Asymmetric data streams Most applications fit this model video on demand home shopping Internet access remote LAN access Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 9 .

Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 10 .

television. By bringing movies. Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 11 .ADSL basics (contd 1) ADSL will play a crucial role over the next ten or more years for delivering information in video and multimedia formats. and profitable. for telephone companies and application suppliers alike. ADSL will make these markets viable. corporate LANs. and the Internet into homes and small businesses. Success of these new services will depend upon reaching as many subscribers as possible during the first few years. New broadband cabling will take decades to reach all prospective subscribers. remote CD-ROMs. video catalogs.

thus guaranteeing uninterrupted POTS/ISDN. depending on the system.ADSL basics (contd 2) Three information channels a high speed downstream channel Speed ranges from 1. The POTS/ISDN channel is split off from the digital modem by filters.1 Mbps a medium speed duplex channel Speed range from 16 to 640 kbps a POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or an ISDN channel. even if ADSL fails.5 to 6. Consistent with North American and European digital hierarchies Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 12 . lower rate channels. Each channel can be submultiplexed to form multiple.

5 to 6 Mbps Existing copper line POTS splitter Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 13 .ADSL in operation POTS splitter up 16kbps to 1.5 Mbps DSLAM Broadband Network Narrowband Network (PSTN) down 1.

Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 14 .

1 Mbps Distance 18.000 ft 12.4 mm Distance 5.5 mm 0.000 ft 15.5 km 4.7 km 2.1Mbps 6.6 km 3.7 km Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 15 .5 or 2 Mbps 6.5 or 2 Mbps 1.000 ft Wire Size 0.000 ft 9.ADSL reach Data Rate 1.5 mm 0.4 mm 0.

Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 16 .

Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 17 .

Bridge Taps. Upstream Data spectrum Downstream Data spectrum POTS 4Khz 20Khz 1.1 Mhz Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 18 . load coils are disturbers when in the same or adjacent binder as ADSL twisted pair.ADSL (spectrum) Frequency Spectrum T1/T3 circuits.

32 upstream) [4 Khz] inferior quality. traffic reassigned to different channel 6 Mbps downstream 640 kbps upstream Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 19 .Modulation Techniques (ADSL) • Discrete Multitone modulation (DMT) multicarrier sub-channels (256 downstream.

5 Mbps downstream 64 kbps upstream Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 20 . mature technology single carrier system similar to V.34 automatic bit rate adjustments for line impairments 1.Modulation Techniques (ADSL) • Carrierless Amplitude/Phase modulation (CAP) proprietary.

000 ft limit (head-end) Most cable operators need to upgrade their networks to support bi-directional service 128 kbps up to 30 Mbps (shared bandwidth. up to 200 users on a loop) Security Reliability in question Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 21 .Competing Technologies • Cable Modems 18.

Competing Technologies • Digital Satellite transmission Still need upstream data provider (usually handled through modem or ISDN) up to 30 Mbps downstream Also used for push-technology Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 22 .

Q. element identifier Info. element Call reference value 0 Message type Infromation element identifier Contents of information element Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 . element Contents of info. element identifier Contents of info. 931 Message format Protocol discriminator 0 0 0 0 F Length 1 0 Other infromation elements if required 1 Info.

user info. user info. layer3 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 2 . layer 1 1 X X X X X X X 1 X X X X X X X Layer 2 identity. transfer capability Transfer mode. user info.element identifier Length of bearer capability contents Codinbg std. transfer rate Rate multiplier Layer 1 identity.Bearer capability infromation element identifier 1 2 3 4a 4b 5 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 0/1 X X X X X X Bearer capability info.. info. layer 2 Layer 3 identity.

Procedure for a circuit-switched call off hk Set up Set up Ringing g proceedin all g back C Rin Alerting Connect RB stop connect Data Flow S1 ST1 ET1 ET2 ST2 S2 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 3 .

431 LAPD 1.931 Messages Supplementary Services Protocol (Facility) LAPD 1.931) Q.931) Q.931 Messages Supplementary Services Protocol (Facility) Exchange Call Processing Basic Service Protocol (Q.430/1.431 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 1 .430/1.Modelling of basic and supplementary services Terminal Call Processing Basic Service Protocol (Q.

Layer 3 Functions Routing Network connection establishment Connection release Multiplexing Congestion control Addressing Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 2 .

Layer 2 Functions Traffic over D channel (control Info and data over D) Q 921 Q921 services Convey user Info between layers entities using D channel Support multiple terminals at user-NW installation Multiple layer 3 entity: support two types of transfer Unacknowledged transfer (unnumbered frames) Acknowledged transfer (like X 25) HDLC Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 3 .

Function of other layers
layer 4 : Layer 5 : layer 6 : Layer 7 : error detection / recovery flow control layer 4 connection, release, muxing session connection management session - transport management encryption / decryption compression / expansion application related functions

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Protocol reference model I 320
1. Protocol reference model I320

Circuit - switched connection under common channel signalling Packet - switched comm over B/D/H Signalling between users and network based facilities (data base fores.) End - to - end signalling for users Combinations for multimedia comm.
2. Types of Info flow

1. User Info: digitised voice, data between users. Transmitted transparently through ISDN or processed (encrypted for e.g.) 2. Control Info : acted upon this Info switching a connection / clearing change service characteristics

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Basic Call Control
interact with layer 2 (LAPD) to transmit / receive messages generate and interpret layer 3 messages admin of times and logical entities (call reference) used in control admin of resources (like B ch1) check to provide proper service consistent with user requirements routing / relaying network connection control error detection (sequences) error recovery sequencing layer 3 information

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Multiplexing of channels to form basic or primary access transmission structure. Faulty terminal isolation.Layer 1 Functions Encoding of digital data for transmission across the interface Full-duplex transmission of B channel data Full-duplex transmission of D channel data. Activation and deactivation of physical circuit. Terminal identification. D channel contention access Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 7 . Power feeding from network termination to the terminal.

call information user-NW Info transfer after set-up call clearing miscellaneous Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 8 . User .mode connection control functions needed for circuit-switched B channel calls Packed .user signalling messages with global call reference functions are 4 types call establishment set up a call on B chl.Q931 message types Circuit .mode connection control functions needed for circuit-switched connections to ISDN packet-switched node.

Protocol discriminator (0001000) for Q931 call reference Message type: length (1 for BRI. Supplementary services Q932 CRF = 0.Messages Signaling exchanged between user .network.network. global CRF Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 9 . 1: remote end Call reference length = 0. network . 2 for PRI) Call reference: call reference value (assigned by TE local significance) Flag: 0: originator.

Q931 messages for circuit mode connections Call Establishment Messages Message ALERTING CALL PROCEEDING CONNECT CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE PROGRESS SETUP SETUP ACKNOWLEDGE Significance global local global local global global local Direction both both both both both both both Function Indicates that user alerting has begun Indicates that call establishment has been initiated Indicates call acceptance by called TE Indicates that user has been awarded the call Reports progress of a call Initiates call establishment Indicates that call establishment has been initiated but requests more information Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 10 .

Call information phase messages Message Significance Direction Function RESUME RESUME ACKNOWLEDGE RESUME REJECT SUSPEND SUSPEND ACKNOWLEDGE SUSPEND REJECT local local local local local local u n n u n u u n n u n u Requests resumption of previously suspended call Indicates requested call has been reestablished Indicates failure to resume suspended call Requests suspension of a call Indicates call has been suspended Indicates failure of requested call suspension Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 11 .

sent by network to indicate connection clearing Indicates intent to release channel and call reference Indicates release of channel and call reference Provides additional information Indicates information pertaining to a call Sent in response to a STATUS INQUIRY or at any time to report an error Solicits STATUS message Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 12 .Call clearing messages Message Significance Direction Function DISCONNECT RELEASE global local both both both both both both both RELEASE local COMPLETE INFORMATION local NOTIFY STATUS local STATUS INQUIRY local Sent by user to request connection clearing.

Frame format in ISDN layer 2 FLAG 8 bits ADDRESS 16 CONTROL 8 or 16 INFORMATION Variable 16 FCS 8 FLAG (a) Frame format 0 C/R SAPI 1 TEI C/R is Command/response SAPI is Service access point identifier TEI is Terminal endpoint identifier Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 13 .

LAPD format 0 1 0 SS0 N(S) 0 0 0 M M M P/F P/F N(R) N(R) Information transfer Supervisory 1 1 M M P/F Unnumbered N(S) N(R) S M P/F = Transmitter send sequence number = Transmitter receive sequence number = Supervisory function bit = Modifier function bit = Poll/final bit DC/V1/2004 14 Jamadagni H S .

LAPD commands and responses Name Control Field C/R Description Information format I (Information) 0-N(S)--P-N(R)-. go back N 10000000*-N(R)-.C/R Positive ack. ready to receive I-frame 10100000*-N(R)-.C Exchange user data Supervisory Format RR (Receive Ready) RNR (Receive Not Ready) REJ (Reject) Positive ack. not ready top receive 10010000*-N(R)-.C/R Negative ack.C/R Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 15 .

Unnumbered format SABME (Set Asyn 1111P110 chronous Balanced Mode) DM (Disconnected 1111F000 Mode) UI (unnumbered 1100P000 Information) DISC (Disconnect) 1100P010 UA (Unnumbered 1100F110 Acknowledgement) FRMR (Frame Reject) 1110F001 XID (Exchange IDidentification) 1111*101 C R C C R R C/R Request logical connection Unable to establish or main maintain logical connection Used for unacknowledged information transfer service Terminate logical connection Acknowledge SABME or DISC Reports receipt of unacceptable frame Exchange identification information Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 16 .

SAPI and TEI assignments SAPI Value 0 16 32-61 63 All others (a) SAPI Assignments Related Protocol or Management Entity Call-control procedures packet communication conforming to X.25 level 3 Frame relay communication Layer 2 management procedures Reserved for future standardisation TEI Value 0-63 64-126 127 Jamadagni H S (b) TEI Assignments User Type Nonautomatic TEI assignment user equipment Automatic TEI assignment user equipment Used during automatic TEI assignment DC/V1/2004 17 .

127 SI: Signalling information PD: Packet data Jamadagni H S SAPI = 0 SAPI = 16 DC/V1/2004 18 .TEI and SAPI assignment User Customer premises TE(2) Layer 3 TE(1) Network ET/NT2 Connection endpoint suffix PD B 1 SI B 1 SI B1 2 SI 321 B **** PD 1 16 * B * Data link layer TEI = 5 TEI = 127 * * 16 * * 0 Data link layer ** * 0 Data link layer 0 SAP identifier TEI = 5 TEI = 127 TEI = 3. 8.

Digital Signal Encoding Format in ISDN 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 NRZ-L Bipolar-AMI Pseudoternary Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 19 .

Physical connector in ISDN Contact Assignments for Plugs and Jacks of ISDN Contact Number a b c d e f g h TE Power Source 3 Power Source 3 Transmit Received Received Transmit Power Sink 2 Power Sink 2 NT Power Sink 3 Power Sink 3 Receive Transmit Transmit Received Power Source 2 Power Source 2 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 20 .

only one cable pair. no limitation on length . only one cable pair. extensive processing for echo cancellation Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 21 . direction handling 2 wire interface full duplex operation. simple termination. limited lengths. simple line termination 2 wire interface Ping-Pong operation. extra processing for comm. no echo cancellation.The U interface Fixed by local administration 4 wire interface no echo cancellation procedures. echo cancellation.

U interface circuit TX Data Line Encoding Echo Cancellor Hybrid DSL RX Data Decision Feedback Equalisation Σ + AD Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 22 .

01= -1.ANSI U interface frame and superframe structure 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ISW SW SW SW SW SW SW SW 18 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 18 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 18 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 2B + D 6 total 240 bits M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 M1 to M6 SW = Sync Word = +3+3-3-3-3+3-3+3+3 ISW= Inverted SW=-3-3+3+3+3-3+3-3-3 2B+D = |B1 |B2 |D | (|8|8|2) M1 to M6 over head bits Data are encoded as 00 = -3. 10 = +3 Jamadagni H S DC/V1/2004 23 . 11=+1.

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