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ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
People Organization Public policy Laws and regulations Public finance Public servants
TRADITIONAL MODEL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
y Public administration as both theory and practice began in the late
nineteenth century and lasted in most Western countries largely unchanged until the last quarter of the twentieth century. y The beginning of the traditional model is best seen in midnineteenth century Britain. y In 1854, the Northcote Trevelyan Report recommended the abolition of patronage and the substitution of recruitment by open competitive examinations under the supervision of a central examining board. y In 1883, the Civil Service Act (the Pendleton Act) was passed which established a bipartisan Civil Service Commission the holding of competitive examinations for all applicants to the classified service
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL MODEL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
y An administration under the formal control of the political y y y
leadership, Based on a strictly hierarchical model of bureaucracy, Staffed by permanent, neutral and anonymous officials, Motivated only by the public interest, serving any governing party equally, and not contributing to policy but merely administering those policies decided by the politicians. Its theoretical foundations mainly derive from Woodrow Wilson and Frederick Taylor in the United States, Max Weber in Germany and Henri Fayol in France.
WOODROW WILSON ± POLITICS/ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY
y There should be a strict separation of
28th President of the United States 1913 1921
politics from the administration; of policy from the strictly administrative task of carrying it out. y Administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics. Administrative questions are not political questions. y Politics/administration dichotomy allowed public administration to emerge as a selfconscious field of study, intellectually and institutionally differentiated from politics.
MAX WEBER: THEORY OF BUREAUCRACY
harismatic Authority the appeal of an extraordinary leader y Traditional Authority such as the authority of a tribal chief; and rational/legal authority y Rational and Legal Authority ideal type of bureaucracy
PRINCIPLES OF MODERN BUREAUCRACY
1. The principle of fixed and official jurisdictional areas, which are 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7.
generally ordered by rules (by laws or administrative regulations). The principles of office hierarchy, that is supervision of the lower offices by the higher ones. The management of the modern office is based upon written documents (the files) which are preserved. Official activity is concieved something distinct from the sphere of private life. Public monies and equipment are divorced from the private property of the official. Office management When the office is fully developed, official activity demands the full working capacity of the official. (Full time occupation) The management of the office follows general rules.
FREDERICK TAYLOR ± SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
y He advocated a change from the old system of
Frederick Taylor 1856 1915
personal management to a new system of scientific management. standardizing work, which meant finding the one best way of working and controlling so intensively as to provide for the maintenance of all these standards. time-and-motion studies to decide a standard for working, a wage-incentive system that was a modification of the piecework method already in existence. The idea that management could be systematic remained important in the public sector and clearly fitted very well with the theory of bureaucracy.
HENRI FAYOL ± FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
y Functions of management
y Forecasting y Planning y Organizing y Commanding y Coordinating y Controlling
Fayol was born in 1841 in a suburb of stanbul, Turkey.
GULICK AND URWICK-POSDCORB
y Planning: goal setting y Organizing: arranging the organizational structure and y y y y y
processes to achieve the goals Staffing: recruiting and hiring personnel Directing: supervising the actual processes of doing the assignments Coordinating: ensuring to operate in cooperation with other units and people in government Reporting: tracking and communicating within the organization Budgeting: fiscal and financial activities necessary to produce and provide the programmes, services, or activities.
SUMMERY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS
y Depends on bureaucracy, that governments should organize
themselves according to the hierarchical, bureaucratic principles most clearly enunciated in the classic analysis of bureaucracy by Max Weber. there was one-best-way of working and procedures were set out in comprehensive manuals for administrators to follow. (Frederick Taylor) Bureaucratic delivery; once government involved itself in a policy area, it also became the direct provider of goods and services through the bureaucracy. There was general belief among administrators in the politics/administration dichotomy, that is, where political and administrative matters could be separated. Public administration is quite different comparing with business administration.
EMERGENCE OF NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
y Political change
y Rising of the conservative governments
y Economic change
y Decline of Keynesian economic thought y Rapid change in the private sector y The moves towards privatization in its various forms
reducing government spending y Administrative change y In the early 1980s there were wide-ranging attacks on the size and capability of the public sector. y The ideological fervour of attacks on the role of government, and efforts to reduce its size, faded somewhat in the late 1990s. y Social change y Trust problem y Changing demands and expectations of the people
WHAT IS NPM?
y A management philosophy used by governments since
the 1980s to modernize the public sector. y NPM is generally used to describe a management culture that emphasizes the centrality of the citizen or customer, as well as accountability for results. y One area of reform that illustrates many of the NPM principles is the creation of semi-autonomous agencies for service delivery y The main hypothesis in the NPM-reform wave is that more market orientation in the public sector will lead to greater cost-efficiency for governments.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NPM
y Hood (1991) attributes seven features to the NPM:
y Allowing managers to manage (=Let the mangers y y y y y y
manage) Establishing specific standards and performance measures, Emphasising output controls, Disaggregating units in the public sector, Increasing public sector competition, Increasing use of private sector management approaches in the public sector, Increasing discipline in resource utilisation.
y Privatisation of government seems prominent still
however in Australia, Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and various Asian and Middle Eastern countries. y Also public organizations still want to employ new management techniques such as total quality management, performance management and strategic planning.
y Governments have a variety of roles, the public sector affects the y y y y
entire economy and society. Regulations, taxes, permits, infrastructure, standards, conditions of employment all affect decisions made in private markets. The public sector is a large purchaser of goods and services from the private sector. Government redistributes income from better-off members of the society to those who are not. The public sector has a crucial role to play in determining real living standards which depend for most people on government services (the quality of schools, hospitals, community care, the environment, public transport, law and order, town planning, and welfare services).
INSTRUMENTS OF GOVERNMENT
PROVISION y government provides goods or services through the government budget 2. SUBSIDY y the government assists someone in the private economy to provide desired goods or services 3. PRODUCTION y governments produce goods and services for sale in the market 4. REGULATION y using the coercive powers of the state to allow or prohibit certain activities in the private economy. y Economic regulations (price regulation, quality regulation, competition policy or antitrust legislation) y Social regulations (quality standards, safety levels and pollution controls)
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