Selecting a statistical test There are two types of test data and consequently different types of analysis.

As the table below shows, parametric data has an underlying normal distribution which allows for more conclusions to be drawn as the shape can be mathematically described. Anything else is non-parametric. Parametric Assumed distribution Assumed variance Typical data Data set relationships Usual central measure Benefits Tests Choosing Correlation test Independent measures, 2 groups Independent measures, >2 groups Repeated measures, 2 conditions Repeated measures, >2 conditions Choosing parametric test Choosing the test How many separate samples? 1 How many scores for each subject? Choosing parametric test Pearson Independent-measures t-test One-way, independent-measures ANOVA Matched-pair t-test One-way, repeated measures ANOVA Choosing a non-parametric test Spearman Mann-Whitney test Kruskal-Wallis test Wilcoxon test Friedman's test Normal Homogeneous Ratio or Interval Independent Mean Can draw more conclusions Non-parametric Any Any Ordinal or Nominal Any Median Simplicity; Less affected by outliers

Is standard deviation known? 1 2 >2 2 Y N Y >2 N Y N z-score Single-sample t-test

Matched-pair t-test Repeated-measures ANOVA Matched-pair t-test Independent-measures t-test Repeated-measures ANOVA How many independent variables? 1 2 Single-factor ANOVA Two-factor ANOVA

Matched samples? (N = independent)

Matched samples? (N = independent)

Choosing a non-parametric test Choosing the test How many separate samples? How many scores for each subject? 1 1 2 How many measurement categories? 2 Binomial test 2+ Chi-square test for goodness of fit Can difference scores be ranked? Y Wilcoxon test N Sign test Can difference scores be ranked?

2

Matched samples? (N = independent) Y

Y N Y Y N

Wilcoxon test Sign test Median test Mann-Whitney test Chi-square test for independence

Can scores be ranked with few tied values? (independent samples only) N

Can scores be ranked with few tied values? (independent samples only) >2 Y N N Median test Chi-square test for independence Krushkal-Wallas test