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ivav E1ttXELQ'IJ.l.utia».l:xA'IQO, 3tOAU O'XAT)QO. Y3tEQf}OAU«l oxA'IQO; 0 xaeiva~ ea'to XQCVEL, a<p0'\3, 03tO}~ AiEL EUO'tOXa o PaOUA BavEyxiJ.l. «E1tL'tQi'i"tE vo EX'tCeEV'taL OA£~ Ot yvooJ.l.E~, ea f}QOUJ.l.E tQ03tO va avayvroQCOO'UJ.l.E tL~ bLxi~ J.l.ap>. Fur to Myo auto oi «PE3tOQtEQ xroQ(~ oUvoQa» O'UVEQYa.O'tT)XQv J.I.E 't~ ExboOE~ La Decouverte yta vc ExboeE( auto to 6,floAo, ax6J.1.a XaL yta EJ.I.6.~, f}L~ACo.

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14

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KEcI>AAAIO I

noix EAEYE>EPIA;

H ErrEfPAMMENH ~TO AMEPIKANIKO ~VvtaYl-ta aQX~ O'IJI-t<pwva I-tE tT)v oJtoLa «ll EAEu8EQLa tOO Ttinou ELVaL a:n:6 to. LOXUQ6tEQa JtQOJtVQYLa tT)~ EAEu8EQLa~ XaL bEV unoQEL JtotE va JtEQLOQ~EtaL JtaQu 1-t6v0 a:n:6 bE<JJtotLXE~ XU~EQ~OEL~» JtQEJtEL va E~EtaO'tEL ~~EQa a:n:6 000 OXOJtLl~~:

a) Y~Q~E XaL JtaQal-tEVEL 6JtAO EVUvtLa OE XU8E 1-t0Q~ ruQawLa~.

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.A3t6QQOLa tll~ EAEv8EQll~ avtaAAay~~ xat tll~ EAEv8eQll~ XUXAo<pOQCa~ aya8wv XaL av8Qomwv, II EAEv8EQll EX<pQaOfJ aJtELAELtaL ~l-tEQa aJt6 to El-tJtOQEUl-tatLX6 JtVEVl-ta rtou JtQwtOO'tUtT)OE OtT) YEVVfJ~ tT)~. 'O,tL tT)V UVOLYE JtaALU ~l-tEQa tT)v XAELbWVEL, xa8w~ O<PCYYEL yVQW a.Jt6 tOY X60l-t0

o XAOL6~ rou xEQbou~. 17

BANEfKEM

norx EAEYSEPIA;

To 8Ea!W tOU xoouou to O:n:OLO :n:aQax.oAou80uIlE ro; :n:a8rJtLx.oL 8eatE;, Ila; :n:QoacpEQEtm YLa vc to boullE x.m vc to ax.ouaoullE aUllcprova IlE, qxuvousvixd, :n:mx.CAa aEvaQLa, nou llaAAov U:n:rJQEtOUV to. aUIlCPEQovta nov ax.rJv08EtWV x.m rcov EvtoAoMXrov tOU;, :n:aQa to. bLx.a 110.;·

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o aywva; x.ata trJ; tuQavv(a;, YLa tOY onoto x.allaQw-

VEL rJ EAEu8EQ(a tOU Myou x.m trJ; axEtVrJ;, E(vm a.:n:atrJ av 0 :n:OA(trJ; bEY lla8EL vc E:TtLartllaLvEL x.m vc bLax.QLVEL or :n:ArJQOCPOQ(E;, IlE tL; O:n:OLE; tOU U:n:EQCPOQ'tWvouv to. llatLa x.m to. autLa X.a8rJIlEQLva, os tL auvrolloaLE; O'UIlCPEQovtrov u:n:axoooov, ~ touAaXLO'tov :n:w; bLataaaovtm, X.atEUSUvOvtm, :n:aQalloQcpWvOvtm.

~EV :n:QE:n:EL vc ayvooUllE :n:ro;, ax.0lla X.L orev bLOXEtEuO-

vroi xUlla, 110.; :n:QoacpEQovtm IlE trJ auaxEuaa(a nov MME. OCPECAEL; vn tL; ;EtUA(;EL; x.m vc tL; ;EbLaM;EL; o:n:ro; ax.QL~w; ;EtuALyovtm x.m ;EbLaMyovtm to. x.atavaArotLx.a :n:Qo·Lovta :n:ou EV(OtE u:n:~Q;av, auxva ECvm x.m 80. yCvouv YQ~yoQa axou:n:(bLa. nate, IlEta trJ bLa.Ao~, bEY u:n:aQXEL to :n:aQaIlLx.QO rtou, YEvvwVta; trJv EA;rJ, mv a:n:w8rJarJ ~ rnv abLacpOQ(a, vn IlrJv !l:TtOQE( vc u:n:ox.Aa:n:E(, vc a.:n:ox.ataO'ta- 8E( ~ vc IlEtaMax8E(, :n:QOX.ELIlEVOU vn u:n:rJQE~aEL to rrtoIlLx.o x.m to auMOYLX.O x.aM.

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To bLx.a(rolla vn I.E; to. :n:avta, vc YQacpEL; to. :n:avta, vc ax.EcptEam to. :n:avta, vo ~M:n:EL; x.m vc ax.ou; to. :n:avta, a.:n:OQQEEL a.:n:o IlLa :n:QOrJYoUIlEVrJ a.:n:a(trJart otiuqxovc us trJv o:n:o(a bEY u:n:aQXEL oiire bLx.aLrolla OUtE EAEu8EQLa vc oxotWVEL;, vc ~aaav~EL;, vc x.ax.oIlEtaXELQ~Eam, vn x.ata.:n:LE~EL;, vc x.atavayx.a~EL;, vc x.a.tabLx.a~EL; os ALIlOx.tOVCa, vc Ex.IlEtaMEuwm.

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8Qro:rtWllo. U

KA9ENAI EXEI TO aIKAIOMA ...

H EAEu8EQ(a 'trJ~ EX<PQaOT)~ mL~aAAEL mlllEQa t'YJ 6'YJIlLoUQY(a tOOV cruv8'YJxWv, :n:OU 8a E:n:LtQE:n:OUV 'trJV a:n:EQL6QLO't'YJ XQtlOT) 'trJ~.

KEcl>AAAIO II

KAeENAl: EXEI TO L\IKAIQMA

NA EK<I>P AZET AI KAI NA L\IA.M~EI TI~ I~EE~ TOY AnOA YTQ~ EAEY8EPA

Ttnota OEveiVal tE(!O. Ka8Eva~ EXEL to 6Lxa(oolla va EX<PQa~EL xm va :n:QW~EUEL :n:Qoooo:7tLxa rnv 6:n:OLa YVWIl'YJ, rnv 6:n:OLa L6EoAoy(a, rnv 6:n:OLa 8Q'YJ<»GE(a E:n:LSuIlEL.

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'O,tL LEQO:n:OLE( <»GOtWVEL. H a:n:Ex8ELa YEVVLEtm a:n:6 'trJ AatQi[ii~-LEQo-;t:~1Ntm, to :n:m6( y(vEtm tUQavvo~, 'YJ yuva(xa aVtLxELIlEVO, 'YJ ~ootlllLa OVt6n)ta aqYl)Q'YJIlEV'YJ xooQ(~ oaQxa xm ootd,

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av8Qw:n:LV'YJ EUmo8fJoCa a:n:OQQL:n:tEL 6Ld :n:aVt6~. 21

H 4JYIIKH MAI TAIH llPOJ: "l'YJv :ne(!lt(!yew 11m; 6(vetlP oneatwl1a va yvW(!tl;OV#E W 1ravw. H 6LaQXtl~ dr.:n:a(6EUOT), :n:Qo~ tfJv onotn a:n:o~Mjtouv OL :n:EQLOOOtEQOL av- 8QOO:n:OL, EXEL oo~ xa8tlxov vn ~ava6woEL OtOV ExOtatLx6 8aUIlaoll6 tfJ~ :n:m6LXtl~ 'YJALx(a~ to :n:a80~ tou vc ll'YJv aYVOE( t(:n:Ota, t'YJ <pU<JLXtl tOU a6LaxQLo(a, rnv allEtQ'YJ aya:n:'YJ YLa tfJv EQEuva, taOEL~:n:ou ta aQ:n:aXtLx.a tl8'YJ tfJ~ E!l:7t0QEullatLXtl~ Ila~ xOLvoov(a~ tL~ OtQatOA6yfJoav O't'YJv a:n:aL<JLa x06QtfJ tOOV LEQOE;Eta<J'tlXWv xm aOtUVop,txWv 0'UV1)8ELWv.

A~ Y(VEL auVEL6'YJ0T), tl6'YJ a:n:6 't'YJv :n:LO IlLXQtl 'YJALxLa, OtL 'YJ YVWOT) tOOV ovnov xm tOOV :n:QaYllatOOV 6EV EXEL ocv Ot6- XO va '1J:n:Ota~EL, va xata6uvaOtEVOEL, va ava6EL;EL 1..01'0- XQLtE~ aAAa va aVta:n:oxQ(VEtm OE 6,tL aXQL~W~ ~'YJtaEL autti 'YJ 6'YJIlLOUQYLXtl Lxav6n)ta :n:OU E(vm (6LOV tOU av8Qw:n:OU xm vn 6LaxQ(VEL 6,tL !l:7tOQEL va Ila~ ~0'YJ8tlOEL va ~oUIlE XaAUtEQa.

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..

20 xatEU8UvEL 'YJ EyvOLa yLa IlLa xaAU'tEQrJ ~OOtl·

BANEfKEM

KAElENAl: EXEI TO MKAIQMA ...

To va avtxeaat o,le;-1:t;- tOte;- oe onuaive: ou iu; xooovJlOYQacpet;-. To va A£~ tu3tavta ()£ OTJllaCv£l6tl Mxeom to.

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22 cov xm ° x6olto~ ltCO'tEUE OtL ItltO~OE VU tL~ 8EQUltEUOEL.

BANErKEM

KA9ENAl: EXEI TO MKAJQMA ...

rtta So. btVEL 'to rtQo~ubuJJ,ta O'tll AaJ(tuQa va ~oUJ,tE XaA.mEQa xm J,tE 'to uVOLYJ,ta om YEvvmobwQta, 't'l1V aAA'l1AEYYU'l1, 'tL~ OXEOEL~ 'tQU<pEQO't'l'\'ta~, So. E~aAEL<pSEt aLYu aLYu 'l1rtQObLUSEO'I'j J,ta~ va xma<YtQE<pOUJ,tE, va xUQLaQxouJ,tE, va xmartLE~OUJ,tE, va EXJ,tE'taMEuoJ,ta<YtE.

IIAtlSO~ yvwJ,twv, rtou XSE~ axoJ,ta *av artObEx'tE~ xm mSavov xm a~LoAoYE~, O'I'jJ,tEQa 'tL~ xa'tarttvEL, arto't'l'\ J,tLa YEVLU <Yt'l1V UAA'l1, 'l1 aXQ'l10ta. OL rtEQLOOO'tEQE~ rtOAEJ,tLXE~ rou O'UQJ,toU J,tOLU~OUV tlb'l1 J,tE a'l1bLa<YtLXO xauyu rtaALu'towV.

H eA,EUSEQ'l1 Ex<pQaO'l'\ bEY rtQErtEL va 'tteE'tm ornv Urt'l1- Qwta 't'l1~ UrtEQUOmO'l'\~ 'tOU avSQwrtOU, a<pou, w~ EAEUSEQta, avtlXEL ornv EAEuSEQta rou avSQwrtou . .:lEV EtVm J,tOVUxa 0 a<pU1tVL<rttl~ 't'l'\~ O'UVEtb'l1O'l'\~ xm 0 E~UYYEAO~ 't'l'\~ a<ptirtVLO'I'j~ 't'l1~, EtVm 'l1 YAwooa nou artobtbE'tm ~avu <Yt0 ~Wvrcvc OV, 'l1 YAWooa rrou <paVEQwVEL 'tOY 'tQOrtO J,tE 'tOY ozoto ~OUJ,tE 'tOY xoouo XaL 0 'tQOrtO~ J,tE 'tOY onoto EXOUJ,tE rnv rtQOSEO'l'\ va 'tOY ~tlOOUJ,t€.

H eAev(JeQf] e,('(PQaOf] txet ff]V t,",av6ff]'fa va Otvet OTt~ Atget~ ff]V JrOtf]'u'"'ri fOV~ ag{a . .:lEv So. 1tQErtEL va O'Un~.E_!2.L J,t€ tOY J,t'l1bevLa!lo nou tOY bL~~~~_O <PE~~L(JJ,t6~:tOll-Xetll"n;o~ xaL toug~.Q~n.~ «6l<uffi!Q~~L.~~~~artQ<PEQ~ urtoYQaJ,tJ,t~EL t'l1 J,tatmo't'l'\ta rrov M~EWV, 'tOU~ a<pmQEt 't'l'\ OrtOUbULOiliia. 'tOU~, 'tOU~ aQvEt'taL O'tLbtlrtO'tE 'ttSE'tm E~W arto'to O'UO'tllJ,ta artObO'tLx6't'l1'ta~ nou 'tL~ XQ'l1aLJ,tOrtOLEt. .:lEV EtVm O'UVErtW~ €YYEVE~ O'tll AoyLXtl rou XQ'l1J,tmOOLXOVOJ,tLXoU OAOXA'l1QrotLOJ,toU, rtou EXXEVWvEL 't'l'\V UrtaQ~'l1 arto't'l'\V OUOta 't'l'\~, 'to OtL O'UJ,t~<iMEL EVEQYU ornv artWA.eLa roe votlJ,tmo~;

H eA.EUSEQta va AE~ 'to. rtUV'ta UrtUQXEL J,tovuxa orcv 'bL€xbLXEt'tm avo. rtuoa <YtLYJ,ttl. AmoavmQEt'taL orcv rtEQLOQ~Etm va xa'tavaAwVEL rtaS'l1'tLXU E'tOLJ,tE~ LME~, rtOU xcSw~ rtOMartAaOLU~OV'tm xaO'tLXU, 't'l'\V 1tVtyOUV.

IIaQaJ,tEvEL EAEuSEQta J,tOVO otrrv artobtbEL <YtL~ M~EL~ 't'l'\ ~WtlrtOu EtVm aVartoorta<Yta bEJ,tEV'l1 J,tE mv XaS'l1J,tEQLVU ~LWJ,tEV'l1 EJ,trtELQta, XWQt~ 't'l'\V onotc 'l1 yAwooa rtaywVEL xm

ytVE'taL ~UALV'll. •

Ko~oV'ta~ 'tOU~ bwJ,tou~ J,t€ 'to rtaALo O'UO'tllJ,ta EXJ,tEtUAAEU<1r]~ nou J,ta~ xmabuvuO'tEuE J,tEXQL'tWQa, artObtbouJ,tE O'tll yAWooa 't'l'\V rtOL'l1'tLXtl 't'l'\~ bLUO'ta<1r], 't'l'\V aQXLXtl 't'l'\~ MvaJ,t'l1

24 va €1t'l'\QEU~EL rnv xmuO'ta<1r] xm't'l'\ J,tOLQa'twv avSQWrtwv.

H EA€USE(?1lE~<PQa<1r] bCVEL ~Wtl O'tll YAwooa, OE aV'tCSE<1r] ll~.mYOLx.o.vQJ,!,'artou 't'l'\vxa8\.O'tu yAWaoa-VEXQtl, ~~Qtl, artO'tEAOUllEV'l1 arto aV'taUU~LJ,ta J,tE'ta~U 'tOU~ <pWVtlJ,tma, aV'tLXECJ,tEVO rtQO~ aV'taMaYtl xm 0XL UrtOXELJ,tEVLXO xm bLUrtOXELJ,tEVLXO O'tOLXEtO nou 'to YEWUEL 'l1 J,taYEta, 'l1 oaytlV'll, 'l1 rtOC'l1O'l'\. ECvm oJ,tW~ orn <pti0'l'\ 't'l'\~ YAwooa~ va QL~WVEL O't'l'\ ~Wtl W~ S€J,tEALWb'l1~ EJ,trtELQCa 't'l1~ XaS'l1J,tEQLVtl~ UrtaQ~'l1~, xm va bLa<pOQOrtOLEC 'to. rtAuoJ,tma xm'ta rtQuYJ,tma, va 'to. artoJ,taxQUVEL xm va 'to. <PEQVEL XOV'tU, aUu, ErtELbtl cetoreAEC't'l'\V XOLvtl tou~ ouoto, va J,t'l1V to. XWQ~EL rtO'tE.

H EAEuSEQta 't'l'\~ EX<PQa<1r]~ So. rtU'\jJ€L va EtVm 'to urtoxa'tuO'ta'to 't'l'\~ EAEUS€QCa~ rou rtQU't'tELV orcv 'l1 ~WV'tUVLa xm 'l1 EVEQY'l'\'tLx6't'l1'ta rtou XQU~EL So. rtQOAaJ,t~UVouv xm So. ceroSaQQuvouv 'tL~ rtaQartOLtlOEL~, ErtL<PEQOV'tU~ rnv aV'tLO'tOLxCa avuJ,twa omv abEA<pOO'UV'l1 'tWV A~EWV xm 't'l'\V abEA<pOO'UV'l1 nov avSQwrtwv.

nATI 8EAOYME NA KATAPrHl:OYME ...

KEcI>AAAIO III

o xowo; voix bELXVEL n:ro<; ELV(U aO'UVEn:E<; vc an:ayoQEuE'tUL 0 aywv uou rou XC'tA.EQ, 'to EQYO Bagatelles pour un massaCiiT;oui:.'fJ:Lv,-tii-n(!wi6x;;)).a 1'WV aO({Jwv 1'1]~ Itwv, 11 rn ava8EwQl'j'tLXa. iQY~x~~~o rnv aMl'j ~EQiava un:aQXEL avom YLa 'tL<; ~LaOYUVLxE<; wtOlpEL<; nou EX<PQa~EL 0 An;6O't0- 1..0<; IIauA.o<; x(u 'to KOQavL, YLa 'tL<; aV'tLOl')~L'tLXE<; bLa'tQL~E<; 'too aYLou IEQwvu~ou xca rou AoU8l'jQou, YLa Eva ~L~A.LO YE~a'to aVEV'tL~E<; wt01VEL<; on:w<; l'j BL~A.O<;, YLa 'tl'jv amaQwxl'j En:LbEL;l'j trov ~LUL<Yt1TtWV nou an:O'tEAoUv 'to 0UVl'j8La~Evo UA.Lxo 'tl'j<; n:A.l'jQO<pOQl'jOl')<;, YLa'to n:aV'taxoU n:aQov bLa<pl'j~LO'tLxO 1VEUbo<; X(U yLU 'toaE<; LO'tOQLXE<; aVaA.ij8ELE<; n:oo 'tL<; En:LXUQWVEL l'j En:LOl')~l'j LO'tOQLa. ELVaL XaA.U'tEQa va ~l'jv ;Exva~E O'tL, an:a; XaL En:L~A.l'j8EL, l'j A.OYOXQLaLa bEV YVWQ~EL OQLU, YLa'tL l'j l'j8LXij xa8<lQ0l') 'tQE<PE'taL wtO'tl'j bLa<p80Qa rtou Xa'tayyEMEL.

fIATI SEAOYME NA KATAPfm:OYME TH ~IQEH AOfQ TOY <I>PONHMATO~

H e).ev(Je(!{a 1'1]~ €'X({J(!aCJ1]~ eivai av(J(!w1tlVrJ a;{a axoua «ai w~ eAw(Je(!{a va ).tet 1'0 a1'lav(J(!w1'lo. OL Qa'taLO'tLXE<;, ;EVO<pO~E<;, aESLO'tLxE<;, aabLO'tLxE<;, YE~a'tE<; ~Lao<;, n:EQL<PQOVl'j'tLXE<; an:01VEL<;, EXOUV ESLaou 'to bLxaLw~a va EX<PEQOV'taL, on:w<; XaL OL E8vLxLa~oL, OL 8Ql'jaXEu'tLxE<; nsn:OL8ijaEL<;, OL ULQE'tLXE<; LbEOA.0yLE<;, OL auv'tExvLaxE<; XA.(XE<; nou 'tL<; Ev8aQQuvouv aVOLX'ta ij un:ouA.a, avaA.oya ~E 'tL<; bLaxu~avaEL<; 'tl'j<; bl'j~aywYLxij<; xa~EQn:ELa<;. OL VO~OL nou 'tL<; xU'taO'tEA.A.OUV, on:w<; 0 VO~O<; Gayssot 'tOU 1992 O'tl'j faA.A.(a, a<poQouv rnv En:L<pavELaxij n:A.EuQa nov n:Qay~a.'tWV, XWQL<; vn aYYL~ouV 'tL<; UL'tLE<;. EOQXL~OUV 'to xaxo, av'tL va 'to n:QoA.a~~avouv XUL vn 'to 8EQan:Euouv. TL~WQOuv, av'tL va Exn:mbEuouv. Ka'tabLxaO'tEa bEV ELVUL 'ta MYLa aA.A.a OL xa8E A.oyij<; n:QaSEL<;. AV'tLXE(~EVO nov bLWSEWV bEV n:QEn:EL va ELVUL OL a'tL~OL MyOL rou A.a·(xLa~ou -ELbaMw<; 8a En:QEn:E En:Lal'j<; va xa'tayyEA.A.E'taL l'j un:OUA.l'j bLE(abuaij rou; xm l'j ~aaxaQE~EVl'j n:aQouaLa rou; O'tL<; bl'j~aywYLxE<; bl'jA.waEL<; 'tl'j<; n:EA.a'tELaxij<; XaL oQ80<pQovouaa<; n:OA.L'tLxij<;- aA.A.a. OL ~LaLO'tl'j'tE<; nou bLan:QaU()uv an:Evnvn ore aya8a XaL ore a'to~a OL 8LaaME<; 'tl'j<; ~aQj3aQo-

26 'tl'j'ta<;.

LI ev 1'lo).efla~ oV1'e a1'lo(Ja(!(!vvet~ 1'1] {JJ..a'Xe{a xai 1'1]va1'tflea anayooeuovtas; 1'1]v €'X({J(!aarj 1'OV~' 1] 'XaAV'l'E(!1] 'X(!l'l'l'X1j astevavu oe tua a(J).to1'1]W eivai va 01]fltoV(!yel~ 1'1]v xatdawCJ1] 1'lOV anoteke! 1'0 avitooio 1'1]~. H ~A.axE(a, l'j aVEV'tL~o'tl'j'ta, l'j n:o'tan:ij aXE1Vl'j, ELVaL 'to rniov n:ou QEEL an:o ~La n:A.l'jYW~EVl'j EUaLa8l'jaLa. Av 'to E~ob(aEL<; va n:aQOXE'tEU'tEL, bLan:OLEL<; rqv n:A.l'jyij aV'tL va EV'ton:LaEL<; 'tL<; (U't(E<; WO'tE vc rn YLa'tQE1VEL<;. Av bEV 8EA.OU~E Eva<; n:aQaA.oYLa~o<; vn n:Qoa~aA.EL 'tEA.LXa 'tOV XOLVWVLXO LO'tO onv xaxoij8l'j<; oyXO<;, n:QEn:EL va 'tOV avaYVWQLaou~E w<; amo nou ELV(U, w<; 'to aU~w~a ~La<; abLa8wLa<; 0't0 a'to~o xm omv xowwvCa.Ka'tabLxaO'tEo bEV Elvm 'to aU~w~a aMa l'j OA.LYWQLa ~a<; va ;EQL~W.aOU~E auV8ijXE<; nou ~E'tabLbouv mv 1VWQa, 'to ceroornuc, 'tl'jv n:avouxA.a. Av 8EA.OU~E va n:a'ta;ou~E rnv rrn~La, XaA.U'tEQa va un:08aA.1Voo~E rnv En:Leu~La YLa XaA.U'tEQl'j

~wij, roerecnv mo av8Qwmvl'j. 27

BANErKEM

fIAT! 9EAOYME NA KATAPrHl:OYME ...

H eAeV()eQ{a TOV Myov anAW~ eXlPQa.l;,et, via TO XaAVUQO xat suo avxvd yta TO xetQauQo, a, Tl vnOXQvnUTat aTO aW/vla sau (]TrJ avvetOrJ(]1] TOV aV()Qwnov xat TO ixovv exqn» }.{aet aubvei; fJaQfJaQaTrJW~. Ttnorn TtotrutO ()EV TtQETtEL va TtaQa!-tEVEL aVExcpQaO'tO, EL()UAAW~ XLV()UVEUEL va QLtw8EL ~aemEQa oe !-tLa aOALlVLO'tLXtl O'UI-tTtEQLCPOQU XaL va EVLOXU- aEL tOU~ Myou~ uTtaQM~ tTl~. BMTtoul-tE atl!-tEQU TtW~ OL L()EOMyOL, TtOU ELVaL EtOL!-tOL va ()LaX'IlQU;OUV rqv TtEQLCPQOV'Il- 0'Il tOU wutOU tOU~ XaL tWV UMWV, YEAOLOTtOLOUvtaL, xa8w~ UTt0XWQOUV aQYu XaL XUVOvtaL W~ TtaQWX'Il!-tEva to TtVEU!-ta tTl~ TtatQLU~, tTl~ CPUAtl~, tOU EevOU~, 0 QatOLa!-tO~, 'Il ;EVOCPO~La, 0 !-tLaOYUVLa!-tO~, 'Il tOLYYOUVLU, 0 autaQXLa!-tO~, to ovmvaXAaO'tLXO tTl~ OLXELOTtOL'IlO'll~ XaL t'll~ aQTtaYtl~, 'Il EYVOLa tOU EXELV XaL tOU cpaLvw8aL TtaQu tOU ELVaL.

To O'tLY!-ta, TtOU tOU~ ~aQaLVEL, tOU~ Ev8aQQuvEL va TtaQa!-tEvouv ava;tOTtQETtEL~ XaL va EXCPQUtouv !-tLa ~AaXW()'Il voO'taAYLa: tLJtota ()EV EVLoxUEL xaMtEQa rnv ovonotc ruto to va tTl ()LXaLOAOYEL~ ue tTlv aitEx8ELa tl t'llv TtOAE!-tLXtl· Av tOaE~ xaxE~ UTtOAtllVEL~ OCPELAOUV rnv uTtaQM tOU~ nnoXAELO'tLXU ornv TtEQLCPQOV'Ila'll XaL to !-tLao~, ELVaL ETtEL()tl uvdusoc ce ourov TtOU aTto()OxL!-tutEL XaL ce nutov TtOU rutO()OXL!-tutEtaL, UCPLO'tataL !-tLa !-tUO'tLXtl XaL a!-tOL~aLa EA;'Il.

ELVaL EyxA'Il!-ta XaL !-tLa yvw!-t'll ()EV ELVaL TtOtE Eva EyxA'Il!-ta, 00'll ETtLQQOtl XaL av tTl~ xataAoyLtou!-tE. 'Olav rutayoQEuEL~ MYLa uno to TtQoam!-ta OtL I-tTtOQEL va ELVaL ~Aa~EQU tl oxov()aALO'tLxu, ()ELXVEL~ TtEQLCPQOV'llO'll YL' autou~ TtOU ta oxoov XaL TtQoiiTto8EtEL~ OtL ELVaL aVLxavOL va ta rutOQQLlVOUV w~ TtaQuAoya tl TtotaTtu.l:t'llV TtQaY!-tatLXOt'llta ELVaL ocv va tou~ TtEceEL~ uTtoQQ'Ilta, O'U!-tcpwva us tTl !-tE8o()O TtOU axoAou- 8EL'Il TtEAatELaXtl TtOALtLXtl rutEvavtL oroo; EXAOYEL~ XaL 'Il TtOALtLXtl tTl~ XataVUAwO'Il~ aTtEVavtL orou; XataVaAwtE~, OtL EXOUV avuyx'll ruto xa8o~m, ruto yxouQoU, ruto acpEVtTJ.

H aAtl8ELa ELVaL OtL 'Il ~La TtQOXUTttEL aTto TtOAU O'UYXEXQL!-tEVE~ O'Uv8tlx€~: ano to O'UYXQWtLa!-to, to !-t€YUAO nAtl- 8o~, to YXEtO, t'llv XataTtLEa'll, to aLa8'1l!-ta aacpu;La~, to L()tOO'UyxQaOLaxo XEAUCPO~, rnv cvto, t'll !-tataLWO'Il. ATta; XaL YE!-tLaEL to xavovL us ~Atl!-tata, 'Il TtaQa!-tLxQtl acpoQ!-ttl to TtUQO()otEL: Tto()OacpaLQLxo~ aywva~, TtaLXVL()La ~LvtEO, aLa8'1l!-ta a()LXLa~, ~a8utato~ cpo~o~, cpavtaO'tLxE~ avuyxE~ aO'tUvo!-tEUO'Il~, oQu!-tata, cptl!-tE~.

OL YVW!-tE~ ELVaL TtQoOX'll!-ta, 0XL aLtLa.

H anayaQevarJ xevTQ{~et TrJV naQdfJaarJ. 'O,tL !-tEVEL aTtW8'1l!-tEVO YEVVUEL tTl Maaa tTl~ EXtOVWO'Il~ XaL tL~ novnQLE~ t'll~ !-tV'IlOLXaxLa~. Kata()LWxOvta~ t'll ~AaxELa XaL t'll xa!-tEQTtELa, aTtAW~ tEALXU tL~ XUVEL~ TtLO UTtOUAE~ XaL uox8'IlQE~. Av TtatUaaEL~ mv atL!-tLa tTlv avaO'taLVEL~ UTtO UM'Il !-toQCPtl XaL ()EV ~o'll8u~ WO'tE 'Il ato!-tLXtl EuwXLa va a~tlaEL axo!-ta XaL rnv avu!-tv'Ilatl tTl~·

O. XELQOtEQOC; 1QQ_JJ:..9s_v~X(lta~LxuaEL~ oQLa!-tEvE~ L()EE~

28 ELVaL va tL~ xatTlYOQtlaEL~ oos Eyx~~~atLXE~. 'Eva EyxA'Il!-ta

Oi /vloX01]Qi~ oxnpeu; ne()a{vovv ana TO tOtO TOV~ TO orJA1]T'tjQtO. AcptlO'tE tL~ va ExcpQaO'touv XaL 8a Xata()LxaO'toUv aTto !-tOVE~ tOU~, otcv, Myw tTl~ EAEu8EQLa~ TtOU 8a tOU~ TtaQUOXEtE, ro tl8'll, avtL va O'tQL!-tWXtoUV cpo~La!-tEva TtLaW ruto ru tELX'Il !-tLa~ aTtat'llAtl~ TtQoO'taaLa~, 8a ;aVOLXtOUV TtQo~ TtEQLaaOtEQ'Il av8QwTtLu, TtEQLaaOtEQ'Il vonuoown, !-tEyaMtEQ'Il xatavoflOl1 WO'tE, 'Il UQO'Il tWV rutaYOQEuaEWV, 8a ceto- 8aQQUvEL rqv TtaQa~Laatl tOU~.

~EV UTtUQXEL aU!-t~OAO, ocoorptots CPQLXtO XL av ELVaL, TtOU rc TtaLXVL()La tOU tWvtO~ va !-t'llV EXOUV tTl Mva!-t'll va to

YXQE!-tLaouv. ECVaL TtaQuwyo va rutayoQEuEL~ O'ta XOQLtOLa 29

BANErKEM

nATI 9EAOYME NA KATAPrHl:OYME ...

rtou ELVat un060uAa orov LoAaJ.tL'XO VO~O va <:POQouv tTJ uovto..a. Av tOU£ rnv E3tL~6.MEL II OLXOYEVELa, II anayoQEuOll 80. unOXLvrl0EL tTJv E;EYEQOll, av tTJ 6LEX6LXoUV 00£ Ex<:pQaOll eQllOxEUtLXtl£ tam6tT)ta£, eO. Y(VEL, orov OL xonEAE£ avaxaM1pouv tL£ EAEU8EQLE£ tOU EQoota Xat tll£ yuvaLxa£, Eva a3tAO 0't0AL66.XL YLa to XE<:pa.A.L, onv to ~eAo tl to ~avto..L nou o XQLO'tLavLxo£ xa8000nQE3tL0~0£ anattOUOE cero tL£ 8QllOXEUO~EVE£ yuvaLxE£ va <:poQouv tTJv EnoXtlnou II EXXAllaLa tuQawoUoE axo~a to. 3tVEU~ata Xat to. ow~ata, 0XL Xat noM xatQo nQw.

auYXEvtQWOEoo£, nou EnLtaxuvEL rnv UALXtl Xat 3tVEU~atLxtl ev6ELa, nou un06aUA~EL tOY XUVLO~O tll£ anEAmoLa£ Xat O;UVEL to ~ll6EVLO~0 OOOOV, XW6UvEuOVta£ va X6.oouv to. 1t6.v'ta 'Kat IlllV EXOVta£ t(1tota vu XEQb(oouv, f>M1touv to 86.vato oo» avaxou<:pLOll.

Amtlll oXAllQOtTJta anEvavtL omv anaQ6.6EXtTJ YAWO-

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~tov aywva EvaV'tta om J)aQJ)aQ6't'Ilta, II avayxll va xatacpEuYEL xavE(~ ornv xata.01aAttxt'j J)(a UJtOOEtXvUEt 6tt II 0lll-.l.tOuQytxt'j J)La aJtEtuXE 010 OXEOtO 't'tJ~ va EVtoxUEt aOtaxoJta to ~wv.

H OUYXQO't'llOll 't'Il; atollLXtf; ultaQ~ll;, omv olto(a JtQOOllAWVEtaL 0 xatlEva~ O'UvEtOllta 'rl aauvECOllta, OEV EXEL, 010 JtAaLOLo tWV auYXQOUOEWV oJtou II ~a8llIlEQtv'rl to'toQCa ucpaLVEtaL XaL SllA.WvEtaL aOtaxoJta, xaM'tEQo EYYUllt'rl a.Jt0 to EVOtacpEQov )tat 't'Ilv EJtaYQuJtVllOll aJtEvaV'tt 010. OQIlEI-.I.cpvta l-.l.a~ yta ~wt'j )tat aJtEvaV'tt O1t~ auv8'rlXE~ rtou aAAotE to. EVtOXUOuv Xat UAAOtE to. I-.l.EtatQEJtOUV OE autoxtOVtxt'j aV'twQaOll·

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QL"t'tEUEl T] 1taQOUOLa XaL T] E1tEIl~aOT] trov ~UVaIlEooV xrrmatOAtle;; 0 Myoe; nou, oro ovouo, tT]e; EAEU8EQT]e; ExcpQaOT]e;, xaAEL orov reoMareAa<JLaOIlO nov aatUVOIlLXOOV XaL rcov xata~otOOV, reQEreEL aQaYE vo. xatareVLYEl tT]V ava~tltT]OT] aAAooV O~OOV, tLe; OXE'ljJELe; YLa OUMOYLXEe; 1l0QcpEe; reaQEIl~aOT]e; nou !l1tOQOUV va reQooo8tloouv IlLa mo av8QooreLVT] OU!l1tEQLcpoQa XaL va ~T]IlLOUQYtl00uv, axolla XaL xatoo cero tLe; mo are08aQQuvtLXEe; XOLVooVLXEe; ouv8tlXEe;, XOOQoue; EAEU8EQoue; areo tT] ~LXtatOQLa tOU XEQ~OUe;, ~OOVEe; atLe; oreOLEe; oiire avtQae; OUtE yuvaLxa OUtE reaL~L 8a cpo~ouvtaL tLe; rouotT]tEe; rrou YEVVOUV T] xatareLEOT], T] a8ALOtT]ta, T] aVLa, T] areEArtLOLa, T] ~La'ljJEuOT];

IIOLa ExatQatELa Ttinou 8a ~oT]er]OEl, IlE EMXLOtT] reQootO~OuALa XaL qxrvruotu, va areo~080uv ;ava OL ~QOIlOL orou; aVEIlEAOUe; reEQLreatT]tEe; XaL ore reaLXVL~La rcov reaL~LOOV, va 0IlOQcpUvouv reQoocpEQovtae; orou; XatOLXOUe; rc IlEoa nou 8a rou; xataatt]oouv mo yOT]tEutLXoUe; -YLatL tLreota ~EV are08aQQuvEL reEQLo0OlEQO tou; ~av~aALoIlOUe; areo mv OIlOQcpLci-, va reoAAwtAa<JLaatoUv ta axOAECa IlE rd;ELe; ~oo~Exa to reoM lla8T]tOOv, vn ~LalloQCPW80uv reEQLoootEQOL reE~o~QoIlOL, vc ~EAtLoo80uv XaL va ELVaL ~ooQEav ta ~T]IlO<JLa IlEoa IlEtacpoQae;, vc reQooo8T]80uv rc autOXLVT]ta IlE J.tT] QUreoy6voue; XLVT]tr]QEe;, va E;aocpaALatEL to ~Lxa(wJ.ta tT]e; xatOLXLae; OE OAOUe;, v« are08aQQuv8EL T] reoAEO~OIlLXtl ~T]IlLouQYLa YXEtO reAoU<JLooV XaL cptWX,OOv, vc E;UYLav8oW OL LatOL tT]e; reoAT]e; ~T]IlLouQYOOvtae; reavtoU xooQoue; rcQaoLvou;

IIEQL~aAAOvtLXtl avareAaOT] OT]llaLVEl va EreavaXttl0EL tT]V EreLxQatELa tT]e; reoAT]e; XaL tT]e; ureaLeQou Evae; reAT]8u- 01l0e; nou areEAEu8EQOOVEtaL areo rc aVtaVaxAaatLXa tOU cpo~ou XaL tT]e; aQreaytle;, reou tOAllaEL va ELVaL reaQoov 0XL

44 YLa va xataatELAEL, aMa YLa vc areotQE'ljJEL tT]V EyxAT]llatL-

xotT]ta, avaretuooovtae; tT] OUVEL~T]OT] IlLae; aAAT]Myyuae; reaQEIl~aOT]e; nou ~EV ELVaL ~LatE8ELIlEVT] va aVEx8EL xaJ.tLa areQoXAT]tT] EreLeEOT].

E~oo aXQL~OOe;, OtT]V areEAEu8EQWOT] reEQLoxooV nou xata reaQa~oOT] ELVaL ureotaYIlEVEe; atT] <JLooreT]Qtl OUVEVOXtl tOU EYXAtlllatoe; XaL tT]e; aatUVOIlLXr]<; XataatOAtle;, 8a ~Qouv rc ~LXaLOOllata tou av8Qooreou tT]V reQaYllatLXtl rou; ~aOT], XaL 0XL ore XU~EQVT]tLXa YQacpELa onou T] reQaYJ.tatLxOtT]ta YLVEtaL avtLAT]1tttl xrrr' aQXtlV IlE OQoue; atatLatLxooV XaL XOototx,

H E).EV(}E(lfJ becp(}aGrj 1CE(}tAap,{36.VEt, yta l"OV 'Xa(}tva 1COV 'X(}iVEt ou txpiotauu 'Xa'Xop,El"aXel(}tGrj rj Ota1CtmWVEt otc l"1]V vcpimavrat aMOt, TO Ot'Xaiwp,a va axooyetca, va E1CEp,{3aivEt xw(}i~ 'XV(}WaEt~ xcu va 'XaAef l"1]V xotvotma oe {3orj(}Eta. 0 xa8Evae; EXEL rtLa to EAEU8EQO va 8EtEL tEQlla OE xa8E nvn;LOreQEreELa XaL vc avallLYvUEtaL reavtou oreou to ~oov reQoO~aMEtaL tl ucp(atataL xaXOIlEtaXELQLOT]. 0 ~Lxaatt]e; rxaQ~OV ztou XatT]YOQEL tOY atQatT]Yo IILVOOEt yLa EY'loGAtlllata xota tT]e; av8Qoore6tT]tae;, 0 XtT]VLatQOe; Bav 'OrereEllreou ~OAOCPOVELtaL E1tEL~tl xatr]YYELAE tT] llacpLa tWV OQIlOVOOV T] ozoto ~QOUOE atT] OXLa rcov IlEyaAoov MllrtL tT]e; aYQotO~LOIlT]xavLae;, T] KaQLv XaL 0 nLVO Potiooo, yOVELe; ~oAOCPOVT]IlEVooV XOQLt<JLOOv, nou EX~T]AOOVOUV rnv avtLeE<Jtl tOUe; OtT] 8aVatLXtl notvr] XaL llaXOvtaL svdvno OE Eva oUatT]lla reou xavEl to reaL~L 8Ulla J.tLae; YEVLXEWEVT]<; aQreaXtLx6tT]ta<;, 0 OAAavM<; UreaAAT]Ao<; tT]<; EUQoorea"(xtl<; KOLVOtT]ta<; nou areoAU8T]XE EreEL~tl XattlYYELAE xataXQtloEL<; EX IlEQOU<; tT]<; KOIlL<JLOV, areOtEAouV reaQa~ELYllata nou 8a a;L~E va EXOUV Eva OAO XaL IlEYaAUtEQO aXQoatr]QLo XaL vc 1tUQo~otoW ExatQatELE<;

Tureou E;LOOU rea8LaollEvE<; IlE autr]v tOU ZOAa Olav EXtO- 45

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;EUE'tO «xa't'l']yoQw» 'tOU om f.10mQa f.1La~ U:n:OXQC'tQLU~ XOLVWVLa~. To 8Ef.1U f.1U~ l)EV ECvm vu U:n:OOEL;OUf.1E 'tou~ U:n:EUSuVOU~ :n:QOXELf.1EVOU vn l)LWX8oUv a.:n:6 wXx6.l)LxaO't'liQLU, aM.6. vc E;aQ8QWoouf.1E 'tL~ f.1E8o~~ l)Lacp80Q6.~ :n:ou l)La8E'tEL EYYEVW~ X6.8E oQyavL<Jf.1o~ otuv AEL'tOUQYEC f.1E f36.0'l') 'tL~ E:n:L'taYE~ 't'I']~ a:n:0l)O'tLx6't'I']'ta~.

'OAo xm O'UxvmEQa :n:OAC'tE~ aV'tL'tC8EV'tm omv EQrJf.1WO'l') EVO~ romo», ornv tyxU't6.O'taO'l') Qu:n:oyovwv f3Wf.1T)xaVLWv, ornv xU'taO'tQocprJ 't'I']~ :n:avCl)a~ xm 't'I']~ XAwQCl)a~, O'tL~ f.1T)xavOQQacpCE~ rcov :n:OAUESvLXWV rtou E;ayoQ6.touv 'tL~ E8vLXE~ xm 'to:1tLXE~ aQXE~ YLa vo :n:oMa:n:AaOL6.oouv 'tL~ twvE~ XEQl)ou~. <l>wvE~ U'\jJwvoV'tm xm a:n:m'touv vc :n:QOxwQrJoouv OL :n:6.f.1:n:OAAE~ EQEUVE~ nou 86.cp'tT)xav, E:n:ELl)rJ Ef.1:n:AEXOUV :n:QoUXOV'tE~ xm af.1cpLof3T)'toUV 'tT) vooroomu 'tT)~ XEQl)ooxo:n:Ca~. '01..0 xm :n:EQLoomEQOL l)T)f.10OLOL u:n:6.MT)AOL, ayavaX'tL0f.1EVOL f.1E 'tL~ xU'taXQrJoEL~ EX f.1EQOU~ :n:OAL'tLXWV xm XEQl)oaxo:n:wv :n:OU u:n:o:n:Cmouv ornv aV'tLAT)"\jJrJ 'tOU~, l)LOXE'tEUOUV 'tL~ axE'tLXE~ a:n:ol)EL;EL~ 010 l)T)f.10OLOyQ6.cpou~ :n:OU EQEUvoiiv ro 8Ef.1a, XLVl)uvEUOV'ta~ vc u:n:oO'toUv a:n:ELM~, E:1tL8EOEL~, l)LOLXT)'tLXE~ rJ l)LxaO'tLXE~ XUQWOE~.

o l)T)f.10OLO~ Myo~ l)EV 'tamctE'tm 6.QaYE :n:ArJQW~ f.1E't'I']V EAEU8EQLa'tWV :n:QOOw:n:wv orov aVaAaf.1f36.vEL rnv U:n:EQ6.a:n:Lor] 'tOU~ xm :n:QOW8EC 't'I'] 8EAT)or] 'tOU~ YLa l)LUcpUvELa;

A:n:O't'l']V 6.MT) :n:AEUQ6., l)EV l)LxmoAoyoUf.1aO'tE otnv Mf.1E :n:w~ T) EAEU8EQT) ExcpQaO'l') aXUQWVE'tm orev :n:vCYEL f.1EOa 010 XUf.1U'ta 6.XQT)O'tWV ELl)rJ0EWV f.1La :n:AT)QocpoQCa WcpEALf.1T) YLa 't'I']V :n:Qool)o 'tOU av8Qw:n:ou, O'UV'tT)QwV'ta~ E'tOL'tO aCo8T)f.1a al)LacpoQCa~ xm aVT)f.1:1toQLU~ :n:OU EXEL'tOOO xaA6.l)Lal)woEL T) l)LX'tU'tOQCa 'tOU XEQl)OU~;

ECvm Au:n:T)QO :n:OU OE 8Ef.1U'ta XaXOf.1E'tUXECQLO'l')~ yuvm-

46 xwv rJ :n:ml)Lwv, f.10AUVO'l')~ rou :n:EQLf36.AAoV'tO~, XU'taO'tQOcprJ~

ronnov, OCPE'tEQLOf.1oU 'tWV l)T)f.10OLWV aya8rov, XQT)f.1U'tOOLXOVOf.1LXWV :n:Q6.;EWV rrou f3A6.mouv 'to l)T)f.10OLO rous«, aQ:n:aX'tLXWV T)8wv, :n:OU AUf.1aCvoV'tm a:n:o 'tT) rouwA l:'tQT)'t f.1EXQL rn :n:Qo6.O'tLa, xaf.1L6. :n:AT)QOCPOQT)O'l') l)EV u:n:OYQaf.1f.1ctEL, f.1E E:1tLf.10VrJ aV'tCO'tOLXT) xm :n:Qo~ rnv aV'tC8E't'I'] xa'tEUSuVO'l') a:n:o 'to Delenda Carthage 'tOU Krmovu, o,n X6.'tL 8a f.1:n:OQOUOE vu yCVEL YLa vn l)T)f.1LouQYT)80uv OL OQOL f.1La~ mo av8Qw:n:LvT)~ XOLvwvCa~.

A.7lEVaV'l"l OTO qJfTlXtO/10 TOV X(!"j/1aro~, 'f} 'f}OlXtj, ooo avayxata sa av etvai; astooetxvoetcu aVf.7la(!xtj~. ECvm E!;COOU f.16.'tmo vn EA:n:ctEL~ O'tL 8a ELoay6.YEL~ T)8LX6. XQL'trJQLa O'tL~ E:n:LXELQrJOEL~ f.1E 'to vu :n:QO'tQE:n:EL~ v« A6.f3EL :n:EQLOOO'tEQa f.1E'tQa UYLELvrJ~ X6.:n:OLO~ :n:OU tEL 010 axoU:1tLM'to:n:o. A:n:6 't'I']V 6.MT) f.1EQL6., 'tCJtO'ta l)EV ECvm :1tL0 :n:oAmLf.10 a:n:o 'to vc u:n:6.QXEL T) EAEu8EQCa'tOU Myou YLa OAOU~, WO'tE vo av8rJoouv xmVOUQLE~ LME~ :n:OU 8a l)LE:n:OUV 't'I']V av6.:n:AaO'l') 't'I']~ a'tof.1L- XrJ~ u:n:aQ;T)~ xm 'tT)~ XOLvwvCa~ 'tT)V wQa :n:OU xa'taQQEEL a:n:o'ta f.1EOa Eva aUO'tl'Jf.1a 8Ef.1EALWf.1EVO ornv a:n:OXAELO'tLxrJ avatr]'tT)oT) rou XQrJf.1a'to~, 'to onoio l)LUAUEL 'tL~ l)T)f.10OLE~ U:n:T)QEOCE~, x6.VEL :n:A6.'tE~ O'tL~ f.1acpLotLxE~ 'taxnxE~, YEVLXEUEL't'I'] Aw:n:ol)uoCa, :n:aQ6.YEL't'I']v EYXAT)f.1U'tLx6't'I']'ta xm't'l']v Ll)wAoyCa 'tT)~ 't6.;T)~ xm aocp6.AELa~, f36.tEL 'ta :n:ml)L6. vu l)ouAEuoUV xm tn :n:aQal)Cl)EL O'tL~ 8ALf3EQE~ axoAaoCE~ 'tT)~ jet society, VEXQWVEL rnv EUmo8T)oCa, l)Lal)Cl)EL 'to f.1T)l)EVLouo 't'I']~ avCa~ xm 't'I']~ a:n:oyvwO'l')~.

* ~.t.M. 0 Kdnov 0 IIQEO~UtEQo~ (234-147 n.X), nou Umj~E J.tEta£u aAAoov tLJ.tlJtij~ atlJ pooJ.tlJ, ElEooQOOvta~ tlJv KaQXlJMva EJtLXlV()UVO avtlJtaAO YLa tOU~ PooJ.talou~, O'UVijElL~E v« XAElVEL tOU~ JtOALttXOU~ rou A.6you~, aVE£aQtijtoo~ JtEQLEXOJ.tEVOU, J.tE tlJ q:>QaolJ: Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam (xata ta dMa XQLVOO OtL lJ K«QXlJMva 1tQE-

JtEL vc xataatQaq:>EC). ' 47

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H EAEY9EPH EK<I>PA~H ...

Movov av bOOOOUf.lE 'to nQO~ubLOf.la 0'tTJ xaQu'tou va ECVat xavEC<; uv8Qwno<; xat orov EXA.EJt't'UOf.lO OA.WV nov ceroAaUOEWV TY)<; ~Wtl<; 8a aXUQOOOOUf.lE TY) bLWp80Qu rou ~00v't0<; cero 'to XQtlf.la, ~0'l']800v'ta<; Ihm O'tTJv E~EAL~'l'] 'tOU av8Qoonou nou f.lEXQL O'tLYf.ltl<; bey EXEL xa80A.ou nQoobEuOEL, ~EXLVOOV'ta<; a:n:o 'tOU<; 'tEAE'tOUQYLXOU<; AL80~OA.LOf.lOU<; O'tL<; VEOAL8LXE<; XOLVWVLE<; Xat cp8uvOV'ta<; O'tL<; acpaYE<; 0'tTJ Potxivtc.

Ka8oo<; 'to xQu'to<; nQovOLa<;, nou E'tQECPE X8E<; axof.la rnv 'ljJEubaC08'l']0'l'] O'tL nQoo'ta'tEUEL xm un'l']QE'teL 'to A.ao, naQaxwQEC TY) 8E<J'l'] rou OE f.lLa cuvrouootc LbLW'tLXOOV ouuCPEQOV'tWV, 'l'] naQaL't'l']<Jtl rou f.lE'ta~L~U~EL EX 'tWV nQayf.lu'tWV OE Of.lUbE<; nOA.L'toov 'to EQYO va bLaXELQ~OV'tat nQo<; 'to OUf.lcpEQOV OAWV rc b'l']f.loma nQuYf.la'ta xrn aya8u, nou naQaxwQtl8'l']xav, 0't0 ovouu 't'l']<; LbLW'tLxonOC'l']<J'l']<;, O'tL<; noA.UE8vLXE<;, OL onOLE<; 'ta VEf.lOV'tat nQo<; Cbwv OCPEA.O<; Xat'ta bLaAUouv.

Mnooooue v« unEQaam~Of.laO'tE xm vn aOXOUf.lE rnv EAEU8EQ'l'] ExcpQaO'l'] XWQL<; vc unEQaom~Of.laO'tE, naV'tou onou a:n:ELAOUV'tat, 'tL<; a'tOf.lLXE<; EA.EU8EQCE<;; Mson OE amo 'to nVEUf.la uQaYE bey nQEnEL va EmVOtlOOUf.lE EX VEOU 'tL<; EWOLE<; TY)<; nA.'l']QocpoQCa<; Xat TY)<; EmXOLVWVLa<;;

H av(}eW:JllV'Yj eixuoimoia Oev xeWiCEral va E:Jll!lf..ui 6, ti "araol"dCEl, aM.a va E:JlEfl{Ja{vEl :JlawoV yux va E~aa({!a}JaEl !rJV :Jlewro"a(}EOe{a r'f];. I1EV 8EAoWE f.lLa nOAL'tELa bLxaO'tOOv xm xmabO'toov, 8EAOUf.lE f.lLa xoweovtu omv oaoto va f.l'l']v f.lJtOQEC va bLa:n:QunE'tat Xaf.lLU nQu~'l'] aV'tC8ETY) O'tTJv av8QwnLu. H 8EA.'l']<J'l'] yLa bLacpuVELa avaLQEC 'to :n:vEUf.la rou xa'taooTY). 0 xaAU'tEQo<; 'tQono<; va a:n:08aQQWEL<; rou; OUXOcpUV'tE<; ELVat vc xa8LO'tu<; tn nuV'ta yvWO'tu O'tou<; noAC'tE<;.

~'tL<; HVWf.lEVE<; IIoA.L'tECE<; MxoV'tat O'tL 0 Tuno<; ocpECAEL vc EXEL 'to EA.EU8EQO va b'l']f.lOmEUEL ELbtloEL<; nou nQoEQXovtm ano onOLabtlno'tE n'l']Ytl, XWQC<; rnv naQaf.lLxQtl A.0YoxQLoCa. H nQoO'taaCa nou a:n:oAaf.l~UVEL 0 'ttino<; rou EJtL'tQEnEL vc anoxaAUJt'tEL 'ta XQa'tLXU f.lUO'tLXU Xat vc nA'l']QocpoQEC OXE'tLXU 'tOU<; nOA.L'tE<;. ~TY) rEQf.laVCa 0 bLxa<Jttl<; f.lJtOQEC va ayv0tl0EL 't'l']v uQV'l']<J'l'] 't'l']<; XU~EQV'l']<J'l']<; Xat vo mL'tu~EL EYYQacpa rtou cpuA.aoooV'tat f.lUO'tLXU.

o xa8Eva<; EXEL bLxaCwf.la oe f.lLa nA'l']QocpoQ'l']<J'l'] nou xa'tayyEA.AEL rooo 'tL<; QabLouQyCE<; rcov xEQbooxomxoov xm noA.L'tLxOOv Mf.lJtL 000 xca rcov EYXA.'l']f.la'tLXOOv E'tatQLOOV, nou, EX'tO<; nov UMWV, f.lOLQU~OV'tat 'to CbLO nVEUf.la tl Xat'to Cbw nEQL~UAA.OV. 110uAE LU f.la<; E LVaL va ELOXWQtl0ou ue oro cpQouQLa 't'l']<; anayoQEUO'l']<;, nou ECVat xUQCw<; 'ta cpQOUQLa

48 rot: XQtlf.la'tO<;, YLa v« 'ta xa'tEbacpLOOUf.lE.

H av8QwnLO'tLXtl naQEf.l~a<J'l'] bey 8a a:n:oq;6YEL TY)V nQooCPUYtl 0'tTJ ~La av bey b'l']f.lLOUQytlOEL EXELVE<; 'tL<; xa'taO'tuOEL<; rtou EUVOoUV Xat EXA.E:Tt'ttiVOUV 'tL<; av8QoonLVE<; OXEOEL<;. Av bey unuQXEL noA.L'tLxtl nQoA.'l']'ljJ'l']<;; au'ttl 'l'] naQEf.l~aO'l'] Ex'tC8E'tat ornv anu't'l'] va unEQaon~E'tat OLXOVOf.lLXU OUf.lcpEQoV'ta f.lE 'to nQoOX'l']f.la TY)<; unEQu<JJtL<J'l']<; rou av8Qoonou.

H XQtl<J'l'] TY)<; a:n:ELAtl<; Xat TY)<; xa'taO'taA'tLXtl<; ~Ca<; nQobCbEL, O'tTJv xaAU'tEQ'l'] nEQlJt'tW<J'l'], EMEL'ljJ'l'] EnayQUJtV'l']<J'l']<; Xat, O't'l'] XELQO'tEQ'l'], om080xooQ'l']0'l'] TY)<; Eum08'l']oCa<; anEvaV'tL 0't0 ~WV Xat EX VEOU avubu<J'l'] rou aV'tavaXA.aO'tLXoU rou 8avdrou. To ECbaf.lE O'tL<; f.lacpLo~LxE<; ouyxQOUOEL<; avuf.lwa O'tL<; E8vO't'l']'tE<; TY)<; nOUyxooAa~Ca<; tl rou AcpyavLO'tuv, 'to ~MnOUf.lE O'tOU<; noMf.lou<; rou nE'tQEAaCOU onou, us 'to nQoOX'l']f.la 't'l']<; OWTY)QLa<; O'tQa'tLW'tOOV (nou EnEAE~av au'tO~ouA.w<; 'to mUYYEA.f.la vn oxorovoov, yvwQ~oV'ta<; O'tL bLa'tQE-

XOUV 'tOY xLvbuvo va oxonouow), 'l'] av8QwnLO'tLxtl EmXEL- 49

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H EAEY9EPH EK<l>PAl:H ...

QTJOTJ b€v bLO"tU~U va €<paQlloou rnv aQXtl rou ~LIlOV Vt€ Mov<poQ' «~XOtwO"t€ tOU; OAOU;, 0 8€0; 8a avayvOOQ(O€L tOU; bLXOV; rou!», :7t€LQallatL~OIl€VTJ Il€ O:7tAa lla~LXtl; xataO"tQo<Ptl;, :7tOU ~yu~ouv to XOO"to; xata<J'iG€utl; tOU; O€ ~UQO; rcov Ullaxoov :7tOALtWV.

E(vaL O"tTJ AOYLXtl XaL :7tQO; to OUIl<PEQOV nov bUVUIl€OOV xataO"tOAtl;, :7tOU bQouv U:7tO tT] OTJlla(a tT]; av8Qoo:7tLO"tLXtl; aUtaQEOX€La;, va a<ptlVOUV tTJv xatuO"taOTJ va <ptUVU 0"t0 aJtQOXWQTJto WO"t€ va €:7t€Il~a(vouv otiuqxovc Il€ tTJ O"tQatLootLXtl XaL aO"tuvOIlLXtl l"taQuboo1'], UVEU rorv ozouov 8a Exavav :7tQo<pavw; to A.6yo V:7taQStl; tOU;.

H :7tQOO<pUYtl ornv :7tOLVLXtl tl EVO:7tATJ xataO"tOAtl, 000 bLXaLOAOYTJIlEVTJ XL av <pa(v€taL A.6yoo tTJ; €:7te(youoa; uvdyx1']; va avaxaLtLO"t€( Xu8€ QatOLO"tLXtl, ~€VO<PO~1'], O€~LO"tLXtl ~(a, €X<PQU~U rnv EMEL'I!'TJ IlLa; €X rcov :7tQOtEQOOV €:7tEIl~aOTJ;. 0 1l0VO; tQO:7tO; va :7tQo<puAax8€( xaver; €(VaL va XUV€L EXXA1']OTJ omv at0IlLXtl XaL OUMoYLX'll bTJIlLOUQYLX6tT]rc XaL va XataAU~€L O:7tOLO Jt€QL~UMOV YEVVU to EYXATJlla, :7tQOXELIlEVOU va EyxataO"ttl0EL EXEC bOIlE; JtOU xa8LO"tovv abVvatT] rnv U<J'iGTJOTJ tT]; ~aQ~aQ6tT]ta;.

~EL; avt(8EtE; :7tQo; rnv av8Qoo:7tLu, orcv EJtLAEYEL va E:7tLbELXvVEtaL xooQ(; avaO"toAE;, mav bLab(bEL, IlE ELXOVE; tl llaQtuQ(E;, YEyovma tEtOLa; <pVOTJ;, :7tOU E:7tLtQE:7tOUV va OUVELb1']tO:7tOLE( xavEr; n; a:7taQubEXtE; OUV8tlXE; O"tL; O:7tO(E; UJtOXELvtaL Eva UtOIlO tl IlLa xOLv6tT]ta.

H LbLootLXtl ~OO'll reov :7tQOOW:7tOOV JtQE:7tU va :7taQaIlEVEL cereQa~(a<JtT], EXtO; a:7to tQEL; :7tfQLJttWOU;: orov XQV~EL JtQu-

H :7tQWtTJ :7tEQ(JttOOOTJ EIl:7t(:7ttU O"tTJV aQXtl tTJ; av8QOO:7tLO"tLXtl; :7taQEIl~aOTJ;, aVll<Poova us rnv o:7to(a 1'] ~aQ~aQ6tT]ta bEY EXEL xcvsvo bLxa(oolla va a:7tOxQV:7ttftm, va ~Q(OXU xata<pVyLO, va :7tQOO"tatEVEtaL.

~tT] bEVtEQTJ :7tEQL:rr:tOOOTJ xaQaXtT]QLO"tLX'll E(VaL TJ E:7tLbfL~LOllav(a XU:7tOLOOV, OL O:7tO(OL EJtLAEYOUV va MoxaAV'I!'OUV tL; xa81']IlEQLVE; tOU; XLV'llOU; Of fXat0IlIlVQLa 8EatE; J.tEon cero :7taVOQaIlLXE; XUIlEQE; XaL Eyxa8LO"tOVV EtOL E8f}..oUO(OO; to aV<JtT]J.ta f:7tLttlQTJOTJ; nou 0 nOOQt~ 'OQYOUEA f(Xf :7taQOUOLUOfL, OVOIlU~OVtU; to «to Ilun roe MEYUAOU AbEA<pOV», 00; to axatallUXTJto OJtAO IlLa; E~ouo(a; JtOU XQTJOLIl0:7tOLE( tT]V tEXVOAoy(a YLa va f:7tL~UAfL tOY OAOXATJQootLOIlO.

YJtO Jto(a EVVOLa OL aO"tEQE; tOU xaAALtEXVLXOV, tOU a8AT]tLXoV, tOU :7tOALtLXOV O"tEQEWllatO;,:7tOU bEY bLO"tU~OUV . va MoxaAV:rr:touv rnv LbLootLXtl tOu; ~ootl orcv au"ttl EVLaxUE L tTJV ELxova tOU;, ~JLXmOAOYOVVtm va ayavaxtOVV orcv tOU; :7tQO~UAAOUV IlE tQOJtO JtOU tOU; E~U:7t1']QEtE(; Etvrn uQaYE tOOO a<pfAE(; WO"tf va ayvoovv on IlLa xax'll <PtlJ.t1'] E(vm :7tQOtLIlOt€QTJ aJto tT] OLOO:7ttl, bEbollEVOU on avaO"tEAAEL xatu tQO:7tO 8EoO"taAtO tTJ Atl8TJ, EX IlEQOU; tOOV MME, ornv onotn 8a JtEQL:7tEOOUV aQYu tl YQtlyoQa;

H A.VOoa tou; va :7taQaIlE(VOUV XUtOO MO to <pOl; tT]; b1']- 1l0OLOtTJtO; bEY avtLO"tOLXE( 0"t0 8Quoo; tOU; va O"t1']ALtEV-

OUV tTJV abLaXQLo(a a()(O"taxtOOV ()TJIlOOLOYQU<pOOV, O"tou; 51

TO npO~QnIKO AnOPPHTO

* ~.1:.M. 0 Simon de Montfort (1150-1218), raMo; :ltOAEIlLO't1]~)(CI.L O"tCl.'lJQo<poQo~, EACI.~E IlEQO~ 0"t0'IJ~ AA~LYLVOU~ :ltoMIlO'IJ~ EVCl.vt(OV 1:(oV KCl.8C1.Qwv TIl~ V6tLCI.~ ro.AA(CI.~, 8QIlCl)(E'lJ"tL)(OU )(LV~IlCl.tO~ :ltO'IJ ~LCl.M8IlXE o.:n:O 1:0V 100 IlEXQL 1:OV 150 aLOOvCl. 0"tIl None XnL d'lJ"tLX~ EUQw:1tIl XnL 3tCl.-

50 1:aXBIl)(E ClCl.V aCQECIIl coro TIl ~LX~ E)(xAIlClLa XnL TIlV IE¢ E;E1:aClll.

BANEfKEM

H EAEY9EPH EK<l>PAIH ...

H tgCtlj :n:egCmwOl) EXEL va x6.veL :n:egLoOOtego us.rnv e'UaCo8ljtlj vonuooovn, acpou to ~~tljlla eCvm va 6LaxgCveL xaveC; av6.llwa ornv xatayyeACa rou a:n:ag6.6exto'U xm tlj vOOl)g~ eVatEVLOl) IlLa; O'Ullcpog6.;:n:O'U gCxvetm ~og6. orov oCXto.

o cruyxLVlJmaxo; XAovLOIlO; a:n:o tL; cpwtoygacpLxE; Ilagt'UgCe; tWV cpgLxaAeo~twv :n:0'U 6LE:n:ga~e 0 allegLx6.vLxo; atgatO; oro Btsrvdu, O'UVE~aAe a:n:ocpamattx6. oro va ~eOl)xw8eC lj xm~ YVWlllj svovnov tlj; :n:oALttX~; tWV HVWIlEVWV IIoAttELwv. Axouo xm ~Ilega, lj uatatlj xga'Uy~ rcov exreAO'UIlEVWV rou Dos de mayo,' o:n:w; rou; ~wyg6.cpLoe 0 TxoYLa, xat6. tt; ocpaYE; :n:O'U 6tEta~E 0 o:n:aM; tOO Bova:n:6.Qtlj

M'Ug6., o'UvexC~EL va a:n:otdeC to o~lla XLV6'\JVO'U yta rnv eAe'U8egLa :n:O'U Xata:n:tE~O'llV Ot a:n:eAe'llBegwttxo( atgatOL.

AVtC8Eta, ot lleta6tMIlEve; ~av6. xm ~av6. eLxove; EVO; :n:m6LOu :n:0'U E:n:eae t'UxaCa oro ~og~ogo evo; ~oSgo'U xm lloLgaCa ~o'llAt6.~eL IlEoa rou, svrdooovrm oe a'Ut~ tljv eJl:7toge'llllattx~ eXllet6.Me'llOl) tlj; aVtL;OOtljta; :n:0'U, rtouAwVta; oro 8ea~ tljv tOXV~ :n:agljyogL6. Ott 'll:n:6.gXEL Ilo(ga mo 8At~eg~ a:n:o tlj 6tx~ tOO, tEllax~eL tljV xaxOt'UxCa :n:6.vw orov :n:6.yxo Ilta; tEg'tplj; rtou eCvm axolla mo vOOl)g~ omv lj O'UIl<:pog6. :n:go~6.MeL 00; xa80ALx~ xm ava:n:ocpe'llxtlj.

H allcptoljllCa EyxeLtm oro aoacpE; oovooo nou O'UXv6. xwg~eL tlj SeAllOl) v« xataYYECAeL; Ilta ~aQ{3aQ6tlJta wate va tnv e;aAeC'tpet;, a:n:o tlj O'Uyxtvljmax~ oXljv08ea(a tlj; cpgCXljS ue atoxo va a:n:oxoIlCoeL; xEg6lj, x6.tt nou O'Uvexw; e:n:avEgxetm Ileow tlj; taxttx~; rou 'U:n:egSellattOIlOU. A:n:o tlj attYIl~ :n:0'U or texvLxE; tlj; mtXOLVwv(a; lletallcptE~o'UV rnv ExcpgaOl) tlj; a:n:oyVWOl); os a'llto :n:0'U lj L6tOAeXto; tlj; 1l06a; a:n:oxaAEC axoxseumxoima, 0 oa6tOIl0;, 0 oCxtO; xm lj lj60vo~AEmtx~ 6L6.8eOl), egwtotgo:n:ouv a:n:o xorvoii us to oLxallego xm to a~8Lxo, x6.tW a:n:o tlj cpev6.xlj tlj; Leg~; ayav6.xtljOl);.

<l>gLXt~ 6ev eivm lj ava:n:ag6.ataolj tlj; cpgCxlj; 0.1.1.6. lj oxljvoygacpia :n:O'U rnv xovLoQto:n:mei, tlj 6LaIlEA~et, tljv xo- 8tat6. tetgLllllevljllEOa ce evo» :n:oAtO xa8a~gta; ayav6.Xtljolj£, VOOl)g~; O'UIl:n:ovma;, 6LaatgocpLx~; oay~vlj; xm ogy~;, rtou Jl:7toge( vu *av 6.xgw; xg~mlllj orqv :n:g6.;lj, av 6ev tgecpotav tt; :n:eQLooOtEgE; cpOgE; ue tljv aVLxav6tljt6. tlj;, eVLOXUOVta; to llu80 IlLa; ~ag~ag6tljta; eyyevo13; Otlj <pt50l) rou av8gw:n:o'll.

MOAt; ;e<pt5YEL a:n:o tt; av8gwmve; 6Laat6.oet;, lj O'UYXtVlJOl), :n:O'U 6La6C6etm e'llgUtega, :n:EcptEL ore XEgta tlj;eJl:7to- 53

o:n:oCo'U; ocpeCAo'UV rnv u:n:agM to'll;. OL :n:a:n:ag6.tm, 6.Mwate, a:n:otEAoUv a:n:Aw; tlj yeAo(a ex60m IlLa; :n:AljgocpogCa; nou xgljmllo:n:OteCtm xat6.MljAa YLa va tgocp06oteC to 8eaIla EVO; XOOIlO'll onou 0 xa8Eva; xaAeitm va atev~et to eVt'U:n:wmaxo llaox6.gella tlj; Illj6aIlLV6tljt6.; too.

Astd rnv 6.AAlj :n:Ae'llg6., gCxvovta; :n:egtoootego ~6.go; oro taMVto :n:ag6. orn CP~lllj, oCyo'llga :n:goatatEUWm a:n:o to vEcpEAwlla tlj; etxova; rou eavto13 000, acpou O,tL A6.Jl:7teL ~Ilega, Jl:7t0ge( va 8all:n:woeL augLo. OL :n:gaYllatLXOC xaAALtEXVES yvwg~o'UV 6.gLata :n:w~ va 6LacpvA6.ooo'Uv to. yv~oic mo8~llat6. to'll; xaMteQywVta~, mJllCPwva ue to :n:ag6.- 60;0 rou lj80:n:mou, tljv teXVlJ va to. em6eLxvUo'UV mC OXlj~S O'UvE:n:aCgvOVtas to XOLVO.

* l;.t.M. 0 rx6ytU u:rcu8uvattot os &50 :rc(VUXt~ !Lt t(tAo Dos xm Tres de Mayo (&50 xm tQtt~ Motou) tTJV t~EytQOTJ tOU to:rcUVtXOU AUoU evovnov tOO Va:rcOAt6vttoo otQatOU :rcoo xatEcp8uot OtfJV IO:I'tuv(u !Ltta

52 tTJV XUtaQQtuOTJ tTJ~ to:l'tUVtXtl~ !LovaQxCac;;·

BANErKEM

H EAEYElEPH EK<l>PAl:H ...

QEUIl<l"tLX11<; EXIlEtaMEUO'Il<;. 0 xa8eva<; OCPELAEL vo to yvooQ~EL auto, OOO'tE vu EUVOEL 11 vn a1t08aQQUVEL IlEta A6you YVOOOEOO<; t'l'] b'l']IlOOLa IlEtaboo'l'] tOOV bLXOOV tOU OtLYIlOOV eQOOta, 1tev80u<;, 1tOVOU, Ev80UOLaOIlOU, taQaXtl<;, buocpoQLa<;, EXXEvtQLXOt'l']ta<;, ~E<J1taOllato<;, ELtE auta xataYQarpovrm, XLV'I']llatOYQacpoUvtat, 'l']xoYQacpOUvtat EV aYVOLa tOU ELtE IlE t'I'] ouyxata8Eo11 rou,

'01t00<; Xat vn eXEL to 1tQaYlla, eva 1tQOELoaYOOYLXO EQOOt'l']lla tLeEtat xa8E cpoQa 1tOU 1tQOXELtat vc bLa~EL xaVEL<; to X<l"tOOCPAL 01tOU 'I'] OUYXLV'I']O'Il1taYLbEUEtaL <Jt'I']V stxovc: «Cui prodest?», 1tOLO~ E1tOOCPEAELtat; H av8QOO1tLV'I'] E~eAL~'I'] 11 '1']' tUxutat'l'] 1tQ60bo<; }tLU; tEXVoAoy(a<; OLOtQ'I']AutOUIlEV'I']~ ano t'I'] CPQEVLtLba tOU xeQbou;, 1tOU tELVEL vc E(Vat a1tOXAELotLXa tEXvoAoYLa tOU xeQbou~; H ~OUA'I']O'l'] va cetoxutuO'ta8EL'I'] OUVELb'l']O'Il ~avaX,t~ovta; tOY XOOIlO 11 'I'] a1tA'I']O'tLa 1tOU VEXQOOVEL t'l']v Euato8'1']OLa, aAAoLOOVOvta~ t'l'] cpUO'Il rcov ovnov Xat tOOV 1tQaYllatOOv;

H EAEU8EQLa vn AE<; to. 1tavtu 008ELtaL U1tO 1l0V'I'] t'l']<; va 1tOAEllaEL eva oUO't'l']lla avu1taQaotao'l']~ 1tOU U1tOXa8Lota rnv 1tQaYllatLx11 ~0011 IlE IlLa oELQa QOAroV XaL AELtoUQYLOOV, EvtO~ rcov 01tOLroV 'I'] E1tL8uIlLa Xata1tVLYEtaL. H allcpLo~11t'1']- 0'Il bEY aQxEL, acpou to 8ealla, YLa va E31L~110EL, tQecpEtat IlE tOU~ bQaxou~ 310U L<JXUQ~OvtaL OtL to x<l"ta~Qox8~ouv. flo. vc 031aOEL xavEL~ rnv ayoQa tOU 8Eallato~, 01tOU 'I'] u1taQ~'I'], EXAall~aVOIlEV'I'] onv avtaM.a~LIl'l'] a~La, bLanLO'tooVEL t'I'] Il'l']bEVLX11 XQ'I']otLx11 t'l']<; a~La, to ~'I']toUIlEVO bEY ELVat llaAAOv vc 1tQOXQLVEL xavEL~ O,tL oull~aMEL omv UV8QOO1tLV'I'] 1tQoobo, ornv atOIlLx11 XaL OUMOYLXtl b'l']IlLoUQYLa, omv acpU1tVL- 0'Il t'I']<; AaX,taQu<; YLU ~0011;

'Ovra~ axoooo«: T1J~ ~wrj~ nov ooeou xoo; TOY e~avO(}wmU116, 1J e).evOe(}1J becp(}aO'l] C{Jt(}el eVT6~ T1J~ T1JV X(}lrtxrj xoo; IOte~ 01 oxote; otav XW(}tr,OVTat ano T1J ~wrj, y{vovrat avaia8qTe~ rj exO(}lxt~ axevavtt T1J~. OL 31EQLOOOtEQOL ro80uvtat vc tow rnv u31aQ;tl tOU~ oUllCProva IlE evav tQ01tO avanaQaotao'l']~ 1tOU acpaLQEL rnv aU8EvtLXOt'l']ta t'l']~. OL VOIlOL tOU 8Eall<l"t0~ rcov MME 0080Uv rnv EAEU8EQ'I'] excpQaO'll vc aQV'I']- 8ELt'I']V aQxeyoV'l'] Mvalltl t'I']~ Xat vc IlEt<l"tQanEL OE xaQLxatoUQa Ileoa OE eva xao~ ELXOVOOV xat M;Erov 1tOU ouv008oUvrm Xat aAA'I']AOaxuQoovovtat. Ka8E VEOOtEQLOIlO~ Il1tOQEL Eboo vn XataO'tEL tOOO YQtlyoQu ~E1tEQaollevo<;, OOO'tE IlOLQaLa avuy%a~Etm vu EUVOEL t'l'] Atl8'1'] tOU 1taQEA80vtO~,

54 EvtO~ t'I']~ 0310La<; xaVEtat ulleoro~ 1l0AL~ 1tQocpEQ8EL.

55

H I1POTPOI1H rIA wONO ...

KE<I>AAAIO V

trov 3tQaYlla'tWV 't'Y)V aIJ..l]A.EyyUl] xm'tl] <J'tl]QLSl] 't'Y)~ XOLVO'tl]'ta~. 'Oruv bEV 3tQOXEL'tm YLa 3tQaSEL~ aA.A.a YLa MYLa 3tQOa~A.l]'tLXa, 1l0VO 'to aUlla ElVm aQllobLO vu XQlVEL o» l] ~A.a~l] 3t0'U 'U1tEO'tll bLXmOA.OYEl 'I) 0XL 'tl]v 3taQEIl~aal] roo bLxaauxou lll]xavLaIlOU.

l:'t'Y) O'UYXEXQLIlEVl] 3tEQC3t'tWOlj, xaM Elvm vn A.all~aVEtm 'U3tOtpllll ESEA.t;l] 'tWV l]SWV xm 'tWV ESlIlWV, WO'tE 03tQOa~aA.A.WV xm 0 3tQoa~aA.MIlEVO~ vc Ill]V ayvoouv xallLa a3t0 'tL~ 'tOIlE~ IlE 'to 3taQEA.SOV 3t0'U ml]QEa~o'Uv a1)IlEQa 't'Y)V XQlOlj. 'OV'tW~, 0A.a bElXVOUV 6'tL ~ab~O'llIlE 3tQO~ a3t03tOLVLX03tOll]Olj rou a'tLIlW'tLXOU Myou, EVW 'tamOXQova Xa'tabLxa~E'tm IlE IlEyaAU'tEQl] a3tO<paOLO'tLx6't'Y)'ta O,'tL 3tQoa~aMEL 'ta bLxmWIla'ta ron ~WV'tO~.

E>€A.oUIlE vc a3tO't'QEtpO'llIlE 'tL~ a3taQabEX'tE~ YLa rov avSQW3tO O'U!l3tEQL<pOQE~ xm vc ESOQlaOUIlE 'to'll; E3tLSE'tLXoU~ 'tQ03tOU;, XL 0XL vc a3tayoQEuaOUIlE rn 3tQoa~A.ll'tLxa MYLa, 3tOU 1l0LQala Sa Esa<pavLO'tOUv Ila~l IlE rou; OQYLaIlEVOU; 3t0'll 'ta 3tQO<PEQOUV. H ~M~l] nou u<plO'ta'tm Eva a'tollo orcv U~Q~E'taL, a3tELA.El'taL 'I) ouxoqxrvrettr«, aA.A.a xm rn O'tOLXEla nou EXO'UV'tl] &Uvalll] vu a3taAUvo'Uv 'I) xm vu axuQwoouv 'tL~ O'UVE3tELE~, a3to'tQE3toV'ta~ E'tOL'tOV Evayov'ta vc xa'ta<p'\JYEL ornv xa'taO'taA.'tLx'l) bQaOlj, aS~EL vc !l3talVOUV omv walaSl]'tl] ~'UyaQLa 't'Y)~ VOl]lloaUVl]~, ornv 3tQoomLx'l) 't'Y); aVa3tQoaaQIl0y1); rcov voO't'Q03tLwv.

H I1POTPOIIH rIA <PONO,

01 MAPTYPIEl: rIA KAKOIIOIHl:EIl:, H l:YKO<l>ANTIA, H I1POl:BOAH,

H rrOPNOrPA<I>IA, l:XETIZONTAI AP ArE ME THN EAEY9EPIA THl: EK<I>PAl:Hl:;

~ YM«I>QNA ME MIA l:YNH8EIA 3tOU xaM Sa 'I)'tav vu ~ EbQmwSEl O'tou~ 1tEQLaaO'tEQO'U~ 'tOIlEl; 'tl]~ aXEtpl]~ xm rcov llSwv, xaSE 3tEQlmWal] aS~EL vn 3tQoaEyy~E'tm crqv LbLm'tEQ6't'Y)'ta 't'Y)~ xm vc ESE'ta~E'tm IlE ~aOlj 't'Y)V ES'I); SEIlEA.LWbl] aQX'I) nov bLxmwlla'twv rou avSQw3tO'll:

«~EV U3taQXEL EA.WSEQla, VOIlO~, LbLW'tLXO'l) bl]IlOOLO blxmo, bLXmOA.oyla, 3tQoO'taala, E3tL<p'\JA.aSl], EsalQEOlj, 3tOU vc IlTtoQOUV vc 1tQoxaA.ouv, vc E3tL'tQE3t0'UV, vu bLXmOA.Oyouv, vc aVEX0V'tm IlLa 3tQasll av'tCSE'tl] 3tQO~ 'tl]V avSQw- 3tLa,.El'tE 3tQoEQXE'tm cero Eva xQa'to~, Eva A.ao, IlLa 3tEQLOX'I), IlLa E8v6't'Y)'ta, IlLa <pUA.'I), IlLa xoivorm«, IlLa OLXoYEvELa, IlLa ollaba, Eva a'tollo. 0 xaSEva~ EXEL'tO bLxalwlla vu 't'Y)v xa'tayyEA.A.EL xm vn mtll~alVEL ue 'ta IlEaa 3tOU bLaSE'tEL, xm Ilt 'tl] ~o'l)StLa 'tl]~ aMllA.EyyUl]~ 3tOU XLVEl, YLa'tl 01tW~ a<poQa rou; 3taV'tE~ Illa 1l0VO ~aQ~aQ6't'Y)'ta, EO'tW XL av bLa- 3tQa'ttE'tm os ~aQo~ EVOp>.

KaSE 3tOA.l'tll; 3tOU EQXE'tm aV'tLIlE'tW3tO~ IlE IlLa a3tav-

56 SQW3tll3tQaSl], El'tE w~ SUlla El'tE w~ llaQ'tUQa~, bLaSE'tELEX

H IIPOTPOIIH riA <I>ONO

Movo ro YEVLXO'tEQO 3tA.alOLO E3tL'tQE3t€L vn XQlVOUIlE xa'ta nooo II 3tQo'tQ03t'l) YLa <pOVO svrdooerca ornv EA.EUSEQl] EX-

<pQaOlj 'I) a3tO't'EA.El 3tQaSl] 1t0'U EmMXE'tm bLXaatLx'l) 1taQEIl- 57

BANEfKEM

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KE<I>AAAIO VII

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KOINONIKH 9EOPIA I JIIKAIOMATA

ISBN 960·123·559·1

v 111111111111111111111111

9 799604 23" .es

KA 22576

32

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