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**y DC Drives y AC Drives y Classification :
**

y Induction motor drives y Synchronous motor drives

2

Advantages of Induction motor Drives

1. AC motor are less expensive 2. Ac motors have low maintenance 3. For the same rating, ac motors are higher in weight as compared to dc motors. 4. AC motors can work in hazardous areas like chemical, petrochemical etc. whereas dc motors are unsuitable for such environments because of commutator sparking.

3

Disadvantages

Power converters for

1. the control of ac motors are more complex. 2. ac motors are more expensive 3. ac motors generate harmonics in the supply system & load circuit. Hence AC motors gets derated

4

**Torque Speed Characteristics
**

1. Motoring (0<=s<=1) 2. Generating (s<0) 3. Plugging action(1<=s<=2)

5

**Torque ± Speed Contd..
**

T

Generator Tc Tst 2Ns Ns 0 -Ns Tmax Motor lu in

N

-Tmax

6

**Speed ± Torque Characteristics
**

y Rotate Torque Speed characteristics by 90° clockwise

y

Generator

m

Motor

ms = 4 f/p rad/sec

ms

0

Tst

T

7

**Speed Control of Three Phase IM
**

Stator voltage Control Stator frequency Control Stator voltage & frequency Control Stator Current Control (by CSI) Static rotor resistance Control (Rotor Voltage Control) Static Kra er rive 6. Slip energy recovery control Static Scherbius rive (Slip Power Recovery) y 1 to 4 are applicable to the SCIMs and WRIMs y 5&6 are applicable to WRIMs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

8

Torque Equation

y Per phase equivalent circuit of 3phase IM referred to stator.

(stator impedance drop is generally negligible compared to V)

Pg = Gross power input to the rotor Pm = Mech. Power output Pcu = Rotor copper loss Pm = Pg ± Pcu T = Torque developed by the motor T = Pm/ m

9

**Stator Voltage Control
**

y Applications : Fans & Pump Drives

y

Also

y y Therefore as voltage is reduced to reduce speed for the same current motor develops lower torque. y If the motor terminal voltage is reduced to kV1 where k<1 then the motor torque is given by y

10

**Stator Voltage control contd..
**

y If the stator copper loss , core loss and friction & windage loss are ignored, then from equations

y y When speed decreases efficiency decreases.

11

Three phase & Single Phase voltage controller

Single Phase AC

IM

Single Phase IM rive

12

**AC Voltage Controllers contd..
**

y By varying the firing angle speed control is achieved. y Single phase triac Controller y Three Phase star or delta connected motor y In delta connection the third harmonic voltage is produced by motor back emf causes circulating current through the windings which increases losses and thermal loading of the motor y Also used for soft start of the motors y pf of an ac voltage controller is

13

**AC voltage controllers contd..
**

y With increase in firing angle ( low speed) both

**distortion factor & displacement factor reduce, giving low pf.
**

m m

V3 V2 =0.5

Vr>V1>V2>V3

Vr (k=1) V1 Tmax

TL

Speed

Load Tor ue chars

Speed

Motor Tor ue chars

T

14

**Stator Voltage & Frequency Control (Variable Frequency Control) from Voltage Sources
**

y By changing supply frequency, synch. Speed can be changed,

therefore motor speed can be changed.

y

y Any reduction in supply frequency w/o change in the terminal

**voltage, causes an increase in the air gap flux.
**

y Increase in flux will saturate the motor. It will increase

magnetizing current, distort line current & voltage, increase the core loss & stator copper loss and produce a high pitch acoustic noise. y The VFC control below rated frequency is generally carried out at rated airgap flux by varying V with f so as to maintain the ratio V/f as constant.

15

VFC contd..

y

y Where is constant and s & r¶ are respectively the stator & stator referred rotor inductances y +ve for motoring operation y -ve for braking operation y When f is not low y Equation suggests that with constant V/f ratio, motor develops a constant Tmax except at low speeds

16

Contd..

y When V reaches at rated value at base speed, it

**cannot be increased further with frequency. y T decreases above base speed.
**

V speed s1 s2 s3 Base frequency f Tmax V-f relation Torque TL m1 m2 m3

Speed Torque characteristics

17

Contd..

m

Speed Torque characteristics Increasing f Base frequency

-Tmax

0

Tmax

18

Contd..

y Features of V/f Control 1. Speed control & braking operation are available

from zero to above base speed. 2. During transients the operation can be carried out at the max torque with reduced current giving good dynamic response. 3. Copper losses are low, and efficiency & pf are high as operation is restricted between synch. Speed & max torque point at all frequencies 4. Drop in speed from no load to full load is small.

19

Contd..

Supply Vref Flux control VFVS

fr

Delay

f ref

**Variable frequency control
**

20

**Slip Speed Control (Rotor Frequency)
**

y Substituting voltage as kV and frequency as kf (neglecting stator resistance drop)

21

**Slip Speed Control contd..
**

y If ks is maintained constant as k is varied then rotor current Ir¶ & T will remain constant. y Since the slip is small Ir¶ will be in phase with voltage. y Since flux is constant, Im will also be constant. y Now

= constant

y Thus if the motor operation is carried out at constant value of ks, as the frequency is varied then the motor will operate at a constant current & torque.

22

Slip Speed Control contd..

y Operation of the motor at a constant slip speed also

**implies the operation at a constant rotor frequency.
**

y Ks= ks (f)/(f) = fr /f = y Where fr &

r r/

are the rotor frequency in Hz and rad/sec respectively.

23

**Slip Speed Control contd..
**

y For s<sm, Rr¶/ks>>Xs+Xr¶ hence

y T=Constant X

sl

y For s<sm speed torque curves are nearly parallel st.

**lines. y Thus motor current & torque can be controlled by slip speed.
**

24

**Variable Frequency Control (above base speed)
**

y Above base speed the machine operates at

constant voltage

y As f >f rated ,k>1 the operation is constrained

b/w the

ms

and Tmax , The slip has a small value

**y Since the slip has small value
**

y

y Hence

**or frequency for a given value of Ir·
**

25

**Variable Frequency Control contd..
**

y This behavior is utilized in closed loop speed control

for limiting current within the permissible value above base speed. y Since the slip is small Ir¶ is in phase with V. y If the machine copper loss is neglected, the developed power Pm=3VIr¶, consequently Pm is

constant for given Ir¶ and therefore for a given Is. y Hence the drive operates in constant Power mode.

26

**Torque & Power Limitations
**

m mc Constant power locus Increasing f f rated ms Constant torque locus

0

T

27

Contd..

y Mod

of o

r tion

T

I Pm

0

Con t nt toqu mod

1 Con t nt Pow r mod

2

k

28

Voltage Source Inverter fed IM Drive

**Transistor fed IM Drive
**

29

Contd..

Vab Vd Stepped wave inverter line voltage wave form t Vab Vd -Vd t SPWM inverter line voltage wave form

-Vd

30

VSI

t ..

y VVVF ca be btai e either fr m VSI r cycl converter y VSI allows a variable supply to be obtaine from c supply y VSI can be operate as steppe inverter or a PWM inverter. y In steppe

wave inverter mode each device is switched in sequence with a time difference of T/6 period, and each device is kept on for T/2 period. where T is one cycle period.

y Frequency of inverter is varied by varying T and o/p voltage is

**varied by varying dc I/p voltage.
**

y A large electrolytic filter (DC link) capacitor is connected in dc

link to make the inv. Operation independent of rectifier or chopper and to filter out harmonics in dc link voltage.

31

VSI contd..

y Inverter o/p line & phase voltages for stepped wave inverter are given by Fourier series

y The RMS value of the fundamental phase voltage is

y The torque for a given speed can be calculated by considering only fundamental component

32

Contd..

y Main draw back of stepped wave inverter is large harmonics at

**low frequency in the o/p voltage.
**

y A)because of low frequency harmonics the motor losses are

**increased at all speeds causing deration of the motor.
**

y B) motor develops pulsating torques due to 5th , 7th ,11th & 13th

harmonics which causes jerky motion of the rotor at low speeds. y C) harmonic content in the motor current increases at low speeds. The machine saturates at light loads at low speeds due high v/f ratio. y These two effects overheat the motor at low speeds ,thus limiting the lowest speed around 40% of base speed

33

Contd..

Vab

Vd t SPWM inverter line voltage wave form

y Adv. Of PWM inverters y Harmonics are reduced. Harmonic associated losses are neglected. y Smooth action is obtained at low speeds, When PWM technique is

**used, no arrangement is required for variation of I/P voltage.
**

y The fundamental component in the output phase voltage of a PWM

**inverter operating with sinusoidal PWM is given by where m is the modulation index.
**

y For given harmonic content in the motor terminal voltage, the current

harmonics are reduced when the motor has higher leakage reactance, this reduces derating and torque pulsations.

34

PWM Inverters

y PWM not only controls the voltage but also reduces

the harmonic content. y Elimination of lower order harmonics results in reduced size of filter which saves the cost.

y Different PWM techniques are y i) single pulse width modulation y ii) Multiple-pulse width modulation and y iii) sinusoidal PWM.

35

**SINGLE PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
**

y There i onl one l e er half-cycle and the idth of the l e i aried to control the inverter out ut voltage.

y RMS out ut voltage,

Vo !

2 2T

T H 2 T H 2

´

Vs 2 d [t ! Vs

H T

36

**Single PWM Inverter contd..
**

y By fourier analysis, y Output voltage wave has quarter-wave symmetry. [Halfwave symmetry (n is odd) & odd symmetry (ao and an=0)].

**T H cos n( ) 8 8V 4V nH 2 ! bn ! V sin n[td [t ! sin( ) 2T T ´H 2T n nT 2
**

T 2

2

**4Vs nH Vo ! § sin sin n[t n !1,3,5.. nT
**

y If =120°, 3rd harmonics will be absent. y If =72°, 5th harmonics will be absent. y Disadvantage :- Only one harmonic can be eliminated at a time.

37

w

**MULTIPLE PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
**

v 1/f vr

T 1/2fo vo H V T/2p -V

2T

T/p

t

t

38

MPWM contd..

y All the pulses have same width. y Frequency of reference signal decides the output frequency fo and

y y y y y

the carrier frequency fc determines the number of pulses per halfcycle. Modulation index controls the output voltage. Modulation index m varies from 0 to 1. (mf indicates the number of pulses per cycle) fc is usually odd multiple of reference signal. (For 3-phase inverter, fc is odd multiple of 3) No. of pulses per second = fc

y No. of pulses per half cycle = p ! f c v

To f ! c 2 2 fo

¡

T 2p 2

¡

**y RMS output voltage V ! 2 p o
**

2T

T 2p 2

´

V

2

t !V

p T

39

MPM contd..

S1 D1 vo LOAD + V S4 D4 S2 D2 Square wave S3 D3 Triangular wave Trigger pulse generator ig2 ig4

comparator

g1 [t g2 g3 [t g4 vo V [t -V vo =V(g -g4 ) [t T T [t

¢

40

**SINUSOIDAL PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
**

y The width of each pulse is varied in proportion to the

**amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the center of the same pulse.
**

vc 1/fc vr

T

2T

[t

1/2fo vo V

[t

-V

41

SPWM contd..

y Gating signals are generated by comparison. y fr determines the inverter output frequency fo. y When fc >> fr , then the adjacent pulses are very close to each

other, consequently, the output is approximately sinusoidal. p y RMS value of output voltage, Hm Vo ! V m !1 T y The fundamental component in the output phase voltage of a PWM inverter operating with sinusoidal PWM is given by where m is the modulation index. y For given harmonic content in the motor terminal voltage, the current harmonics are reduced when the motor has higher leakage reactance, this reduces derating and torque pulsations. hence

42

SPWM contd..

y Sinusoidal modulation eliminates lower order harmonics. Dominant

**harmonics are the order of (2p 1).
**

y As lower order harmonics are eliminated and higher order harmonics

**are easily filtered, output has very low harmonic content.
**

y With over-modulation,(m>1, square wave) fundamental output

**voltage increases but it causes more harmonics.
**

y As p increases, order or significant harmonic increases and the

**filtering requirements are minimized.
**

y But higher values of p needs higher switching frequency and hence

switching loss increases and inverter efficiency decreases.

43

Closed loop speed control and converter rating for VSI and cycloconverter IM drives

**Closed loop slip controlled PWM inverter drive with regenerative braking
**

44

**Closed loop control contd..
**

y Inner slip (current) loop and outer speed loop y Slip speed ensures motor operation b/w y y y y y y y

ms

and Tmax at all

frequencies. PWM inverter has the capability to operate in all four quadrants. The drive is applicable to any VSI or cycloconverter. A step increase in speed A step decrease in speed Operation above base speed up to sm. Slip speed upto break down torque Motor current can be allowed to carry several times the rated current during transient operations. Converter and inverter should be capable to provide these currents.

45

Variable Frequency Control from a current source

Equivalent circuit with current source

y Neglecting Stator impedance y y y Im= ? y

46

**Rotor Voltage Control for Wound-Field Induction Motors..
**

y In a wound-field induction motor the slip rings allow easy

recovery of the slip power which can be electronically controlled to control the speed of the motor. y The oldest and simplest technique to invoke this slip-power recovery induction motor speed control is to mechanically vary the rotor resistance. y Slip-power recovery drives are used in the following applications:

y y y y y

Large-capacity pumps and fan drives Variable-speed wind energy systems Shipboard VSCF (variable-speed/constant frequency) systems Variable speed hydro-pumps/generators Utility system flywheel energy storage systems

47

**Rotor Voltage Control contd..speed torque curve
**

m

Increasing Rr¶ R1 Tc

ms

R2 R3 R4

R4 >R3>R2>R1

Tmax

Torque 0 Ts

Speed Torque curves of motor with variable rotor resistance

48

Rotor Voltage Control contd..

From this equation it is clear that the torque-slip curves are dependent on the rotor resistance Rr. The curves for different rotor resistances are shown on the next slide for four different rotor resistances (R1-R4) with R4>R3>R2>R1. Max torque is independent of rotor resistance Speed at which max. torque produced changes with rotor resistance. Motor torque capability is unaltered even at low speeds 49

Rotor Voltage Control contd..

50

**Rotor Voltage Control contd..
**

y Although this approach is very simple, it is also very inefficient because the slip energy is wasted in the rotor resistance. y Rotor resistor can be varied stepless y AC voltage is rectified and fed to a fixed resistance and the effective value of RAB can be varied by changing duty ratio y Ld reduces the ripple and discontinuity in the dc link current Id

51

**Rotor Voltage Control contd..
**

Ir

120

Id 0 /6 5 /6

120

2

Id

t

The rms rotor current is

52

**Rotor Voltage Control contd..
**

y Average value of resistance RAB = R(1- ) y Power consumed by RAB is PAB = Id2 RAB y Power consumed by RAB /phase = PAB/3 y = 0.5 R(1- ) Ir2

equation suggests that the rotor circuit resistance per phase is increased by 0.5 R(1- ). y The total circuit resistance /phase will be RrT = Rr + 0.5 R(1- ) y RrT can be varied from Rr to Rr + 0.5 R as is changed from 1 to 0.

y The

53

Closed loop Control

54

**Rotor Voltage Control closed loop contd..
**

y It consists of inner current loop and outer speed loop. y Rotor current Ir and hence Id has contant value at max torque point both during motoring and plugging. y If the current limiter is made to saturate at this current the drive will accelerate and decelerate at max. torque, giving very fast transient response. y Adv : y 1.Smooth & stepless speed control. y 2.Fast response y 3.Less maintenance y 4.Compact size y 5.Rotor resistance remains balanced b/w the three phase for all operating points

55

Slip Power Recovery Scheme

y WRIM operation with an injected voltage in the rotor. y Red arrow represents the polarity of Vr when Pr is ±

ve. y Blue arrow represents the polarity of Vr when Pr is +ve. y Assume stator to Rotor turns ratio is unity. y When Pcu is neglected , Pm= Pg- Pr. Where Pr is the power absorbed by the source Vr.

56

**Slip Power Recovery Scheme contd..
**

y When Pr = 0, motor runs at natural y y y y y

-T chars. When Pr = +ve, then Pm will decrease, hence motor runs at reduced speed for the same torque. When Pr = Pg, then Pm = 0, m=0 Thus Pr varies from 0 to Pg, speed varies from ms to zero. When Pr = -ve, then Pm >Pg hence motor runs at higher speed than ms.

m

57

**Slip Power Recovery Scheme contd..
**

y Instead of wasting the slip power in the rotor

circuit resistance, a better approach is to convert it to ac line power and return it back to the line. y Two types of converter provide this approach: 1) Static Kramer Drive - only allows operation at sub-synchronous speed. 2) Static Scherbius Drive allows operation above and below synchronous speed.

58

**Static Kramer Drive (cont¶d)
**

A schematic of the static Kramer drive is shown below:

**Static Kramer Drive (cont¶d)
**

y The slip power from rotor is rectified by dc

bridge. y Inductor Ld smoothens the ripples in the rectified voltage. y DC voltage is converted to ac voltage at line frquency by line commutated inverter. y As the power flow is from rotor circuit to supply SKD offers constant torque. y Speed control is below wms only (approx. ½ of wms).

60

**Static Scherbius Drive
**

Transformer source side to converter side turns ratio m : 1

Stator to rotor turns ratio n : 1

Vd1 Vd2

61

Static Scher ius Drive (cont¶d)

62

**Static Scherbius Drive contd..
**

y y

The static Scherbius drive overcomes the forward motoring only limitation of the static Kramer drive.

Regenerative mode operation requires the slip power in the rotor to flow in the reverse direction. This can be achieved by replacing the diode bridge rectifier with a thyristor bridge. This is the basic topology change for the static Scherbius drive from the static Kramer drive. y A portion of rotor ac power is converted into dc by a Controlled Rectifier (diode bridge ±speed below ms only) .

63

**SPRS contd.. Analysis
**

y Power fed back Pr can be controlled by controlling inverter counter emf Vd2 y The dc link inductor is provided to reduce ripple in dc link current Id. y Since slip power is fed back to the source , the drive has high efficiency. y To make analysis easy, assume the firing angle of the controlled rectifier is zero ,so Vd1 is

y y y y

Where

**is firing angle
**

64

**SPRS contd.. Analysis
**

y Neglecting the drop across the inductor y Vd1 + Vd2 =0. y s = -n/m cos = -a cos where a=n/m. y Max. value

is restricted to 165° for safe commutation of inverter. y Slip s varies from 0 to 0.966a when varies from 90° to 165°. y By appropriate choice of µa¶ required speed range can be obtained. y Transformer is used to match the voltages Vd1 to Vd2.

65

**SPRS contd.. Analysis
**

y At the lowest speed required from the drive Vd1 will

have the max. value Vd1m=V smax /n where smax is the value of slip at lowest speed. y If is restricted to 165°, m is chosen such that the inv. voltage has a value Vd1m when =165°.

y ie m = 0.966 n/ smax y Such a choice of m ensures inv. Operation at highest firing angle at lowest motor speed, giving highest pf and lowest reactive power. y This improves the drive pf and reduces the reactive power at all speeds.

66

**SPRS contd.. Analysis
**

y Operation : y Drive is started by resistance control by keeping the

rectifier circuit open. y When the speed is within the control range of the drive the external resistance is removed and the rectifier circuit is connected.

67

**SPRS contd.. Analysis
**

y Power consumed by RAB /phase = PAB/3 = 0.5

R(1- ) Ir2 y When referred to dc link, resistance (sRs¶ +Rr) will be 2(sRs¶ +Rr). y The approx. dc equivalent circuit of the drive is Rd be the resistance of dc link inductor

68

**SPRS contd.. Analysis
**

y If the rotor copper loss is neglected.

sPg = |Vd2| Id . y Pg = |Vd2| Id/ s y T =Pg/ ms = |Vd2| Id/ (s ms) y This provides constant torque control .The speed torque characteristics are shown below.

m

= 90

1 2

90<

1

<

2<

180

**Torque 0 Speed Torque curves of sprs
**

69

SPRS closed loop control

70

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