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ACMotors
Literature Number: BPRA073
Texas Instruments Europe
February 1998
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Contents
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iii
Contents
1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 1
2. Classic AC drives..................................................................................................... 1
3. Field Orientated Control........................................................................................... 2
3.1 Space Vector definition and projection ......................................................... 3
3.1.1 The (a,b,c)>(α,β) projection (Clarke transformation) .................. 3
3.1.2 The (α,β)>(d,q) projection (Park transformation) ........................ 4
3.1.3 The (d,q)>(α,β) projection (inverse Park transformation) ........... 5
3.2 The basic scheme for the FOC..................................................................... 5
3.3 The input for the FOC................................................................................... 7
3.3.1 Current sampling......................................................................... 7
3.3.2 Rotor flux position........................................................................ 7
3.4 Conclusion.................................................................................................... 8
4. The PI regulator ....................................................................................................... 8
5. The Space Vector PWM.......................................................................................... 9
5.1 The 3phase Inverter .................................................................................... 9
5.2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)................................ 10
5.3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM................................................................ 12
6. Conclusion............................................................................................................. 13
References ................................................................................................................ 14
Contents
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iv
List of Figures
Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b,c)................................... 3
Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a,b).................................... 4
Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b) and in the d,q rotating
reference frame.................................................................................................. 4
Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor................................................................... 6
Figure 5: Current, voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d,q rotating reference frame
and their relationship with a,b,c and a,b stationary reference frame .................. 7
Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure....................................................... 8
Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term............................. 9
Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor............................................... 9
Figure 9: SVPWM, vectors and sectors .......................................................................... 10
Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors................................. 11
Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3 ................................................................. 11
Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM, pattern......................................................................... 12
Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM......................................................... 13
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 1
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors
ABSTRACT
The principle of vector control of electrical drives is based on the control of
both the magnitude and the phase of each phase current and voltage. For
as long as this type of control considers the three phase system as three
independent systems the control will remain analog and thus present
several drawbacks. Since high computational power silicon devices, such as
the TMS320F240 from TI, came to market it has been possible to realize far
more precise digital vector control algorithms. The most common of these
accurate vector controls is presented in this document: the Field Orientated
Control, a digital implementation which demonstrates the capability of
performing direct torque control, of handling system limitations and of
achieving higher power conversion efficiency.
1. Introduction
During the last few years the field of controlled electrical drives has undergone rapid
expansion due mainly to the advantages of semiconductors in both power and signal
electronics and culminating in microelectronic microprocessors and DSPs. These
technological improvements have enabled the development of really effective AC drive
control with ever lower power dissipation hardware and ever more accurate control
structures. The electrical drive controls become more accurate in the sense that not only
are the DC current and voltage controlled but also the three phase currents and voltages
are managed by socalled vector controls. This document describes the most efficient
form of vector control scheme: the Field Orientated Control. It is based on three major
points: the machine current and voltage space vectors, the transformation of a three
phase speed and time dependent system into a two coordinate time invariant system
and effective Pulse Width Modulation pattern generation. Thanks to these factors, the
control of AC machine acquires every advantage of DC machine control and frees itself
from the mechanical commutation drawbacks. Furthermore, this control structure, by
achieving a very accurate steady state and transient control, leads to high dynamic
performance in terms of response times and power conversion. These different aspects
are discussed in the following chapters.
2. Classic AC drives
AC motor control structures generally apply three 120º spatially displaced sinusoidal
voltages to the three stator phases. In most of the classic AC drives the generation of the
three sine waves is based on motor electromechanical characteristics and on an
equivalent model for the motor in its steady state. Furthermore, the control looks like
three separate single phase system controls rather than one control of a three phase
system. Some major common drawbacks are presented in this chapter [1]:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 2
• The machine models and characteristics used are valid only in steady state. This
causes the control to allow high peak voltage and current transients. These damage
not only the drive dynamic performance but also the power conversion efficiency.
Additionally, the power components must be oversized to withstand the transient
electrical spikes.
• Great difficulty in controlling the variables with sinusoidal references: PI regulators can
not perform a sinusoidal regulation without damaging the sinusoidal référence, and
hysteresis controllers introduce high bandwidth noise into the system that is hard to
filter out.
• No three phase system imbalance management. No consideration of the phase
interactions.
• Finally, the control structure must be dedicated according to motor type (asynchronous
or synchronous).
The following chapters present the Field Orientated Control of AC drives. This control
solution overcomes each of these drawbacks and thus improves the overall effectiveness
of the AC drive. Detailed explanations and references to other helpful documents gives
the reader a good understanding of the control structure and of the immediate benefits of
such a solution.
3. Field Orientated Control
The Field Orientated Control (FOC) [1][3] consists of controlling the stator currents
represented by a vector. This control is based on projections which transform a three
phase time and speed dependent system into a two coordinate (d and q coordinates)
time invariant system. These projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC
machine control. Field orientated controlled machines need two constants as input
references: the torque component (aligned with the q coordinate) and the flux
component (aligned with d coordinate). As Field Orientated Control is simply based on
projections the control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. This makes
the control accurate in every working operation (steady state and transient) and
independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model. The FOC thus solves the
classic scheme problems, in the following ways:
• the ease of reaching constant reference (torque component and flux component of the
stator current)
• the ease of applying direct torque control because in the (d,q) reference frame the
expression of the torque is:
m i
R Sq
∝ψ
By maintaining the amplitude of the rotor flux (ψ
R
) at a fixed value we have a linear
relationship between torque and torque component (i
Sq
). We can then control the torque
by controlling the torque component of stator current vector.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 3
3.1 Space Vector definition and projection
The threephase voltages, currents and fluxes of ACmotors can be analyzed in terms of
complex space vectors [1][6]. With regard to the currents, the space vector can be
defined as follows. Assuming that i
a
, i
b
, i
c
are the instantaneous currents in the stator
phases, then the complex stator current vector i
S
_
is defined by:
i i i i
S
a b c
_
· + + α α
2
where α
π
· e
j
2
3
and α
π
2
4
3
· e
j
, represent the spatial operators. The following diagram
shows the stator current complex space vector:
a
i
S
b
c
i
a
α
2
i
c
αi
b
Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b,c)
where (a,b,c) are the three phase system axes. This current space vector depicts the
three phase sinusoidal system. It still needs to be transformed into a two time invariant
coordinate system. This transformation can be split into two steps:
• (a,b,c)⇒(α,β) (the Clarke transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time variant
system
• (α,β)⇒(d,q) (the Park transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time invariant
system
This is explained in the following chapter.
3.1.1 The (a,b,c)>(α,β) projection (Clarke transformation)
The space vector can be reported in another reference frame with only two orthogonal
axis called (α,β). Assuming that the axis a and the axis α are in the same direction we
have the following vector diagram:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 4
α·a
β
i
S
b
c
i
Sα
i
Sβ
Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a,b)
The projection that modifies the three phase system into the (α,β) two dimension
orthogonal system is presented below.
i i
i i i
S a
S a b
α
β
·
· +
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
1
3
2
3
for a TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report (BPRA048). We obtain a two
coordinate system
i
i
S
S
α
β

.
`
,
that still depends on time and speed.
3.1.2 The (α,β)>(d,q) projection (Park transformation)
This is the most important transformation in the FOC. In fact, this projection modifies a
two phase orthogonal system (α,β) in the d,q rotating reference frame. If we consider the
d axis aligned with the rotor flux, the next diagram shows, for the current vector, the
relationship from the two reference frame:
θ
α·a
β
i
S
d
q
i
Sd
i
Sq
i
Sα
i
Sβ
Ψ
R
Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b) and in the d,q
rotating reference frame
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 5
where θ is the rotor flux position. The flux and torque components of the current vector
are determined by the following equations:
i i i
i i i
Sd S S
Sq S S
· +
· − +
¹
'
¹
¹
α β
α β
θ θ
θ θ
cos sin
sin cos
These components depend on the current vector (α,β) components and on the rotor flux
position; if we know the right rotor flux position then, by this projection, the d,q component
becomes a constant. For TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report
(BPRA048). We obtain a two coordinate system
i
i
Sd
Sq

.
`
,
with the following characteristics:
• two coordinate time invariant system
• with i
Sd
(flux component) and i
Sq
(torque component) the direct torque control is possible
and easy.
3.1.3 The (d,q)>(α,β) projection (inverse Park transformation)
Here, we introduce from this voltage transformation only the equation that modifies the
voltages in d,q rotating reference frame in a two phase orthogonal system:
v v v
v v v
S ref Sdref Sqref
S ref Sdref Sqref
α
β
θ θ
θ θ
· −
· +
¹
'
¹
¹
cos sin
sin cos
The outputs of this block are the components of the reference vector that we call V
r
_
;
V
r
_
is the voltage space vector to be applied to the motor phases. For TMS320F240
software implementation refer to report (BPRA048).
3.2 The basic scheme for the FOC
The following diagram summarizes the basic scheme of torque control with FOC [1][2][3]:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 6
θ
SV
PWM
a,b,c
α,β
i
Sq
i
Sd
i
Sα
i
Sβ
i
a
i
b
v
Sqref
PI
PI
v
Sdref
v
Sαref
v
Sβref
i
Sqref
i
Sdref


3phase
Inverter
AC
motor
V
DC
Clarke t.
d,q
α,β
d,q
α,β
Park t.
Park
1
t.
Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor
Two motor phase currents are measured. These measurements feed the Clarke
transformation module. The outputs of this projection are designated i
S
α
and i
S
β
. These
two components of the current are the inputs of the Park transformation that gives the
current in the d,q rotating reference frame. The i
Sd
and i
Sq
components are compared to the
references i
Sdref
(the flux reference) and i
Sqref
(the torque reference). At this point, this
control structure shows an interesting advantage: it can be used to control either
synchronous or induction machines by simply changing the flux reference and obtaining
rotor flux position. As in synchronous permanent magnet motors, the rotor flux is fixed
(determined by the magnets) there is no need to create one. Hence, when controlling a
PMSM, i
Sdref
should be set to zero. As induction motors need a rotor flux creation in order
to operate, the flux reference must not be zero. This conveniently solves one of the major
drawbacks of the “classic” control structures: the portability from asynchronous to
synchronous drives. The torque command i
Sqref
could be the output of the speed regulator
when we use a speed FOC. The outputs of the current regulators are v
Sdref
and v
Sqref
; they
are applied to the inverse Park transformation. The outputs of this projection are v
S
α
ref
and
v
S
β
ref
which are the components of the stator vector voltage in the α,β stationary
orthogonal reference frame. These are the inputs of the Space Vector PWM. The outputs
of this block are the signals that drive the inverter. Note that both Park and inverse Park
transformations need the rotor flux position. Obtaining this rotor flux position depends on
the AC machine type (synchronous or asynchronous machine). Rotor flux position
considerations are made in a following paragraph.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 7
3.3 The input for the FOC
Fundamental requirements for the FOC are a knowledge of two phase currents (as the
motor is starconnected, the third phase current is also known, since i i i 0
a b c
+ + · ), and
the rotor flux position.
3.3.1 Current sampling
The measured phase currents i
a
and i
b
are sampled and converted by an A/D converter.
The correct working of the FOC depends on the true measurement of these currents.
3.3.2 Rotor flux position
Knowledge of the rotor flux position is the core of the FOC. In fact if there is an error
in this variable the rotor flux is not aligned with daxis and i
Sd
and i
Sq
are incorrect flux and
torque components of the stator current. The following diagram shows the (a,b,c), (α,β)
and (d,q) reference frames, and the correct position of the rotor flux, the stator current
and stator voltage space vector that rotates with d,q reference at synchronous speed.
ψ
R
θ
α·a
β
i
S
d
q
b
c
v
S
Figure 5: Current, voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d,q rotating reference
frame and their relationship with a,b,c and a,b stationary reference frame
The measure of the rotor flux position is different if we consider synchronous or induction
motor.
• In the synchronous machine the rotor speed is equal to the rotor flux speed. Then θ
(rotor flux position) is directly measured by position sensor or by integration of rotor
speed [1].
• In the induction machine the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (there is a
slip speed), then it needs a particular method to calculate θ. The basic method is the
use of the current model [1][2][3] which needs two equations of the motor model in d,q
reference frame.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 8
3.4 Conclusion
Thanks to FOC it becomes possible to control, directly and separately, the torque and
flux of AC machines. Field Orientated Controlled AC machines thus obtain every DC
machine advantage: instantaneous control of the separate quantities allowing accurate
transient and steady state management. In addition to this advantage, Field Orientated
Controlled AC machines solve the mechanical commutation problems inherent with DC
machines. TMS320F240, by providing high CPU power and highly versatile motor control
dedicated peripherals, makes the use of DC machines obsolete in terms of power
conversion efficiency and system reliability, when compared with FOC AC machines.
4. The PI regulator
An electrical drive based on the Field Orientated Control needs two constants as control
parameters: the torque component reference I
Sqref
and the flux component reference I
Sdrefef
.
The classic numerical PI (Proportional and Integral) regulator is well suited to regulating
the torque and flux feedback to the desired values as it is able to reach constant
references, by correctly setting both the P term (K
pi
) and the I term (K
i
) which are
respectively responsible for the error sensibility and for the steady state error. The
numerical expression of the PI regulator is as follows:
U K e K e e
k pi k i k n
n
k
· + +
·
−
∑
0
1
which can be represented by the following figure:
Kpi
Ki
Z
1
y
refk
y
fbk
U
k
e
k
x
i
Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure
According to [4], the limiting point is that during normal operation, or during the tests,
large reference value variations or large disturbances may occur, resulting in saturation
and overflow of the regulator variables and output. If they are not controlled, this kind of
nonlinearity damages the dynamic performance of the system. To solve this problem,
one solution is to add to the previous structure a correction of the integral component as
depicted in the following diagram:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 9
Kpi
Ki
Z
1
y
refk
y
fbk
U
k
e
k
x
i
Kcor
U
1k
Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term
The integral term correction algorithm in a high level language is given below:
INPUT y y
e =y y
u =x +K e
u =u
IF u >u THEN u =u
IF u u THEN u =u
OUTPUT u
e =u u
x =x +K e +K e
refk fbk
k refk fbk
k i pi k
lk k
k lk
k lk
lk
lk k lk
i i i k cor lk
,
max max
min min
<
With u
max
, u
min
we mean the limitations of the output variable.
5. The Space Vector PWM
5.1 The 3phase Inverter
The structure of a typical 3phase power inverter is shown in Figure 8, where V
A
V
B
, V
C
are the voltages applied to the starconnected motor windings, and where V
DC
is the
continuous inverter input voltage.
0 1 2
O
+

V
DC
Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 10
The six switches can be power BJT, GTO, IGBT etc. The ONOFF sequence of all these
devices must respect the following conditions:
• three of the switches must always be ON and three always OFF.
• the upper and the lower switches of the same leg are driven with two complementary
pulsed signals. In this way no vertical conduction is possible, providing care is taken to
ensure that there is no overlap in the power switch transitions.
The next paragraph presents a technique for generating such pulsed signals.
5.2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)
Space Vector PWM supplies the AC machine with the desired phase voltages. The
SVPWM [5] method of generating the pulsed signals fits the above requirements and
minimizes the harmonic contents. Note that the harmonic contents determine the copper
losses of the machine which account for a major portion of the machine losses. Taking
into consideration the two constraints quoted above there are eight possible
combinations for the switch commands. These eight switch combinations determine eight
phase voltage configurations. The diagram below depicts these combinations.
( ) V 000
0
( ) V 111
7
1º
2º
3º
4º
5º
6º
( ) V 001
1
( ) V 011
3
( ) V 011
4
( ) V 010
2
( ) V 101
5
( ) V 110
6
α
β
Figure 9: SVPWM, vectors and sectors
The vectors divide the plan into six sectors. Depending on the sector that the voltage
reference is in, two adjacent vectors are chosen. The binary representations of two
adjacent basic vectors differ in only one bit, so that only one of the upper transistors
switches when the switching pattern moves from one vector to the adjacent one. The two
vectors are time weighted in a sample period T to produce the desired output voltage.
Assuming that the reference vector V
ref
_
is in the 3° sector, we have the following situation:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 11
T
T
V
6
6
−
V
ref
−
T
T
V
4
4
−
( ) V
4
−
100
( ) V
6
110
−
Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors
Where T
4
and T
6
are the times during which the vectors V
_
4
, V
_
6
are applied and T
0
the
time during which the zero vectors are applied. When the reference voltage (output of the
inverse Park transformation) and the sample periods are known, the following system
makes it possible to determine the uncertainties T
4
,T
6
and T
0
.
T T T T
V
T
T
V
T
T
V
ref
· + +
· +
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
4 6 0
4
4
6
6
_ _ _
Under these constraints the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a hexagon
whose vertices are formed by the tips of the eight vectors. The generated space vector
PWM waveforms are symmetrical with respect to the middle of each PWM period [3]. The
diagram shows the waveforms in the example presented above.
T
0
/4 T
6
/2 T
6
/2 T
0
/4 T
0
/4 T
6
/4 T
4
/4 T
0
/4
V
0
V
6
V
4
V
7
V
7
V
6
V
4
V
0
T
t
t
t
0
1
2
Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3
The following diagram shows the pattern of SVPWM for each sector:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 12
3°
1°
5°
4°
6°
2°
V
4
( 100)
V
6
( 110) V
2
( 010)
V
3
( 011)
V
1
( 001) V
5
( 101)
α
β
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM, pattern
In conclusion, the inputs for the SVPWM are the reference vector components (v
α
Sr
, v
β
Sr
)
and the outputs are the times to apply each of the relevant sector limiting vectors.
5.3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM
The SVPWM generates minimum harmonic distortion of the currents in the winding
of 3phase AC motor. SV Modulation also provides a more efficient use of the
supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation methods. In fact, with
conventional sinusoidal modulation [7][8][9] in which the sinusoidal signals are compared
with a triangular carrier, we know that the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a
circle with a radius of
1
2
V
DC
. In the SV modulation it can be shown that the length of each
of the six vectors is
2
3
V
DC
. In steady state the reference vector magnitude might be
constant. This fact makes the SV modulation reference vector locus smaller than the
hexagon described above. This locus narrows itself to the circle inscribed within the
hexagon, thus having a radius of
1
3
V
DC
. In Figure 13 below the different reference
vector loci are presented.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 13
α·a
b
c
conventional
sinusoidal PWM
Space Vector PWM
O L
M
N
OL=2/3V
DC
OM=1/sqrt(3)V
DC
ON=1/2V
DC
Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM
Therefore, the maximum output voltage based on the Space Vector theory is
2
3
( )
OM
ON
times as large as that of the conventional sinusoidal modulation. This explains why, with
SVPWM, we have a more efficient use of the supply voltage than with the sinusoidal
PWM method.
6. Conclusion
This paper dealt with the Field Orientated Control of threephase AC machines. Following
a description of common major drawbacks of classic control structures it has been shown
how the Field Orientated Control overcomes these deficiencies and what kind of benefits
Field Orientated Controlled AC drives can bring. By explaining in detail each of the FOC
modules necessary this paper presents a clear introduction to efficient vector control of
AC drives. By providing high CPU power and vector control dedicated peripherals in one
single TMS320F240 chip, and by giving references to the necessary software modules,
Texas Instruments addresses every startup requirement and allows users of the DSP
Controller rapidly to commence development of a system based on vector control with
the TMS320F240.
References
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 14
References
[1] F. Parasiliti, “Appunti delle lezioni di Azionamenti Elettrici: Controllo Vettoriale ad
Orientamento di Campo”, Università degli Studi di L’Aquila
[2] R. Di Gabriele, F. Parasiliti, M. Tursini, “Digital Field Oriented Control for induction
motors: implementation and experimental results”, Universities Power Engineering
Conference (UPEC’97)
[3] Riccardo Di Gabriele, “Controllo vettoriale di velocità di un motore asincrono
mediante il Filtro di Kalman Esteso”, Tesi di Laurea, Università degli Studi di
L’Aquila, Anno Accademico 199798
[4] J.P. Favre, “Correction de la compsante intégrale de régulateurs digitaux en cas
de limitation”, EPF Lausanne
[5] A. Ometto, “Modulation Techniques”, Università degli Studi di L’Aquila
[6] L.Zhang, C. Wathanasarn, F. Hardan, “An efficient MicroprocessorBased Pulse
Width Modulator using Space Vector Modulation Strategy”, IEEE 1994
[7] Satoshi Ogasawara, Hirofumi Akagi, Akira Nabae, “A novel PWM scheme of
Voltage Source Inverters based on Space Vector Theory”, EPE Aachen 1989
[8] Joachim Holtz, “Pulsewidth ModulationA Survey”, IEEE 1992
[9] Alberto J. Pollmann, “Software Pulsewidth Modulation for µP Control of AC
Drives”, IEEE 1986 Transactions on industry applications, Vol. IA
22,NO.4,July/August 1986
[10] Werner Leonard, “Control of Electrical Drives”, 2nd Completely Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Springer
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 15
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 16
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 17
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 18
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............1 The (a................1 The 3phase Inverter ............... 4 3....3............ 7 3....................................... 3 3........... The Space Vector PWM ........................................b.......3 The (d...........................................................................................................2 The (α..........1 Space Vector definition and projection . 7 3.............................................................. The PI regulator ......................q)>(α.......................................... 10 5.....β)>(d.... 5 3...... 13 References .................................................... Introduction.............................................. 2 3................ Conclusion.........................................................................1.............β) projection (Clarke transformation) .......................β) projection (inverse Park transformation) .......3 The input for the FOC ..........................................3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM...............................................c)>(α....... 1 3............1.... 12 6.............................1 Current sampling ....................................................................................................................................... 9 5....................................................................... 14 Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iii ............1........................................... 8 4................................3.................2 The basic scheme for the FOC ....................... Classic AC drives...................................2 Rotor flux position............2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)...................... Field Orientated Control.......................................q) projection (Park transformation) ................... 3 3........................................... 7 3............. 1 2........ 9 5....4 Conclusion ....Contents Contents 1...................................... 8 5........................................... 5 3...................................
.b...........................................................b) and in the d... 4 Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor.......Contents List of Figures Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a.......q rotating reference frame and their relationship with a... 7 Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure .q rotating reference frame................................................. 9 Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor...................... voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d....... 12 Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM ................ 9 Figure 9: SVPWM............................................................... 13 Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iv ....c and a.............. 11 Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3 ...........................................................................................................c).. 10 Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors. 8 Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term........................... vectors and sectors .........................................b................. 11 Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM..... 4 Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a........................................b stationary reference frame .............b).............................................................................. 6 Figure 5: Current.... 3 Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a.................................................................................................. pattern ...........
The most common of these accurate vector controls is presented in this document: the Field Orientated Control. came to market it has been possible to realize far more precise digital vector control algorithms.Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors ABSTRACT The principle of vector control of electrical drives is based on the control of both the magnitude and the phase of each phase current and voltage. These technological improvements have enabled the development of really effective AC drive control with ever lower power dissipation hardware and ever more accurate control structures. a digital implementation which demonstrates the capability of performing direct torque control. the transformation of a three phase speed and time dependent system into a two coordinate time invariant system and effective Pulse Width Modulation pattern generation. These different aspects are discussed in the following chapters. This document describes the most efficient form of vector control scheme: the Field Orientated Control. 1. In most of the classic AC drives the generation of the three sine waves is based on motor electromechanical characteristics and on an equivalent model for the motor in its steady state. such as the TMS320F240 from TI. leads to high dynamic performance in terms of response times and power conversion. For as long as this type of control considers the three phase system as three independent systems the control will remain analog and thus present several drawbacks. the control looks like three separate single phase system controls rather than one control of a three phase system. Furthermore. Classic AC drives AC motor control structures generally apply three 120º spatially displaced sinusoidal voltages to the three stator phases. the control of AC machine acquires every advantage of DC machine control and frees itself from the mechanical commutation drawbacks. this control structure. It is based on three major points: the machine current and voltage space vectors. The electrical drive controls become more accurate in the sense that not only are the DC current and voltage controlled but also the three phase currents and voltages are managed by socalled vector controls. of handling system limitations and of achieving higher power conversion efficiency. 2. Furthermore. Thanks to these factors. Some major common drawbacks are presented in this chapter [1]: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 1 . by achieving a very accurate steady state and transient control. Introduction During the last few years the field of controlled electrical drives has undergone rapid expansion due mainly to the advantages of semiconductors in both power and signal electronics and culminating in microelectronic microprocessors and DSPs. Since high computational power silicon devices.
Detailed explanations and references to other helpful documents gives the reader a good understanding of the control structure and of the immediate benefits of such a solution. No consideration of the phase interactions. Additionally. The FOC thus solves the classic scheme problems.• The machine models and characteristics used are valid only in steady state. in the following ways: • the ease of reaching constant reference (torque component and flux component of the stator current) • the ease of applying direct torque control because in the (d. This control solution overcomes each of these drawbacks and thus improves the overall effectiveness of the AC drive. This control is based on projections which transform a threephase time and speed dependent system into a two coordinate (d and q coordinates) time invariant system. This makes the control accurate in every working operation (steady state and transient) and independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model. We can then control the torque by controlling the torque component of stator current vector. These projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC machine control. the control structure must be dedicated according to motor type (asynchronous • or synchronous). This causes the control to allow high peak voltage and current transients. 3. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 2 . and hysteresis controllers introduce high bandwidth noise into the system that is hard to filter out. The following chapters present the Field Orientated Control of AC drives. Field Orientated Control The Field Orientated Control (FOC) [1][3] consists of controlling the stator currents represented by a vector. Field orientated controlled machines need two constants as input references: the torque component (aligned with the q coordinate) and the flux component (aligned with d coordinate). Finally. • Great difficulty in controlling the variables with sinusoidal references: PI regulators can not perform a sinusoidal regulation without damaging the sinusoidal référence. • No three phase system imbalance management. As Field Orientated Control is simply based on projections the control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities.q) reference frame the expression of the torque is: m ∝ ψ RiSq By maintaining the amplitude of the rotor flux ( ψ R ) at a fixed value we have a linear relationship between torque and torque component (iSq). These damage not only the drive dynamic performance but also the power conversion efficiency. the power components must be oversized to withstand the transient electrical spikes.
β).b. The following diagram shows the stator current complex space vector: 2 2 j π 3 4 j π 3 _ b iS αib α2ic ia a c Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a.3. Assuming that ia.1.c)⇒(α. the space vector can be defined as follows.c) where (a.b. This current space vector depicts the three phase sinusoidal system.1 The (a. ib. currents and fluxes of ACmotors can be analyzed in terms of complex space vectors [1][6]. This transformation can be split into two steps: • (a.β) (the Clarke transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time variant system • (α. represent the spatial operators.b. Assuming that the axis a and the axis α are in the same direction we have the following vector diagram: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 3 .q) (the Park transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time invariant system This is explained in the following chapter.β) projection (Clarke transformation) The space vector can be reported in another reference frame with only two orthogonal axis called (α.β)⇒(d. then the complex stator current vector i S is defined by: i S = ia + αib + α 2 i c where α = e and α = e .c)>(α. 3. With regard to the currents.c) are the three phase system axes.b. It still needs to be transformed into a two time invariant coordinate system. ic are the instantaneous currents in the stator _ phases.1 Space Vector definition and projection The threephase voltages.
the relationship from the two reference frame: q β iSβ iSq iS θ iSα ΨR d iSd α=a Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a.β) two dimension orthogonal system is presented below. this projection modifies a two phase orthogonal system (α.q) projection (Park transformation) This is the most important transformation in the FOC.b β iSβ iS iSα α=a c Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a.q rotating reference frame. the next diagram shows.β)>(d. i Sβ 3. We obtain a two i Sα coordinate system that still depends on time and speed. for the current vector.1.2 The (α. If we consider the d axis aligned with the rotor flux.q rotating reference frame Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 4 .b) The projection that modifies the three phase system into the (α.b) and in the d. i Sα = i a 1 2 i Sβ = 3 i a + 3 ib for a TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report (BPRA048).β) in the d. In fact.
The flux and torque components of the current vector are determined by the following equations: i Sd = i Sα cosθ + i Sβ sin θ i Sq = −i Sα sin θ + i Sβ cosθ These components depend on the current vector (α. For TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report i Sd (BPRA048). if we know the right rotor flux position then. by this projection.where θ is the rotor flux position.β) components and on the rotor flux position. 3.q component becomes a constant. we introduce from this voltage transformation only the equation that modifies the voltages in d. 3. the d.2 The basic scheme for the FOC The following diagram summarizes the basic scheme of torque control with FOC [1][2][3]: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 5 . We obtain a two coordinate system with the following characteristics: i Sq • two coordinate time invariant system • with iSd (flux component) and iSq (torque component) the direct torque control is possible and easy.q rotating reference frame in a two phase orthogonal system: v Sαref = v Sdref cosθ − v Sqref sin θ v Sβref = v Sdref sin θ + v Sqref cosθ _ The outputs of this block are the components of the reference vector that we call V r .β) projection (inverse Park transformation) Here.q)>(α. For TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report (BPRA048).1. _ V r is the voltage space vector to be applied to the motor phases.3 The (d.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 6 .q α. iSdref should be set to zero.β stationary orthogonal reference frame.c Clarke t. they are applied to the inverse Park transformation. this control structure shows an interesting advantage: it can be used to control either synchronous or induction machines by simply changing the flux reference and obtaining rotor flux position. These measurements feed the Clarke transformation module. As in synchronous permanent magnet motors.q rotating reference frame.β iSβ ia ib a.β vSαref vSβref θ SV PWM VDC 3phase Inverter iSq iSd d. Note that both Park and inverse Park transformations need the rotor flux position. As induction motors need a rotor flux creation in order to operate. the flux reference must not be zero.iSqref iSdref  PI PI vSqref vSdref Park 1 t. Hence.q α.b. The outputs of this projection are designated i Sα and iSβ.β Park t. The outputs of the current regulators are vSdref and vSqref. At this point. Rotor flux position considerations are made in a following paragraph. Obtaining this rotor flux position depends on the AC machine type (synchronous or asynchronous machine). iSα α. These two components of the current are the inputs of the Park transformation that gives the current in the d. The torque command iSqref could be the output of the speed regulator when we use a speed FOC. when controlling a PMSM. The outputs of this projection are vSαref and vSβref which are the components of the stator vector voltage in the α. The outputs of this block are the signals that drive the inverter. the rotor flux is fixed (determined by the magnets) there is no need to create one. d. These are the inputs of the Space Vector PWM. This conveniently solves one of the major drawbacks of the “classic” control structures: the portability from asynchronous to synchronous drives. AC motor Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor Two motor phase currents are measured. The iSd and iSq components are compared to the references iSdref (the flux reference) and iSqref (the torque reference).
β) and (d. • In the induction machine the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (there is a slip speed). Then θ (rotor flux position) is directly measured by position sensor or by integration of rotor speed [1]. • In the synchronous machine the rotor speed is equal to the rotor flux speed.c and a.b. the stator current and stator voltage space vector that rotates with d. b q β vS iS ψR θ d α=a c Figure 5: Current.c).b stationary reference frame The measure of the rotor flux position is different if we consider synchronous or induction motor. The basic method is the use of the current model [1][2][3] which needs two equations of the motor model in d.2 Rotor flux position Knowledge of the rotor flux position is the core of the FOC. since i a + i b + i c = 0 ). voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d.3. 3.1 Current sampling The measured phase currents ia and ib are sampled and converted by an A/D converter. The following diagram shows the (a. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 7 . the third phase current is also known. In fact if there is an error in this variable the rotor flux is not aligned with daxis and iSd and iSq are incorrect flux and torque components of the stator current. and the correct position of the rotor flux.3. 3. The correct working of the FOC depends on the true measurement of these currents. and the rotor flux position.q reference frame.3 The input for the FOC Fundamental requirements for the FOC are a knowledge of two phase currents (as the motor is starconnected. (α.q) reference frames.q rotating reference frame and their relationship with a.3. then it needs a particular method to calculate θ.b.q reference at synchronous speed.
4 Conclusion Thanks to FOC it becomes possible to control. when compared with FOC AC machines. resulting in saturation and overflow of the regulator variables and output. the limiting point is that during normal operation. TMS320F240. The PI regulator An electrical drive based on the Field Orientated Control needs two constants as control parameters: the torque component reference ISqref and the flux component reference ISdrefef. The numerical expression of the PI regulator is as follows: U k = K pi ek + K i ek + k −1 n=0 ∑ en which can be represented by the following figure: yrefk yfbk Ki ek Kpi xi Z1 Uk Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure According to [4]. makes the use of DC machines obsolete in terms of power conversion efficiency and system reliability. by providing high CPU power and highly versatile motor control dedicated peripherals. one solution is to add to the previous structure a correction of the integral component as depicted in the following diagram: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 8 . Field Orientated Controlled AC machines thus obtain every DC machine advantage: instantaneous control of the separate quantities allowing accurate transient and steady state management. large reference value variations or large disturbances may occur. by correctly setting both the P term (Kpi) and the I term (Ki) which are respectively responsible for the error sensibility and for the steady state error. or during the tests. In addition to this advantage. To solve this problem. 4. the torque and flux of AC machines. If they are not controlled. this kind of nonlinearity damages the dynamic performance of the system. The classic numerical PI (Proportional and Integral) regulator is well suited to regulating the torque and flux feedback to the desired values as it is able to reach constant references.3. Field Orientated Controlled AC machines solve the mechanical commutation problems inherent with DC machines. directly and separately.
The Space Vector PWM 5. VC are the voltages applied to the starconnected motor windings. y fbk ek =y refk y fbk u k =xi +K pi ek ulk =u k IF uk >umax THEN ulk =u max IF uk < umin THEN ulk =u min ulk elk =u k ulk xi =xi +Ki ek +K cor elk OUTPUT With umax.yrefk yfbk ek Kpi xi Ki Z1 Uk U1k Kcor Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term The integral term correction algorithm in a high level language is given below: INPUT y refk .1 The 3phase Inverter The structure of a typical 3phase power inverter is shown in Figure 8. 5. where VA VB. and where VDC is the continuous inverter input voltage. VDC +  0 1 2 O Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 9 . umin we mean the limitations of the output variable.
so that only one of the upper transistors switches when the switching pattern moves from one vector to the adjacent one. vectors and sectors The vectors divide the plan into six sectors. The diagram below depicts these combinations. we have the following situation: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 10 . Depending on the sector that the voltage reference is in. The next paragraph presents a technique for generating such pulsed signals. • the upper and the lower switches of the same leg are driven with two complementary pulsed signals. _ Assuming that the reference vector Vref is in the 3° sector. The two vectors are time weighted in a sample period T to produce the desired output voltage. Note that the harmonic contents determine the copper losses of the machine which account for a major portion of the machine losses. two adjacent vectors are chosen. providing care is taken to ensure that there is no overlap in the power switch transitions. Taking into consideration the two constraints quoted above there are eight possible combinations for the switch commands. 5. V2 (010 ) β 1º V6 (110 ) 5º V3 (011) V7 (111) V0 (000) 3º V4 (011) α 4º 6º V1 (001) 2º V5 (101) Figure 9: SVPWM. The binary representations of two adjacent basic vectors differ in only one bit. In this way no vertical conduction is possible.2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) Space Vector PWM supplies the AC machine with the desired phase voltages. IGBT etc. The ONOFF sequence of all these devices must respect the following conditions: • three of the switches must always be ON and three always OFF. The SVPWM [5] method of generating the pulsed signals fits the above requirements and minimizes the harmonic contents.The six switches can be power BJT. These eight switch combinations determine eight phase voltage configurations. GTO.
T = T4 + T6 + T0 _ T4 _ T6 _ V ref = V 4 + V 6 T T Under these constraints the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a hexagon whose vertices are formed by the tips of the eight vectors.T6 and T0. The generated space vector PWM waveforms are symmetrical with respect to the middle of each PWM period [3]. The diagram shows the waveforms in the example presented above. 0 t 1 t 2 t T0/4 V0 T6/2 V6 T6/2 V4 T0/4 V7 T T0/4 V7 T6/4 V6 T4/4 V4 T0/4 V0 Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3 The following diagram shows the pattern of SVPWM for each sector: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 11 .V6 − (110) − Vref T6 − V6 T T4 − V T 4 V4 − (100) Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors _ _ Where T4 and T6 are the times during which the vectors V 4 . the following system makes it possible to determine the uncertainties T4 . V 6 are applied and T0 the time during which the zero vectors are applied. When the reference voltage (output of the inverse Park transformation) and the sample periods are known.
In fact. thus having a radius of V DC . This locus narrows itself to the circle inscribed within the 1 hexagon. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 12 . In the SV modulation it can be shown that the length of each 2 2 of the six vectors is V DC . SV Modulation also provides a more efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation methods. In Figure 13 below the different reference 3 vector loci are presented. we know that the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a 1 circle with a radius of VDC .3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM The SVPWM generates minimum harmonic distortion of the currents in the winding of 3phase AC motor. In steady state the reference vector magnitude might be 3 constant. This fact makes the SV modulation reference vector locus smaller than the hexagon described above. the inputs for the SVPWM are the reference vector components (vαSr. with conventional sinusoidal modulation [7][8][9] in which the sinusoidal signals are compared with a triangular carrier. vβSr) and the outputs are the times to apply each of the relevant sector limiting vectors.V 2 (010) β 0 1 2 0 1 2 V 6 (110) 5° 1° 3° 0 1 2 0 V 3 (011) 4° 0 1 2 6° 2° 0 1 2 1 2 α V 4 (100) V 1 (001) V 5 (101) Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM. 5. pattern In conclusion.
with SVPWM. the maximum output voltage based on the Space Vector theory is 2 OM ( ) 3 ON times as large as that of the conventional sinusoidal modulation. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 13 . we have a more efficient use of the supply voltage than with the sinusoidal PWM method. Following a description of common major drawbacks of classic control structures it has been shown how the Field Orientated Control overcomes these deficiencies and what kind of benefits Field Orientated Controlled AC drives can bring. and by giving references to the necessary software modules. Texas Instruments addresses every startup requirement and allows users of the DSP Controller rapidly to commence development of a system based on vector control with the TMS320F240. 6. By providing high CPU power and vector control dedicated peripherals in one single TMS320F240 chip. This explains why. Conclusion This paper dealt with the Field Orientated Control of threephase AC machines. By explaining in detail each of the FOC modules necessary this paper presents a clear introduction to efficient vector control of AC drives.b Space Vector PWM OL=2/3VDC OM=1/sqrt(3)VDC ON=1/2VDC L M O N α=a conventional sinusoidal PWM c Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM Therefore.
“Digital Field Oriented Control for induction motors: implementation and experimental results”. IEEE 1992 Alberto J. “A novel PWM scheme of Voltage Source Inverters based on Space Vector Theory”. Anno Accademico 199798 J. “Pulsewidth ModulationA Survey”. IEEE 1986 Transactions on industry applications. Akira Nabae. Università degli Studi di L’Aquila. Hardan. 2nd Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition. EPF.References References [1] [2] F.Zhang. “An efficient MicroprocessorBased Pulse Width Modulator using Space Vector Modulation Strategy”. “Modulation Techniques”. Di Gabriele. Hirofumi Akagi. Springer Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 14 . Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC’97) Riccardo Di Gabriele. “Appunti delle lezioni di Azionamenti Elettrici: Controllo Vettoriale ad Orientamento di Campo”. C. EPE Aachen 1989 Joachim Holtz. M. Ometto. “Correction de la compsante intégrale de régulateurs digitaux en cas de limitation”. “Software Pulsewidth Modulation for µP Control of ACDrives”. Università degli Studi di L’Aquila L. Università degli Studi di L’Aquila R.4.Lausanne A. Wathanasarn.July/August 1986 [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Werner Leonard. Parasiliti. IEEE 1994 Satoshi Ogasawara.P. Tesi di Laurea. Vol. F. Favre. Tursini. Pollmann. Parasiliti. IA22. F. “Controllo vettoriale di velocità di un motore asincrono mediante il Filtro di Kalman Esteso”. “Control of Electrical Drives”.NO.
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