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nO'ITURblH anpec: 195027, Cansr-Ilerepoypr, a/51 151
T: .: (812) 326-24-28 (812) 528-89-63
TeJ1 .j1113KC: (812) 528-89-58
E-mail: mineral@mail.wplus.net
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CON T E N T S
Geol ogy in Russia. it s Fut ure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4
MINERAL WEALTH AND PROBLEMS TO MASTER IT
S. V. Petrov, S. V. Sendek. Nat ural resour ces of gold in Russia, current
probl ems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6
V. A. Stepanov, A. V. Kozlov. Fuel out put i n Russia: economic and
geopolitical approach
A. Ya. Vokhmentsev. The manmade sand deposit in Kamennogorsk
A. I. Silantyev, O. K. Sokolkov. Mineral resour ces of M ariy EI Republic
A. N. Voronov. Sprayin g min eral (s pri ngs in Leningradskaya regi on)
13
20
22
27
GEMS OF RUSSIA
Yu. A. Voitekhovsky, D. V. Zhirov, V. L. Semenov. Tinguaite - the unique
gem stone
M. V. Morozov. Hidd en rainbow of stone
30
33
ANALYTICAL IDEAS AND METHODS
Yu. A. Voitekhovsky. The Hil bert ' s probl em and analytical petr ography
R. A. Zhukov. Is it the theory of geolog ical- petrographic investi gati on?
37
4 I
GEOLOGY WITHIN MEGALOPOLIS
N. D. Malov. About causes of the break down i n Petersburg subway
R. E. Dashko. Pecul iariti es of geoecological state of t he undergro und space
within histori cal center of Sai nt-Petersburg
44
48
INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTS
G. R. Tzaturov. «Geohydrotekhnika» C" ­
of drilling and electric pump equipment
the nati onal manu facturer
51
ECOLOGY
V. N. Komleo, N. I. Bichuk, V. G. Zaitsev, G. S. Melikhova. Radioactive
wastes: problem and ways of their utili zati on in the No rt h-West region
of Russia 52
E. K. Mel'nikov, A. V. Vashchenok, A. P. Skakun. URSA'" - the remedy to
neutralize the pathogeni c elect romagnetic radiati on 58
D. S. Rybakov, V. V. Gavrilenko. Some enviroumental and social problems
of Karcl ia 63
G. M. Voskoboinikov. Heavy metals within algae in the Northern seas 67
CURRENT EVENTS
N. P. Yushkin, Yu. B. Marin. The 90'h anniversary of Prof. D. P. Grigoriev .... 71
V. E. Popov, A. G. Marchenko. 4
1h
Int ernati onal conference on
volcanogenic-sedimentary ore forming processes. St -Petersburg, Russia.
June 7- / 0. /999 75
The annual conference of the Russian Mineralogi cal Society 77
All -Siberian exhibition of useful mi nerals. The All-Siberian exhibition
of metals 78
FAMOUS MINERALS
A. G. Bulakh, V. V. Gavrilenko, E. G. Panova. The purple stone -
Shokshin sky quartzite 79
GEOLOGICAL MEMORIALS
A. M. Akhmedov, E. G. Panoua, V. A. Krupenik, K. Yu. Sveshnikova,
S. Yu. Engalychev. Red sandstones as geological memorials of extremal
paleoclimatic epochs and possi bl e collectors of diamonds 83
THE «PLUTON» CLUB
D. A. Pertel. Friend's lett er from far abroad 88
A. I. Glazov. Albrecht DOrer. did he know crystallography? 91
V. E. Popov. Unknown lit erary works of L- W Goethe, the Honorary member
of the Russian Mineralogical Society 95
C 0 E P A H E
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CBSlTOCJlaB EHraJJbl4eB, cmuoenm 4 «qpca «adieoou AumOA02UU U MOpCKOii 2eOA02UU
2eOA02ULteCK020 epaKyAbmema Canxm-Ilemeptiupecxoeo yHuBepcumema
I. KaKHe AOCTH>KeHHll B reonorux Bbl fibl Bbl./leJIHJlH Ha no­
pore XXI aexa?
3a nocneanee CTOJleTHe reonornsecxan aayxa urarnyna 04eHb
AaJleKO KaK B reopaa , TaK H B npaxruxe. CeH4ac B pyKH recnora
norrano HOBoe BblCOKOT04Hoe 060pY./lOBaHHe, H HcnOJlb30BaHHe
ero n03BOJlHT nOJlY4HTb HH<popMaUHIO, 0 KOTOpOH pansure MOrJlH
TOJlbKO Me4TaTb.
HaH60Jlee 3Ha4HTeJlbHblM ./lOCTH>KeHHeM B reOJlOrHH XX aexa,
MHe xascercs, MO>KHO C4HTaTb H3Y4eHHe OKeaHH4eCKoro naa, HO­
aue 3HaHHll 0 KOTOpOM B xopue H3MeHHJlH npencraeneuns 0 reo ­
-
- ----------------fEOJIOf115I 11 OElllECTBO-­
JlOr H'leCKOM pa3BHTHH 3eMJlH. 51 HMelO B BH.llY .uaHHbl e no MOp­
cP0JlOr HHoxeauaxecxoro naa, cOCTa By Hpacnpocrpa aemuo rny­
60KOBO.uHbI X ocanxos. HCCJ1e.uOBaHHIO Cpe.uHHHO OKea HH'leCKHX
xpe6TOB H OTKpblTHe «vepnux KYp HJlbIUHKOB ».
2. KaK Bbl oueaaaaer e COCTOSlHHe cOBpeMeHHoH reonorn­
'1eCKOH HayKH B POCCHH H nepcneKTHBbl ee pa3BHTHSI?
LLOJlrHe rona r eOJlOrHSI ouna npHopHTeTHblM nanpaaneuuen
r ocynapcrseauos nOJl HTHKH uapasue C060pOHOH, TaKKaK BceM
6blJlO S1CHO: pa3BHTHer eOJlOr HH ( KaKTeOpeTH'I eCKOH, TaKHnpax ­
TH'IeCKoH) - :lTOaanor HOpMaJlbHOrOCYIUecTBoBaHHSI H pa3BH ­
THSI cr pauu B 6y.uylUeM. CeH'IaC reOJlOr HSI nepexcasaer He Jly'l­
WHe epeveaa , 'lTO CBSl 3aHOC06IUeH He6Jlar OnpHSlTHOH carya­
UHeH B cr paue. Canoe ne-iansnoe - TO, 'lTO H3 reOJlO r HH YXO.uSlT
MOJl o.uble CneUHaJlHCTbl , sa KOTOpblMH 6y.uylUee HayKH, HO HX
MO>KHO nOHSlTb: OHH XOTSI T nonyv ars nocrosuue .ueHbrH aa CBOH
rpyn. Cpe.uHHH B03paCT COTpy.uHH KOB 60JlbWHHCTBa reono ras e­
CKHXopra HH3aUHH nepesanan aa 50, HHM HeKoMy nepenars CBOH
6ecueHHblH onur H 3HaHHSI. KaK H3BeCTHO, B reOJlOrHH 6blJlH H
oynyr saryaaacru, no KOHua npenaauu e csoeay neny, Hasep­
Hoe, OHHC03.llaJlH opeon pOMaHTHKHeoxpy r reOJlOrHH, H, KaK MHe
Ka>KeTCSI , HMeHHO HM CeH'I aC npencrour BblBeCTH reOJlOrHIO Ha
HOBbl H sran pa3BHTHSI, CBSl3a HHbl H C BbI XO.uOM pOCCHHCKOH
reOJl Or H'leCKOHHayKHna Me>K.uyHapo.uHbl Hypoaeas. :':lTO, KOHe'l­
HO, HeB03MO>KHO6e3 TeCHblX KOHTaKTOB C3apy6e>KHblMH KOJlJle­
raMH, 6e3 06MeHa onur ov H COBMeCTHOH .ueSl TeJlbHOCTH, KOTO­
pan MO>KeT OKa3aTbCSI nOJle3HOH 06eHM CTopOHaM.
3. 4 TO Bbl .uyMaeTe 0 COCTOSlHHH MHHepaJIbHO-CblpbeBoH
6a3bl POCCHH H ee nepcnexruaax?
Pecypcu Jl1060H CTpaHbI, .ua>Ke TaKoH, KaK POCCHSI , ucsepna­
eMbl.
CaMblM Ba>KHbIM, 51 nonar ato, cnenyer C'lHTaTb paUHOHaJlbHOe
HCnOJl b30BaHHe nonapeuuux npuponoji 60raTCTB. n O:lTOMY
MHHepaJlbHO-Cbl pbeBylO oasy He06xo.uHMO.uonOJlH51 Tb He nyrea
pa3pa60TKH HOBblX MeCTOpO>K.ueHHH ( 'l TO TO>Ke He06xo.uHMO),
a nyre v KOMnJleKCHOro HCnOJl b30BaHHSI r or o, 'l TO xornaro yxo­
.uHJlO sa 60pT.
4. KaKHM BaM npe.llCTaBJISleTCSI MeCTO '1aCTHOrO xanar ana
H 6H3Heca B He.uponOJlb30BaHHH H r eOJl OrHH?
f eOJlOr HSI r peoyer nonrocpo-mux BJlO>KeHHH cpencrs H npn ­
6blJlb npl1HOCHT He cpasy, 'lTOceH'lac nesuronno 60JlbWHHCTBy
npennpa nnaarenen. Hecovaeimo, 'l aCTH blH xarnrr an npOHH KHeT
B reOJl OrHIO, KaK :lTO npOH30WJlO na 3a na.ue.
M He Ka>KeTCSI , 'l TO uekoropu e xpy nsue MeCTOp0>K,1l,eHHSI ece
>Ke.uOJl>KHbl OCTaTbCSI non xonrponea rocynapcr sa, xor opoe CMO­
>KeT ooecne-nrn, sees KOMnJleKC npaponooxpaaaax MeponpHSI ­
THH, CB51 3aHHbiX Cpa3pa60TKoH pecypcos uenp.
5. Baw nporuos 0 pa3BHTHH CllTyaUHHB reOJlOrHH 11 uenpo­
nOJlb30BaHI1H?
Il om.e» B pa3BHTHH reOJlOr HH, KaK 51 .uyMalO, MO>KHO O>KH­
nars sepea 6- 7 ner, xorna 60JlbWa51 sacn, ysce paasenauu u x
3anaCOB crpaau 6y.ueT assnes eua H nOTpe6ylOTC51 BbICOKOKBa­
JlHcP HuHpoBaHHbie reonoru, cnocooaue ooecne-nrn, POCCH IO no­
Jle3HblMH HCKo naeMbIMH . 6 0raTCTBa aenp POCCHH , 3aHH MalOllleH
OKOJlO lis 'laCTI1 CyWH. He MOryT OCTaTbC51 HeBOCTpe60BaHHbIMI1 ,
H6y.uylUl1e nOKOJleHI1 51 reOJlOrOBCMOryT npHMeHI1 Tb CBOIO snep­
r HIO H 3HaHH51 .
Bep051THee acero, HaH60Jlee aKTI1BHO oyner pa3BHBaTbC51 reo­
3KOJl OrH51 , B He06xo.1l.l1 MOCTI1 KOTOpOH y>Ke MaJlO KTO Ce J1 'l aC CO­
MHeBaeTC51 .
C. B. IIeTpoB, C. B. CeH,ZJ;eK
30JIOTO POCCHH: np06JIeMbI
MHHepaJIbHO-CblpbeBOrO KOMTIJIeKCa
The present state of esti mated natu ral resources of gold is di scussed wit h analysi s of regional distribution of gold mine s in Russia
and all over the worl d.
POCCHfI no paaaenanuuu sa nacaa 33HHMaeT 3-e MeCTO B MHpe
nocn e lOAP H C iliA, n pH4eM no MaCWTa63M sa nacu CiliA H
POCCHH conOCT3BHMbi. no 1l06bl4e 30nOT3 CCCP B cepennne
70-x r r . ,uOCTHr 300 T, H3 KOTOpblX H3 norno POCCHH npuxonnnocs
oonee 20 0 T [ 13] . B 3TOT nepnon CCCP 33HHM3n sropce MeCTO B
MHpe no npOI13BO,uCTBy 30nOTa no cne lOAP B j 998 r. B POCCH H
6bl no,u06blTO MeHee 120 T 30nOTa , B pe3ynbTaTe -iero POCCH51 orryc­
runacs H3 6-e MeCTO B MHpe nocn e lOAP, C iliA, ABcTp3nHI1,
KaHa,ubl H KHT3R. B KHT3e r0110B35lll06b143 MeT3nn3 HHTeHCHB­
HO pacr er 11ll0CTHrna B 1997 r . J 57 T.
33 BCIO HCTOpHIO 30noTo,u06 b1 4H B POCCHH H3 aenp 6bln o H3­
Bne4eH O oonee 12 TbIC. T 30nOTa H ca u ure 85-90 % aano aoro
30nOTa ouno ,u06b1TO H3 POCCbJnHblX MeCTOpO)l(lleHHH. Cnenoaa­
r en sno, HMeHHO POCCbJnH o npe,ueJ151J1H H on penenaior HblHe co­
CT051 HHe crpa uu. 3TD nonr aep-snaer cs , nanpu­
Mep . COOTHOWeHH51 MHnoouroro 30n OT3 B cepenaae 90-x r r.: H3
poccunen no nyse no oxo.no 73 %sanoso r o 30 n OTa , H3 c0 6CTBeH­
HO sonor opyna u x xopeunux MeCTOpO)l(lleHHH - 15 % H oxo.no
12 %npHxo,uHTC51 H3 xovnnexcaue PYUbl npn nonyruo» H3Bne­
4eHHH 30J10Ta H3 n0J1HMeTannH4eCKHX, KO.n4el1aHHb1X, MellHO-
Puc. I . IhMeHellHe crpyarypu 3anaCOB (a) Hn06bl4H (6) 30JlOTa (%)
B POCCHH aa 1971-1993 rr. III
MecmOpOJiCOeHUfl30Aoma : I - KOM nJleKCHble; 2 - POCCbInHbl e: 3 - kopeunue
Fi g. I . Evolut ion of the gold reserves struct ure ( a) and the gold output
(6 ) in Russia in the peri od 1971-1 993 ( II
a 6 a 6 a 6 a 6 a 6 a 6
28 18 33 15 43 20 46 17 46 17 52 17
45 65 32 65 27 68 28 64 26 69 20 71
1971 1976 1981 1986 1993
[]2
0
3

HHKeJ1eBbIX, MellHO- M0J1 H6lleHOBbIX MeCTOpO)l(lleHHH II TeXHOr CH­
aoro cupss.
B 80 - 90 -x r r . B POCCHH sarpar u Ha re0J10r Opa3Be.'J.04Hble
paooru npaKTH4eCKI1 OCTaBaJ1 HCb s a OllHOM yp oase, yBeJHI4H ­
sancs npnv epuo Ha 2 %B ron, a C 1990 r. sauan ocs IIX CIIIIIKe­
HHe, CB513aHHOe C pacnanov CCCP H 06LUIIM na..'l eHll eM n po ­
H3BOllCTBa. Onnaxo 06LUHe aanacu PYA B POCCIIII 3Ha4I1TeJ1bHO
B03pOCJ1I1, 4TO 06b51CH5leTC5l n peacae scero KpynH blMH n pupoc ­
TaMI13anaCOB xareropnn C H3 MeCTOp0)l(lleHH5l XCII6 HpH HDam,­
2
Her o BOCTOK3 (MaHCKoe, He)l(llaHHHCKOC, A MeTil CTOBOe, OJIHM­
nH3llHHCKoe, 3yH- X0J1 6HHCKOe H n p. ) [1 6].
B POCCHH 33 3TOT nepnon BpeMeHH npOIlCXOllH,10 CHH)I(eHHe
1l06bl4H 30J10T3, XOT5l reranu Bocn pOH3BOllCTB3 MHl1ep3Jlb liO­
cupsesoa 633 bl (MC5) 3H34HTeJ1bHO ee one pescana. rJ13BHble
K3nHTaJ10BJ10>KeHH51 6blJ111 uan paan enu H3 CTpOIITeJlbCTBO xpyn ­
HblX npennpH5lTHH B pecny6J1 HK3X o ueurero CCCP: M YPYHT3Y
H npyrue B Y36 eKHcT3He, 3011 B A pMeHHH, 5 3KblP 411 K H A K63 ­
K3H B K333xc TaHe H IIp. B POCCHH OCHOBHOH ynop lleJ13J1C51 ua
poccunn , He Tpe6ylOLUHe llJ151 OCBOe HH51 xpy nu ux 3aTp3T Ha
CTpOHTeJ1 bCTBO PYllHHKOB H 060raTHTeJ1 bHb1X <f! a6 pHK. H 3H60 ­
nee 3H34HTeJlb Hbie p360Tbi 6 blnH nposeneuu no pexoucrpyx­
UI1H Bepesoackoro, Kypa uaxcxoro, Baneucxoro, K04K3 pCKo r o,
Cesep o-Euaceackoro, KJ1 10 4eBCKoro PYllHHKOB H PYllHHK3 HM.
MaTpOCOB3, HO OHH He n03B OnHJ1 H CT36Hn H3HpOB3Tb 30J10TO­
1l06bl4y B nocn enyio uine ronu .
B nOCJ1 ellHHe ronu B POCCHHAon fl POCCblnHOrO 30J10T3 B 110­
6bl4e OTHOCHTeJ1 bHOB03pOCJ1a, a aanacsi ero HeyKJ10HHOyMe Hb­
W3J1 HCb(puc. I ). 3TO 3H3lfHT, 4TO pons poccunea K3K senyuiero
reonoro- npov uurne a aoro THn3 OCT3HeTC51 euie BHHTepB3n e npa ­
6J1 H3HTeJ1 bHOABYX AeC51THJ1eTHH. O,uHaKO yposem, COOTBeTCTBH51
paasenaun ux 3anaCOB 30J10T3 B POCCbl fl51X H ;\06b14H Ha ceron­
H51 WHI1HlleHb TaKoB, ' ITOC 2000 r. Ha4HeTC51 exceronaoe naneau e
06beMoBll06blB3eMoro 30J10Ta OT 3,u0 10 %no pa3HbiM peruo­
H3M CTp3Hbi. TaKa51 06beKTHBHa51 peansaocrs Bbl3B3Ha B03HHK­
WHMH ,uHcnpo nopUlH1MH Me)I(.iJ.Y 06beM3MH npHpO CT3 3afl3COB
30J1 0T3 B POCCbln5lX H 06beMaMH nepepaoorxa 30n OTOCOnep)l(3­
LUeH ropnon MaCCbl.
nOH51THO, 4TO npu opHeHT3UHH ua nepcn ex rusy He06xo;\HMO
pe uran, np06J1 eMbl OCBOeHH51 xopeuaux 30nOTo pYJJ.HbIX ,\ l eCTO­
pO)l(lleH HH, H3 xoropue n pII XOllH TC51 oxono 53 %scex nposruur­
ne HHblX 33 n3COB 30nOTa POCCHH.
HeM3nOBa>KHOeHer 3THBHoe BnH5lHHe H3 CTpy KTypy ncn onsao­
BaHH51 MC5 POCCHI1 OK33bl B3eT reorpadio-s xonoa uvecxoe p33 ­
MeLueHHe 30nOTOHOCHbiX P3HOHOB.
-
--------- --PECYPCbl 11 IlP013JlEMbl OCBOEHI15I HEl(P ­
/
)'1,
/ ,
/
/ ­
()
[?
1.... 11 1C 12 10 13 1 15
--
Puc. 2. Cxeva OCHOBHblX 30Jl0TOHOCHbiX paa ouoa, MeCTOp0 >KJ\eHHH 30JlOTa H Ao6blBa lOLUHx PO CCHH III
I - aonor onoouaaiouiue npennpusrun Ha kopea au x MecTopOii<.ueHHHx; 2 - TOlKC aa KOMnJleKCHblX MeCTopOlKlleHHHX; 3 - paii oHbl poccunu oro 30.00Ta;
4 - OCHoBHbl e peaepnuu e MeCTopOlKlleHHH; 5 - npennpa aru n, noou aaioui ae 30JlOTO H cepe6po
Fig. 2. Sketch map of locati on of the major gold pr oduci ng regi on s, go ld ore depos its and gold mines in Russi a III
Ina auu e aonoropynnue pa HoHbl no sanacaa MeT3JlJla H npo ­
r H03HbiM pecypc an (OKOJlO 65 %), na H no n06bl4e cocpenoro­
4e Hbi ua Bocroxe H Cesepo- Bocr oxe POCCHH, rne ouiyuiaercs
HenOCTaTOK B suepremx e, r paucnopr aux KOMMyHHKaUHflX, HH­
di pacr py krype H pa604eH CHJle. n 03TOMY yneJlbHble sar par u na
npov snuneauoe OCBoeHHe xopeuastx MeCTOpO>K.ll.eHHH, no naa ­
Hbl M pacveros cOTpynHHKoB npnvepno B 2-2,5 paaa
npeesuua ior anexearuue sar par u na aHaJlOr H4HbiX no Ka4eCTBY
pyn MeCTop0>K.ll.eHHflX npyra x CTpaH.
Ina anu e 30JlOTOHOCHbie paHoHbl (c BOCTOKa Ha aa nan) - 3TO
Y y KoT Ka, KaM4aTKa, M a r anaHCKafl 06JlaCTb, Xa6apoBcK HH
KpaH, Pecnyo.nnxa C axa ( 51KyTHfl), A Mypc Ko - 6 aHKaJlbCKafl
npOBHHUHfl , Pecnyornuca Byparua, Hpsyrcxas 06JlaCTb H Kpac­
HOfl pCKHH KpaH (puc. 2) . I-1MeHHo aaecs pacnorr oxceuu TaKHe
xpyrurue 06beKTbl, KaK M aHcKoe, H aTaJlKHHCKOe, H e>K.ll.aHHH­
c xoe , Krosyccxoe, Eaackoe, Kypaaaxcxoe, .LlapacyHcKoe,
6aJl e HCKO- Tac e e sc x o e . 3yH-XoJl6HH CKOe , CYXOJlOIKC KOe H
OJl HMn Han HHcKoe MeCTop0/KJl.eHHfl . Kpoue ror o , B 3THX paii ­
ouax pasv euieuu MHOr04HCJleHHbi e MeJl KHe H cpenuae MeCTO­
p0/KJl.eHHfl 30JlOTa , npuronuue nJl fl craparenscxoa n06bl4H
[ 5,1 6).
B reono rnu npovsuuneunux MeCTOp0>K.ll.eHHH 30JlOTa see KO­
peunu e MeCTOp0>K.ll.e HHA nonpaan ena.or ca ua cneny iouiue:
- IKHJlbl ;
- IKHJlbHble 30Hbl H 30Hbl npOIKHJlKOB3HHfl;
- MHHep aJlH30B aHHbi e 30Hbl np06JleHHfl H CMfl THfl nopon ,
w ToKBepKH.
Taxoe nonpaaneneuue MeCTOp0>K.ll.eHHHOCHOBblBaeTCfl aa MOp ­
cjJOJlO r HH pynuux r e,n, HO OHO H npenyca arpuaaer, no CYTH, r ex ­
HOJlOrH4eCKHe B03MOIKHOCTH H3BJle4eHHfl 30Jl OTa H3 nea p.
)I(UAbl - 3TO HaH6 0Jl ee MHor0 4HCJleHH3fl r py nna MeCTO'
pO>K.ll.eHHH, BCTpe4alOWHXCfl B pa3JlH4Hbi X r eOTeKTOHH4eCKHX
cr pyxrypnux 30Hax cpenu r eppureuu u x, BYJl KaHoreHHbl X H
nJlYTOHoreHHblX nopon . B nonaansuouiev 60Jl bWHHCTBe CBoeM
3TO MeJlKHe MeCTOp0>K.ll.eHHfl, npencr asnennue ceKyWHMH, cy6 ­
cor nacx siaa. KpyTO- H nonor onanaiounrwa TeJlaMH He6 0Jl bWOH
MOWHOCTH (OT nOJleH MeTpa no 5 M, penxo no 10-1 5 M) . 3 TOT
THn MecTop oIKneHHH B OCHOBHOM xa paxr ep usye rcs TeXHOJlO­
rH4eCKH n e rxo H3BJleKaeMbiM 30Jl OTOM Hero OTHOCHTeJlbHOBbl ­
COKOH KOHueHTpa UHeH B npOMblW JJeHHOH pyne ( 10- 40 r!r) .
B 03MOIKHO nonyruoe H3BJle4eHHe cepe6 pa, HHo rna CypbMbl ,
-
01
CBHHlla , IlHH Ka, r e.nnypa, BHc My Ta H n p . Cpenn Me CTOpO>KAe­
HI1H HHo r.na BCTpey alDTCH 101 cpen a a e no p aaa e p av 06beKTbi C
aa nacaau B JlYY WeM cn y x ae B HeCKOJlbKO .neCHTKOB TOHH 30 ­
JlOTa . H a noruo >KHJl n pnxonurca OKOJlO J0- J2 % scex npo­
MblWJleHHbl X 3a n aCOB 11 OKOJl O 25 % nporH 0 3HbiX p ec y p co a.
K 3TOMy rn ny npnnannexcar raxne MeCTOp0>K,UeHI1H , KaK Ka­
paneeeencxoe na 4 y Ko TKe, vIryaenoscxoe B Mara.naHcKoH
06Jla CTI1, Toxypcxoe B Xa6a pOBCKOM xpae . n apacy HcKoe B 411­
TI1HCKOH 0 6 Jl a c Tl1 H np.
)KuAbHble 30Hbl U 30Hbl npOJICUAKOBaHufl - 3TO oonee pen­
Kl1e MeCTOp0>K,UeHHH, acrpe -ra rouui eca npeHMy w,eCTBeHHO cp e ­
.n11 nnyrouoreunux H BYJlKa HOreHHbl X nopon H pexce cpena rep ­
pareuuux neCya HI1KO- CJl a HlleBbI X nopon, n o MOP<P0Jl OrH l1 pya­
Hbl X TeJl - 3TO Jl eCTHI1YHbl e >KI1Jlbl B.naHKax, conpsscea uue >KI1Jlbl
101 np0>KHJl KI1. n o Bew,eCTBeHHOMY cocr a sy 3TH py.nbl ananorn-r ­
Hbl c0 6CTBeHHO >KHJlbHbIM, oc06eHHO xorna OHI1 He COnpOBO>K­
.naIDTCH HHTe HCI1BHOH OKOJlO>KI1JlbHOH Ml1HepaJl l13alll1 e fl BMew,a ­
1DW,I1X nopon, Pyns: TaKI1X MeCTOpO>K,UeH HH B OCHOBHOM n e rxo
060raTI1Mbl, CXo pOWO 11 3BJle KaeMbi M 30Jl OTOM, XOTHMOryT BCTpe­
yaTbCfl 11 py.nbl C ynopHblM 30JlOTOM . He.nOCTaTKOM 3THX MeCTO­
p0>K,UeHI1H HBJlHeTCH HeBbl COKoe conepx anne 30Jl OTa B TOBapHOH
pyne ( neps ue rpa MMbl na TOHHy ) , HO MaCWTa 6 3Tl1X MeCTOpO>K­
.neHI1H MO>KeT 6blTb OT cpenn ux no se cs na xpynaux 06beKTOB .
Flpuaepo» TaKHX MeCTOpO>K.neHHH Mo r y T 6 blTb sonoropynnue
nposaneaua B.naHKax M ara.naHCKoH 06JlaCTl1(YTI1HCKOe, KOJlbIM­
CKOe H np.) 11 Ypana - 3HaMeHHToe Eep e30 BCKoe MeCTo pO>K,Ue­
Hl1e, ax c nn y atu py e a o e oonee .nBy XCOT ner.
M eCTOp0 >K,UeHI1Hr u na ,lt ll Hep aAU30 Ba HHb1X 30H opo tueuus:
11 custmusi n op o o , LUmOKBepKU HMelDT Hal160JlbWee 3HayeHHe.
OHI1 n p e.nCTa BJlHIDT C060H COyeTaHHe npO>KI1JlKOBO-BKpanJleH­
HOrO opYAeHeH Hfl B CYJlb<PI1AI13HpOBaHHOH n o pcn n o n MaCCe B CO­
y eTaHI1H C KBaplleBO->K HJl bHbIM 101 n p 0>KHJlKOBbIM opynexeunev
B 3Tl1X >Ke n o p on ax . 3Tl1 MeCTOpO>K,UeHl1fl acrpevaiorca npeuuy ­
w, eCTBe HHO B r epp a r en a u x se p a ocn au u eau x astcoxoyrne pona ­
CTbl X ro.nuax no pon, HO TaK>Ke OTMeyeHbl B crpyxry pnux uisax
BHy Tp l1<po p Ma IlHOHHbIX 3JleMeHTOB 3B reOCl1HKJlHHa Jl eH 11 30 Hax
TeKTOHO -MarMaTl1yeCKOH a KTI1BH3a lll1l1. n o MOP<P0JlOrHl1 py,n­
Hbl X ren - 3TO JlH HeHHble I1Jl I1 1130MeTpHyeCKl1e WTOK BepKI1 ,
I1MelDw,l1e 3HaYHT eJl bHbie n apaver pu MHHe paJl l130BaHHbi X no­
pon KaK n o npOCTH paHI1JO, TaK 11 no nanenmo pyznna x
H a .nOJlID "THX MeCTOp 0 >K,UeHHH n pI1XOJl.HTCfl cssuue 75% n on ­
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TeX HOJlOrHH HCnOJlb3YIDTCH Ky4Hoe BblweJla4HBaHHe H 6 HOTex­
HOJlOrHH .
Iloxaaarenea B 3TOM OTHoweHHH npawep C MeCTOpOIl<,a,eHHeM
Kyp auax, xoropoe nocne pacnana CCC P CTaJlO JlH,a,epOM 30­
Jl OTo,a,06bI4 H B POCCHH H3 KopeHHbIX MeCTOpO)K,a,eHHH. Ha MeCTO­
p0)K,QeHHH ,a,06bIBaJl OCb B pasaue rons: no 12 T 30JlOTa B rozr HO
xauie ,a,06b14a COCTaBJl51Jla 6-8 T. CCH 4ac npu 06e,a,HcHHH pynsa
C4eT )J.JlHTeJlbHOH 3KCnJlyaraUHH py,a,HHKa nepxcars 3Ty BbICOKYID
nJlaHKY ,a,06bI4H CJlOII<HO. n 0 3TOMY ,a,Jl51 B03MOIKHOCTH nepexona
aa coapeaesaue TeXHOJlOrHH nepepaoorx» 6e,a,Hb1X pyaH OTBaJl b­
aero X03 51 HCTBa 6bI Jl H nepeoueuenu B0 3MO)KHble sanacu 3TH X
pvn npn 6 0 pTOBOM co,a,ep)Ka HHH 0 ,5 rho OKa3aJl OCb, 'ITO B TaKHX
pynax conepxcar ca xpynnue sanacu aon or a , 'ITO paCWHp51eT nep­
CneKTHB bl oTpa60TKH MeCTOpO)K,QeHHH Ha ,a,JlHTeJlbHbIH CpOK. Bees
aonpoc ynapaercs B pCaJlH3aUHIO CYWecTBylDWHX TeXHOJlorHH,
npHMeHeHHe KOTOpblX 6blJlO 6bl peuraoensao B KJlHMaT H4eCK HX
YCJJOBH51X Kypaaaxcxor o MeCTOpO)K,QeHH51.
OCBoeHHe psna CH6HpCKHX Me CTOpO)K,QeHHH C 6e,a, HbIMH
py,a,a MH MOII<eT HMeT b o n pen en e a s u e n ep cneKTHBbl. Herinaro­
nOJlY4 Hoe nOJlO)KeHHe CTap bl x,a,eHCTBYIDWHX py,a,HHKOB, xorna OT­
pa60TKa pya Be,a,eTC51 ua r Jl y 6 HHe 400-500 M (6epe30BcKHH,
LlapacyHcKHH, COBeTcKHH) HJlH OCBaHBaIDTC51 MaCCHBbl30H C,a,BH­
lI<eHH51, BKJlID4a51 OCTaBJleHHble OT no,a,3eMHo H 3KCnJlyaTaUHH u e ­
JlHKH (6aJl eHCKHH KOM6HHaT) , MOII<eT 6bITb HCn paBJl eHO npn ne ­
pexon e Ha HOBbIe TeX HOJlorHH.
B TeXHOJlOr H4eCKHX paspaoorxax no nepepaoorxe py,a, HaH6 0 ­
nee 3Ha 4HMblMH npe,a,cTaBJl5110TCHn onxon u K o60raweHHIO y nop­
HblX py,a" rpynjraa 060raTHMOCTb KOTOpblX 06yCJlOBJl eHa CB513a H­
HOCTblD 30JlOT a B CyJlbcjJH,a,ax (apceaonupure H n upare ) H pa c ­
n pOCTpa HeHHeM TOHKo r o 30 JlOTa , KaK B nepBH4Hbi X pynax, TaK H
B poccunsx.
He06xo,a,HMOCTb COOTBeTCTBHH TeXHOJlOr H4eCKHX peweHHH
nOBbi walDWHMcH Tpe60BaHHHM 3KOJlOr H4eCKoH 6e30naCHOCTH
ropHo,a,06blBalowero npOH3Bo,a,CTBa nOBbl w aeT HayKoeMKoCTb 3THX
pa3pa60TOK .
3a nOCJl e,a,HHe 20 JleT 4eT KO o npe,a,eJl HJl HCb ,a,Ba n YTH pa3­
BJ-1 TH51 30Jl OTO,a,0 6bI Ba IDweH n POMb l WJl eH HOCTH: HHTe HCHBHbl H,
OCHOBaHHblH Ha 3KCnJlyaTaUHH KpynHblx H c pe,a,HHX MeCTOpOIl< ­
,a,eHHH C npHMe HeHHeM COBpeMeHHbIX TeX HOJlOrH4eCKHX npouec­
COB, H 3KCTe HCHBHbl H, xapaKTepH3yIDWHHCH YBeJlH4eHHeM 4HC­
Jla MeJl KHX npOH3Bo,a,HTeJleH MeTaJlJla , HCnOJl b3YIDWHX Tpa,a,H­
UHOHHblX Me To,a,bI 060r a weHH51 . 3KOHOMH4eC KYID
reo r p a cjJ J-11D COBpe Me HHOH MHpOBOH 30 Jl OTO,a,0 6 bI BalOw e H npo­
MbI WJleHH OCTH.
B C W A , ABCTpaJHH1 H Kaaane pa3BHTHe 30Jl OTO,a,06bIBaIClweH
npOMbl WJl eHHOCTH op HeTHpy eTC51 ua BBO,a, B ,a,eHcTBHe OTHOCH ­
TCJlbHO kpynuu x H cpen jnix npe,a,npH51 THH C r o,a,OBOH npoaasonu­
TCJlbHOCTblD 4 - 12 T MeTaJlJla H oonee. CTpO HTeJlbCTBO nonoo­
HblX py,a,HHKOB H cjJa6p HK rpeoyer 3Ha 4HTeJlbHbi X HHBec THUHH
(200-1000 MJlH nonn.), a HX oxynaevocn, npoucxonjrrvepea 4­
7 ner . Onuaxo HMeHHO TaKHe cjJa6pHKH BMeCTe C npe,a,npH51TH51­
MH Ky4Hor o BblweJla411Ba HH51 06eCne4HJl H cjJ aHTacTH4ec KHH pOCT
n pOH3Bo,a,CTBa MeTaJlJla B 3-1 5 pa3 aa nocnennne 20 ner".
B 19 9 7 r. B C W A,a,06bITo 3 5 1,4T 30JlOTa (2 -e MeCTO B MHpe) ,
pOCT ,a,06b14H sa ron - 22, 1 T (!), B ABCTpaJlHH - 31 1 T (3-e
MecTo), pOCT - 2 1,9 T!); B Kauane 16 8 ,5 T (4-e Mec To ) . Y,a,eJlb­
Ho e npOH3Bo,a,CTBO MeTaJlJla aa onuoro paoorarouiero MaKCI IMaJlb­
HO H ,a,OCTHraeT 10 xr 30JlOTa H oonee B ron
B pane pa 3BHBaIOWH XC51 crp au , TaKHX KaK Y1H,a,oHe311 f1 , cDH­
JlHnnHHbl , 6 pa3HJlHH, nepy H npyrnx, a TaK)Ke B KH Tae noauure­
HHe ueHbl 30JlOTa B Ha4aJle 90-x rr. Bbl3BaJlO 6yM craparcnscxo­
r o npouaeoacrea MeTaJlJla . B Ka)K,QOH H3 3THX crpan esceronno
Ha4HHaIDT cjJYHKUHoHHpoBaTb H npexpauiaior ,a,e51TeJlbHOCTb COT­
HH H TbIC51 4H npe,a,npHHTHH (B TOM 4HCJJe H HeJl eraJlbHbl X) C reno­
BOH n pOH3Bo,a,HTeJlbH OCTblD MeHee 1 T 30 JlOTa . B pesynsr ar e ne­
5lTeJlbHOCTH 60JlbWOro 4HCJla MeJlKHX H cpen nnx npe,a,npH51THH
pOCT npO H3Bo,a,CTBasa nocneruure 20 .ner YBeJl H4HJlC51 B 2-7 paa:
TaK, B KHTae nooueaercs 15 6 ,8 T MCTaJlJl a ( 19 97 r, - 5-e MeCTO
B MHpe), B kIH,a,oHe3HH - 101 ,4 T (7-e MecTo), B Flepy - 74,8 T
(8-e MecTo), B 6pa3HJlHH - 59, I T ( I G-e MecTo) , Ha cDHJlHnnH ­
aax - 33,8 T ( 14- e MecTo). LloJl 51 xpynaux npoH3Bo,a,CTB B no­
6 bl4e 30Jl OTa snecs He npeasuuaer 20-40 %. Y,a,eJl bHOe npoas­
BO,a,CTBO MeTaJlJl a Ha onaoro paooraiouiero 1- 2 xr B ron uuorna
3-4 «r.
K OC060H xareropu u OTHOC51TCH crpansi , B KOTOpblX O,a,HO­
BpeMeHHo aKTHBHO npHMeH51 10TC51 06e Mo,a,eJlH pa3BHTH51 30 Jl O­
To,a,06 b14H - H MeJlKO Ma CWTa6 Ha51 craparen sc x a s, H xpyn a as
n pOMbIWJleHHa 51 . K TaKH M CTpaHaM OTHOC51TC51 I aua (55,7 T ­
I I·e MecTo), Y HJl H (52,9 T - 12 - c MecTo), Flanya- HOBa51 fBH­
Hefl (49,9 T - 13 - e Mec To ). no 3TOMy )Ke nYTH pa3BHTHH 30JlO­
ronocusarouiea npOMblWJleHHOCTHCJle.uyIDT anepaue nOHBHBWH­
eCH B 4HCJJe,a,Ba,a,uaTH xpy nnea ui ux npoaaaonarene a 30JlOTa KHp­
r H3H51 (17,4 T) H MaJlH (16,7 T), aanyer asume B 3KCnJlyaTaU HID
py,a,bl «pynuux MeCTOpO)K,QeHHH ( B KHprH3J-1H - KyMTOP, ,a,aBwHH
B 1997 r . 16 T 30JlOTa) ; TaKa51)Ke CTpaTerH51 pa3BHTH51 npHH51Ta H
B Kasaxcrane ( LL r) H Ta,Q)KHKHCTaHe [ 15 J. K ,a,a HHoH rpyn ne
crpaa , BH,a,HMO, cnenyer OTHeCTH H Y36eKHcTa H, KOTOpblH nocne
pacnana CCCP n OJly<l HJl B HaCJle,a,CTBO Kpy n He HW J-1H KOM6HHaT,
nocrpoennuf ua oase YHHKaJl bHOrO n o aanaca u MeCTOp0)K,a,e ­
HH51 MYPYHTay. B HaCT0 51wee BpeM 51 n po Bo,a,HTC51 Mo,a,e pHH3a ­
UHH H pacumpesne npoaasoncrsa 30JlOTa aa OCHOBHOM ripen­
npHHTHH, a Ta K)Ke OCBaHBaIDTC51 TeX HOJlo r HH Ky 4 Horo euuiena­
4HBaHH51 MeTaJlJla H3 OTBaJlOB 3a6aJla HCOBbIX pyn ] 15J . BMecTe
C TeM B Y36eKHcTa He pa3BHBaeTC51 H cTapaTeJlbCKO e npoH3Bo,a,­
CTBO Me TaJlJla, 4eMy c noc06cTBy eT n p o r p eccH BHoe B 3TOM OTHO­
we HHH 3a KOHo,a,aTeJlbCTBO. 3 a nOCJl e,a,HHe TpH ro,a,a ,a,06bI4a 30­
JlOTa B Y36e KHCTaHe YBeJl H4HJla Cb 60Jlee 4eM Ha 20 T (!) H COCTa­
BHJla 81,7 T (8-e MeCTO B MHpe).
B pH,a,e cT paH C n p orp e c cJ-1 pYIDWe H 30JlOTO,a,06bI4eH eCTb
,a,Ba HCKJlID4e HH51 . B IOAP H POCCHH npOH3Bo,a,CTBO 30JlOTa He­
• 3LleCb H Ll3Jlee UHcjJpbl 0 Llo6bl 4e np HBOLl51TC51 no CnpaBO'i HHKaM
M i ni ng Annual Revi ew, 1988- 1998 H M et al s and M i neral s Annual
Re view, 1997- 1998.
---- --- ----PECYP CbI 11 I1POEJIEMbI OCBOEHI15I HEJlP ­
YKJlOHHOnaaaer , HB06eHx CTpaHaX - no nOJlHTH4eCKHMHre x­
HOJlOr l14eCKI1 M npl14 l1 HaM. B IOAP nocne OTKa3a OT nOJlI1 TI1 KI1
anapr euaa B03POCJlH sxc nnyarauaonaue sar par u . CBfl3aHHbie
CnOBblweHHeM onnarsi rpyna. 3T OT ¢a KTOp HaJlO)KIIJlCfl na BJlH­
flHHe YCJlO)KHHBWHXCfl ropHO-reOJlOrI14eCKHX YCJlOBHH paspa ­
60TKHMeCTOpO)K,UeHHHHHe06xonHMOCTb 3aMeHbi ycr apeaui ero
ooopynosanna 060raTHTeJlbHbiX ¢ a6pI1 K. On HaKO IOAP OCTa­
ercs KpynHei1wHM npOH3BOnHTeJleM 30JlOTa B MHpe, XOTfl B 1997 r.
ee n06bl4a snepaue C60-x rr, ynana HI1)Ke 500 T H COCTaBHJla
489 ,2 KT.
B 1997 r. B MHpe n06 bITo pexopnno e KOJlH4eCTBO 30JlOTa ­
2523 T(pOCT 3 %), 4TOnOBJIHflJlO Ha ueny MeTaJlJla. «oropa s yna­
rta C387,9 nonn. CWA B 1996 r. no 33 1,3 nonn. B 1997 r., a B
1998 npononxcana naneuue no 280 -290 nonn. ua KOHeu rona.
Kpove pacryuiea n06bl4H Ha ueny nosnaan 3KOHOMH4ecKHi1 KpH­
3HC BIOro- BocT04HoH A3HH. 4TO supaaanocs B xpynastx npona­
»cax 30JlOTa H3 3anaCOB CTpaH sroro per nona (OHH flBJlflfO TCfl
06JlanaTeJlfl MH xpynnenumx 30JlOTO-BaJlfOTHbIX aanacoa) Hysena ­
4eHI111 npe,UJlO)KeHI1H 30JlOTOrO JlOMa aa 160 %. CHH)KeHl1fO ueu
cnocoocrsosano YMeHbweHHe cpensux H3nep)KeK nponssoncrea
MeTaJlJla na 50 nonn. sa yHUHfO no 219 nonn . B 1997 r,
04eBHnHO. 4TOBYCllOBHfl XHe6JlarOnpHflTHoro pblHKa30JlOTa,
KpH3Hca B IOr o-BocT04HoH A3HH. POCCHH, Jl amHcKoH AMepH­
«e, a TaK)Ke B03MO)KHOH MHpOBOH 3KOHOMH4eCKOH nenpeccnu
xpynuue Hcpenaue npOH3BOnHTeJlH MeTaJlJla ocnanaror 60JlbWeH
YCTOH4HBOCTbfO H B03MO)KHOCTflMHconporusnenua HeraTl1BHbiM
TeHneHUHfl M B 3KOHOMH Ke.
B nacr osuiee BpeMfl30JlOTO BPoccuu noouaaercn B28 cy6beK­
Tax POCCH HCKOH <PenepaUHH Ha 600 npennpnsra ax pa3JlH4HbIX
¢OPM c06cTBeHHocTH. B 4HCJle KOTOp bIX MeHee I %r ocynap­
CTBeHHblX [ 10] . no npoH3BonHTeJlbHOCTH npeoonanaicr ripen ­
npHflTHfl. n06bI BaIOw.He 50- 200 Kr MeTaJlJl a B r on. 06w.ee
np0l13BOnCTBo 30JlOTa B POCCHHB nocnenuue rOnbl coxpa uiaercs
(ma 6J1.) BOCHOBHOM sa C4eTCHH)KeHHfl n06bl4HMeTaJlJl a H3 POC­
CblnHblX 06beKTOB 51 KyTHH. 3a6aHKaJlbfl. YpaJla. naJlbHerO Boc­
TOKa. Il onyrnas n06bl4a npaKTH4eCKH nOCTOflHHa H onpenens­
eTCfI nearensaocruo HOpHJlbCKOrO fMK H Iancxoro f OKa.
Ocpauia er BHHMaHHe peaxoe CHH>KeHHe O¢HUHaJlbHOrO npo­
H3BOnCTB3 MeTaJlJla H3 BTOpH4HOro cupsa (ma 6J1. I ) (B 12 paal),
4TO CBfl3aHO C HeCOBepweHCTBOM 3aKOHOnaTeJlbCTBa . COrJlaCHO
«<PenepaJlbHoMy saxony 0 nparoueauux MeTaJlJl aX H nparouea­
HblX KaMHflX» nepepa60T4HKH ar opu-mor o Cblpbfl He MoryT 6blTb
ero c06CTBeHHHKOM, HeHMefOT npasa HCnOJlb30BaTb cu pse B«a­
4eCTBesanora H nOJlY4aTb npennponssoncr aeuuue Kpe11HTbl, He
MOryT 060 HTH f OC¢ OH11 npn cnase MeTaJlJla HJlH uartpaarrn, ere
na BTOpH4Hoe HCnOJlb30BaHHe [4] .
POCCI1f1, 6e3 nocneztcrsn f nepeacus TeXHOJlOrH4ecKYfO peso ­
JlfOUH fO BnpOMblWJl eHHOCTHB COBeTCKoe speva. npn nepexone
K PblHKYoxasanac s TeXHH4eCKHHTeXHOJlOrl14eCKI1 orcrasurea.
Hapsny C3THMPOCCHfI HMeeT HH3KHH peHTHHr npua nexar ens­
HOCTH 11Jlfl nOTeHUHaJlbH bl X HH BecTopoB, 4TO orn. sc usercs He
CTOJl bKO OTcyTCTBHeM HaJlOrO BblX JlbrOT, CKOJlbKO HaJlorOBOH
H nOJlHTH4eCKOH HeCTa6HJlbHOCTbfO, KOTo pafl He n03BOJlfleT
ocy uiecransr s xpynuue HHBeCTHUHOHHble npoexrsi C11JlI1TeJlb­
HblM CpOKOM oxynaewocr u [14]. K HeraTHBHblM diaxropa« OT­
HOCflTCfI: ueon arcnpaaruoe paaa eureuu e OCHOBHblX 3anaCOB
MeTaJlJla no r epp uropnn cr pauu , nepasaaroe HaJlOrOBOe
3aKOH011aTeJlbCTBO, Y30CTb neransnux PbIHKOB coura MeTaJl­
na , BblCOKHH ypo seus npecryn uocrn B 3TOH cdiepe H MH or oe
g: npyr oe.
en
....
Ta6AULIa
)l,HHaMHKa npOH3BO.LI-CTBa 30JlOTa B POCCHH , T
(no aaftftbt.M MuftuCmepCmBa qnutancoe pep)
Dynamics of the gold production in Russia, t
(a ccording to the Russian Government data)
-
Ilo nyrnas Bropn-moe C y MMapuoe
lla lOlIlIl C r Oil
n pc.!ln fHIfl THlJ
1991 134
1992 126
1993 136
1994 132
1995 122
1996 11 3
I
1997 116
]t U6 Ll
t
i a cupr .c npOIf 3BOi\CTBO
10 24 [68
8 12 146
8 5 149
5 6 143
6 4 132
6 2 121
8 2 126
-
Ha BcepoccHHCKOM COBew.a HHHpYKoBonHTeJleH30JlOTOA06bI­
saio utef OTpaCJlH POCCHH B 1997 r. OTMe4aJlOCb, 4TO naneune
n06bI 4H 06bflCHfleTCfl CJleAYfOw.HMH npH4HHaMH [ 3J:
I. HecooTBeTcTBHeM 3anaCOB 30JlOTa B xopeusux (8 1 %) H
POCCblnHblX ( 19 %, a B nporu oanu x pecypcax euie MeHbwe ­
MeHee 10 %) MeCTOpO)K,UeHHfl XypOBHIO n06bl4H ( 70­
75 %- pocc u nu ue 06beKTbl. 20-25 % nopOBHY pacnpene­
Jlfl fOTC51 Me)KJJ,y 30JlOTOCOnep)Kaw.HMH MeCTOp0)K,UeHH51MH Hc06­
CTBeHHO 30.nOTopYJlHbIMH ( 6eHeBOJlbCKHH, 1998), HeBOCnOJlHe­
HHeM nor aiucunu x 3anaCOB.
2. OTcyTcTBHeMKOHTpOJlfl sa 3¢¢eKmBHbIMHCnOJlb30BaHHeM
ro puux npaa npe11npHHHMaTeJl51 MH H r OCY11apCTBeHHbIMH ripen ­
npHflmflM H.
3. n OHH)KeHHOH JlHKBI1AHOCTbfO 30JlOTa Ha r ocynapcrseuuo«
pbl HKe (3aAOJl)KeHHOCTb fO rocynapcrsa no OOJlaTe sa A06blTbie
Aparo ueHHble MeTaJlJlbI).
4. BblCOKHM ypcsaest HaJlor o06Jlo)KeHHfl ; OT 25-30 %110
50 % BblpyLIKH OT peaJlH3aUI1H MeTaJlJla yxonur sa nor auienae
HaJlOrOB. aKUH30B Hnposax ( BC WA nonoouue nu n­
JlaTbl B cyMMe He ocnee 5 %).
5. OTcyTcTBHeM nOCTaT04HO paspaoorauau x HOpMaTl1BHbIX
110KyMeHToB H npaKTHKH paccru CHHBeCTopaMHB YC,nOBHflX co­
rnaureaun 0 pasnene npOAYKUHH (Cf' ll).
04eBI1AH O, 4T O OCHOBHbl M nyr ev pa3BHTHfl 30JlOTOA06bI4H
B POCCHH 51BJlfleTC51 OCBoeHHe xpynuux H cpe11HHX xopennux
MeCTOp0)K,UeHI1H C pYAaMH, nonJle)Kaw.HMH nepep aoorxe no
KOM6HHHpoBaHHbi M cxevaa C npHMeHeHHeM TpaAHUHOHH blX
MeTonOB 060ra w.eHHfI ( r paBHTaUHH H ¢ JlOTaUHH) B C04eTaHHH
Cr HnpoMeTaJlJlyprH4ecKHM UHaHHnHblMBblw.eJla4H BaHHeM. TOJlb­
KO TaKHe npOH3BonCTBa ooecnevar cTa6HJlbHOe nocr ynneaue
30JlOTa na BHyTpeHHHH PblH OK H B rocynapcrseuuue sanacu.
n OnTBep)K,UeHHeM sroro sansercs CTa6HJlH3aUHfI n06bl 4H 30­
JlOTa B POCCHH B 1997 r., xor opas 6blJla nocTHrHyTa 3a C4eT
-
Ae51 TellbHOCTH ABYX HOBhlX xpynaux KOMOI1HaTOB - OllHMnl1­
ana ( 13 T) 11 Kyoaxa (8,8 T, a B 1998 r . - oon ee 15 T) [9J.
Onur OCBOeHH51 MeCTOp0lK"Qe HI1R Kyoaxa MO)l{eT CllY)l{l1Tbnpnve ­
pOM YAa4Hbi X HHBeCTI1UI1 11 . 3a HeCKOllbKO ner nocr poeuu OT­
KpblTblH PYAHI1 K, OOOr aTI1Tell bHaR cjJ aOpl1Ka no TeXHOllOrl111
«y r o.ns B nynsne », BaXTOBblH nocenox: OOllee 600 -ien oae«
I1MelOT nOCT051 HHYIO 11 aucoxoonnavaeaeeyio paoory: ooecne ­
411Ba lOTCR aan oroaue nocr y nne x ua B cjJ eAepall bHblH 11 MeCT­
Hbl e OIOA)I{eTbl [ 12 ] .
C ApyroH CTOpOHbl, POCCblnl1 11 MellKl1e xopen sue xaapueao ­
)l{1111 bHble MeCTOp0)l{AeHH51 C ll erKoooor aTHMblMH pYAaMH non­
)l{Hbl I1MeTb Ba)l{HOe 3HaljeHI1e KaK OObeKTbl Mall or o ropaoro
0l13HeCa, oriecnevaaaroume Obl CTPYIO OTAa4Y xanaranoenosce ­
HI1H. l-1MeHHo 3TH OObeKTbl Mor yT CKOMne HCl1pOBaTb CHI1 )1{ eHl1e
y pOBH51 AOO bl4H 30110Ta B nepu on OCBOeHI151 «pynnu x 30110­
ropyztaux OObeKTOB [ 6J. .llll H pa3BI1THH Mall or o ropnoro
0l13HeCa y Hac B crpane ecrs see npenn ocu nxn: HaJll1ljl1e COOT­
BeTCTBYIOWI1X MeCTOp0lK"QeHI1H, orexecr aeauue TeXHOll orHH 11
OOOraTI1Tell bHOe OOopYAOBaHl1e, KBaJl l1cjJl1Ul1 pOBaHHaH pa004a71
CI1J1 a 11 , HaKOHeu, oo r ar u e TpaAHUl1 11 30JlOTOAOObl411 [7J. Flpa­
BI1Tell bCTBY POCCI1 I1 H pe ruoaan snu« a,D,MHHI1CTpaUI1HM ueoo ­
XO,D,I1 MO CHI13 HTb nan orn na np0l13BOACTBO, nOllb3 0BaHI1e
3eMJleH H n p., 11 110epaJll130 BaTb nponaxcn 30JlOTa np0I13BOAI1 ­
Tell 51MH MeTall ll a 11 , uaooopor. y)l{ecTOljl1Tb KOHTpOllb aa ero
nBl1)1{eH HeM s a psnuce. OCOOble n s rorsr, artn ors AO nOJlHOrO
OCBOOO)l{,D,e HI1H OT nanoroe , HeOOXOAI1Mbl AJIH npezmpuauva ­
reneu . nbl TalOWHXCH acnonsaoaari, reono r uvecx ue sanacu
MellKoro 11 TOHKoro 3011 0Ta B pOCCblnHX 11 rexnorex au x MeCTO­
p0)l{AeHHHX.
B nocnensee BpeMH noasuue uaoe BHHMaHl1e YAellH eTCH POC ­
Cbl nHM C MellKI1M caMopOAHbl M 30JlOTOM (30 - 50 %MI1 HepaJla
HMelOT pasaepu MeHee0 ,25 MM), CBH3aHHbie Canmosuea cr pexc­
HeBOH cjJaul1l1 ; C TO HKI1M 11 nblJleBI1AHblM 30JlOTOM (60 - 100 %
MeHee 0, 1- 0,2 MM) B OTJl O)l{e HHHX npapycnoasrx OTMeJleH 11
nOHMax, a r aioxe nen srosu x 11 MOpCKI1 X POCCblnHX. B 3TI1 X Mec­
TOp0lK"QeHI1HX 3aKJlIOlj eHbi 3H3lj l1 Tell bHbie pesepau MeTallJla [ 8].
a ne pepacorxa TaKI1X PYArpeoyer pa3paOOTKI1 HeTpaAI1 Ul10HHbiX
TeXHOll Or l1H, cn oscnu x KOMOI1 HHpOBaHHblX cxe v oOOraweHI1H ,
cneUl1 cjJ l1 4HOr O, yaCTO aecs ra a noporor o, HMnopTHoro OOOPYAO­
BaHI151 .
TaKHM oopaaou, pa3BHTI1e 3011 0TOAOObIBalOw eH npov suu ­
JleHHOCTI1 POCCI1 I1 B03MO)l{HO no AByM HanpaBJl eHI1HM: CTpOI1 ­
Tell bCTB O npeAnp l1HTI1H Ha case xpynuu x MeCTOp0)l{,D,eHI1H , a
raxxce nyr ea CTHMyllHpoBaHI151 Malloro r opuor o 0I13HeCa , HC ­
nonssy iourero MeJlKOMaCWTaOHbl e npOHBJleHHH MeTallll a pas ­
11l1'lHOrO re ues uca.
Jl u r e p a r y p a
I . EeHeBOJlbCKUUE. H. 30JlOTOPOCCHH. Il po6J1eMbl HCnOJlb30BaHHH
H BOCnpOH3BOJ\CTBa MHHepaJlbHO-CblpbeBOH 6a3bl. M.: reOI1 HljJopiltMapK,
1995.
2. EeHe80JlbCKUU E. H., Hamouuncsuii B. H. AHaJl H3 npH4HH
CHHlKeHHH J\06b14H POCCblnHOrD 30JlOTa B POCCHH II Py!\bl H MeTaJlJlbl.
1997. NQ 2.
3. Bcepoccuncxoe coseuranae PYKoBoJ\HTeJl eH sooor onoou narouiux
npe!\npHRTHH POCCHH. II MHHepaJlbHble pecypcu POCCHH, 1997. I .
e. 36-37.
4. Kapnoe 10. A. IlpOOJleMbl HCnOJlb30BaHHRar opsxaoro (sosupar­
HOrD) cupsa, conepscautero J\paroueHHble MeTaJlJlbl II 30JlOTOJ\OObIBalO­
uiaa npOMbl WJleHHOCTb POCCHH. Il pOOJleMbl Hnepcnexr neu I MaTepHa­
Jlbl I -il Me)KJlyHapOJ\Hoil KOHcjJepeHUHH. MocKBa, 10-1 1 MapTa. 1999.
5. Kapr a MeCTOpOlKJ\eHHH 30JlOTa H nJlaTHHbl POCCHH. MacwTa6
1 : 10 000 000. OObRCHHTeJlbHaR 3anHCKa . K. 6. HJlbHH, B. r . 11a3a­
peHKOB, e. B. Cesnex, A. A. CMblCJl OB, 11. H. TliXOMHpOB. M -Cilo.
1996. (Pockov nenpa, rOCKOMBY3, CIl6rr H ).
6. KpU8/{OB A. H., H. 4J. Ha4aJlbHbl HnOTeHUHaJl Hnep­
cnexruau POCCblnHOH 30JlOTOHOCHOCTH POCCHHCKO(I C!>eJ\epaullH IIMII ­
HepaJlbHble pecypcst POCCHH. 1998. NQ 3. e. 11-1 5.
7. JJewKoB B., MUXaUJlOB B. 30JlOTO POCCHH: HeOKOH4eHHaR JleTO­
nacs II MeTaJlJlbl EBpa311H. 1997. NQ5. e. 72-77.
8. MUHKOO. O. Ilpo onev a nOHCKOBHoueHKII poccsmeri CMeJI KIIM
30JlOTOMll 0 6 30 P BH3Me. M . 1985. e. 42.
9. OPJlOB B. Il, 06 OCHOBHblXur orax paooTbl MIl P POCCHH B 1997
rony II MHHepaJlbHbl e pecypcu POCCII H, 1997, Ng 6. e. 4-6.
10. Flapnaae srcxue CJlywaHIIR no npocneve pa3BIITH5I J\06b14H H
npoassoncraa nparoueuuux II MHHepaJlbHble pecypcu POC­
CHH 1998. Ng I. e. 54-55.
II. Ilp nponnue pecypc u MaraJ\3HCKoHOOJlaCTH1996. MHHHcTep­
CTBO npap onaux pecypcoa PC!>. Ceae po-Bocro-mu a KOM HTeT no reo­
JlOrHH H HCnOJlb30BaHHlO uenp . Mar aJ\aH. 1997.
12. P03eH6JllOMH. C; EaHuH B. A. Onsrr npov snuneanoro OCBoeHHH
30JlOToPYJ\Horo MeCTOpolKJ\eHHH Ky6aKa B MaraJ\aHcKoH 06J1aCTH II
MHHepaJlbHble pecypcu POCCliH. 1998. NQ 6. e. 29 -35.
13. Cenoe« C. B., COBMeHX. M. , COcToHHHe H nepcnexrua u 30JlO­
TOJ\o6bI4H B POCCHHII 3anHcKH Iopaoro HHcTHTyTa. 1999. 1. 144 ( I).
e. 7 1-88.
14. Cy660muH M. A. COrJla WeHHe 0 paaaene npoJ\YKUHHB POCCHH II
MHHepaJlbHble pecypcu POCCHH. 1998. NQ 1. e. 51-52.
15. <Pa3YJlY/l/lUH M. H., Beno qcoe A. E., Aoaeeo A. 4J. KOMMep4e ­
CKHe B03MOlKHOCTH B30JlOTO- HaJlMa30J\o6blBalOweH Hnepepaoarusa­
IOweH OTpaCJlHX POCCHH H pecnyonux CpeJ\HeH A3HH (MaTepHaJlbl
2-H Me)KJlyHapoJ\HoH KOHljJepeHUHH)II Llser a ue MeTaJl Jlbl. 1998. NQ 5.
e. 16-20.
16. 3K30reHHaR 30JlOTOHOCHOCTb H nJlaTHHOHOCHOCTb POCCHHCKOH
C!>eJ\e paUH H I I 06bHCHHTeJlbHaH 3anHCKa K KOMnJleKTY «apr . M .:
UH HrPH. 1997.
17. M etals and Minerals Annu al Review, 1997- 1998.
18. Mini ng Ann ual Review, 1988 - 1998.
Cepreji BHKTOpOBH4 nETPOB - Ka H,DJ1,ll,aT reOJl OrO - MHHepaJlOrl14eCKl1x nayx. AO « M ex aHo 6 p - Yl H>KI1HHp HHr»
Cepreu BSl4eCJlaBOBH4 CEH,UEK - nexau reOJl OrOpa3Be,ll,04HOr O rpaxynsrera CflfTl-l (TY), nporpeccop
-
PECYPCbIl1 ITPOEJIEMbI OCBOEHl15I HEnp-
B. A. CTenaHOB, A. B. K03JIOB
,lJ:ooblqa yrnenozroponoe B POCCHH:
3KOHOMHKa U reOIIOJIUTUKa
The Russian econo mic st rategy key-target s of the oi l and gas supply development inc lude the following ones: expansion of eco­
nomi c activi ti es over northern and eastern regi on s of t he cou ntry; development of oil and gas field s at the sea shel f, t he arctic seas
i ncluding; improvement of national oil and gas companies position in the European marke t ; decisive entry of t he Russian fuel
export i n the Pacif ic Asi a market hy the short - term constr uct i on of t ransport pipelines.
Obi Cauomnop lie OblJl omxpmm,
nepecmpoioca lIa'IWWCb Obi Rem na Becum»p auu ue.. .i>
1-13 nporpeccuouaasuux paaroaopoa
Hr oru x0351i:'tcTBeHHoH >KH3HH POCCHH B 1999 r. npnsenn K
HeO>KH.QaHHOMY BbIBO.ny: 3KOHOMHKa crpanu OT'l eTJlHBO 0603Ha­
'lHJla npH3HaKH nom-eva. Bnepaue aa nOCJ1ell.HHe 9 ner rocynap­
CTBeHHblH 61O.Q>KeT 6blJl BbIllOJlHeH, npH4eM «c nonomnrrensuu­
MH zroxonava ». B Ka3HYnocr ynano oonee 120 MJlP.n ueaannasu­
posauuux py6J1eH ( <<!·13BecTH51 », 30. 12. 1999 r.). 90 % 3TOH
CYMMbl 06eCne'l HJlHcsepxnnauoaue uanoroaue C60Pbl. Ilpen­
naraercs O'leBHll.Hoe 06b 51 CHeHHe: «o lO.Q>KeT HaJlHJlH HeepTblO».
,LLeHcTBHTeJlbHO, ueuu MHpOBor o psnnca ua HeepTb B03p0CJ1H aa
r oll. pOBHO BTpH pasa: OT 65ll.o 190 ztonn. aa TOHHy (MeHee 9­
26 nonn. aa oappe.u.). Ilpn 06beMe sxcnopra 130-135 MJlH T
nerxo noncsaran, 06beMbl caepxnpuounea HeepT51HbIXKOMnaHHH.
Ho 06wa51 KapTHHa r opasno CJ1 0>KHee. n o ll.aHHblM PAO «E3C
POCCHH», 3a51 BKHna noaaxy 3J1eKTp03Hepr HHno crpaue ua 2000 r.
npeauuiaior TeKYwHH yposetu, aa 6 %. Taxoe peaxoe ysenave­
HHe cnpoca sa 3Hepr HIO - 5lBJleHHe He06bl4Hoe. Y Hero MO>KeT
6blTb TOJlbKOonaa npH4HHa - npezmpnsrna nJlaHHpYIOT POCT
Puc. I . Cooruoureuae 3HeproHoCHTeJJeH B asrpafiorxe 3J1 eKTp03Hep­
rHH: B POCCHH (I'H pRA) H B MHpe (2'H pRA)
I - ras; 2 - HeqlTenpo.nyKTbl; 3 - yron s: 4 - npyr ue BHllbl oprauavecxoro
TOnJlH Oa; 5 - aTOMHaR H rxnpoasepr xs
Fig. I . Distribution of fuels and other sources i n the electric energy
supply in Russia (1st row) and over the world (2nd row)
45,0..,- ---,,..--- ---,
40,0
35,0
30,0
25,0
20,0
15,0
10,0
5,0
0,0
en
en
en
06beMOB npoaaeoncrsa. OCHOBOH 3J1eKTp03HepreTHKHBcrpa ne
5lBJl51eTC51 yrn eaonoponaoe cu pse, npH'leM POCCH51 - ell.HHCTBeH­
Hoe B MHpe r ocynapcr so. rne rJlaBHblM HCTO'lHHKOM npOH3BO.n­
CTBa 3J1eKTpl1'leCTBa 5l BJl51eTC 51 npHpOll.HblH raa (puc. I ).
Flpennocumot 3KOHOMH'l eCKOro pOCTa 6blJlHcosnauu B KpH­
3HCHOM 1998 r. l-IecMOTp51 Ha KpaHHe He6J1ar OnpH51THylO KOHb ­
IOHKTypy MHpOBblX ueu H epHHaHcoBblH KpH3HC, TOnJlHBHO­
3HepreTH'leCKHH KOMnJleKC BblllOJlHHJI CBOH OCHOBHble aanauu:
1) 06 eCne'lHJI nOTpe6HocTH B TOnJlHB e H 3HeprHH;
2) ynoanera opan nnarescecnocoriuua cnpoc nOTpe6HTeJl eH ua
BHyTpeHHeM pu nxe; 3) COXpaHHJI CJlO>KHBWHHC51 ypos e-n, 3KC­
nopruux nOCTaBOK. Ilpn 3TOM Bbl51BJleHHble pecypcu yrnesono­
ponsoro Cblpb51 pacnpeneneuu no r eppuropuu POCCHH KpaHHe
2. 3) .
I. Crpyxrypa ronaaauo-anepreru-recxoro KOMnJleK­
ca (13K) POCCHH
B 1998 r. B POCCHH 6blJlO no6bIT0 1359,4 MJlH T y. T. (y. T. ­
YCJl OBHoe TOnJlHBo) nepBH'lHOrO TOnJlHBHO- 3HepreTH'l eCKOrO
cu pss . Buyrpenuee nOTpe6J1eHHe COCTaBHJl O849 ,7 MJlH T y. T,
Puc. 2. Pacnpeneneuae 3anaCOB HeljlTH H ra30KOHAeHcaTa 110 OCHOB­
HblM A06blBalOII.lHM paHoHaM POCCHH
I - Cese puu a: 2 - n OBomKcKHH; 3 - Cesepau a KaBKa3; 4 - YpaJlbCKH H;
5 - 3anailHaR CHOHpb; 6 - ocr ansuue paHoHbl
Fig. 2. Distribution of oil and gas condensate reserves over the main
Russian provinces and regions
Puc. 3. Pacnpeneneuue 3anaCOB raaa no OCHOBHblM A06blBalOII.lHM
paHoHaM POCCHH
I - CeBepHblH; 2 - n OBomKcKH H; 3 - CeBepHblH KaBKa3; 4 - YpaJlbCK HH ;
5 - 3anailHaR CHOHpb; 6 - .LlaJlbH eBOCTo4HbIH
Fig. 3. Distribution of gas reserves over the main Ru ssian provinces
and regions
1% 4 % 14%
-
TaOAU/{a
Iloxaaarenu np0l13BOACTBeHHOH AeSlTeJIbHOCTI1 HeqneAo6blBalOUJ.I1X KOMnaHI1H POCCI1I1 B 1998 r.
Comparative parameters and activities or Russian oil companies in 1998
Hc<jJTCI106bIHaIOU\HC 06bCM IlOOblYH
3" naCbl 1111 OHJlaIlCe (A+ B+C
J
)
3Kc nopTCl.lpoii OObCMnepepa -
n/ n KOMnmUIH (HK) Hc<ln". M.'H T
HC<jJTb. M.'" T Jl o.rlSl,
ncdrr u, ThIC . T GOTKIt . Tble . T
JlYKOHJl 53.7 1577,0 10.04 15770,9 16554.8
2 Cypryrnedrreras 35.2 1374.4 8.75 122.52.6 15946,6
3 IOKOC 34. 1 2159,7 13,75 10410,3 20110,8
4 TaTHe¢Tb 24,4 642,2 4,09 7079.0 5600,4
5 CYlLlAHKO 19,9 2670.2 17.00 5115,9 12100,7
6 (THK) 19.7 1889.6 12,03 5906,9 8137,6
7 CU 6HC¢Tb 17.3 829,3 5,28 4780.5 13 106,0
8 6mUHe¢Tl, 12.9 344.0 2,19 3003,6 17261, 6
9 POCflC¢Tb 12,6 1833,0 11.67 6362,7 3657,7
10 BOcTo'IHa51 (BHK) 10,7 391,1 2,49 2674.1 5 103,0
II Caasuedm, 11.8 303,15 1,93 3797.7 7624,5
12 OHAKO 7.9 390.0 2,48 1836,2 4426,2
13 8,5 628,3 4,00 1175,9 206fi .2
B ueJlOM no POCCHH 303 15707 100,0 135300 164000
nOCTaBKa snepropecypcoe sa npenenu POCCI-1I-1 - 509,7 MJ1 H T
y. T. (Ha 4 MJ1H T 60J1 bWe, 4eM B 1997 r. ). 3KcnopT HeepTI-1 yse­
,n WI I-1 J1 CA no 135,3 MJ1H T, nOCTaBKI-1 npaponaoro raaa sa rpaaa­
uy COCTa BI-1 J11-1 200,6 MJ1pn M
3
( 98 ,9 % OT ypOBH 51 1997 r.) .
Ha-aa rnyooxoro nane HI-151 ueu Ml-1pOBOr O pbl HKa B 1998 r.
yneJ1bHblf1 aec T3K B BaJ1 0BOM BHyTpeHHeM nponyxre POCCI-1f1­
CKO f1 <!J enepaW1I-1 OKa3aJ1CA He06bl4HO CKpOMHbl M - MeHbwe
18 %[8J.
Il.06bl'lQ nedimu. 06be Mbi n06bl41-1 nOCJ1 e 1994 r. CTa61-1­
J11-13I-1 pOBaJ1 I-1 Cb Ha ypo sne OK0J1 0 300 MJ1H T 1-1 OCTaBaJ1I-1C b
npa KTI-1 4eCK I-1 He3aBI-1 CI-1MblMI-1 OT K0J1 e6aHl-1 l"t ypOBHA uen. Ha
I AHBap51 1999 r. B paspaoorxe HaXODJJ.nOCb 1137 HeepT51 HbIX 1-1
nedrr er asouux MeCTOp0>Kll.eH I-1H . .1l06bl4Y na HI-1 Xsenyr 13 xpyn­
HblX HeepTAHblX KOMnaHfl H-XOJ1nI-1 HrOB ( ma6A. 1), 7 KOM naHI-1 H
OAO «Iaanpca » 1-1 75 60J1 ee MeJ1KI-1X POCCI-1 HCKI-1X HeepTe1l.06bIBa­
1OU\I-1XOpraHl-13a UI-1 H. BOTpaCJ1 1-13epepeKT I-1 BHOnef1CTByIOT42 ri pen ­
npH51TI-1 A C I-1 HOCTpaHHblM Y'!aCTl-1eM: OHI-1 pa60TalOT, KaK npasu ­
J10, CTA>KeJ1bI MI-1 , TpynHol-13BJ1 eKaeMblMI-1 sanacavu, HOooecne­
41-1Ba lOT yxce 6,7 %ocuiero 06beMa n06 bl41-1 HeepTH B cr paae 11
I-1MelOT penyrauut o cawux axxyparuux HaJ10rOnJ1 aTeJ1bU\I1KOB.
Hanpaaep, yneJ1bHaA n06bl4a Ha onnoro pa60THHKa B c n «Ho­
6eJ1 b OHJ1 » B 5 paa auur e, 4eM B nOnpa3neJ1eHH51X HK «KOMI1
T3 K», HaOnHI1X 1-1 re x >Ke HeepT51HbIXn0J1 51 XBpaii oue r. YCI-1 HCKa.
B 1993 r. HeepTen06bIBalOU\a51 OTpaCJ1 b POCCHI-1 6blJ1 a pas­
neneua Ha 13 xpynuu x HeepTen06blBalOULI-1X BepTltKaJ1 bHO
HHTer pl-1 pOBaHHblX KOMna HI1 H-XOJ1nI1HroB: J1YKOYlJ1, «Cypryr
aedrrer aa», CH,llAHKO, fO KOC 11 np. (ma6A. I). BC51 re ppa­
TOpl-1 51 cr pau u 6blJ1a pasnene ua Me>K,Uy HHMH ua " 30Hbl OT­
BeTCT BeHHOCTI-1 ». Cesepo-Sananau ji per no u, Hanpl-1Mep, CTaJ1
06ecne 4l1 BaTbC51 Heep TblO, n06b1T0f1 HK «Cypryr uedr r eraa» ,
M OCKBa - HK J1 YKOYlJ1, Lleirrpansuue paiio Hbl POCC I-1H ­
HK fOKOC 1-1 T. n. C npy ro ii CTOpOHbl, rocynapcrso nOJ1 HOC­
TblO KOHTpOJ1l-1pyeT KOMnaHH IO «Tpaac ueqr r s » (100 % aKUI-1H
B roccoocr seuu ocr n), T. e. BCIO cI-1cTeMY Mar l-1CTpaJ1 bHblX ued»
r enp oeonos .
OpraHH3a Ul-1 0HHO HK BKJ1 104eHbl B cucre vy MI-1 HTOn3Hepr o,
HO epaKTI-1 4eCKH OHH 5lBJ15110TC51 He3aBHCHMblMH 4aCTHbl MH KOp­
nOpaUI-1 AMI-1. B I-1 X aKTHBax r ocynapcr sy npnxanneacar OTHOCH ­
TeJ1bHO He60J1 bWHe naxer u aKUHH ( OT 20 no 50 %) . Cpenu
I-1HTepeCoB 3THX peansuux aenpononssosar enef cTpaTerH4eCKI-1e
ueJ11-1 paU1-10HaJ1 bHOrO OCBoeHHA H pa3BHTH51 TOnJ1I-1BHO-3Hep­
rer usecxo ro KOMnJ1eKCa cr pasu OTXOnAT Ha sropoa nJ1 aH. 3 TO
HOBaAnJ1A POCCI1 HpeaJ1bHOCTb: sanacu yrn esonoponsoro cu pss ,
n06blBalOU\He MOU\HOCTH HaxonATCA B paCnOpA>KeHI-1 H 4aCTHbiX
CTpyKTYPCI1XOC06bl MI1 I-1HTepeCaMI1 . B 1999 r. OHH OTpa3HJ1 HCb,
aanpuvep, Bnsysparno« pOCTe ueu ua 6eH31-1 H.
B HaCTOAU\ee BpeMA B POCCI-111 neHcTBylOT 35 uerpr enepepa­
6aTbIBalOU\HX 3aBOnOB ( H n3) [ 8] . .1lMI cpaBHeHHA - B C ili A
nx 60J1ee 300. npaKTI-14eCKH see 3THnpennpu arua rpeoyror pe­
KOHCTpyKUH I-1,UJ151 peWeHI-151 rJ1 aBHOHsana-m - YBCJl H4eHHA rJ1Y­
611 Hbl nepepa60TKH HeepT51H or o cu pss. B cpezure« no OTpaCJ111
OHa COCTaBHJ1a OK0J1 0 65 %, I1J1 H Ha 10-15 %HH>KC cpenae­
Mll poBoro ypOBHA. n o oueuxe npeanaeara TIOMeHcKoH uedrra ­
HOH KOMnaHI-1 H ( THK) C. Kyxeca, I1MeloU\er o 60JlbWOH onsrr
paoor u B Heep T51HbIX KOMnaHH51 X Cili A, poccuacxne Hn3 rpe­
6ylOT He MO/l.epHH3aUHH, a KopeHHoii nepecrpoiixu. Jlyxume
npennpIIATH51 , nocrpoeanue B nOCJ1enHHH nepuon Cyll(CCTBOBa­
HH51 CCCP, M a>KeHKAHCKHH 11 n aBJ1 0napCKHH Hn3, OCTamt Cb
BJ1HTI:ICHKa3aXCTaHC. n POH3BO.nCTBO Ha aaeonax POCCHH 6blJ1 0
Tpanl1Ul1 0HHO OpHCHTlfpOBaHO Ha nBl-1 r aTeJ1H, I1 CnOJlb3YIOU\He
C0J151 PKY 1-1 76-H 6eH311H, a COBpeMeHHbll"t aBTOM06HJ1bHbIHnapx
-
PECYPCbI 11 TIPOEJIEMbI OCBOEHI1H HELlP­
rp eoyer I1CKJlIOYIHeJlbHO92 -H 11 J111 Peur eu ae npoonev u
MOAe pHI13aLLI1 11 6J1oKl1pyeTc51 np06J1eMOH I1 HBeCTI1LLI1H - BcpeA­
HeMTpe6ylOTc51 l,anl1TallbHble sar par u 200-250 Mll Hno.nn. aa
OAI1H 3aBOA.
llPOAYKTbl OTeyeCTBeHHOH nedrrenepepaoorku HaXOA51 T nOT ­
pe6l1Tell51 TOllbKO aa BHyTpeHHeM pblHKe 11 B crpanax 6lll1IKHer O
3apy6elKb51, pacver u npoBOA51TC51 no LLeHaM B 2,5-3 pasa Hl1 lKe
MI1 POBbIX, yaCTO no oaprepy. Flocrasx a cupon HecjJTI1 Hasxcnopr
I1 MelOT M51 HecjJT51HbIX XOJI,111 HrOB 6e3ycll oBHbIH npnopnrer
no cpaBHeHl110 co cHa6IKeHI1 eM c06CTBeHHbiX nedrrenepero nuu x
3aBOAOB. TaK, AHrapcKHH HecjJTexI1MI1yeCKI1H KOM611HaT (npaua­
MelKHT HK CJ.1.LIAHKO) npu npoH3BoAcTBeHHoH MOlIUIOCTH
23 MJlH T, B 1998 r. nepepaooran 7,2 MJlHT (3 1 % 3arpY3KI1
MO WHocTeH).
Fasoeasi npo.nouunennocmo . .LI06blya rasa COCTaBHJl a
B 1998 r. 59 1 MJl P.ll M
J
( 103 ,5 % K ypOBH IO 1997 r.) ; 93 ,7 %
oouiero ee 06beMa 06eCneYHJlH npeAnpH51 TH51 OAO «Iaanpov ».
Ilcrpecnrens « B POCCHH ouno nOCTaBJlE'HO 388,9 MllPA M' 1.
llOCTaBKH aa rp ax uuy COCTaBHll H 200,6 MJlPA M
J
C HeKOTopblM
coxpauienu ea H3- 3a naAeHH 51 nnarexcecnocoouor o cnpoca
B crpana x 6ll HIKHero 3apy6elKb51 . B TO IKe BpeM51 sxcnopr
B crp au u Eapo riu YBeJlHYHllC51 Ha 3,5 % H COCTaBHJI
120 ,5 Mll PA Me).
OAH a H3 rpe x «pynseaun« MOHOnOll l1H POCCHI1 - «Ias npov»
AHHaMHY HO pa3BI1BaeTC51 . 1-1 0 11 3Ta orpacns He cB060AHa OT ce­
psesuu x np06J1 eM. OHH CB51 3aHbl 11 C06111eH Cl1ryaLLl1eH 3KOHO­
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nOTpe6HTell eH BHyTpH
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MeCTOpOlKAeHHe - Caacrnop. Il aaea ae 06beMOB.ll06b1YH HecjJTH B
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30 1,2, 1997 r. - 306, 1998 r. - 303. Flonoxceuae cra6HJlH­
aupoeanocs . HOcrpaaa ncr epana npHBbl4Hoe ll H.llepCTBOB HecjJ ­
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cnnyarauuouuux CKBaIKHH. 25 %3aJleIKeH B3KCnJlyaTaUHH Bbl­
paocraau ocnee yeM Ha 80 %, M51 70 %CKl3alKHH .lle6l1Tbl co­
CTaBJl51 IOT MeHee 20 T/ CYT.
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lKeJlblM HcnblTaHHeM M51BHOBbC03AaHHbiXPOCCItHCKIt XHecjJT51HbIX
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-------- - ------
- -- - - -- - - -- - - - -
--------------
Il ocne 1991 r. nOJlHOCTblO npexpanorucs rocyna pcr se usue HH­
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COCTaBHJl OKOJlO 300 MJl p.u .uOJlJl. [ 2J .
B MapTe 1999 r . cr panu O nEK .uOrOBOPHJlHCb 0 CHH/KeH HH
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B03 HHK psn np06Jle M - B crpepe KOHTpOJlSl nan HeljJTSlHbIM cex­
TOpOM TOnJl HBHO- 3Hepr eTH4 eCKOr o KOMnJleKca.
llH HaM HKa ueu MHpoBoro pumca HMeeT UHKJlH4eCKHH xapa«­
rep : 1995-1 9 9 6 rr. - 6Jla rOnpHSl THaH KOHbIOH KTypa , 19 97­
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ueu. Hedrrauue KOMnaHHH POCCHH n OKa3aJlH, 4TO OHH He MOryT
oneparuauo pearnpoaar s Ha H3Me HeHHH PblH04HOH KOHbIOHKry­
pu . Ilpu pOCTe uen He npOH30 WJl O uapaumsanna 06be MOB npo­
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peneneane TOBapHblX nOTOKOB. C Be pxnpH6bIJlbHOCTb sxcnopr a
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UHTHblMH CTaJlH 6eH3HH H Ma3yT. POCT ueH ua 6eH3HH COCTaBHJl
BO BTOPOH nOJlOBHHe 1999 r . 25-30 %; B aarycr e rocynapcrso
sa nper an o sxcnopr KOTeJlbHOr O TOnJlHBa.
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Puc. 4. .ll.HHaMHKa uea ua pOCCHiicK)'1O HeljlTb ua eBponeii cKoM pblH­
Ke (1l0JlJl ./6appeJlb)
Fig. 4. Dynamics of prices of th e Russian oil at the European market
during 1999 (US D per barrel )
UeHa. Aonn./ Oappenb
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9,0 0
Il HBapb 2000
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__ ________
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pansuc-cupeeaue pecypcu POCCHH: 3KOHOMHKa H ynpaaneuae. 1999.
4. C. 21-29.
2. MOCKBUH A. T. 3KcnopT pOCCHHCKOH HC<jJTH - ua nYTH K coxpa­
meHHIO? / / MHHepaJlbHO -CblpbeBble pecypcu POCCHH: 3KOHOMHKa H
ynpaaneaue. 1999. 2. C. 47-51.
3. OpAOB B. Il. Flepcnexruau pa3BHTH51 sxcnopra He<jJTH H rasa
B A3HaTcKo·THxooKeaHcKoro perHOHa Ha OCHOBe pecypcHoH
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uo-cupseaue pecypcu POCCHH: 3KOHOMHKa H ynpaancuue. 1999.

4. OpAOO B. Il. 0 noauureauu 3KOHOMHyeCKOH 3<jJ<jJeKTHBHoCTH HC'
nOJlb30BaHH51 HH3Y'leHHR aenp / pecypcu Poe­
CHH : 3KOHOMHKa H ynpasaenue. 1999. 4. C. 2-10.
5. Ilumu« B. B. pecypcu BCTpaTerHH pa3BH'
TH51 pOCCHHCKOH 3KOHOMHKH / / 3anHcKH Iopaoro HHCTHTYTa. T. 144. Cn6.,
1999. c. 3-9.
6. PeAtU30B B. B: Ilonouapee B. A.. Csopotioeamoe B. A.. Cma­
pocenscxuii B. H. COcToRHHe H nepcnexrxau pa3BHTH51 cupsesoa 6a3bl
ra30BOH npOMblWJleHHOCTH POCCHH / / pecyp ­
CbI POCCHH: 3KOHOMHKa Hynpaaneuue. 1998. 4. C. 11-17.
7. PeAtU30B B. B., Ilonouapee B. A., Csopotio eamoe B. A.. Cma­
pocenscxuii B. H. 06 sxcnopre npnponsoro rasa B crpanu A3HaTcKo­
Tuxooxeancxoro peruona / / MHHepaJlbHO-CblpbeBble pecypcu POCCHH :
3KOHOMHKa H ynpaanenue. 1999. 4. C. 30-35.
8. <t>ellepaJlbHblH CnpaBOYHHK: 61Oll>KeT, <jJHHaHcbl, HaJlOrH, 3KOHO'
MHKa, TOprOBJI51, cdiepa. nayxa, npupozmue pecypcu POc·
CHH. Bun. 5. M ., 1999. 655 C.
BaJleHTHH ArJeKcaHllpOBH4 CTEnAHOB - noueur KacjJellpbl reOJlOrHH H paasenxu MeCTOpO>K,D,eHHH nonesuux HCKO­
naevux CaHKT- Ilerepoyprcxoro rOCYllapCTBeHHOrO rOpHOrO HHcTHTyTa, xannnnar reOJlOrO-MHHepaJlOrH'JeCKHX uayk
Anexcannp BJlaAHMHPOBH4 K03JlOB - 3aBe.nyIOWHH KacjJellpOH reOJlOrHH H paaaenxa MeCTOpO>K,D,eHHH nonesuux
HCKonaeMbIX CaHKT-Flerepoyprcxoro rOCYllapCTBeHHOro ropnoro HHcTHTyTa, llOKTOp reOJlOrO-MHHepaJlorHyeCKHX
HayK
IBJ 199026, Cansr-Ilerepoypr, 21 JlHHH51, n. 2. Ten. (812) 328 82 57
N
:!
A. H. BOXMeHu;eB
PyKOTBopHoe MeCTOpOiK;J;eHHe
KaMeHHOrOpCKa
Sand si ft i ngs - the waste product remained after crushing of granite gnei sses at Karnennogorsky enterprise of indust rial mi nerals
(KKNM Lt d) is brought i n the notice as a useful by- product. It is charact erized in the paper from the point of it s mineral and
chemical composit ion , technological properties and possible fields of use.
H a reppuropau Kaveuuoro pcsoro KOM6HHaTa uepynusrx
nOJlY4eHO OKOJlO 200 TbI C. M
30TceB
a . n 0 3TOMY 6e3 npeyae.nu­
MaTe p Hil Jl OB (3AO KKH M), paapaoaru aaiouiero na We6eHb
4e HHfI MOIKHO roa op urs 0 aacrosuiea meXHOc eHHU_1t si e cmo­
KHpKHHcKoe MeCT o p 0)J<,UeHHe rpauur o- rneiicoa, opocaorcs B
pOJICOe HU U neCK3- 0 TceBa , xor opoe C¢OpMHpOBaJIOCb H npo­
r nasa BnJlO THYIO noncrynarouiue K npOH3BO,llCTBeHHbiM nou euie­
AOJlIKaeT p aCTH ua Ha WHX rnaaax H np» nauiea Y4aCTl IIl. B on ­
HHfl M KOHYCbl - OTBa Jlbl OTce Bil - p bl XJl orO nbIJl eBaT O-neC4aHO­
pOC B TOM, HaCKOJl bKO 3T O Me CTopOIKAeHH e OTBe 4a eT nOHfl THIO
r o OCTaTl<a ,ll p 0 6 Jle HHfI , COpTHpOBI<H H 6 y p O-B3PbI BHbIX pa 6 0T
nonesuoe acxonae a oe. n pH BeAeM xpar kue csenenna 0 e ro
(¢paI<UHfI 0- 5 MM) . 3TOT OTceB H CJlYIKHT npenaero v H3 CTOfl­
COCTaBe .
w e i\ CTaTbH . n plt41tH .llJlfl uure peca K 3TO MY OTXOAY n p OH3 BOA ­
Ile cox-omcee Kavenaoropcxoro KOM6HHa Ta YIKe LlOCTa ·
CTBa HeCKOJl bKO.
T0 4 HO,llaBHO npHMeHfleTC51 B Ka4eCTBe aano.n auren a B acdians­
Ca vaa nposauvecxaa - B TOM, 4TO OH, no cyuiecr sy, Me w aeT
To - 6 eTOHHbI X c Mecflx , B 6eTOHax npu n p oH 3 BOLlcTBe p a3Jl H'I ­
OCHOBHOMY npOH3BOACTBY. H 3H 6 0Jl ee TOHKa fl 4aCTb e ro , nu m,
Hbl X H3ACJlHii H coopyxceuu s. Ocrpoyron s nue H uiep oxos aru e
MH Kp OHHbl X pasvepoa. cnocoouaa nono.nry BHCeTb B B0 3Ay xe,
aepua suron no OTJl H4 a lOT 3TOT n e COK OT pexuu x, MOp CI<HX,
xpesar a cepbe3Hbl MH 3a 6 0Jle B3 HHfl MH H TpaBMaMH.llJlfl pa6 04HX,
¢ JlIOB HO-rJl flUHaJl bH bI X n eCKOB. 3AeCb CKa3bl BaeTCfI pas unua
3 Ta KIKe yCKopeHHblM H3HOCOM Ma WHH H MeX3HH3MOB. OcaAOK
B cue nneuuu. CBfl3Ke sepea . K AOCTO HII CTBaM neCKa -33nOJl­
raxof n blJl H, OTHIOAb He yxpauiaa OKpY/KalO ll.(y1O pacnr rens aocr s,
HlneJl 51 OTHOCfl TCfI Ta KIKe HH3Koe conepscanue opraua-recxax
KOHe 4 HO, nonaanaer ee AbI X3HHe. H o n OMeXOH n pOH3 BoACTBy
n pHMe c e H H rJlH HHCTblX MHH e p aJlO B, HOpM3 JlbH Oe COLle pIKa HHe
w e6H fI OK33blBaeTCfI H rnaanas - necsauaa 43 CTb crcesa : ne ­
pa,llHO HYKJl HAOB.
COK ua repparopuu KOM611HaTa npocr o He KYAa nesar s . 6y JlbAO­
H eCMOTp fl ua OTMe 'le HH ble npeaa yiuecr aa, CTpOHTeJl b H3f1
sep u He B COCTOfl HHH pasrpecr u 6yKBaJl bHO ropu er o Ha o r pa ­
crpepa HCnOJlb30BilHH51 K3Me HHoropc Koro nckyccraenuoro rrec­
HH4e HHOH nnouiann KOM6 HHaTa . B pesynsr are - BbI HY>K.ll e HHbl e
xa nOK3 OCTae TC51 AOBOJl bHO o rpa HH4eHHoH. n O- BHt\IlMOMY, CKa­
npocro u B paoor e OCHOBHblX u eXOB.
suaaerca IKeCTK3f1 per Jla Me HTa UH51 COAepIKaHHfI MeJ1l(HX 4aCTil U
npeACTa BHTb 06beMbi MewalOwero, craporo H eIK e 4aCH O
H MHH epaJl bHoro COCT3B3 B TpaAIlUHOHHblX 6eTOHHbiX cvecnx, rAe
no non use voro orcesa MOIKHO, eCJlH Y4eCTb: CpOK paoor u ri pen­
JlHMIl TllpyeTc fI COAe pIK 3HIl e 6HOTIl T3 H nblJl eB3TOH ¢P3KUHH. LI e ­
npHfl THfl oonee rpex aecar uner uq ( H npeACTO HT CTOJlbKO IKe), ero
WYHKH CJ1IOLlbl OTJl H4a lOTCfI HH:JKOH n p0 4110cT blO, a nblJl b MOIKeT
MacwTa6 - AaJleKO He nOCJleAHlt H B peruoue H, Ha KOHeu, TO, 4TO
CJlYIKHTb n pH 4H Ho i\ nepepacxona uea eura.
3TOT npOAYI<T-OTXOA COCTa BJlfleT OKOJlO Tp eTH seen BblAa BaeMOH
Brop as 0 6 Jl3Cr b n p HMe HeHHfI or ceaa 113 H,lleHa COTPYAHHK3 MIl
na-ropa Ma CCbl nopon, TOJl bKO aa nocnennue 3-4 rona paoor u
3 A O «Hepynnue MarepHaJl bl » COBMecrHO CO CneUH3J1HCr3MH
Ta6AUl{a
Cocras OTBaJlOB OTCeBa Kaaenoropcxoro KOM6HHaTa
The composition of the wast at Karnennogorsky enterprise
IlJla rU OK.. 1iJ3
.N. 205
MllKpOKJHIII Kaapu DllOTllT Bropocr eneunue \l axucecnpnue
30- 75 ,5 -40 10-40 3- 30 1-8 KOP4UCPIIT (40 3-1 J % ), M.11I % - nupoxcea, CIIJlJlII MaHII T,
3 IlJU\JlY3 liT, poroaan ot'iMallKiI, MlI rIleTIf T, 11 11 pllT, xa.u ncornr­
pur, r ll JICHIl T, KOBeJlJllfll , xynpur, pyr un, anar ar, unpxou,
311lffWT, lIeOJlIf T
XH MUtI CCKHH COCTaB , %
rpaIl Y.'IOMeTpWICCIHlli cocra u, %Macc
Si O . FeO + Fep, K,O + NilP
2- 5 MM 0,63- 2,0 MM < 0,63 MM
60- 70 10-1 2 5- 10
30-25 30- 35 '=30,0
* B yaCTHOM asan use. Cj\eJlDHHOM B naoopa ropaa « BOIlOKaIl 3JIa», He onpeneasaacs CaO, M gO, Ti O. H lip. y -aKTHBHoCTb :llCHee 20 MKP/'1 .
- ---------- PECYPCbI 11 IlPOEJIEMbI OCBOEH115I HELl:P ­
« BO,lJ.QKaHaJla» Caukr- Fl erepoypra . YCTaHOBJl CHO , 4TO eppaKUH5I
0,65-2,5 MM BnOJlHe 3aMeH5IeT ,lJ,aJlbHenpHB03HOH (c Ypana) H
npeBOCXO,lJ,HT no ep HJlbTpOBaJlbHblM cBoik TBaMnpyrue neCKH pe­
rHOHa . HOBOMy HCnOJlb30BaHHIO orcesa r paa aro- ruejica He
nOBpe,lJ,HJlH pacnpocrpaseauu e CJ1yxH 0 pa,lJ,HOaKTHBHOCTH rpa ­
HH TOB Buooprc xoro paaosa: aHaJl H3aMHnO,lJ,TBep/KLI.eH HOpMaJlb­
Hbl Hypoaeas pa,lJ,HaUHH nJlar HOrHeHCOBKHpKHIICKoroMeCTOpO>K ­
,lJ,eHH5I . Bonorpunsr posans uu e CBOHCTBaorcesa, no ,lJ,OCTOHHCTBY
oueueuau e H HCnOJlb3yeMbie B Ca HKT- Il er epoypre H Bbl60pr e,
Ha,lJ,O Ha,lJ,e5l TbC>J, npnsnexyr BHHMaHHeHzipyra x npOMblWJleHHblX
ueHTpOB crpanu. CaMOH KpynHoH eppaKUHeH orcesa. KaK B03­
MO>KHOH OCHOBOH ,lJ,Jl 51 BO,lJ,Oa3paUHOHHbIXyCTaHoBOK, reneps 3a­
HIiTepeCOBaJlaCb M OCKBa.
3 aMeTHM, 4TO OYHCTKa BO,lJ,bl CnOMOWblOcrcesa r peoyer er o
npenaaparen saoro eppaKUHOHHpOBaHH5I H ynaneuas TOHKHX CO­
CTaBJl5l10111HX. 3THM 06CT05lTeJlbCTBOM npHHH>KaeTC5I OLIeBH,lJ,H351
3KOJlOr HleCKa51 HanpaBJleHHOCTb HOBOH crpepu HCnOJlb30BaHH5I
'
KaMeHHoropCKoro orcesa .
Bee CKa3aHHoe ssnue HaBO,lJ,HT na MblCJ1b, 'ITOnOJlHa51 YTHJlH­
3aUH 5I orcesa He MO>KeT 6blTb OCYllleCTBJl eHa 6e3 peWeHH5I npo­
6JleMbi nblJlH H caMOfl TOHKOH( MeHee 0,63 -0, 14 MM) neC4aH OH
eppaKuHH. Conepxca nue 3THX OCTaTKOB crceea COCTaBn5leT OKO­
JlO 30 %. 60JlbWa51 4aCTb HX cerO,lJ,H5I ccpacusaerca Bar vocdie­
py, na 3eMnlO H B cneuuansnoe xaocr oxpaanmnue.
,llJl51 oueHKH npHrO,lJ, HOCTH «XBOCTOBbIX» eppa KUHH Ha,lJ,O npa­
HSlTb BO BHHMaHHe oc ooue epH3HKO-xHMH'lecKHe CBOHCTBa Ya­
CTHU nblJlH, CBSl 3aHHbi e C BblCOKHMH 3HayeHHSl MH y,lJ,enbHOH no­
BepxHocTHOH saeprn a. 3TH, nopsnxa MHKpOHa, YaCTHUbl , 6y,lJ,y­
'IH OCB060/KLI.e HHblMH OT crpyxr ypuux nerpexros, CTaHOBSl TCSl
HaH60Jlee np04 HblMHH BMeCTe CTeM XHMH4eCKH aKTHBHbIMH. 3a­
nomurrens H3 TaKOH nuna, BH,llHMO, ,lJ,OJl)l<eH npH6JlH)I<aTbCSl no
CBSl3YlOllleH cnoc06HOCTH H aKTHBHOCTH K uev enry HnH cneuu­
anbHblM MHHepaJlbHblM ,lJ,06a BKaM rnna ByJlKaHHLIeCKoro nenn a,
urnaxa, aon u, HeepenHHOBoro ui naxa, ueonura .
Ha B03MO)l<HOCTb nonyyeHH5I oc06 0 npo-mux 6eTOHOB Hnpy­
rHX MaTepHanoB ua OCHOBe ynsrpanncnepcau x no pourxos C HC­
nOJl b30BaHHeM BbiCOK04acToTHOH (n Op51 ,lJ,Ka 600 xlu) BH6paUHH
HnOBepXHOCTHO- aKTHBHbl Xaeuiecrn eui e B50-x 1'1' . 06 paTHJl BHH­
MaHHe aKa,lJ,eMHK n . A. Pe6HH,lJ,ep. KaK BHAHM, B cTpOHTeJlbHOH
HH,lJ,yCTpHH He r onsxo He npOTHBonOKa3a1l0, 110, HanpOTHB, ue­
JleC006pa3 HO WHpOKoe HCnOJlb30BaHHe 6pOCOBOH 4aCTH orceaa.
Pevs MO>KeT H,llTH 0 nonyYeHHH nnor nu x (BOAOHenpOHHuaeMbIX)
6eTOHOB, npo-u-ux KJlaAOYHblX ueMeHTOB, HCKyccTBeHHbl X KaM­
HeH, YCTOH4HBbiXr pyHTOB. Bep051THO, nepcnexrnsuo nonysenne
nop06eTOHOB.
OTMeTH M euie nexoropue 06JlaCTH B03MO>K HOH YTHJl H3aUHH
TOHKHX eppaKUHH KaMeHHo ropCKoro orcesa .
CneUHa,nHCTaMH OAO «H YlU 6 b ITXYlM» (M.OCKBa)noxaaa­
na B03MO>KHOCTb Hcnonb30BaHH51 eppaKUHH < 0,63 MM B Ka4eCTBe
acpaa us uor o Cblpb51 ,lJ,JlSl npOH3BOACTBa 4HCTSllllHX cpeACTB.
COTpY,lJ, HHKaMH «M exaH06pa» ( CaHKT-neTep6ypr) nOA
PYKOBO,lJ,CTBOM KaHAHAaTa reonorO-MHHepaJlOrH4eCKHX Hay K
C. B. n eTpoBa YCTaHOBJleHa npHrOAHOCTb OTCeBa,lJ,Jl 51 npOH3BOn.­
CTBa TeMHooKpaw eHHoH CTeKOJl bHOH Tapbl. B cnOMHHM OCTpylO
nOTpe6HocTb CaHKT-neTep6ypra BnHBHblX 6yrblJlKa x. ,llJl51 3THX
ueJleH ,lJ,a)l<e He Tpe6yeTC51 AOnOJlHHTeJlbHblX onepa UHH no 060­
rallleHHIO Hawe ro OTceBa. A C npHMeHeli HeM 060r allleHH51 no­
5lBHTC51 B03MO>KHOCTb nonyYeHH51 AeepHUHTHblX ,lJ,Jl51 JleHHHr pan.­
CKOH 06naCTH BH,lJ,OB Cblpb51 : epapepopo- epaSlHcoBor o (KBapu-no­
neeoumaroaoro). np HB03HMoro noxa H3 Ces e paof Kap enuu,
rpanaro soro - ,lJ,Jl51 np OH3BO,lJ,CTBa a6pa 3HBHbiX neCKOB H Ha>K ­
Aa4HoH 6yMar H, noxynaea on B l.JexHH, a r aios e ,lJ,Jl51 »caponpos­
HblX epOPMO B04H biX neCKOB.
n onyTHblHnpony xr 060 ra llleHH51 - 6HOTHT MO>KeTHaHTH npn ­
MeHeHHe B Ka4eCTBe rpyura ana paccanu pacreaua, KOMnOHeH­
ra TBep,lJ,OTe.%HOH CMa3KH , ,lJ,Jl51 nOJlY4 eHH51 nexoparuauoro HC­
xyccraenuoro KaMHSl, xposensuux MaTepHanoB, 060eB, r unpo­
CJlIO.llHCTO- BepMHKy,nHToBbIX CMeceH H T. n. Ha ko ueu, T5I>Kena 51
HeMar HHTlW51 eppa KuHSl KaMeHHoropcKoro crcesa MO>KeT pac ­
CMaTpHBaTbC51 KaK csrpse ,lJ,Jl 51 nonY4eHHSl UHpKoHa H 30 n OTa.
ABTOpOM HaCT051111eH CTaTbH npenn oxcex o eui e O,lJ,HO, HOBoe
npHMeHeHHe KaMeHHor opcKoro orcesa - B ka-recree arpopyna
( MeJlHOpa HTa-y,lJ,06peH HSl). Il pu 3TOM CTaIlOBHTC51 pea nsno f non­
lI a51 YTHnH3aUH51 orceaa 6e3 pa3,lJ,eJleH H51 ero ua eppaKUHH. 060 ­
CHOBa HHeM TaKor o HeTpa,lJ,HUHOHHoro HCnOJlb30BaHH51 OTXO,llOB
uieoeno-moro npOH3BO,lJ,CTBa CJ1y>KaT cneny iout ue cooopaacenus
H 06CT051Te.nbcTBa.
B HCTOpHH 3eMJlH r paHllTbl H 6a3a.n bTbl KaK HaH60nee pac ­
npocr panenaue ua ee noaepxnocr u nopon u, 04eBH,lJ,HO, 6bl.nH
nepsu a H OCHOBHblMnHllleBblM HCT04HHKOM H, B03MO>KHO, rpyn­
TOM ,lJ,Jl51 paCTeHHH- OHOHepOB. XHMHyeCKHH H MHHepa.nbHblH CO­
CTaB HMeHHO cavux pacnpoc rpauenaux MarMaTHyeCKHX ( H Me­
TaMopepHYeCKHX) H epOpMHpylOlll HXC51 H3 HHX OCa.ll.OYHbIX nopon
6blJl H OCTaeTC5I OCHOBOH r.naBHbiX nOYB H HJlOB. BcnOMHHM,
YTO Ha3BaHHe «ncnesu e um aru» HOC5I T rJlaBHeHWHe nopono- H
BMeCTe C TeM noweooopaayio ume ( BCTpe4aIOlllHeC5I aa non ax)
MHHepa.nbl. BH,lJ,HMO, C6aJlaHCHpOBaHHoe aarypansuoe nHTaHHe
paCTeHHH CB513aHOCnexcr opua ycpe,lJ,HeHHblMCOCTaBOMrp auur­
6a3aJlbTO BOro cyocrpara. Cnenyer r axxce HMeTb B BH,lJ,y, YTO np u
KopHeBOM nHTaHI1H paCTe HH i:t «y,lJ,06pHTeJlbHble» CBOHCTBa MH­
uepan saux yaCTHU HaH60Jlee np05l B.n51 IOTCSl .ll.Jl fl causrx TOHKHX
(n opsnxa MHKpOHa) paavepoe. B 3TOM OTHoweHHH nbl.nb Ha,lJ,O
paCCMaTpHBaTb KaK rOTOBoe ynocpe uue, a oonee xpynnu e 4ac ­
THUbl - KaKy,lJ,06pe HHe nponournpoeauuor o ,lJ,e HCTBH51 ( <<y,lJ,06­
peuue npo sanac» ). n OCJ1 e,lJ,Hee 06CT051 Te.nbCTBO BblrO,lJ,HO OTnH­
xaer uauie aar ypansaoe MHHepa.nbHoe yaoopenue OT npHBblYHblX
noxynnux y,lJ,06peHHH - nerx o pacr aopawu x H 6blCTpO CHOCH­
MblX B BO,lJ,OeMbl.
n Jlar HOr HeHCOBbl HOTceB Kaae uaoropcxa. CY.ll.fl no MH Hepa.nb ­
HOMy, XHMHyeCKOMY H r paaynoa er pnsecxoay cocrasy, oraesaer
psny Tpe60BaHHH )l)ISl arpopynu xownnekcuoro xapaxrepa. Ha ­
.nHYHe THnHYHblX KOMnOHeHTOB neCKOBaHHSl (AJl51 T5I >Ke.nbIX rrru­
HHCTblX n04B), XHMH4eCKHX MaKpo- HMHKp03.neMeHTOB nHTaHHSl
paCTeHHH (KanHH, KaJlbUHH, MarHHH, HaTpHH, »ceneso, epOcepop,
cep a, Me,lJ,b H np .) H nO,lJ, llleJla4HBaHH51 pac npo cr pane uuux
KHCJ1bIX nOYB Bnocrynaoa ( nunesoa) epOPMC - ace 3TO cepses ­
Hble apryaerr r u ,lJ,Jl51 ar pOXHMHYeCKOH H MeJlHOpaTHBH OH epyHKUHH
orcesa. He.nb351 He ynOM>JHyTb euie 06 O.ll.HOM apryne nre B nonssy
uosor o Hanpaa.neHHSl YTHJlH3a UHH - npaKTH4ecKoM ucnonsaoaa­
HHH OTceBa >KHTe.nSl MH KaMeHHor opcKa Ha CBOHX COTKax.
B HaCT051111ee BpeMSl 6Ho.nor HyeCKOe 3HayeHHe KaMeHHorop­
CKoro OTceBa Hcc.n e,lJ,yIOT cneUHan HCTbl -nOYBOBe,lJ,bl CaHKT-ne­
Tep6yprcKoro yHHBe pc HTeTa.
B 3aKJllOyeHHeOTMeTHM, YTO y>Ke cerOAHSl HMeeTCfI ,lJ,OCTaT04­
HO OCHOBaHHH ,lJ,Jl 51 YTBep>K,lJ,eHH5I: 3Kcn.nyaTaUH51 pyKOTBopHoro
MeCTOp0/KLI.eHH51 KaMeHHoro pCKacy.nHTycnewHoe pew eHHe OpO­
6.neMbl HOBblX pa60LIHX MeCT Hcoxpa HeHHSl 3,lJ,0POBb51 Hace.neHHfI
perHOHa.
AHaTOJII1H 51KoBJIeBI14 BOXMEHI.J,EB - Ka HAHAaT re0J10rO-MHHepaJ1 0rH4eCKHX HayK
I:BI 188950, r. KaMeHHoropcK, J1eHHHr paACKa51 o6J1 ., J1eHHHr paAcKoe wocce, A. 72. TeJ1. : (278) 48 373,48 681
A. M. CWIaHTbeB, O. K. COKOJIKOB
IIpHPOroIbIe pecypcsr
Pecny6JIHKH MapHii 3JI
Committee on natural resources of M ariy EI Republic suggests for possible exploitation the series of mineral deposit s and
reservoirs of underground water.
KOMMTET nPMPOAHblX PECYPCOB PECnY611MKM MAPMM 311
nPEAllArAET K PA3PA60TKE MECTOPO>K.QEHMSI n011E3HbIX MCKOnAEMblX
4YKWHHCKOE rHIlC-AHrHAPHTOBOE MECTOPO)I(j],EHHE
lunc H aurunpar KaK CTpOHTeJ1bHbIH MaTepHaJ1 npHMeH51J1HCb
C,npeBHHX apeaeu. OHH HCn0J1b30BaJ1HCb npn B03Be,neHHH nnpa­
MH,nbl Xeonca, 3,naHHH [1oMneH H npyrux HCTopH4eCKHX coopy­
>KeHHH. B COBpeMeHHOM npOH3Bo,nCTBe rune npHMeH51eTC51 .QJj51
urupoxoro xpyra CTpOHTeJ1bHbIX pa60T H H3rOTOBJ1eHH51 CTpOH­
TeJ1bHbiX MaTepHaJ10B H H3,neJ1HH. OHH OTJ1H4aIOTC51 apxur exr yp­
HOH Bblpa3HTeJ1bHOCTblO H,neKopaTHBHOCTblO . HMelOT He6oJ1bwylO
nJ10THOCTb H TenJ10npOBo,nHOCTb, 3K0J10rH4eCKH 4HCTbi H a6co­
J1IOTHO oeaepennu. B Pecny6J1HKe MapHH 3J1 passenano
Hyxumucxoe rHnC-aHrH.QpHTOBOe MeCTOpO>K.QeHHe , npaypo-ren­
Hoe K o,nHOHMeHHOH rope, caMOH BblCOKOH B pecnyonaxe - 278 M
nan ypoaueu MOp51 .
Xapaxrepuuau oco6eHHOCT51MH Hyxuruucxoro MeCTOpO>K.Qe­
HH51 51 BJ151IOTC51 :
- «pyrmue 3anaCbl rHnC-aHrH.QpHTOBOH noponsi , oueuenuue
B K0J1H4eCTBe 339 772 TbIC. T;
- KOMnJ1eKCHbIH xapaKTep Cblpb51 - B O,nHOM MeCTe 3aJ1eralOT
rune, aHrH.QpHT H xapoouaruue noponu:
- 6J1arOnpH51THble ropHo-TexHH4ecKHe YCJ10BH51 - BC51 n0J1e3­
Ha51 T0J1111a Heo6BoAHeHa;
- BbirOAHoe reorparpc-skonoaavecxce n0J10>KeHHe - Me­
CTOpO>K.QeHHe pacn0J10>KeHO B6J1H3Hrpaacnopraux Hsuepreru­
4eCKHX KOMMyHHKaUHH.
Ilpoeeneunue CneUHaJ1HCTaMH I1HcTHTyTa ropnoro AeJ1a HM.
CK04HHcKoro TeXHHKO-3KOHOMH4eCKHe paC4eTbl.QJj51 cTpOHTeJ1b­
CTBa rOpHOrO KOM6HHaTa B COCTaBe py,nHHKa. uexa no nep epa ­
60TKe runcoaoro KaMH51. uexa no npOH3Bo,nCTBy rHn COBblX B51­
IKYlllHX H rHnCOCTpY>Ke4HbIX nJ1HT nOKa3aJ1H ero BblCOKYIO peu­
Ta6eJ1bHOCTb H nOTeHUHaJ1bHbIH cnpoc aa npO.nyKUH10.
CmOUMocmb cmpoumenecmea no l{exaM
o .Llo6bl4a Ii nepepaoorsa runcosoro KaMHA 140,4 MJlH py6.
B T.4. nonsevasre paooru 130,0 MJlH py6.
o Llex rHnCOBblX B51lKYUJ,HX 50,9 MJlH py6.
o Ilex rHnCOCTpYlKe4HbiX nJlHT 370,0 MJlH py6.
Ce6ecmOUMocmb np oinpcuuu
o Iuncosoro KaMHR 38 py6./T
o Iuncoaux BAlKYWHX 125 py6./T
o Iuncocrpyscevaax nJlHT 2022 py6./T
CpOK cTpOHTeJ1bCTBa ropaoro KOM6HHaTa - 3 rona , CpOK 3K­
CnJ1yaTaUHH - 77 J1eT npa npoH3BOAHTeJlbHOCTH 1 MJ1H T runco­
aoro KaMH51 B ron,
06beM Heo6xoAHMbiX HHBecTHUHH.QJj51 peaJ1H3aUHH npoexra ­
834 MJ1H py6. PeHTa6eJ1bHOCTb nponyxuu» npn CTaBKe KpeAHTa
MeHee 24 %- 125 %. CpOK OKYnaeMOCTH KanHTaJ1bHbiX BJlO>Ke­
HHH CY4eToM !J.HCKOHTHpOBaHH51 - 5,7 rona, 6e3 Y4eTa - 3,5 rona .
CTEKOJ1bHbIE H cJ)OPMOB04HbIE nECK"
I
I
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[1pHMeHeHHe xaapueaux neCKOB Pecny6J1HKH MapHH 3J1HMe­
er rJ1y6oKHe HCTopH4eCKHe KOpHH . B XIX B. ua ee repparopun
pa60TaJ10 5 CTeKOJ1bHbIX 3aBOAOB. B 1924 r. 6blJ1 nocrpoeu CTe­
KOJ1bHbIH 3aBOA HM. B. 11. JleHHHa no npOH3BoACTBy 6yrblJ10K. I1x
BbInyCK B 1970 r . COCTaBHJ1 13,9 MJ1H WTyK. C 1995 r. BBeAeH B
3KCnJ1yaTaUHIO [1eM6HHcKHH CTeKOJ1bHbIH 3aBOA.
B HaCT051111ee BpeM51 sanacu CTeKOJ1bHbIX neCKOB COCTaBJ151IOT
8120 TbIC. T. Ilecxn B 4HCTOM BHAe cooraercreyior MapKaM T H
nC-250, [16-150-2, J1erKO nO!l.Jl.aIOTC51 ooorauieamo no oonee
BblCOKHX MapoK. 6e3 ooorauieuas neCKH npHroAHbl .QJjll nposa-
BOACTBa n0J1y6eJ10H rapaoa nocynu, a nOCJ1e ooorauienas - .QJjll
H3rOTOBJ1eHHll CTeKOJ1bHbIX H3AeJ1HH, He ycrynaiouuix no Ka4e­
CTBY eBponeHCKHM CTaH.QapTaM.
Hapsny co CTeKOJ1bHbIMH Bbl51BJ1eHbl MeCTOp0>K.QeHH51 H npo­
5lBJ1eHH51 q,0PMOB04HbIX neCKOB KJ1aCCOB «xaapueau e» H «TO­
ume». MapKH neCKOB no rOCT 2138-9: 1T10302, 2K3020225.
06111He npornoauue pecypcu H3Y4eHHOH reppuropun COCTaBJ111­
lOT2 646 763 TbIC. T. OnblTHa51 napTH51 q,0PMOB04HbIX neCKOB B
06beMe 120 T ycneuiuo npouina 3aBOACKHe HCnblTaHH51 na 3J1eK­
TpOCTaJ1bCKOM 3aBOAe Tll>KeJ10rO MawHHoCTpOeHH51.
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PacnOJlO>KeHHe MeCTOp0>K,lleHHH H nepcnexraauux npOrH03­
Ornycxnaa ueaa onnor o Ky60MeTpa necxa ua KYH,ilbIWCKOM H
HblXY4aCTKOB B6JlH3H >KeJle3HOH HaBTOM06HJlbHbiXnopor, cyno­
CTy,UeHKOBCKOM xapse pax COCTa BJl ReT OT 7 no 13 py6. (4­
XO,UHbIX pex n03BOJl 51 eT CHH3HTb pacxonu Ha TpaHCnOpTHpoBKy
8 py6. aa T). llJlR cpaBHe,IIIRCTOHMOCTb: I TcjlopMoB04Horo necka
necxa K nOTpe6HTeJlRM, a 6JlarOnpHRTHbi e ro pHOTeXHH4eCKHe
MeCTOpO>K,lleHHR «30Jl OTOH OCTpOB» (Tara pCTaH ) COCTaBJlReT
yCJlOBH51 ,UeJl aIOT npO,UyKUHIO xapsepos KOHKypeHTocnoc06HoH.
66 py6 .
MECTOPO)l()l.EHI151 TOP<M 11 CAnpOnEJI51
llJl51 06ecne4eHHR 6e3,UecjlHUHTHoro oana uca rywyca , noau­
weHIIR nJlOnOpOnHR n04B H nonaepscanna HX B KyJlbTypHOM
COCTORH HH rpeoyercs BOBJle4eHHe B npoussoncrao scex HCT04­
HHKOB opraausecxo ro cupss. OnHHM H3 nyTeH nOnOJlHeHHR ra ­
KHX pecypc os RBJlReTCR n06bl4a r opdia H canponens. KOTOpbl H
no CBOHMCBOHCTBaM n03BOJlReT3Ha4HTe,nbHO YJlY4WHTb CTpyK­
Typy no-rau, a no cOnep>KaHHIO MaKpo- H MHKp03JleMeHTOB,
a3OTOCOnep>KalllHX H 6eJlKOBbiX seuiecrs cnococea BJlHRTb
iia npn sec >KHBOTHbI X H 4aCTH4HO3aMeHRTb KOM6HKopMa. KaK
nosasuaaior onsrruue paooru, saeceaae canponens B nose
50 T/ra Hanepuoso-nonsonn crue Hcyrnusacrue no-rau noau­
uraer ypoxcaf xaprorpena Ha 30 -49 u/ra (18-28 %), osca >­
Ha 7,8 u/ra (40 %). 3Ko HoMH4ecKHH 3cjlcjleKT npa B03Ae.'1bIBaHIIH
xaprodiens COCTaBHJl 3,42 py6., npa B03neJlblBaHHH R4MeHR ­
1,04 py6. na I py6. aarpar (nauaue YKpHvH·1nA). n o r pexner­
HHM Ha6JllOneHHHM, aueceaue 100 T/ra canponens nosuur aer
ypO>KaHHOCTb 3eJl eHOHMaCCbl KYKY PY3bl Ha38 u/ra ( 36% OTKOH­
TpOJlH), 300 T/ ra canponena - Ha47 u/r a(57 %) H400 T/racanpo­
nena - Ha 82 u/ra ( 99 %) excer onno (naHHble rCAC «TIOMeH­
CKaR»).
Hap51,Uy CTPa.nHUHOHHbIMHCnOJl b30BaHHeMr oprp Hcanponens
npHMeHR IOTCRB6Hox1I MH4ecKoH, cTpOHTeJlbHOHHnpyru x or pac -
JlRX npOMbIWJl eHHOCTH. B 4aCTHOCTH, H3r oprpa npu r.ny60 KoHne­
pepaoorxe MO>KHO nOJl }"JHTb rHnpOJlH3HOe cu pse, BOCK, aKTHB­
Hbleyrnn, copoeirr AJlR 04HCTKHOT HecjlTRHblX 3ar pH3HeHHH, 6HO­
CTHMyJlRTOpbl pOCTa , TenJlOH30JlR UHOHblH HCTeHOBOH MaTepHaJl .
B YCJlOBHRX TeXHoreHHOH3apa>KeHHOCTH06 WHpHbiXr epparopaa
canponens MO>KeT 6bITb HCn OJlb30BaH AJlR sar paa­
HeHHblXTR>KeJlbIMH MeTaJlJl aMH H panHoHyKJlH,UaMII n04B. B Me­
nHUHHCKOH npaxrince rope Hcanponens npHMeH5lI0TC51 npn BHe­
KYpOpTHOM rpR3eBOM Jle4eHHH MHorHX 3a60JleBaHHH.
Pecnyonuxa M aplIH 3Jl no KOHueHTpaUHH 3anaCOB roprpa H
canponens CTOHT3Ha4HTeJlbHO asuue, 4eMcocenuue CHeHper u­
OHbl. A OTCyTcTBHe aa ee reppuropaa BbiCOKOTOKCH4HbiX H sar ­
pH3HHIOlllHX npOH3BonCTB auronao OTJlH4alOT HX 3KOJlOrH4eCKOH
4HCTOTOH. PacnOJl O>KeHHe MeCTOp0>K,lleHHH B6JlH3H >KeJle3HOH H
aBTOM06HJlbHOHnopor, cynoxonuu x pek n03BOJlReT CHH3HTb pac­
XOAbl Ha HX rpaucnoprupoaxy K nOTpe6HTeJl51M, a 6Jlar OnpHHT­
Hble yCJlOBHR pa3pa60TKH nenaicr npO,UyKUH IO xoakypeurocno­
C06HOH.
B aacroauiee BpeM51 opraHH30BaHO npOH3BonCTBOno noo u­
'Ie H nepepaoor xe canponens ua osepe Bonosepcxoe, Flposeneu­
Hoe HCCJlenOBaHHe nOKa3aJlOnpHr OAHOCTb OTJlO>KeHHii BKa4eCTBe
yn06peHHH H KOpMOBblXA06aBOK.
MECTOPO)l()l.EHI151 MI1HEPAJlbHblX BOj],
Teppnropus Pecny6JlHKH M apHH 3 Jl pacnonoxceua B npene­
nax npOBHHUHH a30THbiX H MeTaHOBblX BOn BOCT04HO- Esponea­
CKOH apTe3HaHCKOH 06JlaCTH. 50 JlbWaR MOlllHOCTb ocano-r au x
OTJlO>KeHHH H pa3JlH4Hbl H JlHTOJlOrH4eCKHH COCTaB BOnOBMeUla­
IOlllHX nopon onpenenunu WHpOKoe paanooopasne rHnpOXHMH­
4eCKHXTHnOB MHHepaJlbHblX son, xoropue BCTpe4alOTCR nosce­
MeCTHO C rJly6 HH 50- 150 M H MOryT 6blTb HCnOJlb30BaHbi
B Jle4e6Hbix uensx. no pesynsraraa Cb eM04HbiX pa60T pecny6­
JlHKa oonaaaer nocTaT04Hbl MHaanacaa« MHHepaJlbHbl XBon, BTOM
4HCJle BCTpe4aIOTC5I HnOBepXHOCTHble BblXOAbI BOn nOBblweHHoii
MHHepaJlH3aUHH (paaou KJleHOBOH Iopu) JlH60 COcneuudia-re­
CKHMH KOMnOHeHTaMH(Fe, Ag Hnp.) . Hcnonsaceauae >Ke MHHe­
pansa ux Bon OCTaeTCR aa HH3KOM yposne II Henpesuuraer 20 %
Bono06HJlbHOCTH HMelOU1HXCfl 3KCnJlyaTaUHoHHbiX CKBa>KHH.
Ta611uqa /
XapaKTepHCTHKH ascnayarapyeaux MeCTOpO.>K,IJ,eHHH MHHepaJIbHblX BOJI.
Characteristics of exploited reservoirs of underground water
,[lallHble no BOilOOT6opy, M'!CYT.
fOil oypeHHH
HaJUp·IHe TeXHOJlOrWoIeCKoif
J1HueH3HOHHblH 4>aKTH'"lCCKHH
fJlyoHHa
YTBeplKIl eHHblC
nonoorcop
cxeu u paapariorxn
CKoa>t<HHld . M
3anaCLI (fK3)
U"" JlHueH3HII) (B cpennex)
MeaBeaeBCKUll pauon Pecny6JlUKU Mapwl 311
I. MecropO>K,1l,eHHe «COCHOBbIH Bop»
1989 7 5,2 oro «JI e4MHHpecYPCb!» ,
202 (MWK398M3) MocKBa, 1993 r.
2 1989 5,4 0,9 oro «JIe'l MHHpecYPcbl » ,
468 (MWK399M3) Mocx aa, 1993 r.
naJ1bHeOJlOrW-leCI\OC 33MK)l.JCHHe
BHUMPH¢T, Mocxaa, 14/368­
02.07.92, 14.1747-14.12.89; nu­
ri.eaue, Jle4e6HO-CTOJIOBble Kauianc­
xoro runa
«JIe4MHHpecypCbI» 01.02.90-17.01.91
Jle4e6Hble, Mil HapYlKHblX npouenyp
PECYPCbI 11 ITPOEJIEMbI OCBOEHl15I HEnp ­
OKOH'laiW e ma tin . I

n/ n
fO'1 oypellllfl
[ ,yOHHa
CKB3>K!t Hbl . M

J:llIa Cbl (rK3)
JlIlUefI31l0HII",ii
JIHMIiT
.I 1IH l e H3 11 H )
(P a KTII' ICCKHiI
B0.100TGOp
(n cpe.1HeM)
H a.Il W I HC
CXC\ l bJ paspaoorxr:
OaJtLIICo.10 r Ul/ (' CKO(' JaK.'110 4CHH C
II. JlOK «Jl ecnas CKa3Ka»
19 8 9
15 0
10
( ill K553N\3 )
1, 6 <t>HJHw.n
CKHC puooru », MocKBa,
19 9 7 r.
BH1.1\\PII<1>T. M ocKBa , N2 14/ 260­
14 .09.92; mm.cuue , .1C'ICUIIO- CTOJlO-
nue runa
Me08eoe£3CKUU paUOH PecnYUAli KU Mapuu 3 A
I. MeCTOp0>K,!l,eHHe «C OCHOBbIH Bop »
2
19 8 6
13 0
19 8 6
650
12 2
27
60
(MillK382M3)
2 7
(MillK382J\;\3)
16 .7
3 .9
m<. « M IlHepaJ1bHhle aonu »,
MOCI<Ba, 199 7 r,
nK « M HHepw l bHblC sonsr».
M oc l<Aa, 19 9 7 r,
I3Hl1f';\ PIl <1>T, M ocKBa . 14/ 20 17 ­
18 . 1 1.8 7 : rum.enu e, J1e'le6HO-CTOJlO­
Bhl C
B H LL,-,\PII<1>T, MocKlJa . I'<\> 14/ 2047 ­
18 .11 .8 7 ; Jlc 4e6Hbie Wl5l Hap Y}J(Hbl X
f1PO UCilYP
Tutinuu u 2
Ka4eCTBeHHbie xapaKTepHCTHKH rnrrseesrx MHHepaJIbHblX BO)l.
Data on the potable mineralized water quality

"In
[TlyOHH"
CKBa)f{ 1tII u .
M
litJIpo, UMH1I ccKm'l:
Hili UOJU,f
MUHepa ·
Jl Jt3a u m l.

nco,
ClljIepllW Hll e KIlMlIW"'IlTOII . Mr/»,"
a ll Il Ol Il ..
Cl so, Nil + K
K3TIIOltLi
Mg
Fl oxasauu» K npuaeueumo
MeaaeoeBCKUU pauo« Pectuj tuunu Mapwl 3A
I. MeCTOp0>K,!l,etlHe « C OCHOBbI H 60p»
202 A JOTHaR; MaJlOMH­ 2930 70,7 121 1 60 253.4 510 86 X pOHII' le CKItC racr puru C HOp ­
HCp" JIII J ll pO Ba H ­ 10 .04.92 MaJlI.1I0it II nOllbHucllHOil CCKpC'
uus: CYJlbepilTfla R: TOPIIOi', epYIIK1lIICli IKt:Jl ynKlI ;
113TPIlCllll - K:l JlblJ,lI ­ IICOCJlOIKHCII1I811 ll:l8ellHml oo­
eaan CJI8UOlIJ,CJIO' I ­ Jle311b lKe."Y.1IK8 II lUI IIWlu,aTII­
mill; XOJIUlUla R uepcruoli KIIIIlKII; xpouusecxne :
II :III TepOKM l lTbi . aaeo­
JleB:lHIIII neseunII
nnuinx nyreii, aapymeuun 06 ­
Mella ueuiecm. naukpean rn; H
MO'lCllbillO.llllUlIIX
nyref
II. JlOK «Jl ecuaa CKa3Ka »
150 AJOTII as: Ma,'OMII­ 2225,6 123,2 13 .7 2086 25,6 5 12 , 2 233,7 XpOII1l4CCI<Il ' rae pllnl C 1I0p ­
lI el'il.1113I1fIOIl1l1l ­ 02 . 10 .89 Ma.% 1I0 i l H nOBI.IIUellllOH cexpe­
uaa : cyns qiarua»: TOpHOH Q>YIl Kll ll eil lKeJlY,lU<u ;
lI aTPIlt:BO-KaJl r., UII ­ HeOCJlOIKHeHHUli aaseuuas flo­
uaa: CJI11 0 0lUCJl04 ­ Jle311b lKeJlYJlKa II nnenannaru ­
IIl1l1: XOJlOIUl all nepcruoa KHWKH; XpOlIl I'l eCKIIC:
KOJlHTbl H ;la6o­
JleBallHR f1e4eHH 11
i\RUlHX nyrea (c IlCKJI.), na uxpe­
aruru H 60Jl e311H 06 MCII <t ue ­
UleCTB (caxapuua naaoer,
ncaarpa , MO'leKIlCJIbIH,ilHaTe3) H
Ol 3a6oJleBaHHR M04eBbl BOJlRUlHX
Ol
Ol n)'Tei-i
C'I
Z
-
.'1.
nln
rJly611Ha
CKB3JKHHbl,
M
nlJlpOXlIMII4CCKII',
nm BO,nLl
"'hIHepa­
.fULlaUHH ,
Mr/JlM
J
HCO
;\
OCII" ""'lX Mr/ lJ.M '
:U1UUtlbl K8TIIOll bi
CI SO, Na + K Co Mg
Oxonuanue matu, 2
Ilokasauus K np"Mc"e.IltKI
BOAJlCCKUU paUOH Pecny6JWKU Mapuu 3A
MecropO}f{)l.eHl1e «KJleHOBaSi Iopa»
130 AJOTlI31l: MUJl OMIl ­ 2630
uepanuaaponauuaa: 02.02.87
XlIOPIlJU10 •cynLljJaT.
uaa; IIlITjJItCIIO-K,lJIlo'
OT cna6o­
uienosno a lIeilT-
pUJ1 IoHo ii : XOJ1oJU\all
268 .334 1240 204 481 83 X pouusecxne r3CT p 1iTIo' C cex-
pCTOp HOI HellOL'TllTOI1HOCTblO ;
KOJIHTbI; 3u6onCD3I1I1Rneueun u
lKCJI'ICDblDO,l\ll UlItX nyre n: naa­
xpeanrr u
2 C nooepx-
HOCTIl
CyJl b lj!aTHo - KaJlb-
Ull eOUIl
2451 280,7 12,1 1438 29,9 554,9 71,4 Xpouusecxue racrpuru C
p eTo p ll o H II CAOCTaTO'I IIOCTblO:
KonIlTW: 3a6(lJICllaHltll neueuu u
nyT Crt: nau­
xpearu r u
Kauecraennere xapaKTep"CTIKI MI1HepaJJbHblX paCCOJlOB
Qualitative characteristics of the mineralized brines
Ta6AUl{a 3
C OACP)f\JJ HKC UCHOUHhlX KUl\tnOtiCIiTOR, Mrh1.M'1
f JlyOllll 8


rU J.tpOXHM ---
KantoHbl (lilU n OKU lI HII H K
- - - ------, Tun BO;I,bl

M
HCO, Cl S0, Na + K Ca Mg
TOB. , r/.l
MeaaeaeBCKUU paUOH Pecrujtuuxu MapUlI 3A
Mecrop0}f{)l.eHl1e «COCHOBbIH Bop»
468 Kpenxae, XJl0pH.D.­ 226.540 83 138190 1448 72427 8738 3890 B = 282 PCKOMCHAOBaHbl lLll 1l HapYlKHlI'
Hble, narpaenue Br = 345 ro npllMCIIClIll11 ( IJ<J II HLI , Jle'lc6·
pacco.nu: 6pOM ­ J = 12 1l0 - IIJ1 aBaTCJ1 hHbl e 6i l CCC IIlbl ,
nue, HOAHble KIIUlC'lHbIC npOMblB31l1l11 II B8·
ruuansuste opoureuua)
BOAJlCCKUU paUOH Pecnutuusu MapUlI 3A
MeCTOp0}f{)l.eHl1e «KJleHOBaSi ropa»
650 XJlOPH.D.HbIC, Ha- 139, 60 13,7 2060 717 5480 2650 B = 160 3860JleBaHIIII oprUIIOD ,1BIUKe ­
TpHeBble paccoau:
HUll H onopuo-nunrarens uoro
6poMHble, C noau­
annapara, ueurpansuoa nepu­
tjJepll'lCCKOli HCpBIiOfi CIK'TCMU,
weHHblM conepxca-
CCPAC'IHO-COCYJUICTblC, KO>K/IbIC,
HlleM oopa
r1H1eK0J1011l4eCKIlC II !J.P.
HOtuKap- GAllHCKOe uecmopoucoenue
Ap6aHCKI1H BO,U03a6op
MeCTOp0>K,ll,CHlle nO;UCMllblX BOn IlcnOJII.JY.CTCIIILIIR lIy (naaeononnua p , Bonra ). BO.D.OHOCHbIMH IlBJlIlIOTCIl neCK11 II necsa ­
flOJlOCH06lKCHliH CTOJlll Ubl Pecnyonu au Mapllil 3J1 r opona H OUl KSP­ IHIKII, 38J1CrnlOUlIle Il T0J1111C rJll1I1 Il 8J1eOpOJl HTOO.
OJ1bl. MeCTOp0>K,ll,c IHlC BKJ1 IO'I aeT B ce 6 11 rpu P330C.D.3HHbIX }"l3CTK8 rJJYOllH8 3aJ1er8 HIII1 KPOBJIH BO.'l.OlIOCIlOr o ropasoura - 37,7 - 61,5 M,
( A p6all c KIl H, Ceee po-Sanaan u a H HOJl bKII HCKHH), B lI aCTOII U\ee epe­ y poueus nO!l3CMHbIX BO./1 YCTall 8BJ11l 8iJCTCIl na rny6HHax 18,0-25,7 M.
Mil s xcnay ar a pyer ca TOJl bKO A p6 aHCKHH }"laCTOK. pacnonoxcen auf 0 no XIl MIl'lCCKOMY COCT8BY BOl1hl npecuue, raapoxapoonamue kansun ­
TpCX KllnOMeTpax OT ropona. nYTIIMIl C006Ul CHilII CJl Y)l(3T aclj!a.1bTIl­ eao-warauenue II uar p ne ao- xam.u neeue C MHHepanH3aUileH 0,12­
poaauaas nopora pecnyon axaacxoro 3Ha'leHIlII Il xcen eanaa aopora, 0,38 r/.D.M
3.
caasuaaiouiaa HOUlKap- O J1Y C Y3J10BbIM lKCJlC3HOliOPOlKHbi M ueHTpOM llo 1999 r. nonaeanue BOAbl ucnonsao ean ac s TOJl bKO Mil DOJl.OCHa6 ­
3eneHblH llon. lKeHHII ropona, Celisac nauar P03JlIIII B 6 yrbl n KIl CMKOCTblO 0,5 JI ll 1,5 n
BO.D.OIl OCHbIH r c puao ur 06 UleH MOUl HOCTblOAO 99.5 M np uypo -rea K nnu­ (<<feH3ep», «Ap6 8HCK311 l». BO,/l, 8 norr sayer cn cnpocoa , T. K. IIDJ1l1eTCII
oneuo uua OTnO)f(eHIlIIM, Bbm on Hll lOUl Il M ApCBll1010 110JlIl- 3KOJIOrH'I eCKIl '1I1CTUM npOJlYI<TOM C XOpOWIl MII DKYCOBblMIl
,"IY1HYlCTEPCTBO n r- a r c n a u x PECYPCOB POCCYl0ICKo01 <I>EJjEPAUYIYI
KOMHTET nPHPOllHblX PECYPCOB no PECnY6JlHKE MAPHH 3Jl
Anpec: POCCH51, 420034, Pecny6J1HKa MapHH ::lJl, r. t:!owKap-OJla, J1eHHHcKHH np., 24a
E-mail: danko@spring.mari.ru Tenediom,r: (8362) 1250 90, 1255 95 <l>aKc (8362) 1248 79
Anexcannp HBaHOBI1'l CH.nAHTbEB - npencenarens KOMHTeTa npaponaux pecypcos Pecny6J1HKH MapHH 3J1
Oner KOHCTaHTI1HOBI1'l COKOJ1KOB - Ha4aJ1bHHK OT,UeJla re0J10rHH KOMHTeTa npnponnux pecypcos Pecny6J1HKH MapHH 3J1
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Numerous groundwat er s prings are widespread over St -Petersbu rg and its su burbs, as well known and famous springs,
so unknown ones . These sources of the crystal pure water are the precious gift of the Nature; they ought to be preserved by
all means .
Henpa Il erepoyprcxoro pernoua He 04eHb ooraru n oneauu ­
MI1 I1CKonaeMblMI1 . H eT 3,UeCb 3a Jle>KeH He<jJTH, COJlHHblX xonea,
aJlM a 3Hbi X poccunen . H o ecrs O,UHO nOJl e3HOe ucx o nae v oe. B
H36bITKe npucyrcrsyrouiee B peruo u e. KJJaCCI1KI1 OTe4eCTBeHHOH
reOJl Or 1111 Ha3 blBaJl l1 e ro « ca Mbl M u eHHbIM » . Bo.nee roro - OHO
4aCT O c a vo n pOCI1TCH B PYKI1, Bbi TeKa51 MHOr 0411CJ1 eHHbIMH CTPy ­
51 MH aa n o s epxuo c n.. 3TO, KOHe4 HO >Ke, n onaevuue BO,Ubl. K co­
>KaJl eHHIO, u eHHOCTb sroro y,UHBHTeJl bHora nOJl e3HOrO ac x o nae ­
Moro ,UO CHX n o p n OJlHOCTblO He OC03 Ha Ha , XOT51 y>Ke He p a a B
3KOH OMH4 eCKHX pa cv erax H n poruo aax YKa3blBaJl OCb, 4TO CTO­
HMOCTb 3KOJlOr H' leCKH 411CTOH BO,Ubl BO MHoro paa n peBOCXO,UHT
CTOHMOCTb He <jJTH HJlH 6eH3HHa .
Ieonoruvecxae yCJ10BH51 , BJla>KHbIH KJlHMaT, xo po uias npoauua ­
eMOCTb 30Hbl aspauau cnoc 06CTBylOT <jJOpMHpOBaHHIO 3Ha4 HTeJlb­
HblX pe CYPCOB nO,U3eMHbI X BO,U. B paspese c e sepa PyCCKOH nnar ­
<jJOPMbl Bbl,UeJl51eTC51 HeCKOJlbKO Xo pOWO Bblllep>KaHHblX H perno ­
HaJlbHO pa 3BHTbi X BO,UOHOCHbIX r opH 30HTOB. 6 0JlbWHHCTBO H3 HHX
nJla BHO n orpY>KaIOTC51 C ce sepa ua io r K u eHTpaJlbHblM 06J1aCTHM
MOCKOBCKOH CHHeKJIH3bl, 06pa3y51 TaK Ha3bl BaeMbl H Jl eaunrpaa­
CKHH a pTe3 HaHCKI1H oaccean. 3TO KJlaCCH4eCKHH CKJlOH apresuaa­
cxoro oacceaua C XopOWO Bbl,Ue p>KaHHOH rH,UPOXI1MH4eCKOH H
r H,Up0,UI1HaMH4eCKOH 30HaJl bHOCTblO. B epXH51 51 era uacn, conepsorr
n pecau e HJl H CJ1 a6 0MI1HepaJl H30BaH Hbl e BO,Ubl , HO C YBeJ1H4eHHeM
rJ1Y6HHbi MHHepaJlH3aUH51 nOm eMHbl x BO,UB03 paCTaeT H ,UoCTHraeT
B paHOHe BaJl,Ua 51 BeJlH' lHHbl B 150 r/Jl . O,UHOBpe MeHHo y CJ10>KHH­
eTC51 KOMnOHeHTHblH COCTaB BO,Ub1 - B HeH, B 3Ha4HMbiX KOJlH4e­
CTBax, n0 51 BJ151 IOTCH paaaooopa au ue MHKpOKOMnOHeHTbl.
H eCMOTp51 n a c paBHHTeJl bHO XOPOWYIO H3Y4 eHHOCTb JleHHH­
rpan c xoro a p resuaacxoro oacce aaa, MHorHe npHHUl1nHaJlbHbl e
sonpocu <jJ OpM HpOBaHH 51 pec ypco s H COCTa Ba n O,U3eMHbI X BO,U
OCTaIOTC51 Hepe UJeHHbIMH. Ta K, CYlllCCTBYIOT n p OTHBOn OJlO>KHble
MHe HH51 0 xa paxrepe MHrpaUHH BO,Ubl r Jly60KHX r opH30HT OB, HeT
e,UHHCTBa MHeHHH 0 p acnOJlO>KeHH H 30 H nHTaHH51 H pa 3rpY3KH,
<jJ OpMHpOBaH HH r aao a oro H MHKp OKOMn OHeHTH oro COCTaBa BO,U
H T. ,U. B TO »ce Bp eM51 MHOr04HCJ1eHHble 30 Hbl p a3rpY3KH nO,U3eM­
Hbl X BO,U - pO,UHHKH, n pe,UCTa BJl51 I0111He C060H c aoeoopaaaue
HH<jJOpMaUHOHHbl e OKHa, OCTaIOT C51 04eHb CJ1a 6 0 113Y'l eHH bIMH.
A HX O'leHb MHo r o ua repp u ropua Ceaepo-Sanana P OCCHI1; OAH H
H3 Il HX nOJl b3YIOTC513aCJ1Y>KeHHOH CJ1a BOH Ka K uen eouue HJlH CB51 ­
s: 3aHbi C HCTopH4eCKHMH C06bITH51 MH, n py r ue cn y acar y x pa ur e xn ­
Cl
...
eM nap xoa H ca ,UOB, r persn npeosraator B n OJlIlOH 6 e3 BeCT HOCTH
H 0 HHX 3HalOT TOJlbKO CneUHaJl HCTbl. B KpaTKOH cr arse Mbl
MO>KeM OCTa HOBHTbC51 JlHWb n a HeCKOJl bKHX, HaH 6 0Jlee 51pKHX
n p HMe p ax.
Il oxcanya, HaH6 0Jle e WHp OKO H3BeCTHblMH B Halue M paiioae
51BJl 51IOTC 51 n OJlIOCTpOBCKHe BO,Ubl. C Ap e BHHX apeveu 3AeC b , y
KpyTOH H3J1Y4HHbl Heau , CYllleCTBOBaJl I1 BbIXO,Ubl n O,U3eMH bIX BO,U.
0 6 3TOM cBH,UeTeJ1bCTBy eT H caxo Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH «Tlonto­
CTpOBO» , 4TO 03 Ha'JaeT « 6 0JlOTHCTbIH, BJla>KHbI H» . .1la H c rap ue
Ha3B aHH51 YJlHU sro ro p a a ona Flerepoypra r OBOp51T 0 TOM »ce ,
nanpuaep KJl I04eBa 51 ynu ua, n pOXO,U51 111a51 B 3TOM paaoae• .1l eH­
CTBHTeJlb HO, 3,UeCb pacnonaraerc s 30Ha pa3rpY3KH Me>KMOpeH­
u oro BO,ll,OHOCHOro r opH30 HTa . Oc06eHHOCTblO BO,Ubl 51BJl 51 eTC51
n cauur eauo e conepscan ue »cenesa, COCTaBJl51I0111ee B uacro suiee
BpeM 51 60 Mr/Jl . Il pncyr craae »cen eaa n03BOJl51eT OTHOCHTb 3TY
npecuy io BOny K u eJl e 6HblM, MHHepaJlbH blM H WHpOKO HCnOJlb30 ­
s ars W15l Jle 'l eHH51, a anpnaep, MaJlOKpOBH51 . B Ha4 aJle XIX B. ua
oaae n O.1lIOCTpOBCKHX BOA CYllleCTBOBaJl ,UOBOJl bHO n onyJl 51pHblH
y ner e poypacues kypo pr . Y4aCTOK nOJl IOCTp OBCKHX BO,U npn­
lla.llJle>KaJl r o raa H3 BeCTHOMY MeueHaTy rparpy A. r Kyurcn e sy ­
HCTO'lHHK B 3 a6po)lbe. C/>omo aemopa
Water s pring in Zabrodye. Phot o the au tor
-
Tatu uua
XHMH'·leCKHH COCTaB uexoropsrx pOAHHKOB
OKpeCTHOCTeH CaHKT·neTep6ypra
Chemical composition of underground water
from some springs in the Sf-Petersburg suburbs
ll asnauuc po.lIlllKa
[ ';U1KO­
llapaMeT]l Il RTaSi Floaio -
TallUbI
r,'''_''"IO ropa crpoao ( :1)
IlYflCKall
Y/IHurt
,. ....\uuepa.ru13<Jllilli. r/JI 0.496 O. 52 0,46:3 0,530 0,202
PH 8, 1 7. 1 7.5 6. 1 7,9
Mwcpo "o." nuHemnhl, ""zl"
XJlOP 18 :34 :3 3 71 13
CYJlbljJa Tbl 28 41 32 200 II
Iuapoxapoonar u 329 427 292 128 110
HaTpHH + Kam,ii 13 21 19 61 32
MarHHH 38 49 39 25 6
56 80 48 24 18
Me30KO...noueumu ""zl/l
J-1 HTpaTbl 9,7 40 0.3
)KeJle:lo 0,04 0.01 65 0.2
I(peMllllil 1.9 2.6 22 6.6
MUKPOK(J,Afl lOHeHm bi • .. / M,l H
Me" b 11 50 :30
[lUIlK 71 380 60 60
AJIlOMU IIHH 340 1400 10
MapraHe ll 25 57 52 480
CUIIHeu 140 15 10 5
6a pllH 70 1700 ·1700
HUKeJIl. 12 10
6 0p 170 200 11
CTpOllllllH 720 1500 1400
T aK BblrJ111.1l.eJlH nOJ1IOCTpO BCKHe HCT0 4 HHKH B aau ane XX BCKa .
ipomo r. 51. Meiiep a
So Polyu strovsky sources looked like in the beginning or xxce nt ury.
Photo H. Mai er
6C360pO.llKO. B fl MCHfH1 r parpa , coxpaunaiu eaca no uaurux n lleH
H 311aMCHHTOM CBOCH YHI-1KaJlbHOH orpanou C 29 CI-1LlH II II-1 MH
JlhBaMH, 6 bIBaJlO MHo r o 3HaMeHfHOCTeHroro BpeMCI1Il : JI. A. M eH,
M . YI . r Jl HHKa, H . B. KyKOJlbHHK, K. n . 6plOJlJl OB H npyrue. Cpe­
,nH3I1aMeHfiTOCTeH , n06bl BaB WI-1X y Kyurenesa -Beaooponxo, 3113 ­
4HJlCH H)lIOMa - oreu. H 3 na -ie rparpa cyuiecr eoaasa noaoea s nep­
KOBb «!KHBo Hoc Ho r o HCT04 HHK3 » .
B O,nOIl OCHbIH rO pl-1 30HT san e r a er Ha r Jly6HHax 20-24 M Il
33KJ1104CH Me>K.ilYnayx npOCJlOeB r Jl HH. CJlQ)KeH OH neC43H HKaMH
C n pOCJlOHMH rJl HH H BKJl I04CHH HMH ra Jle4HI-1KOB. !KeJle30 n o cry­
naer B n oaa ev uue son a B pesynsrare OKHCJleHHfI n Hp HT3 H apy­
rnx IKe JlC3HCTbiX MI-1HepaJl OB, ae paa KOTOpbl X pacces uu B MO­
peHHbl X nec xax . C 1933 r. aenercn P03 J1I-1B n OJlIOCTp OBCKOH BO)lbl.
)lJlHTeJlbHaH sxcnnyar a uns r Opl-130HT3 H pa3J1H4HOrO poa a n pe ­
HalK npa eenu K CHH)KeHHIO uanopa BO)l. B pe3YJlbT3Te ceH4ac BOlla
)l0 6blBaeTCH C n OMOWblO CKBaIKI-1H. 0 6J1aCTb nHTaHHH BOn OI-lO­
c a o r o r o pnaon r a p acnc n araerc s B paaoue IOKKOB, rne r JlHHH­
CTaH noxpuuixa OTCyTcT By eT. YlHTepeCHO. 4TO rex uore n uoe B03 ­
)leHC TBHe ua MeCTOpO>KneHHe n puaeno K pocry MHHepaJl l-1 3a UHI-1
Bonbi - n OBblweHHIO KOHUCHTpaUH H IKeJl e3a .
MHOIKeCTBO HCT0 4 HHKOB BO)lbl pacnonaraer cs ua Kapen sc­
KOM n epeui eake. 60Jl bWI-1HCTBO 1-1 3 HHX CBH33HOC pa arpyaxo a BOn
Jle)lHHKOBblX OTJlOlKeHHii . H e HCKJl I04 eHO, 4TO uekoro p ue H3 HHX
n onrurr uaan acs BOna MI-1 n anopuoro rn o scxor c r opH30 HTa . Ha
cesepe Kapenscxoro nepeuieaxa CCTb BblXO)lbl BOA Kp HCTaJlJIH­
-iecxoro cjJYH.L\a MeHTa . OnHH H3 HHX, Hanpl-1Mep, pacnono xceu B
Bbl60prCKOM napxe M OHp e n o 1-1 HOCHT Ha3BaHHe « H a pUHCC».
3TOT I-1CT04HHK nonsayercs f13BeCTHOCTblO euie C r ex epe neu,
xo rna Buoopr BXO.L\HJI B cocras <DI-1HJlHH)lCKOr O repuorcr sa . E)lHH­
CTBeHHblM 61-10JlOrH4eCKH aKTHBHbl M KOMn OHeHTOM BO,1J,bl HBJlH­
CTCH pa,1J,OH . Pa)lOH n ocr y n aer B B0.1l.Y 1-13 r paHHTOB, ooorauien­
HblxypaHoM , 1-1 , BH)l HMO, npunaer sone 63 KTepI-1UH)l Hble CBOnCTB3 .
Ha3Ba HI-1e HCT0 4HHK nOJlyY HJI no cxyn srrrype IOHOWH, yCTa HoB­
Jle HHOH u an Ka n TalKHoH oecenxoa .
3 Ha4 HTeJl bHOe 41-1 CJlO x py nuux xa pcroaux pO)l HHKOB OKOI-I­
r ypusaer s o aeuur en u o e YllKopcKoe n n ar o , CJlOlKeH HOe opno ­
BHKCKI-1 MI-1 H3Be CTHHKaMI-1. Tpeuuur oaar ocn, H3B CCTH51 KOB, 33­
neraioumx npa KTI-14 eCKH Ha nOBepXHOCTH, n p HBO,1J, HT K 6bICT­
pOMy nOrJl OweHHIO arv oc rpepn u x OCa)lKO B 11 n 04TH n OJlHOMY
OTCy TCTBHIO n OBep XHOCTHoro CTOKa . V!cT0 4HHKH I1 IKo pc Ko r o
nrraro OTJl H4alOTCH BblCOKHM ,1J,e 6 HTOM H >KeCTKOCTblO BO)l bl.
O)lHH HCT0 4HI-1 KI-1 n aior Ha 4a JlO MaJl blM H cpenHHM pexa a , ra­
KHM H3BeCTHbIM, Ka K Ope,1J,eIK, C Tp eJlK3 , WI-1HrapKa , Bpynu:
Ha .L\ PYfHX pacnonaraiorcs s pyn uue BO)l03a 6 0 p bl , ooecne-m­
sa io ume u eH TpaJl H30BaHHoe Bon OCHa 6IKeH I-1e r OpO,1J,OB- cnyT­
HHKOB n eTep6 y pra . Cpenn HHX MHoro HCT0 4H HKOB, c urpas­
WI-1 X o coo yio POJlb B py CCKOH HCTOp HH H B I-1 CTOpHH H3Y4e HI-1 H
H OCBOeHI-111 nO.L\3eMHbI X BO)l .
Ta K, aanp n vep, pOn W I-1HCKHe HCT04HI-1KH npHBJleKJlH BHHMa­
HHe Flerpa I B snoxy OCHOBaHHH Il erepcypra. 3)lCCb y O,1J,HO rO H3
II CT0 4HHKOB, n onyxa eur er o Ha HMeHOBaHHe «Hopnain,», uaps no­
CTp OHJI O)lI-1 H H3 nyreau x B ,1J,aJlbHeiiweM. pH,1J,OM C HC­
T04HHKOM 6blJl nocrpoes Pon WHHCKHH aaopeu, H3Be CTHblH CBO­
eii Mpa4HoA HCTopHe H.
Po n WHHCKHe HCT04HHKH cnyxcar Ha4aJlOM BO)lOBOn a, nocrp o­
eu noro npn Ilerp e I )lJI51 cHa6IKeHHH nereprodicknx cjJOHTaHOB H
CHCTeMbl Pbl60BO)lHbiX npy,1J,OB. 3TH BO,1J,bl OTJlH4alOTCH 41-1CTOTOH
H 6J1arOnpHHTHbI M XI-1 MH4e CKHM cocraaov. 4TO n 03BOJlHeT paa ­
BO)lHTb B npynax pbl6HylO MOJl O)lb ueHHblx COpTOB. B Pon we pac ­
n OJlOlKeHO HeCKOJlbKO Pbl6HbiX HHKY6a TopOB, B KOTOpblX nupa ­
w,HBaIOT MaJl bKOB )lJIH orn pasxa B pa3J1H4Hble osepa 1-1 MOpH.
3,1J,eCb pa 3BO,1J,H T di o pens , xapno a H npyr ue u euu u e n o ponu puo.
P onWHHCKHH nHTOMH I-1 K ItMeeT Me>K.ilYHap0,1J,HOe 3Ha4eHHe.
PECYPCbI 11 ITPOEJIEMbI OCBOEHl15I HE).lP-
Ca Mb lH 60J1bW OHI1CT04HI1K Ponur a - Y10pllaH b I1Me eT tPOp My
0 0 J1 bWOH 4a WI1, HanOJ1 HCHHYIO [jOllOH. n OCKOJ1bKY nno 3TO H 4aWI1
cnosceao OeJ10H rJ1I1HOH, C03llaeTCH BnC 4aTJ1 e Hl1e HeOOJ1bWOH
rJ1y6 I1Hbl, HO Ha CaMO M nene rJ1y6HHa eonoe ua OOJ1 bWe 2 M. .Lle ­
OI1T I1CT04HI1Ka - 1 J1 B ceKYHJIY. B IWCTOHll\ee BpeM5I anecs lle H­
cr syer sonoaaoop [1)151 cHa6rKeH H5I BOAOH npuroponoa Flerepoypra.
MH HepaJ1113aUI151 eon u 0,6 r/ J1, COCTaB - rl1llpOKa p 60HaTHO­
KaJ1 bl.ll1eB bI H. nOCJ1ellHI1MI1 HCCJ1ejJ,OBaHH5IMI1 MellHKOB yCTa HoB ­
J1eHO, 4TO nOll06HblH COCTa B nyxur e scero OTBe4aeT tPI13110J10rl1­
4eCKHM n OTpeOHOCT5IM 4eJ10 BeKa B KaJ1bUHIl , cnocoocr syer HOp­
MaJ1b HOH paoore cepne-mo-cocynncrof CI1CTeMbl, H n O:'lTOMy sonu
pon WHH CKHX I1CT04 HI1KOB MoryT C4HTaTbC5I UCJ1COHbIMI1, KaK :'lTO
npezmonaran Il erp l. Henapoa HMeHH O B 3TOM IICT04H HKe uaps
npI1HYrKjJ,aJ1 npHHI1 MaT b BaHHbl CBOI1X n pI10J1l1rKe HHbIX.
H a CT0 5lll\a51 pexa Ha 4 HHaeTC5I OT fJ151llI1HCKI1X HCT04HI1KOB,
pacn0J10rKCHHblX HCllaJ1 e KO OT nepesuu fJ1HAI1I 10. P O.QH I1KI1, Bbl­
XOA51 Ha nOBepxHOCTb , 0 6pa3YlOT He 60J1bWOe osepuo. B 51CHylO
norony Xo p OWO BHJl.HO, KaK urpaer BOlla Ha ero nne. Kornaro
anecs, y IfCT04HI1KOB peKI1 WI1HrapKI1, 6 blJIa pacnonoxceaa MCJ1b ­
uuua. CeH4ac OT Hee OCTa J1CH J1I1 Wb MOll\Hbll"1 BOllOCJ1 HIl . Bezu,
CpellHl1ii paCXOA f J1 51AHHCKHX P0-,\HI1KOB COCTa BJ1 51eT 1000 JI B ce­
KYHJIY! f J1 51AHHCKl1e HCT0 4 HI1KI1Aa lOT Ha'laJ10 OAHOH H3 BeTOK BOllO-.
BOlla , rnrratouiero nere prodicsue tPo HTaHbi. PHllOM, He.ilaJ1CKO OT
f J1HllI1HCKI1X, pacnOJ1 araIOTC5I H npyrae BblXOJlbl nO,'l,3e MHbI X BOA ­
B Ae peBH5IX M aJl oe H 5 0J1 b WOe 3 a o p Ollbe , B 0 P)J( I1W1X II npyrux
OKpeCTHbl X cena x. Ha OJlHOM H3 Bbl XOAOB sonu 6blJ1a n OCTaBJ1eHa
claCOIl H5I, K CO>KaJl eIiHIO, ceii4ac nOJ1 HOCTblO paspyureaaas. Py­
4eH, BblT eK alOlllHH 11 3 sroro pOllHI1 Ka, no CHX n op HOCHT Ha3B a­
HHe CBHTo ro .
B IOrKflOH 4aCTH Y1rKOpCKOro llJ1 aTO 60J1b Woii I1I1TepeC ripen­
CTa BJ151eT ypo-nuue .LlOHU bi. 3lleCb H3 T0 J1 1111l 0PllOBHKCKHX H3B e­
CTH5IKOB surekaer HeCKOJ1bKO ponHHKOB C cyMMapHblM n e(j HTOM
B 1500 J1 B ceKYHJIY. Lleru, POllHI1KOB npor araaaerca na 6 KM OT
ne pessn n 5lTa51 Iopa no nepes nu 50J1bWOe 3apeYbe, na sa a Ha ­
4aJ10 peKe O pene:«. P OllHI1 KI1 n pellCTaBJ151 IOT coooii nOIlOJ1bHO
OOJ1bWHe KOTJ1 0 BI1Hbl , nao KOTOpblX CJ10rKCHO H3BeCTKOBbi M
Ty tPOM. BOlla 04eHb 4I1CTa 51 C r0J1y 6 0 BaTb1M OTJ1 I1BOM; r evnepa­
ry pa ee 5- 6 'c. Y p 04Hllle.Llo Hubl 51BJ151eTC5I rHApOr eOJlOrH4eCKI IM
naM 5ITHHKOM dienepansuoro 3 Ha 4e HHH.
.Ll py r o H r l1llpOre0J10rl14eCKI1H naM5ITHI1K npapoau, CB5I3aH HbIH
C BblX On aMI1 nonaevaux Bon, pacnonoxceu Ha BOCTOKC JIeHHH ­
rpancxon OOJ1aCTI1 B TH XBH HCKOM pauoue y nepe enn JIyKHHO .
3lleCb, B nO J1 HHe peKH Ypbl1 aa nOB epXHOCTb Bbl XOn5lT Kap60HaT­
Hbl e TOJlll\H KaM eHH oyrOJ1 bHOrO B03paCTa B Kpae BOH noncce Kap­
OOHaTHoro nJ1aTO. W HpOKo e pa3BHTHe KapCTOBblX tPOPM n p HBO­
nur K TOMy, 'I TO orpov uoe K0J1H4eCTBO sonu xepea nouopu 11
BOp OHKH yxozurr n Oll3eMJ1 IO. B30Hax pa3r pY3KI1 3TI1 BOAbl oripa­
3YlOT MOlllHbie xapcroaue HCT0 4H I1KI1. B nOJ1I1He pexn Yp bl1 H3
T0J1111H r peuuruoear u x nJ1I1T4aTbI X H3BeCTHHKOB OblOT POllHHKH
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noneauu e ucxounexru c Jle mmrpancxoa oGJlaCTH. C n G., 1997, 196 c.
2. Kopomkou A. 11., Baxpuu eeea H. 11. , Ilempoe B. B. rHA­
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Flerepoyprckun rOpHblH HH-T. Cflo ., 1996, c. 137-141.
3. B Op OHOB A. Ii. . bapeutu M. B.. U/8 QPU, A. A. Ocooeuao cru MHK­
poxoxmoueurnor o COCTaBa 1I0ilJeMHbiXuon Hltli(H€KOTJlI1 HCKOroropH30H­
ra Hpauaouam. xoe I1 CIIOJlb30Ball lte ux pecypCOB / / Pa3BeAKa 11 oxpaHa
HeLlp, ,'>H - 8. 1998. C. 40-4 1.
4. Voro//ov A. No, Vi//ograd N. A. , Shvarls A. A. The karsti c aquifer
of the I zhora Plaieau (Russia) and prob lems of it s use under ant hro­
pogc ni c pressure. The scientific st udy of karsti c cavit ies as a cont ri buti on
to geological knowledg. Neri a, 1999, pp. 563-571.
5. B OPOH() {/ A. H. POAHflKIl CaHKT-neTep6ypra / / 3KOXpOHltKa
NQ 2 (4) , 1999, C. 20-21.
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,\ \> 5.
5. Voyle khousky Y. L.. Shpachenko A. K.. S kiba V. I. C ell- zona l
textures oi tl nguai tcs irom the Kol a Peni nsul a / / Geologische Rund­
schau , 1997. V. 86.
to. Jl. BOHTEXOBCKHH - Jl,OKTOp r eOJlOrO-MHHepaJl OrWleCKIt X uay«, Be.uy u..LH H HayLJHblH COTpynHHK (Ieonoruuec­
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)1.. B. )l(HPOB - HaY41lbl i'1 COTPYlLHI1K (feonorusecxu f ItH CTHTy T KHU PAH)
B. Jl. CEMEHOB - re uepansuu f ;J, HpeKTOp ( 3AO « 3 i1BOHC» )
CAMOUBETbI POCCHH ­
M. B. MOP030B
IIoTaeHHaH paztyra KaMHH
The fluo rescence of minerals ( t he abi li ty to emit l ight under ul t ra-viol et radiati on) is a wonderful natural phenomenon Only a few
of people know about fl uorescence and t he considerable number of fluorescent mi nerals. The paper int roduces i nt o the fantast ic
world of «stony glow-worms» and acquaints wi th the natu re of fluorescence, well -k nown fluorescent min eral s, thei r use. and
pri nci ples of thei r coll ect ing.
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51p4e JlIOMHH eCueHUH51. Ilopraraaaue Y<])-JlaMnbl 06bl4HO HMe­
lOT MOUlH OCTb 4-6 BT; eCJ1HiKe Bbl XOTHTe C03,QaTb na ,QOMy Ma­
Jl eHbKHH My3eH HJlH BHTPHHY C JlIOMHHecUHpYIOUlHMH MHHepa­
JlaMH, TO cnenyer npuooperan, cneuaansnue BHTpHHHble JlaM­
nbl MOUlHOCTblO 15-30 BT.
Puc. I. eIlJlIOOPHT (3 KpHCT8JlJla), I.\HpKOH (lKeJlTblii), K8JlbI.\HT (po­
30BbIl4), nOJleBOH umar (TYCKJlblH ljIHOJIeTOBO-KpacHbIH). KB Yell.
IPomo M. B. Mopo308a
Fig. I. Fluorite (three crystals), zircon (yellow). calcite (rose), feld­
spar (lusterless violet-red) excited and shortwave ultraviolet
radiation. Photo of M. Morozou
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I1TaK, TaHHa CBe4eHH51 MHHepaJl OB 4aCTH4HO pasraaana. Ilopa
cnYCTHTbC51 C aeoec reopua na KaMeHHylO 3eMJlIO.
Puc. 2. WeeJIHT. KB Yell.
IPomo M. B. Mop0308a
Fig. 2. Scheelite and shortwave ultraviolet radiation.
Photo of M. Morozou
CAMOUBETbI POCCI1I1 ­
KM \I II1-CBETJ15I'IKII
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MOryT KOMnJ1 eKCbl nepex onnux MeTaJ1J10B, MOJ1 eKyJ1Sl pHble HOHbl
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3aHHbi C C npHMeCSlMH.
JIIOMuuecu,upYlOm smoeue «npocmu e»uunepanu, xomo­
pble ueCJlO:HCHQ naiimu CaMOMy UJlU KYnumb na eucmaexe.
B OT xopcr x ue c n ucanaa J1IOMHHeCIJ.eHIJ. HH uex oro pux pac ­
npocrpaneu uux MHHepaJ1 0B (yxasauu: Ha3BaHHC MHHCpa J1 a , er o
XHMHyeCKaS1 cP0PMYJ1a, usera J1 IOMHHeCIJ.eHIJ.HH B K B- H LI.B-llH a­
nasouax):
Puc. 3. KaJlbI.\HT. J],B YCI».
<Pomo M. B. Mop0308a
Fig. 3. Calcite and longwave UV radiation.
Phot o oj M. Morozov
AJlMA3. C.
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Fig. 4. Calcite and shortwave UV radiation .
Phot o oj M. Morozov
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Jl u r e p a r y p a
I . Map¢YHlIH. A. C. CneKTpOCKOnl151, JIIOMI1HCCl lellLl l151 Hpa;UIaUHOH ­
HblC ueirrpu B MHHepaJlax. M,: Heapa , 1975.
2. COJwa08a 10. tl , Uop. Onpenenaren s IOBeJlHpHhlX II noneno-uru x
KaMH CH, M.: Heapa, 1985.
3. Tapatuan A. H. JlloMHHecueHU1151 MII HepaJIOB. Knen, Hayxosa
ilY MKa, 1978.
4. Robbin s. M. Th e col lecto r' s book of ll uor cscent mi nerals. New­
York , Van Noslrand Rein hold, 1983.
5. Robbins, M. Fl uorescence: Gems and mi neral s under ul travi ol et
li ght. Phoerux, Arizona Geosci ence Pr ess. 1994.
6. Warren , T. S. et al. Ult ravi olet li gh t and lluorescent mi ner al s:
Understandi ng , coll ect ing and di spl aying fl uor escent mi ncrals. Thomas
S.Warren Pu bl., 1995.
3mu U apyc ue -tramepUU/l.bl 110 /I. /o,IlUH.eCIWH. l lllU ,llUH. epa,lOU Ubi
H.a liaeme 8 cemu Int ern et no aopecy :
hII p:// www. spmi. edu.ru/ mcp/ sl aff/morozov/ l11 orozov.ht lll l
Ml1xal1Jl BJl1l,LJ,I1MI1POBl1lJ MOP030B - Ka HnHnaT reOJlOrO- MHHepaJlOrHlJeCKHX HayK, aCCHCTeHT Ka¢enpbl MI1HepaJlOr l1 l1 ,
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BepCI1TeTa)
121 199026, CaHKT-neTep6ypr, 21 JlI1HI1 51. TeJl. (812) 328 86 40. E-mai l : morozov@spmi.edu.ru
AHAJIl1Tl1QECKl1E l1,llEl1 , AITITAP ATYPA, METO,llbI ­
10. JI. Bo:iiTexoBCKI1H
TIp06JIeMhI fHJIh6epTa
H aH3JIHTWleCKaH nerporparpna
Besides t he 18th Hil bert probl em well known to be concerned wit h the geomet ric and crystallographic task on the space partition
int o the congruent polyhedra , the 3rd and 16th problems are shown to be related to analytical petrography. An ori gi n of the
stereological analysis is bri efly considered in the paper, An idea t o classify rock textures in accord with their indicat rices given ri se
by algebraical forms of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th order which are resulted from the bi nary, tri ple and quadruple i ntergrai n contact
statist ics is explai ned i n detail. The prospects of the met hod are discussed.
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reo ve rpuu nJlOCKOCTH. 3,llecb. ecnu npHH51 Tb cjJopMyny nnoui anu
nps uoyr ons uaka H3BeCTHOH, TO nnouianu n lO6blX npyrux MHO­
royronsnnxoa HaXO,ll51 TC51 MeTO,llaMH pa36HeHH51 H,llOnOnHeHH51.
KpaeyronsublM KaMHeM5lBJ151eTC51 r eopev a 60H51H - Iepeuua: naa
MHoroy ronbHHKa paBHOBenHKH r orna H ronsko rorna , xorna OHH
ECTecTBeHHo cnpOCHTb. pacnpOCTpaH51eTC51
nH 3Ta cHryaUH51 Ha r pexv epaoe npOCTpaHCTBO. O Ka3bIBaeTC51 ­
HeT. VlMe51 B paCnOp51Me HHHcjJOpMyJly 06be Ma npnwoyr onsuo­
ro napannenenunena , r onsxo Cnoxouiuo MeTOllOB pa36HeHH51 H
1l0nOnHeHH51 Henb351 on pe,llenHTb 06beM npOH3BonbHor o MHO­
ror paHHHKa . He Bce MHororpaHHHKH paBHoro 06b eMa paBHO­
COCT3BJleHbl, HanpHMep Ky6 Ii npaBHnbHblH TeTpa311p.
CYlllecTBYIOT llaiKe HepaBHococTaBneHHbl e TeTpa311pbl CpaB­
nO,llBOllHT Hac K CJ1enylOllleMy Bonpocy: KaKHe pa311enbl MHHepa- HOBenHKHMIl OCH OBaHH51MIi H paBHblMlt BbICOTa MH. 3Ta TeopeMa

6 blJla ziokaaaaa ,IlCHOM ( 1900) c pasy nocn e o ny6J1HKo BaHHH AOK­
nana r HJlb6epTa. J.13 nee CJIcIIYe T, 4TO MH Bbl'l HCJ1eHHH 06beMa
r erpaaapa K aKCHOMC 06bcMa Hc 06xo,aHMO,D,06aBHTb He3J1 CMCH­
r a puy io, T. e . ucnonsay jo utyro n p eAeJlbHblH nepexoa , ax cuovy
ne npepu an ocra, o on ee H3SCCTHYlO n OA Ha3sa HHHMH « MeTOA HC­
4epn bISa HHH)), « vepr o aa JleCTHHua )), « n pHHUHn Kasansepa». BOT
KaK 06 3TOM n auryr A.,Il . AJJeKca H,D,pOB H H . 1O. H CUBeTaes
[ 7. C. 235]: «Y)/( C 0 6beM TeTp a3,D,p3 HeJlb3H HaHTH , HC npacera s
TaK HJlH HHa'l C K npen ensn on y n epexoay H He SBOAH AOnOJl HH­
r ensnux Tpe60B3HHH B aKc HoMy 06beMa - T3KHX, n an p avep , KaK
n pHH UHn Kasansepn». YlMCHHO 3TO HM5I CB5I3bI SaCT 4HCTO reo ­
MCTpH4 ec KylO n p06J1cMy C aHaJlHTH4CCKOH nerporparp ae a .
H 3nOMHHM S3)/(Hble HCTo pH4eCKHe py6 e)/(H . B 1635 r. S 3Ha­
Me HHTo H paoore «Geomet ria Indivi sibi lium Cont i n uorum N ova
Quad am Rati one Prornola» <1>. K aB3J1bepH C¢ OPMYJlHp osaJl CJ1 e ­
.nylOll.l HH n pHHUHn : « 06beMbl ( HJlH nn o urann) ABYX TCJI (¢Hryp )
paauu, CCJl H pa aau Me)l(,D,y C060H nJl Oll.\3AH ( MHHbl) COOTBeT ­
CTBYlOll.\HX CC'l CHHH, npOSCACHHbl X n apannensao HCKOTOpOH ,D,a H­
HOH nJlOCKOCTH ( np5lMoH) )) [ 8. C. 385; 9. C. 696J. H eTpy,D,HO SH­
ACTb , 'l TO S CBOCH n p enen suoa ¢ opMe . x orna n apann en saue CC4C­
HH5I npo sonarca 6eCKO HC'l HO6Jl H3KO npyr K npyry, 3TOT n pHHUHn
BCACT K On pCAe JlCHHlO 06bcMa (nnouiann ) TCJla ( ¢ HryPbl ) K3K
0611.1cro n pe nena Ma)/( 0pHpYlOll.leH H MHHo pHpylOll.leU CYMM ,Ilap ­
6y, T. e. KaK o n pe nenesno r o HHTe rpaJl a. J.1 XOT5I 3TOT w ar 6bl Jl
CAeJl aH n03AHce ApyrHMH, n pHHUHn Kasansepu c urpa n B HC4HC­
JleHHH oecsouev uo MaJlblX Ba)/(HYlO p on s.
B 1848 r . S CTaTbC [10] M . ,IleJlecc n peMO)/(HJI cnocoo onpe ­
ACJle HH5I Mo,aaJl bHOr O COCTasa r ops o a n oponu B e c nJl OCKHX
ce4 eHHHx * OH 3a MeTHJI, 'lTO 06bCMbi CJla ralOWHX n o pony MH­
uepan o s 6 y.nyT COOTHOCHTbC5I KaK nno uiaaa HX CC4CHHU, CCJlH
COOTHOWCHHe nOCJl CAHHX B CCpHH oecxonesao npH6J1 H)/( eHHbIX
ce xyuinx nJl OCKOCTCU n OCT05l HHO. T. c . eCJ1 H ropaas no pon a OA­
a o ponaa . B nOCJ1 eAHeM aoaaue CTaTbH M . ,IleJl ecc rOBopHT, 4TO
S TaKOU n opone OTHOWCHHC nnouianea ce 4e HHU MHHe pa JlOS p a s ­
HO OTHo weHHlO ,D,Jl HH, 33HHMaCMbi X HMH Ha n apannens n ux Jl HHH­
51 X, n p oaeneauux B nJl OCKOCTll X ce4eHHU. 3 TO nepsoe y nov u ua ­
HHC 0 JlHHeHHOM MeTO,D,e o n penenesss MO,D,aJlb HOrO COCTaBa r o p­
HOU n oponu . TaK KaK peansnaa n o poaa BCCr,D,a HCO,D,HOp O,D,Ha, ca u
M . ,IleJl ecc OT,D,aCT npenno-rreaue nJl Oll.l a,D,HOMYMeTO.ny H3- 3a ero,
KaK n pe,D,c TaSJl HeTCH, 6 0JlbWCH T04H OCTH.
,IlcTaJlbHOU p33pa60TKo u JlHHeHHOr o MCTO,D,a C ero n p osepxoa
H3 npa xraxe 3aH5IJlCH B 1898 r. A. P03HSaJlb [12]. KaK H ero ripen­
weCTBeHHHK, OHCB0 60,D,HO n p uoeraer K nOHHTHlO HHTCrpaJl a. JI lO­
oonsrrxo, 4TO HHKTO H3 HHX aa n pHHUHn Kaaansepa He CCbIJl3CT­
CH, 3,D,eCb HMceT MeCTO n04TH ero nepeOTKp bITHC. M bI r OBopHM
« n 04TH)) , nOTOM)' 4TO ecrs CYJl."CCTseHHOC P33J1H4He. <1>. Kasanse­
pH 6J1ar O,D,apH ceoevy npa a uany BnJlOTHYlO noa oui en K OTKpblTHlO
on peneneuuoro HHTerpaJla . M . ,IleJl CCC H A. P0 3HSaJl b, HCnOJlb3yH
npouenypy HHTer pHpOBaHHH KaK ,D,aHHylO, BbI SO,D,51 T paSCHCTBO
06beMOB (nnouiaziea) TCJI ( rpu ryp) H3 n OJlO)/(CHHH, coenanaioure­
ro no ¢ OpMyJlHpOSKC C npHHUHnOM Kasansepa H HBJlHlOWCr OCH y
HHX onpC,D,eJJeHHCM O,D,HOP0,D,HOCTH ropuoa n oponsi . B Jl106 0M CJlY­
43e 0 6 WHpH3H HblHC 06J1aCTb CTCpCOJlOr H4CCKo ro a sanasa (Ha30­
SCM JlHWb HMCHa C. Y HKCCJlJla, A. M . >l<.ypaBcKo r o, C. A. Can­
TbI KOBa , JI . C aHTaJlO, M . K CH,D,aJlJl a, >1<. . M aTepoHa ) aas an acs C
MO,D,aJl bHOr O aua nusa ropHo H nOp0,D,bl. A B ero ¢ YH,D,aMCHTe Jl C)/(HT
npHHUHn K aBaJlbCpH, Hc 06xo,D,HMOCTb KOToporo BYlJCHHH 06 0 6bC­
Max TCJI CJlCIIYCT H3 OTp HuaTCJlbHOrO pCWCHHH Tp eTbCH np0 6 J1 CMbl
r HJl b6 cpTa. J.1 BCC )/(C KOMy - TO MO)/(eT n OKa3aTbCH, 'lTO OHa HMeCT
K aHaJlHTH4CCKOHnCTporpa¢HH JlHWb KOCBeHHOCOTHOWCHHC. CJl C­
.nylOll.\aH n p06J1CMa THrOTceT K HCH 60Jlb WC.
M bl HMeCM S SH,D,y WCCTHa,D,uarylO n p06J1CMY « 0 TOnOJlOrl111
aJlre6pal1'1CCKI1X Kpl1BblX 11 nOBepXHOCTeH ») [I . C. 48- 49].
• B OJJ,HOH H3 p a60T HaM BCTp eTHJla Cb CCblJlKa Ha 60Jlee paHH1010 CTa­
TblO [ 1I ], HO pa 3blCKaTb ee He YJJ,aJlOCb.
,Il. rHJlb6epT ¢ OpMyJlHpyeT ee CJ1eAYlOll.lHM 06pa30 M: «Ilpencraa­
nnercs O'lCHb I1HTCPCCHblM OCHOBaTCJlbHOC 113YlJCHI1C B3aI1MHO­
ro paCnOJlOIKCHI111 MaKCI1MaJJbHoro '1I1CJ1a OT,D,CJlbHbIX BCTBCH
(anrecpa usecxoa KpHBOH aa nJl OCKOCTH. - 10. 8. ), TaK IKC KaK 11
COOTBCTCTBYIOll.lee I1CCJle,D,OBaHl1e 0 '1I1CJle, xapaxrepe
11 paCnOJlOIKeHl111 OT,D,CJlbHbIX rroaocreji aJJre6pal1'1eCKOH
nOBepXHOCTI1 B npOCTpaHCTBe; BeAb ,D,O CI1X nop euie HC YCTa ­
HOBJICHO, KaKOBO B ,D,eHCTBHTCJlbHOCTI1 MaKCI1MaJJbHOC'1I1CJ10 no­
JlOCTeH nOBepXHOCTI1 setaeproro nopaaxa B TpCXMCpHOM npo­
CTpaHCTBe » . H ecMoT p51 Ha PH.D. Ba)/( HbIX pe3YJlbTaTOB no TOnOJlO­
r HH an r eopa a vecxax MHo ro06pa3HH , CerO,D,H5I 3Ta n p orin eaa CTOJlb
)/(e aicryansaa , K3K H npa ee n OCTaHOBKe . B onpoc 0 MaKCHMaJl b­
HOM '1HCJ1 e KOMnOHeHT n OBepXHOCTH 'l eTBepTor o n OpH,D,Ka euie He
paspeureu . A K nerpor pa rpn a 3TO HMeeT cnenyiouiee OTHo w eHHe.
B Ha4 3J1 e CTOJleTHH A. Xapxep [ 13. C. 20] euckasan Mbl CJlb 0
TOM, 'lTO « r o p u u e n oponu pa3J1H4Hb1 X THnOB 4aCTO CB5I3aHbl,D,pyr
C npyrca Hen p epblB Hbl MH n ep exonava ( no c ocrasy H CTPYKry ­
pe. - 10. 8.) H nc r ovy HeB03MO)/(Ha HX KJlaCCH¢HK3UHH C pes­
KHMH pa3,D,eJl HTeJl bHbIMH r paH HuaMH, KOTOp3H HCTHHHO orpasca­
na 6 bl ¢ aKTbl n pupona » . B pane p a 6 0T Mbl n OKa3aJl H, 'lTO
nenpepueuue napaverpu, onuca aaoume opras uaaumo ropuoa
nopoasr, BnOJlHe ,D,OnYCKalOT pa36He HHe MHoro 0 6 pa3HH nopon
pe3KHMH r paHH u a MH CorJlaCHO uexor opowy ¢ OpM aJl H3MY, no­
crpoeauovy u a 3THX )/(C n apa a erp ax . B 03MO)/(Hbl KJlaCCH¢HKa­
UHH, HCTHHHO orpaaca ro uiae ¢ aKTbl npuponu. H 3nOMHHM O,D,HH
H3 T3KHX ¢ OpMaJlH3MOB.
n YCTb p., - BepOHTHOCTb Me)/(3epHOBoro KOHTaKTa MHHc pa -
IJ "u
JlOB m H m B n -MH HCpaJl bHOH r opn on n opoae.
j j
Torna p aBeH CTBO I. Pijmimj = 1 CCTb npocro san ncs roro
i , j = 1
¢aKTa , 4TO cyMMa BCCX BCp05l THOCTeH pasua J. H o C MaTCMaTH ­
4CCKOH T0 4KH 3peHH5I 3TO y pa BHeHHc n-apHo H KBa,D,paTH4HoH
nOBc pxHOCTH B n pocrpaucrse KOOp,D,HHaT ( m)7. OHa 51BJl5ICTCH
c soeocpaanon CTpyKTypHOH HH,D,HKaTpHcoH noponu , T. c . BH3Y ­
aJl H3a UHCH BCCH CTaTHCTHKH MC)/(3CP HOBbIX KOHTa KTOB. J.1 3 BC­
P05l THOCTHOH npnpozu; K03 ¢ ¢HUHCHTOB (0 S; Pij S; 1). CHMMCTpH 4 ­
HOCTH OTHOWe HH5I KOHTa KTHpoBaHHH 3CpCH (Pij = Pj) H YCJlOBHH
CB5I3HOCTH r o puoa n oponu ( I. Pij "#0, j"#i , i = I...nJ cnenyer , 4TO
j = I
HH,D,HKaT pHc aMH Mo r yT 6blTb OTHlO,D,b He BCC H3BeCTHbie «aaapa­
TH4Hbi C n OBe pXHOCTH. 3anpCll.lCHbl MHHMbl C H ,D,a)/( c n ex oro pue
,D,CHCTBHTeJlbHbIC n OBepXHOCTH. ,IlJl51 6HMHHCp aJl bHOH n oponu
B03 MO)/( Hbl Jl HWb 3J1J1HnC H r nnepoona. ,D,Jl 5I r pexsomepans­
HOH - 3J1J1 HnCO H,D" O,D, HOnOJlOCTHbIH H ABy noJlocTHbl H r u nep­
60JlOHAbl. B ce OHH 6blJl H HACHTH¢HUHp OBaHbl AJl5I HOp HTOB H
ra66pOHOpHTOB HHTpy3HBa n aHCKHX rynap ua KOJl bCKOM no­
Jly OCTp OBC (p uc.). Ilpu n > 3 KBa,D,paT H4 Hble n osepxaoc ra yxce
HC HMClOT c 0 6 CTBeHH bi X Ha3Ba HHH H HC BKJlaAbl BalOTCH B rpex­
MCpHOC n po crpaacrso , HO BCC B0 3MO)/(HbI C HH,D,HKaT pHCbl MO­
rYT 6 bl Tb p a3J1 H4CHbI n o 3HaKa M HHBa pH aHTOB - an reopau ­
4eCKHX Bbl pa)/( CHHH, COCTaBJle HHblX H3 On peAeJlHTCJl CH MaT ­
pHUbl [p.. ]"" T. e. B KOHC4HOM C4CTC H3 BCp05lTHOCTe H P," Teneps
~ O,\, 0 1
MO)/(HO BBCCTH CJlc.nylOll.\ HH KJla CCH't' HKaUHOHHbI H n pHHUHn :
K OAHOMy CTpyKTypHOMy THny OTHOCllTCll Te 11 TOJlbKO TC rop­
Hble nopOAbl. HH,D,HKaTpHCbl KOTOpblX npl1HaMCIKaT K OAHO­
My To n OJlo r l1'1CCKOMY BI1,lJ,Y. AJlre6pal1'1eCKI1M BblpaIKeHl1eM
neTporpalj>I1'1eCKOH CTpyKTypbl llBJlllCTCll xapaKTcpl13ylOll.\l1ii
I1HAI1KaTpl1 CY Ha60p I1HBapl1aHTOB 11J111 , 'ITO paBH03Ha'lHO,
KaHOHI1'1CCKI1H BI1A MaTpl1Ubl [ P i j J ~ .
3TOT npHHUHn 06CCne'lH BaCT p336HeHHC Bccro MHoro0 6 p a­
3HH n - MHHCp aJlbHbIX n opOA pOBHO Ha n CTpyKTypHblX THnOB. LI TO
npOHCXO,D,HT Ha p a3,D,eJl HTeJlb Hb1X rpaHHu ax ? B MaTCMaTH4CCKHX
0 6 pa3 ax OTBCTHTb Ha 3TOT Bon poc HCTPYAHO. TaK , ABHraHcb n o
He npcpbl BHOH Tp ac KTo pHH B npOCTp aHCTBc (Pij);' MO)/(HO BHACTb,
AHAJII1TlrQECKI1E I1)lEI1, AIlIlAPATYP A, METO)lbI ­
0. 19 0.21 ]
0.2 1 0.39
t m
2
0. 15 0.27]
0.27 0.31
t m2
0.08 0.05 0.10]
0.05 0.14 0.1 I
0.10 0.11 0.26
0.00 0.03 0.07]
0.03 0.08 0.22
0.07 0.22 0.28
[ [
0.09 ]
0.16
0.39
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0.04 0.03
0.03 0.01
0.09 0.16
t m2
[ [
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Crpyxrypusre THnbl HOpHTOB H ra66pooHOpHTOB naHCKHX TYHJl.P, peansusre MaTpHllbl seposruocrea
Structural type s 01 norites and gabbro-norites lorm Panskye Tundry, real matrices 01 probability
KaK 3JI JIHnC nOCTeneHHO BbITHrHBaeTCH, 3aTeM paapuaaer cs B
6ecKoHe4HOy,uaJIeHHOH T04Ke s nae napann ensaue npavue, KO­
ropue nanee H3rH6alOTcH B run epocnu. Paapus xapaxrepaay­
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2
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YCKOJIb3aeT OT nerporparpa, xorna B pany nopon OH BH.llHT no­
creneaaoe npeapauienae MaCCHBHOH r ekcrypu B nHTHHcTyIO.
AHaJIH3 nonoousi x nepexonos Me)K.l1y THnaMH nOJIHMHHepaJIb­
HblX nopon ewe 60JIee mrrepeceu. BOT 'ITO nuurer B. M . Jl oce­
aa B npe.llHCJI OBHH K KHHr e [14. C. 161: «<t>HJIOCOep O.llHH paa He
B nepeHOCHOM, a B 6yKBaJIbHOM CMblCJIe 3aTaHueBaJI, «orna Mbl
nOCJIe MY4HTeJIbHbiX yCHJIHH HanaJIH aa HHTyHTHBHylO KapTHHy
B3aHMHor o .llBH)KeHHH BeWeCTBeHHblX H MHHMblX epOKyCOB B
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TH nansui e Hnonurarscs nars ep H3H4ecKylO HHTepnpeTaUHIO xa­
HOHH4eCKOH epopMe MaTpHUbl [P'/ I' H o 3TO npenver OTneJI b­
HOH CTaTbH.
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nerporpadnrxecxux crpyxryp MO)KHO cnenar s 60JIee conepxca­
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B TOM, 'ITO OT (P'1 )': no H3BeCTHbiM epopMyJIaM MO)KHO nepeara
k
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Ubi KJI aCCHepHKaUHfl, nocrpoensux Ha pa3JIH'lHbiX CTaTHCTHKax.
ECJIH na, TO MO)KHO nOCTpOHTb coaoxynayio, HaH60JIee
nO.llp06HYIO KJIaCCHep HKaUHIO. OnHaKO HeH3BeCTHbi H r e HH­
aapnaut u , xoropue n03BOJIHJIH6bl B06weM CJIyYae pacnoanars
n n
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...
epOpMbl KY6H'l eCKHe. Il onoouoe pacuiapeua e nblTaJI CH nocrporrn,
MOJI o)J.ofl n. KlOpH. «YBJle4eHHbIH TOJIbKO'ITO H3yYeHHofl HM re ­
opHefl onpenenurenea, OH3auyMaJIcnenars aHaJIOr H4HOe nocrpo­
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HeHHe 3THX "KY6H4eCKHX .lleTepMHHaHTOB" ». Hesero rosopnrs,
B ero ronu H npu r ex n03HaHHHX, KOTOpblMH OH pacnonaran, 3TO
npennpaarne 6blJIOcau ure ero CHJI» [15. C. II]. 0 CJIO)KHO­
CTHcOBpeMeHHoHre opnn Ky6H'l eCKHX epOPMMO)KHOCOCTaBHTb
npencraaneune H3 KHHrH [ 16].
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H3JIO)KeHHor o nonxona HBJIHeTCH HMeHHOuepaapeurenuocn, wec­
THa)l uaTOH np06JIeMbi fHJIb6epTa H.lla)Ke ee cy)KeHHH Ha epOPMbl
r per sero H -rera eproro nOpH.llKOB. 6JIH)KaHWaH nepcnexrusa CO­
CTOHT BTOM, 'lT06bl paCCMOTpeTb HX OT nsyx Hr pex nepexenuux,
T. e. BblHBHTb see THnbl HH.llHKaTpHC rperser o H xeraeptoro no­
PH.llKOB XOTH 6bl .llJIH 6HMHHepaJIbHbiX H TpHMHHepaJIbHblX ropnux
nopon, Ho aaecs CHOBa BCTaeTnp06JIeMa CTepeOJI OrH4eCKOH peKOH­
CTpyKUHH. Bens see BepOHTHOCTH .llOJI)KHbl 6blTb pacc-nrrauu .llJIH
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jjkl
B uinndiax aooouie ueonpene­
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pouu, aHaJIHTH4eCKHH pacxer P
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B 06JIaCTH aHaJIHTH4eCKOH nerporpadiaa, ysce TeM, 'ITO K HeH
HMelOT OTHoweHHe nse H3 3HaMeHHTblX np06JIeM fHJIb6epTa.
11 BCTepeOJI OrH4eCKOMaHaJIH3e ro puux nopon, 11 BCHCTeMaTHKe
nerporpadmxecxa x cr pyxryp He06xo.llHMbl KaK HOBbI e xouuen ­
ryansnue l1.llel1 , TaK H peuraiouure aJIrOpHTMbl . OHH npu seauu
yrJIy6HTb saure 3Ha HHe 06 3TOM CTOJIb nocrynuoa , HO ece ewe
3ara.llO'l HOM npocrpaucr se ropuou noponu,
--
Jl a r e p a r y p a
l. np06JleMbi rl1Jlb6epT8 I Pen. n . c.Anekcaunpoa. M .: Hayxa.
1969. 240 c.
2. Kseu« <:P. CpaBHI1 TeJlbHOe oooapeuue HOBeHWflX
( << 3 p,:lilJJ re HCKaH nporpauaa ») I I C60Pll fiK KJlaCCH'le­
CKIIX pa60T no r eOMeTpl111 Jl ooavcncxoro 11 pa3BfITHKJ er o l1;l CII. M.·
Iocr exusnar . 1956 c. 399 - 43 4.
3. Kapma n S. Teopus r pynn fI r eOMeTpHHII TaM »ce. C. 48.')-507 .
4. BeU/Lb F. MaTeMaTII4ecKoc \\ bIWJleHl1 e. /VI .: Ha yxa, 1989 ,400 c.
5. nya1'l Kape A, 0 uayxe. M ,: Hayxa, 1990, 736 c.
6. Knei;« <:P. Jl exuuu 0 pa3BI1THH MaTeMaTHKfI B XIX CTOJleTlHI. 4 . J.
M ,-,n,: OHTVl , 1937. 432 c.
7, Aaescanopo» A, a., Heueemaee H. 10, Ieoverpua . M,: Hayxa,
1990. 672 c.
8, 5 110rp acjJH 4ecKHri cnoaaps ileilTeJleH ecrccTB03HaHHiI H TeXIIH­
KH, T I. M ,: 5 C3, 1958 548 c.
9. M;n C\l aTlI' leCKilfl 3HUHKJlOneAHiI. T 2. M .: COB.
1979, 110:3 c.
10. Delesse M. Precede mecan iqu e pour det erminer l a composi t ion
des roches II Annal es des M ine s. 4-me Ser. T XliI. Par i s: Carilia n­
Go eury et Dalmont, 1848, P 379 - 388 ,
II , De/esse M, II Comp tes Rendus. XX v. NQ 16, 1847, P 544.
12. Rosiuial A. Uber geo me trisc he Gestei nsanalysen. Ein cinlache r
Weg zur ztlfermassige n Fcstst ellung des Quant i t atsverhul t ni sscn der
M in er al abst and lhei l e gcrn engt cr Gest eine II Verh and lu ngcn der
keise rl i ch- konigl i chen geologi schen Reichsanst al t. 1-18. W i en:
Verlag der k.- k, geo l. Rci chs., 1898, S, 143-175.
13. Harker A. Petrol ogy for st udents, An int roduct ion to t hestudy of rocks
under the microscope, 4-th ed. Camb ridge: Univ Press, 1908. 336 p.
14. Jlocee A. <:P. X aoc H crpykrypa. M. : M bICJlb, 1997, 831 e.
15. Ksopu M. Il sep KIOpH. Jl .: Hay-moe XIIM,-TeXH. 113i\- BO, 1924 , 78 c.
16, Ma1'lu1'llO. 11. Ky6 H4ecKfie cjJ0PMbl. Anrecpa . reOMeTpH51 , apudi ­
MeTI1 Ka, M, : Hayka, 1972 , 304 c.
tOpHH JleoHHAoBH4 BOHTEXOBCKI1H - AOKTOp reOJl OrO- MI1HepaJlOrI14eCKI1X aayx, Se.DYLUI1 HHaYl.JHbIH cOTpyAHI1 Kreo­
.nOr11 4eCKl1 rO I1HcTHTyTa KOJlbCKOrOH3Y1.JHorO ueurp a PAH
BI 184200, r. AnaTI1Tbl . yn. <PepcMaHa. 14. E-ma i l: voit@ksc-gi .murmansk.su
TeJl . (8 1555) 793 62, ¢ aKc (8 1555) 764 8 111Jll1 (47) 789 14153 (HopseIKCKa51 JlI1HI151)
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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
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c> CneIJ;HaJIbHbIe pa60QHe pYKaBHIJ;bI ••••••••••••••••••••••
c> Cpe,lJ,CTBa 3aIIJ;HTbI OpraHOB ,lJ,bIXaHH.H ••••••••••••••••••••
c> Cpe,lJ,CTBa 3aIIJ;HTbI OT 3JIeKTpOMarHHTHOrO H3JIYQeHH.H •••••••
c> H3MepeHHe IIIyMOBbIX H BH6paIJ;HOHHbIX
XapaKTepHCTHK pafiosero MeCTa •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
c> 3KCnepTHa.H nporpasoaa no axycrmce ••••••••••••••••••••••••••
c> HH<popMaIJ;HOHHa.H nporpasora
no HH,lJ,HBH,lJ,YaJIbHbIM cpeztcraaa 3aIIJ;HTbI •••••••••••••••••••••••
198020, CaHKT-Ilereptiypr, Ha6, 06BOAHoro xaaana, A. 150
Ten'/<\>aKc (812) 186-65-89
AHAJIl1Tl1LIECKl1E l1JlEl1, ATUIAPATYPA, METOJlbI ­
P. A. iKyKOB
Teopna reOJIOrO-IIeTpOrpa<pIIQeCKOrO
HCCJIe,n;OBaHHH?
These tehnignes are heuristi c potenti al and methodological status are discussed for the system of methods named the «micro­
scopic ontogenetic analysis of rocks». In the whole, this analysis is quali fied as the mult ipurpose technology of the geologic­
petrographic invest igati on.
TexHYl4ecKYl H npor pecc, npe06pa3Y1 BWYlH Yl HcTpyMeHTapYl f1
nerporpadiusecxc f MYl KpOCKOn YlYl, cyuiecr aeuno He nOBJlYl 51 JI na
ee 3ana4Y1 YI craryc, KaK YI CTO ner nasan, nerporparpas no CBO­
ewy OCHOBHOMy Ha3Ha4eHYl I0 OCTaeTC51 onucamensnoa nHCUYln­
JlYl Hoil, He nper eunyioui es na r eOJlOrO- reHeTYl 4eCKHe Hnporuos­
HO-MeTaJlJlOr eHH4eCKHe 3aKJlI04eHYl 51 . C4Y1TaeTC51 , 4TO OHH no
CHJl aM JlYl Wb nerponor uu. oonanarouie a ropaano oonee MOWHblM
MeTOnYl4eCIU1M apceaano». He CJlY4af1HO crapeiiuru f Yl3 BYl nOB
YlHcTpYMeHTaJl bHblX Yl CCJlenOBaHYlf1 B reo.norn» - c06c TBeHHo
nerporparpavecxaf - He cjJ YlrypYl pyeT B f eOJl Or Yl 4eCKOMcnosape
B Ka4eCTBe uemooa.
OTClOna TOT >KYl Boii narepec, kor opu f euausaer co06WeHHe
A. B. Bauienka YI K. B. 3aXapeBYl 4a B NQ I »cypuana «M Yl HepaJl»
sa 1999 r., B KO TO pO M Onl1Ca H MI1KpOCKOnl14 eCKH H OHTor eHH­
4eCKHH aHaJlI13 r op uux nopon (MOA) . n o MHeHHIOasropa 3TOH
3aMeTKI1, 11MH onnc aaa TeXHOJlOr l1 51 nOJlY4eHIIH r eonoro-ner po­
JlOrH4eCKoi:; YI nporH03HO-MeTaJlJlOreHH4ecKoH IIHcjJo pMaUHYI Ha
OCHOBe nerpor padinvecxoa MI1KpOCKonHH C nocneny.oui ef Ma­
TeMaTYl4eCK0f1 06pa60TKofl .
no onp enenenmo aBTopOB, MOA - sro «CHCTeMa MeTOnOB
MYlKpOCKOnYl4eCKOro Yl3yLl eHYl51 , MaTeMaTH4eCK0f1 06pa60TKYI YI
reoJlOr O- neTpOJl OrYl4eCKOH Yl HTepnpeTauYIYI pe3YJlbTaTOB Ha­
6JllOneHYlf1, npYlMeH51 lOwa51C51 npn cneuuanusnpoaannux ner­
porparpu-recxu x HCCJlenOBaHIH1X», KOTOpylO aar opu peKOMeH­
nYIOT YlC nOJlb30BaTb npn r eOJlOrOCbeM04HbIX, nOHCKOBbl X H
paaaenosnux paoor ax B paiioaax CJlO>KHOrO reonoruvecxoro
CTpOeHI151 ( c. 33). VlHcjJopMaTI1BHOCTb MOA B 3Ha4Y1TeJlbHOH
Mepe npenonpenenn ercs HeTpHBl1aJlbHblMI1 MeTonaMII Mll KpO'
CKOnYl 4eCKOr o Yl 3Y4eH1151 nopon, a B KOHe4 HOM YlTOre - npun­
uunauu, nOJlO>KeHHbIMYI B OCHOSy sroro Yl 3Y4eHI1 51 11 nocneny­
IOWYl X npcuenyp.
fJlaBHa51 Ylne51 MOA, OnYl paIO Wa51 C51 na npYl HUl1 l1 bl OHTOr eHYl I1
n. n. Jparopsesa fl npl1HUYlnbl nerporpatpa-recxor o aaannsa
113MeHeHHbiXropuux nopon, 3aJlO>KeHHble E. B. nJl IOWeBbIM, npu­
lla.n.ne>KYlT A. B. BaweHKY. Il puYLlaCTYl I1 psna coaaropos OHHa npo­
T51 >KeHI1Y1 oonee neC51TI1 ner COBepweHCTBOBaJl YI eepudnruupoean
3TOT «aHaJlYl 3» Bpane pemOHOB no 1992 r. BO BCEfEVI , a 3aTeMB
C03M HHOH 11M ner porpaoasecxof naooparopan TOO «Y1 HBeHT».
OCHO ByYlneYl COCTaBJl51eT HeCOMHeHHblHnJl51 .noooro r eonor a nee­
r y.tar MOA: «JlI06a5l ropaas nopoziaMO>KeT (He OOAJICI-ta, a YlMeH­
HO MOJICem - B3aBI1 CYl MOCTYI OT >KeJlaHYl51 YI/YlJlYl B03MO>KHOCTe H
nccnenosar ena. - P.)f(.) paCCMaTpYl BaTbC51 KaK nOJll1reHHa51 , He­
CYUl a51 OHToreHI14 eCKYlO IIHcjJopMaUl11O 0 cnococe YI YCJlO BYl51 X
ee 06pa30B<l IIYl 5l YI Yl CTOpYlYl nocn enyiouui x npeoopaaosannn»
(C. 34) . 3a;18Ba51 TeXHOJlOrYl4eCKYlH xapx ac MOA fI pacxpuaas
npnpony ero HHcjJopMaTHBHOCT YI, 3TOT nocr ynar 11MeHHO B CIIJlY
era oeccnopuocrn npenonpenenaer nos epne K naee MeTOnllKll,
HO nopoxnaer HaCTOpO>KeHHOe »cenauae nOH 51 Tb, KaK 11MeHHO
nOCJl enH51 51 peanusyer 3TY YlnelO.
B nepeov npYl 6JlYl >KeHYIYI OTBeT Ha 3TOT sonpoc naer n051CHe­
HHe, 4TO r opsue noponu OnYlCbIBaIOTC51 B MOA «KaK COBOKYn­
HOCTH paaaosoapacraux (YI OOHoB03pacTHbix TO>Ke. - P. )/(,)
MYlHepaJl bHblXII necjJopMa UflOHHbJXnapar eueancoa, CB51 3aHHbJxnpyr
C npyrov cTpyKTypHo-B03paCTHbJMYI OTHOWeHI151MYI » (TaM»ce),
npfl4eM YlMeeT MeCTO >KeCTKa51 cjJopMaJll13aUII51 OnYlCa HYl lt n OC­
JlenH5151, eCJlH, KOHe4HO, ona ooecnexeua JlorII Ko-MeTOnOJlOr Yl4e­
CI<YI , - HOBbl1i nJl51 nerporpadnm YI npllHUHnYl aJlbHO Ba>KHbIH
MeTonH4eCKHH npYl eM- nepsernuee YCJl OBHe nocnenyioui ea Ma­
TeMaTYl4€CKOII o6pa6oTKI1 pesynsraroa. BOCnpOYl 3BOAYlMOCTI1 Me­
TOnYl KYI YI npaBOMepH OCTYI KBaJlYlcjJYlKaUIHl ee Ka K nempoeptubu ­
uecko i: m eXH OA 02UU .
Floncnynaoe »enosepae KCepbe3HOCTH 3351 BKYI aBTopOB MOA
CMeH51 eTC51 eCTeCTBeHHbl M >KeJlaHYl eM pa306p aTbC51 B HeM YI
osnanen, Yl M. «orna 3HaKOMYl WbC51 CBBOnHMblMYI nOH51TH51 MYI: sne­
MeHTapHbl H BeweCTBeHHbl H 06beKT YI 3JJeMeHTapHoe necjJ opMa­
UYlOHHOe aapyureuae. CMblCJl YI B;]>KHOCTb 3THX nOH51TlIH pacxpu­
BalOT He TO.nbKO BHHTHble onpenenenns, HO YI MHO>KeCTBO BBO­
nHMbl X aaropa vu cjJ opMaJlYl30BaHHbiX napaaerpos. CTaHOBYlTC51
nOH 51 THbI M, nOLleMY rna suue onepauuu npa Yl 3Y4eHYIYI WJlYlcjJ a
CBOn51TC51 K BblneJleHfl lO 3TYlX 3JleMeHTapHOCTef1 , a 3aTeM ­
K «onpe.i e.neiuuo OTHOCI1 TeJlbHOr O B03paCTa napareaesucos YI
3Ha4eHYlf1 TaK Ha3blBaeMbiX CTpyKTypHO- r eHeTI1 4eCKI1 X noxasa­
TeJlef1, xapaxrepnayiouu- x TepMOnYl HaMYl 4eCKYle YCJlOBYl51 I1 Xrpop­
MYlpOBaHYl51 » ( c. 35).
COMHeHYl 5l B OCHOBaTeJlbHOCTYI MOA paCCeI1BaIOTC51 . «orna
Y51CH51eWb , 4TO «B Ka4eCTBe TeOpeTYl4eCKOH 6a3bl nJl51 060CHO­
BaHYl51 MeTonOB BblneJleHYl51 pa3HOB03paCTHbiX(JlI06bIX. - P. )/(.)
napareueancos , onpenenenus YlX reHeTH4eCI<Yl X ocooe unocren,
YCJlOBHf1 cjJOpMYlpOBaHH51 YI OTHOCI1TeJlbHoro soapacr a B MOA,
aapsny C 06weYl3BeCTHbiMYI OHTOr eHYl 4eCKYl MYI CBeneHYl 51MI1 .. .
Yl CnOJlb30BaHbJ npencraaneunn reopuu necjJopMauYlYI KpYl CTaJl­
JlYl4eCKYlX cpen, KpYlCTaJlJlocjJ Yl 3Y1 KYI YI reopnu pocr a KpYlCTaJlJlOB...
WYlpOKO npYlMeHHIOWYl eC51 BCOB peMeHHOf1 npOMbIWJl eHHOCTYI .n.n 51
nOJlY4eHYl51 MaTepYl a.nOB C sapauee 3anaHHbiMYI CBOf1 CTBaMYI »
(TaM»ce), Ewe He 3Ha51 BneTaJl51X, KaK Yl MeHHO3TOnenaer cs ,
yxce npnanaeun, npYl HUYl nYl aJlbHYIO B03MO>KHOCTb nOJl Y411Tb
-
Puc. Cxesi a OTHOCHTeJ1bHOrO B03paCTa napareueaacoe H3 P5l ilOBOrO
OIlHCaHH5I uinadra, BbJIIOJlHeHHOro c npHMeHeHHeM MOA
Fig. Scheme of the relative age of parageneses car ri ed out from
th e common description of a thin section realized with use of MOA
(methodology of ontogenetic an alysis)
C nov oun. io nepe4HCJ1ReMbl X cpencra 6e3AHy UeHHeHweH HH­
<jJopMaUHH, 13 4aCTHOCTH - B03MO/KHOCTb «paspaoor ars MeTO­
Abl n0J1YK0J1H4eCTBeHHoHoue axn TepMoAHHaMwiecKHx YCJ10BHH
3nHreHeTH
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leCKHX npe06pa30BaHHH ropnux nopon» 101 «npoussec ­
TH AeTaJ1 bHYIO peKoHcTpyKUHIO HCTOpHH <jJ OpMHpOBaHHRr opaon
noponu > (c . 36). Beposrno, onpasnauau COMHeHHR13 npaeon ep­
uocru HCn0J1b3yeMoH MOA KJ1aCcH<jJHKauHH AJ1R onucaaua 3J1e ­
MeHTapHbl XAe<jJ opMauHoHHblX HapyweHHH, «pa3pa60TaHHoH na
OCHOBe npHHRToH 13 MeTaJ1J1OBeAeHHH CHCTeMaTHKH CTPYKryp »,
xoropoe 3aKJ1104aeTCR 13 «/KeCTKOH YBR3Ke CTpyKTYpHO-TeKcTyp­
HblXxapa xrepncru x KpHCTaJ1J1 H4eCKHx seui ecr s C YCJ1 0BHRMH HX
TepMoAHHaMH4ecKoH 06 pa60 TKH » ( TaM/Ke) . TI PH seen nJ1OAO­
TBOpHOCTH Me/KAHCUHnJ1HHapllbIX B3aHMOAeHCTBHH Bo0611.1e, pe­
aJ1 H30BaHHoe asropaau «npaxrusecxoe npHJ1O/KeHHe CMe/KHbIX
AHCUHnJ1 HH 13 nerpor padnm» ( c. 35) HY/KAaeTCR 13 60J1ee rJ1 y60­
KOM 3KcnepHMeHTaJ1 bHOM 060CHOBaHHH.
YBa/KeHHeM K MOA nponaxaeun.ca npn 3HaKO MCTBe C pe ­
3YA bm am aMu 6a30BoH, c06 CTBeHHO nerporpadncr ecxoa ero CTa­
AHH - cxeMaMHOTHOCHTeJ1 bHOrO soapacra napareuesucoa (puc.)
H<jJ0pMaJ1H30BaHHbIMH HX onHCaHH5lMH. « Y1 MeHa», npucaoe nau e
BbIAeJ1 eHHbIM napar euesucav . noxa aaau sa cxea e UH<jJpaMH B
KpY/KKaX(DJ15l aeuiec rseunu x) HBKBaApaTHKax (.n.n5l nerpopaaua­
OHHbIX); crpyxrypso -eoapacruue CBfl 3U napare ueaacoe 0603Ha­
4aIOTC5l CTpeJ1KaMH (oMOJ1 O/KeHHe) , 3HaKOM pas eucrna (CHHXpOH­
HOCTb), a TaK/KeKOM6HHaUHeHHa3BaHHbiX3HaKOB ( <<He crap uie») ,
Bblpa /KalOll.leii «4aCTH4HYIO aeonpenen ea aocrs B03paCTHbIX
B3aHMOOTHoweHHH». ECJ1H HMeTb B BHAY, 4TO «psnosue ornrca­
HHR WJ1 H<jJ OB, BbInOJ1 HeHHble CnpHMeHeHHeMM OA, COAep/KaTOT
6 no 18 napar eueaacoe. CBR3aHHbiX
OTHoweHHRMH» (TaM»ce), TO CJ1eAYeT npasaan, OTCyTcTBHe ans ­
TepHaTHBHOH r parpy <jJOpMbl , n03B0J1 5l I011.1eH H306pa/KaTb H BOC­
npHHHMaTb, TaK CKa3aTb, r eHeTH4eCKHH noprper HCCJ1eAYeMOH
noponu B ueJ1 0M.
A BOT KaKBbIrJ1 5lART BMOA HanOJ1H5l lOlIDie TaKHe cxeMbl CMbIC ­
J1 0BbIM cOAep/KaHHeM onuca nust napar eneaacos (scex, xpo ae
HCXOAHoro 110 HMeHH « I », KOTOpbl H onacuaaercs 06bl4HbIMH
CJ1 0BaMHr una «neC4aHHKTOHK03epHHcTbIiL .»). Hanpuaep, orm­
caune eeuiecrseunor o napareneanca «7» HMeeTCJ1eAYIOll.lHH BHA:
3a Mell.leHHe, / = 1 %; T".E [ 14,16];
no ueMeHTy, KB a , 6H rA 6 0,01- 0,05 6J1eAHo-3eJJeH bIH
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Ila par ea esuc 3aMell.leHHR, HHTeHCHBIl OCTbnp0 5lBJ1eHHR - 1%
nJ1011.1ailH cpeaa WJ1 H<jJa. Tevneparypa <jJ OpMHpOBaHHR napa re­
uesuca, onpeneneasaa C novouu. io Kore3HOHHOro MeTOAa no
24 -6aJ1J1 bHOH WKaJ1 e, COCTaBJ1 5leT 14-16 6aJ1 J1 0B. BTOpH4Hbie
MHHepaJ1bl - aJ1 b6HT H 6J1eAHO-3eJlell bIH XJ1 0pHT CaHOMaJ1bHbl ­
MH CHHHMH UBeTaMH uureprpepeaua« - pa3BHBaIOTC 5l no ue jaeary
neC4aHHKa, ncaMMHTOBblM yaCTHuaM«sapua 101 6HoTHTa, BTOpH4­
HOMy6HOTHTy H3 napar euesuca «4» . XJ10pHT oopasyer rou ooce­
Bble ncennow opooau no 6HOTHry; pasn epu xeurye« XJ1 0pHTa npn
3TOMaapsupyior OT 0,03 AO0,07 MM, <jJOPMbl BbIAeJ1 eHHR rpa uc­
6J1aCTOBble. TIPH 3aMew,eHHH xaapua BTOpHYHble aJ1b6HT H
XJ1 0pHT HMelOT 3K306J1aCTOBble <jJOPMbl CHe3aBHcHMoH opHeHTH­
pOBKOH OTHOCHTeJ1 bHO nporovauepana. Paaaepu KCeH06J1 aCTOB
aJ1 b6HTa COCTaBJ11l10T 0,02 - 0,06 MM. .L!.J1 5l XJ10pHTa C He3aBHCH ­
MOH op HeHTHpOBKOH xapaxreps u p03eTOYHbie <jJOPMbl BbIAeJ1e­
HH R pasa epon OT 0,01 AO 0,05 MM.
Ko ppeKTH OCTb nOA06Hbi X HH<jJopMoeMKHX onHcaHHH CTaHO­
BHTC5l ace 60J1ee OlleBHAHOH no Mepe r oro, KaK 101 3 CTaTbH BbIRC­
Hfl eTC5l, 13 YHCJ1e nposero, YTO, 13 -racruocrn:
• npHBOAHMbl e 13 TeKCTe nOJ1YKOJ1 HyeCTBeHHble WKaJ1bl DJ15l
oueux u r esmep aryp 3aMell.leHHfI 11 Ae<jJopMaUHH r opnu x
nopon 13 reueua e psna J1eT CneUHaJ1 bHO pa3pa6aTbIBaJ1HCb
B ueJ1 5l X M OA ;
BblBOA«06 aCHHxpoHHOCTH<jJOpMHpoBaHHfI KaKHX-J1 H60 Be­
ll.leCTBeHHbIX06beKToB HJ1H Ae<jJopMaUHoHHbI XHapyweHHH
npHHHMaeTcfI TOJ1bKO npu YCJ10BHH 06HapY/KeHH5l npuaaa­
KOB, xor opue 13 pawxax acnonsayeraux 13 M OA CTPYKryp­
HO- sospacr uux KpHTepHeB He no nycxaior HHoro TOJ1 KOBa­
HHfI » (c. 38 );
• uexoropue 101 3 3THX KpHTepHeB, n03B0J1 5l fl pa3J1H4aTb na­
parenesucu - H Ml1HepaJ1bHbl e 11 Ae<jJopMaUHOHHble, He
AalOT B03MO/KHOCTH onpenenari, HX OTHOCHTeJ1bHbIH 13 03­
pacr, BBHAY -ier o «nOJ1 HOCTblOyno psnoseuuu e B03paCT­
Hble p5lilbl napar eueaucoe nOJ1 yyaIOTC5l npn H3yYeHHH WJ1H­
<jJOBAaJ1eKO He ncerna > (TaM»ce):
• «oueaxa HHTeHCHBHOCTH Bew,eCTBeHHbIX H3MeHeHHH / 101
CTeneHH Ae<jJopMaUHOHHbIX npe06p a30BaHHH nepauvu stx
crpyxryp ropau x no pon Y DJ15l Ka/KAOH CTeneHH snure ue­
sa, 13 %» 5l BJ1f1eTC5l 06H3aTeJ1 bHOH cnepaua en npu H3yYe­
HHH WJ1 H<jJa H sensaer 3TOH3yy eHHe (C. 39 ).
.LJ.yMaeTcfI , cxasaunoro AOCTaT04HO, YT06bl 060CHOBaTb npa­
BOMepHOCTb KBaJ1 H<jJHKaUHH M OA He npOCTO KaK,IfemOaa - sens
3THM TepMHHOM HepeAKO 06 03HayalOT 101 HeBOCI1 pOH3BOilHMbie
cy6b eKTHBHbie npHeMbI, - HO HMeHHO KaK a¢¢eKmuBHoii.
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The wel l -known break down i n the nort hern branch of St -Peter sbur g subway has been caused by a complicated manmade- natural
effect. Thus, it is shown that ill- consi dered intervent ion of the man into underground space of the city mi ght provoke a dest ructi ve
act ivation of geodynamic processes even under stable sei smic conditi on of the Sf -Petersburg region .
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Fig. I . Geol ogical -geophysic sect ion across the buried paleovalley alon g Polyt echnicheskaya street
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sa Ae epo pM aUI151MI1 AHe BHOH n OBepXHOCTI1, Bbl n OJ1 H€ HHOr O Ma p ­
KW efl D.€pCI<oH CJlyIK60H n o HI1Be,n l1p HOfl C€TI1 pe ne pos B n e ­
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(puc, 2a, 26, 3a, 36, 4) ,
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I1CXOD.I1J1 <l ew e 3aA0J1rO D.O a Ba pl1fl HOfl Cl1rya UHI1 (B CB5I 3H C oc e ­
AaHH eM TOHHeJ1efl 11 MeCTHblMH n po p u s a vn B HHX BOAbl H nec xa ) .
O AHa Ko 3TOT 06beKTI1BHbl H Cl1rHaJ1 HapaCTa IOU1€H o naC HOCTI1. K
COlKaJ1€HI1IO, He 6 blJ1 npl1H5IT BO BHHMa HHe .
n €pHOD. C 15 n o 18 D.€Ka6 p51 1995 r . (ror vac nOCJ1 e aaron ­
J1eHI151 Be pXH€r O TOHHeJ1 51 ) OTM€4€H .naB I1H0 0 6 pa3HbIM uapacr a­
HI1CM ocanox (puc. 26,4 ), Flpa 3TOM pacnpenen eaue rexuoreu­
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CKOMy nJ1 aHY Y4ac TKa. 3aTe M, B n€pHOA 19-21 D.€ Ka 6p51 1995 r .
n OCJ1€ 3aTo n,n€ HI1H HHIKH€rO TOHHeJ151 HeOIKI1D. aHH O npOH30WJ1a
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neepopM<lUl10HHOfl BOpOHKH. B D.aJ1 bHeHW€M D.O Ma pTa 1996 r. ABH ­
IK €H HH HOCf1J1H xapaxr e p aa r y x a io um x BOJ1H OBbIX K0J1e6aHI1H ,
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ABHIK€HI1H n OBepXHOCTI1. npHMe4 aT eJ1bHa CTpOra51 n OA4I1H eH ­
HOCTb D.Bl1lKe HHf l sroro nepuon a CT pyKTypHo- TeKTO HH4e cKoMy
nJ1aHY, 'I TO oc06eHHO Ha rJ151D. HO Bblpa3 11 J1 0Cb CM€HOH 3Ha Ka ABI1 ­
IK€ Hl1fl Ha rpa u u u e crpy xry paux 6.nOKOB. B 3TOT)K€ nepuon 6blJ10
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onu oro 113 T€KTOHI14eCKI1X HapYW€Hl1fl sa n p enenu 3aTOnJ1 eH ­
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36,4).
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BalOT na r ex ao r e uuo-npu pon a an xa pa xr e p a sapu u , n p OI1CW€D.­
w eH B pes ynsrare HrHOpl1pOBaHI1 51 o c06eHHOCT€ H nau u o ro
r eOD.HHaMH4€CKI1 aeycroa-uraoro Y4aCTKa npu n pO€KTl1pOBaHI1I1,
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4€Hbl na paspyur e a ue . C OrJ1aCHO npcdi . P 3 . .lla wKo [1 ], AI1Ha ­
MI1Ka HX n poruri a 11 AecTpyKUI1H YKJ1aAbl BaeTC5I B KJlaCCI14ec KYlO
cxevy r pe x cranaa uoro pe0J1 0rI14€CKOrO pa3 BI1TI151 nporpeccaa ­
HO paspyuraroumxcn CI1CTe M:
1 CT a D.11 51 - ueycr auo a a sur e a c s A€epopMa Ul1fl C nOCTeneHHO
YMeHblualowHMI1C5I ckopoc r sau H cyMMapHofl OCaD.KOH 60J1ee
100 MM B n epnon OCHOBHoro pa CTenJ1€HI1H J1€AOnOpOD.HOro Mac­
CHBa ( 1975 r. - J1eTO 1984 r . ) ;
Puc. 2. Xapaxrep ocanox AHeBHoH
nOBepXHOCTH (MM) C HIOJlA no HO­
A6pb 1995 r. (a) H B aBapHHHblH
nepa on 15-1 8AeKa6pA 1995 r. ( 6)
Fig . 2. Dynamic of the ground
sur face subsi dence i n the period
fr om July to November, 1995 (a)
and during the break down time ­
December 15-18, 1995 (6)
f2'""7"';;J - npoexuas 60pTOB norpeeesson nOJleOJlOJl HHbl Csxcnnyarauuouuoro ropH30HTa aa AHeBHylo no­
BepXHOCTb;
k<" I- reOJlHHaMH4eCKH aKTHBHble B HaCTOAwee BpeMA TeKTOHH4eCKHe uapyuieuua:
I $ I- npoesuns MeCTa aaapna sa JlHeBHylO nOBepXHOCTb (AeKa6pb 1995 r.);
I.----srl I- H30JlHHHH BeJlH4HHAe<jJopMaUHH JlHeBHOii nOBepxHoCTH(MM);
~ - xapaxr ep sepr axansuux JlBHlKeHHHJlHeBHOHnosepxuocr a: a - OC3AKa; 6 - B03J1bIMaHHe; 8 - 3Ha­
~
xonepeveaaue JlBHlKeHHA;
x 36 I- penepu HHX HOMepa;
/1
7
I-rpa cca MeTpo
Puc. 3. Pacnpeneaeuse MaKCHMaJlb­
HblX aMn.1HTYA H 3HaKa aepraxans­
HblXABHlKeHHHAHeBHoH ncsepxuo­
CTH (MM) B nepaonu : HIOJlb - aa­
rycr 1996 r. (a) H HIOJlb - nexafi ps
1997 r. (6)
Fig. 3. Variations of the maximum
amplitudes and the sign of ground
su rf ace vertical movement (mm)
during two periods : July-August,
1996 (a ) and July-December 1997
(6).
1I CTa JJ. HSl - ycr aaosneurer oca pa3BHTHSl JJ.e¢ opMaUHH C
MaJlbl MH CKOpOCTSl MH H cyMMapHoH aMnJlHTYJJ.oH n MM (oceas
1984 r. - oceus 1995 r. );
1II CTa JJ. HSl - npor peccapyrouier o paspyureaua CcYMMap­
HOH ocanxos oon ee 200 MM, 3aKOH4HBwaSl CSl rpeuiaaoocpaso­
BaHHeM TOHHeJleH C npopuso» 60JlbWHX Macc BOJJ.bl H r pyura
(3HMa 1994 r. - JJ.eKa6pb 1995 r. ).
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CTpyKTypHO' r eOJlOrH4eCKHX 06CTaHOBKax HenpOJJ.YMaHHoe BMe-
WaTeJlbCTBO 4eJlOBeKa B nOJl.3eMHYlO cpeny MO>KeT cnpOBOUHpO­
aart, aKTHBH3aUHIOpaapyunrrensaux reOJJ.HHaMH4eCKHX npouec­
COB naxce B YCJlOBHSlX B ueJlOM cTa6HJlbHOr O B ceHCMH4eCKOM
OTHow eHHH Ilerepoyprcsoro pern oua.
Oceusio 1997 r. COCTOSlJlCSl TeHJJ.ep ua npaso BeJJ.eHHSl BOC­
CTaHOBHTeJlbHblX pa60T. B npHHSl TOM K npoH3BoJJ.CTBy npoexre
HOBOH rpaccu MeTpo B 3Ha4HTeJlbHOH Mepe Y4TeHbl OCHOBHble
TeXHOJl orH4eCKHe Hr eOJl OrH4eCKHe peKoMeHJJ.a UHH, asrr exaioume
H3 pe3YJlbTaTOB npoaezienuor o H3Y4eHHSl asapaanoro Y4aCTKa:
-
fEOJIOfI15I EOJIblilOfO fOPOLJ:A ­
1996 r
1 997 r
1 995 r
+
0
-50
-100
-150
-200 -140
-250
-300
-350
p, 22
-600
-650
-750
....
p, 23
P-17
20
B
....
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neKa6pb 1997 r .
P-17 - ueur p nOJl HrOHa (o6J1aCTb KOHTpaCTHbl XneqlOpMaUHH 0 30He ceoepO-OOCTO'l HOrOpa3J10Ma); P-22 H P-23 - snuueur p aaapaa; P-36 - IOrO-BOCTO'l ­
HblH lj>JJaHr nOJlH rOHa ; P-70 - ceaepo-sanaauu a lj>JJa Hr nOJlHrOHa; P-IOO. P- I02 - IOro- 3ananHblH lj>JJaHr nOJlHrOHa aa npeaenawa naneononunsr, B Y3J1e
conpasceuaa TCKTOHH'IeCKHXHapyweHHH; A - npexpauieane IlOHlKeHHR noe31100 ( I lleKa6pR 1995 r. ); 5 H B - 3aTonJICHHe COOToeTCToeHHOsepxaero H
HHlKHero TOHHeJleH (14 H 18 lleKa6pR t995 r.)
Fig. 4. Charact er of the vertical transf ers of datum marks of th e leveling system wi t hi n the emergency ar ea during the peri od Yuly 1995 ­
December 1997
npoexruas rpacca npo aner no nepH¢ epHH onacnoro reonana ­ MH4eCKoro H3Y4eHHSI OTBeTCTBeHHblX HHlKeHepHblx 06beKTOB
MH4eCKoro nOJlH H eu ure rpauuuu aanopaux nnueyuou B o6J1a ­ noauuiennoro pucxa ,UJ1 H C03,UaHHSI CHCTeMbI KOHTpOJ1H HX 6e­
CTH npeav yui ecr eenuor o pacn pocr paneau a nposnux MeIKMO­ 30naCHOCTH .
peunux cyrJlHHKOB, B6J1 H3H nonouisu MOCKOBCKOHMOpeHbl. YlKe
aasepuraerca 4aCTb nOnr OTOBHTeJlbHbIX ropao-rtpoxonsecxax pa­ Jl a r e p a r y p a
60T. LlJ1H naccascapcxoro ,UBHlKeHHSI rpacca ,UOJ1 IKHa 6blTb rOTO­ 1. Ilauuco P. 3., MaAOB H. fl. l-1HlKeHepHO-reOJlorH'I eCKHe acnexr u
aa K MaIO 2000 r.
asapan B Il er e poyprcxov MeTpo / / Pa30eLlKa H oxpaua uenp . 1997 ,
N ~ 3. C. 33-34 .
YpOKH asapan cBH,UeTeJlbcTByIOT 0 BalKHOCTH CTpyKTypHO­
2. n eKeAblt bl U B. H.• MaAOB H. Il ., Il eepnuuxuii 5. r., MamlOxoB
TeKTOHH4eCKoro pailonupo uaaaa reppuropuu CaHKT-fl er ep ­
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6yp ra C BbIHBJ1eHHeM Y3J10B nepecexenna aKTHBHbIX TeKTOHH­
UHH B Il er epoyprcxoa MeTpo / / Paasenxa Hoxpaua senp. 1998 , NQ 7­
4eCKHX HapyweHHH H nocrauoaxos Ha :3TOH OCHOBe reO,UHHa - 8. C. 60-62.
HHKOJlaH J],MHTpHeBHlJ MAJlOB - rJlaBHbl H r eon or FFfl « CeB3anr eOJlOr HSI » , r JlaBHblH reonor ACCOUHaUHH r eon o ruxe­
CKHX npennpnsr uf Canxr- Tlerepo ypra, 3a MeCTHTeJlb n pen cenarena Cesepo-Sanannoro KOOpJl.HHaUHOHHoro KOMHTeTa
no pa3BHTHIO MHHepaJlbHO- Cbl pberlOro KOMnJleKCa (ACCOUHaUHSI «Cesepo -Sanan» )
P. 3. ):(AlliKO
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npOCTpaHCTBa
HCTOpHQeCKOrO CaHKT-neTepoypra
Various natural and technol ogi cal fact ors arc analyzed from the point of their impact a ll the envi ronmental state of underground
space in the central part of St . Petersburg.
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J1 H Te p 3 T y p3
1.11aUlKo P. 3., Hopoea JI. n.. PyiJeHKo E. C. 3 BOJllOllIf H r e03KO­
noru seckor o COCTOHHHH nOJl3eMHOr O npOCTpaHCTBa Caaxr- Tlereptiy p­
r a. II Passenka H oxpaaa senp. 1998. NQ 7- 8.
2. Europe's Environment. The Dob ris Assessment. Kopenhagen. 1995.
3. Our creative diver sit y. Report of the World Comissi on on Culture
and Devel opment Paris, UN ESCO. 1996.
Peruaa 3,nyap.ll.OBHa LIAWKO - npodieccop, AOKTOp
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Bec -racru yCTaHOBKl>1 HCCB-6 He npesu- .........ICaHKT-neTep6ypr, 60nbwa51 Pa3HO'il>1HHa5l , 14 I C 212
uiaer 20 xr. AJl51 06CJlY)f(l>1BaHl>151 yCTaHOBKl>1 Ten. (812) 324-2573, Ten./cI>aKc (812) 327. 5044
OAl>1H oneparop. --I E-mail:vipsys@mail.wplus.net
-
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-------------TEXHOJIOB111 I1 OEOPY2l0BAHI1E
f. P. Ilarypos
OAO
OTeqeCTBeHHbIH 6ypoBoro HHcTpyMeHTa
H arperaTOB
OAO «Geogidrotehnika» is the only Russian manufacturer of the drilling tool complexes designed for
drilling test holes. The drilling complex is supplied with a retrievable core receiver. The enterprise is also
a major Russian manufacturer of high-quality crown bits. The SSK-46, SSK-59 and SSK-76 drilling com­
plexes enable to optimize drilling works, to reduce the time required for starling-heave operations and to
increase the drilling efficiency by 2-2/5 times. OAO «Geogidrotehnika» also produces electric pump
devices for water delivery from wells for municipal, industrial and agricultural needs.
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o nyrax pemenna rrp06JIeMbI
yrHJIH3aQHH
Ha POCCHH
To bury the rad ioacti ve wastes i s t he sharpest probl em in the Nort h- West regi on of Russi a. Co nside rable vol ume of t hose mate­
ri al s ( hard radi oacti ve wastes. exhaus ted nu cl ear fuel , at omic ubmarines modul es polluted by radionuclidcs, nucl ear react or s and
power equi pment ) needs constan tly to be isolat ed fr om t he bi osphere envi ronme nt. To resol ve the pr obl em the Pechenga area i s
recommended on th e base of close connecti on bet ween nucl ear. oi l and mining i ndust ries enterprises.
OCT peH w aR 3KOHoMI1
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aa Cesepo-Sanane POCCI1I1
Consequence of investigations to chose the areas convenient to bury the radioactive wastes within
the Northwest region of Russia
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Be tgat on
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1999-2002 MHTU KOJl bClutii n- OB, Apxaar enscxas olin" apKTH4ecKHe OCTp'
sa, Kapeana ( ?)
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KHU PAH
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Ng 48, H0 5l6 pb 1999 r .).
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npononxcaerca <POpMl1p OBaHHe 6a3bl .uaHHbI X 11 I1X nurepnp era­
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( no .uaHHbIM KOMHCCHH no 5l.uepHblM orxonaa <PHII CKIIX A 3 C [6], w Bei l c KoH <PHpMhl SKB [7, 8], M y p Ma Hr eoJlKoM a )
Data of hydraulic testing for different types of rocks
(report ed by the Commi ssion for nucleum wastes of Finl and nucl ea power stat ions [ 6], Sweden company SKB [7, 81
and the Committee on nat ural resources of M ur manskaya region)
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3 30 1710 0,0000001-0,864
HeT iWflHLIX 100 1500 0,0001-0,086
II \)- 106 1980 0,0002-0,590
II 60-240 1980 0,002-0, III
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Sa rkka, Aimo Hau l oj aroi , Mari anne Moe, El ena Ko mleva. Bee» WI
ae mopu eupaoctuom C8010 ucxpeu ntoto 6AacooapHocmb.
Jl a r e p a r y p a
I . HUAceH T., KyOpUK H., HUKum uH A. CeBepHblH <j>Jl OT. n OTeHUH'
8JlbHblH pHCK paaaoaxrua aoro 3arpH3HeHHfl peruoua/ / Ll oKJla,u 06be·
llHHeH Hfl «Eennyaa». OCJlo. / 996. 168 c.
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2. M umpo¢aH08 <P. fl. Ilpoexr IOHECKO «CpaBHeHHe COCTaBa,
crpyxrypu H<j>H3H4ecKHx CBOHCTB nopon HMHHepaJlOBno paspesy KOJlb­
CKOH csepxrnyco xoa CKBa)f{HHbl H HX rOMOJl OrOB aa 3eMHoHnosepxuo­
CTH ». Anaruru. 1998. 25 c.
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MellJ,eHHfl nonsevu oro xpauanuuia panaoaxr uauux OTxOllOB/ / C60pHHK
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aHaJlH3, oueruca, nporuoa». VlpKyTCK, 1998. C. 33 -34.
14. KOMAee B. H. Heooxonua ocn , anarrrauaa cese pnoro He<j>Te­
raa osoro onura K HOBOH nporineve / / C60pHHK MaTep. KO H<jJ. «3Hep­
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B ropaoii npOMblllIJIellHOCTH POCCHH
0
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KHpmp-IHbl e H nepeas unsre ,nOMa, MeTaJIJIl1y eCKHe aurapst, >KCJIe:106cTOHll bIC, CBaHHble, nonynoztaexnn.re
coo pyxea a s , nepenauaorsre ,nOMHK H, aaronsi II 6 aJIKH, r pycon poeonu pa3JIHYHo ro Ha3l l ay eHH5I.
0
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0
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C ce30 HHb I M 3aB030M TOnJI I1Ba.
MaTepHaJIbI URSA® OnTHMaJIblfOH OT xpsnun zro nozmana
Map xn 1131\ C.'II!i'1 uo TY 5763-002- 00287697-9 /
0 6 JIaCTb npHMCHe HlHI M-l l ,15
M- 25
I1·11,1 5 I1-20 I1-35
I1-C10 II- 7S I1-83
M-17 I1-17 II-30 I1-45
lbo.7I5IUH5I CKaTH bI X KpbI W 0
1130 JI5IUH5I auyr peruut x neper oponox
H Ka pKaCH bIX
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1130JI5IUH5I p e aepayapon 0
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E. K. MeJIhHIIKOB, A. B. BamCHOK, A. TI. CKaKyH
URSA® - cpe,n;CTBO
u
uarorennsrx 3JIeKTPOMafHlITHhIX H3JIY1Iemrn:
Carried out testing has shown that the heat- and sound-isolating URSA'" materials manufactured by the «Flaidcrer-Chudovo»
company are capable to withdraw natural and manmade pulsed electromagnetic radiation.
Bseneuae
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saer eCTeCTBeHHoe nenoaepne .
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cuoro 3J]eKTp OMa r HHTHo r o H3J]Y4eHHH H3MeH5l eTC5l COCTa B
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3KcnepHMeHTaJ]bHoe HCCJ1eilOBaHHe c noc 06HOCTH K n ornouie­
HHIO HMnyJ1b CHOr o 3J]eKTpOMa r HHTHo r o H3JlY'JeHH5l 3Kp aHaMH H3
v arepn ana URSA0;> npOBOilHJ]OCb B CTeH.QOBOM H u arypuo» s a­
-aanrax.
3aila4eH CTeHAOBbl X HccJ] eAoBaHHH 5lBJ]5lJ]OCb o n p en en e u ne
TJ] owaTe J1bHOH c noc06HOCTH URSA@B HCKy ccTBeHHO C03Aa ­
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Tb' . B KaLJeCTBe s x pa ua HcnOJ] b30BaJ]C5l MaTepHaJ]
pa avepou 70 x 120 CM. Cre neus 0CJ1 a6JJeHH5l H3J]Y'JeHH5l o u eu n ­
sanacs nyrea cpaBHe HHH n OKa3aHH H npneva Aa TLJ HKOM MarHHT­
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n apaaerpax nOJ]H C n OMOWb lO K0 3cPcPHUHeHTa oCJ]a6J]eHHH
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CTpaHCTBa KOJ]eu. PeryJ]HpoBKOH TOKa reueparopa y CTaHaBJ]HBa­
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nee LJ eM B 30 pas. Il onapaue H3MepeHH5l aMnJ]Hl)'A cPoHa HCHrHaJ1a
n OBTopHJ]HCb}J,ll5l cepu n cPHKcHpoBaHHblx LJaCTOT B npenenax pa ­
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H3 MaTa URSA®. DblJ]H HcnOJ]b30BaHbl ABa AaT4HKa}J,ll5l HCCJ1eAO­
BaHHH B nuanasouax 4a CTOTOT 10AO 100 «Iu H OT 50 AO 1000 xfu.
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n eu Iensvrom.ua OT 4aCTOTbi }J,Il5l 0 6 0 HX AHana30HOB H3MepeHHH
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2
o ,r"
10 20 50 100 300500 1000 20 50 100 300500 1000
Puc. I . OCJl a6JleHHe 3KpaHoM 1f3 MaTeplfaJla URSA<!> IfCKYcCToeHHblx
3JleKTpOMar HlfTHbiX nonea: a - nOJlH KOJleU f eJlbMroJlbua; 6 - nOJlH
T04eLJHOro uanpaaneuuoro 1f 3JlY4aTeJlH
K - f - 4aCTOTa
Fig. I . Attenuation of man-made electromagnetic fields by the URSA@
material screen: a - Helmholt z coi l fields, 6 - fields oi the pointwi se
directed radiator
A, MKB
__ 6e3 3KpaHa
--c 3KpaHOM
120
100
80
60
40
20
o 2 4 6 8
Puc. 2. OCJla6JleHHe 3Kpa HOM H3 MaTepHaJJ a URSA@ diou osor o
HMny.nbCHor o anexr poaa ru aruoro H3.nY4eHHR B nOMew.eHHH KHpnH4­
uoro nowa
A - aMnJl HTyna or uoaiouief CHr H3.10B 3J1e KTpOMar HHTHo ro H3J1Y4eHHR Ha
4acTOTe 50 KrU; T - BpeMn
Fi g. 2. Att enu ati on of th e background pul se elect ro magnet ic radi ati on
i n a bri ck bui l di ng roo m by t he URSA '" mat eri al screen
A, MKB
1000
800
_ _ 6e3 3KpaHa
-­c 3KpaHoM
a
600
400
200
;I-- c
0
50 100 150 200
A, MKB
6
800
600
400
200
1000
+- MC
a
2 4 6 8 10
Puc. 3. OCJla6JleHHe 3Kpa HOM H3 MaTepHaJla URSA@re xuor ea uux
aHOMa.nHH ane xr powaruur uoro H3JlY4eHHll B noweureaaa x KHpnH4­
uor o nova
YlCT04HIIKiI H3I1Y4eflHH: a - IIHHHH nHTaHHH TpaMBaH( Bbl6poc HHTCHCilBil O­
CTHCOOTBeTcTuyer MO.\ICHTY npOXO>KnCHIISI r pavman); 6 - MOHHTOp KOMli io '
ior epa: A - a'm.nHT)':la or H6aloilleHCHrHa: IOB 3Jl eKTpOMarHHHIoro H3JI Y4e­
HHH ua ' laCTOTe 50 «Iu: T - BPC.\IR
Fig. 3. Attenuat ion of man-made anomal ies of t he elect ro magnet ic
radi ati on i n a bri ck building room by the URSAI1l material scree n
Har ypuu e HCCJlenOBaHHfl 3aKJllO'laJll1Cb B 113y'leHI1I1 CTeneHII
oCJla6JleHI111 3KpaHaMH H3 MaTepl1 aJl a URSA@aHOMaJl bHblX HM­
nynsc a u x 3Jle KTpOMar HHTHbiX H3JlY'l el-ll1l-1 OT rexuo r eanux 11 ec­
TeCTBeHHbl X I1CT04HI1KOB, B 3KCn epl1Me HTaX I1CnOJlb30 BaJlC51 MaT
MaTepl1aJla paaaepon 120 x 300 CM.
OnHHM 113 06beKTOB I1CCJlenOBaHI15l sananocs KI1pml4HOe ana­
Hl1e, paCnOJlOlKeHHOe B ueurpe CaHKT- Il erepoypra. s onarononys­
HOMC re03KOJlOr H4eCK0l-1 T04KI13peHI1fl MeCTe: KaKHX-J1 H60 npuaua-
KOB reoaxrusuu x 30 H H CB5l3aHHbIX C HHMH aHOMaJmH r eoqm3H4ec ­
KHXnOJleH anec s He 06HapJ'}KeHO; aHOMaJlHH HMnyJlbCHOr O3JleKTPO­
MarHHTHOrOH3JlY4eHH5l06YCJl OBJlHBaIOTC51 TOJlbKOTeXHore HHbl MHHC­
T04HHKaMH. H a6 Jl1oneHHfl npOBOnHJlHCb B nOMeweHH51X sroporo
srasca. ILJlfl H3MepeHH51 all-1nJlHrynHoro nokasarena HCnOJlb30BaJl HCb
na a CHHXpOHHO pa60TalOWHX B pe ,KHMe aBTOMaTH4eCKOH 3anHCH
nOKa3aHHH np noo pa C HneHTH4Hbl MH aHTeHHaMH, OnHH H3 KOTOpbl X
IIPHKpblBaJl Cfl nOJlYKOJl bueBblM 3Kp aHOM H3 MaTa U RSA "' .
Il epeoaavansuo 6 bJJl H eunonueuu sxcnepna e aru 110 s xpa­
HHpOBaHHIO MaTepHaJl OMU RSA ® rpoa oeoro pa3HOHanpaBJl CHHOrO
3JleKT pOMarHHTHo r o nOJl51 , co anaio uieroca coaoxynuocruo pas ­
JlH4Hbi X HCT04HHKOB. ILJlfl sroro HCnOJlb30BaJlHCb npHeMHbl e aH­
TeHHbl H peracrparopu , 06eCne4HBalOWI1e npHeM B Y3KOM tUia­
nasone B6JlH3H ueurpansuux 4aCTOT, COCTaBJlHlOWHX 10, 20, 50,
100, 300 11 LOOO xfu. B 3THX onurax raxxce onpenenan acs aM­
nrnrr yna can- ana npHeMHo H aHTeHHOH 6e3 sxpaua H C r o p H30H­
TaJlbHO pacnOJl O>l<eHHbiM nonaHTeHHoH 3Kpa HOM 11 paCC4HTbIBaJl­
C5l K03cjJcjJHuHeHT OCJla6JleHH5l .
B npouecce Ha6Jl1oneHHH 6blJl O YCTaHOBJle IIO, ' ITO K03cjJcjJH ­
uHeHT OCJla6JleHH51 3Ha4HTeJl bHO asnue nna CJlY4afl Hbi X Bbl6poCOB
c nruan a, 4eM ,QJl5l KBa3HCTauHOH apHor o H3JlY4ClI l1fl. LJeM 60Jlb­
w e aMnJlHTyna Bbl6poCOB n pe a suua er cpenHHH y poae us rpoua,
TeM c un s uee OHlt nOnaBJl5lIOTC51 3Kpa HOM(pu c. 2) . MacwTa6 paa­
BepTKH rparpu ka 3aBHCHMOCTH aMnJlHrynb l orno arouiea CHrHaJl OB
3Jl eKTpOMarHHT Ho r o H3JlY4eHH51 OT BpeMeHH ( Ha 4a CTOTe 50 xfu)
n03BOJI51 eT y BHn eTb HaJl HYHe «sa aaperyn s p uax Bbl6poCOB HHTeH­
CIIBHOCTI1 cnrnana C 4a CTOTOH OKOJlO 400 xfu. Il pu sxpauapoaa­
HHHnaT4HKa MaTepfl aJlOM URSA@ypoBeHb aMnJl HTyn CHHI!<aeTC5l,
a suopocu HHTeHCHBHOCTH HC4e3aIOT.
3Kc nepHMeHTbi no 3KpaH HpoBaHHIO aHOMaJl bHblX HMnYJlbCHbl X
3_1 cKTpoMar HHTHbIXH3JlY4eHHHOTr ex uoreuuux HCT04HHKOB npo­
BOJl.HJlHCb B nOMeweHH5lX C pa 3JlH4HblMH y pOBH5lMH cjJoHa. Ozmo
H3 HHX pacnonoscea o B cjJacM Ho H 4aCTH 3I WHH51 Ha paccroaunu
OKOJlO 50 M OT TpaMBaHHo H JlHHHH. n aT4HKH, 06ec ne4HBalO WHe
n pHeM CHr HaJlOB aa 4aCTOTe 50 x fu, 6blJlH o pueur upo aa u u
napann e.nsuo TpaMBMI HoH Jl HHI1I1. H a puc. 30 nOKa3aH xapax ­
Te pHbl H cjJparMeHT BpeMeHHoH pa3BepTKH aMn.1HTyn bl o r uoaio­
w eH CHr HaJlOB H3JlY'-! eHH51. Q)OHOBbl e nOKa3aHH51 He3aWHw eHHO­
1' 0 3KpaHOM naT4HKa sapsapyr or B HHTepBaJl e 500 - 550 MKB, HO
np n npoxo acieuu u rpavaas Ha6Jl1onaeTC5l auopoc aMnJlHTynblno
800 MKB . B pea yn srare skpanupoaanua c pen HHH y po ne us CHr ­
uan a cjJoHa CHH3H,nC51 no 220 MKB, a suo poc aMn Jl HTynbl socouie
nOKa3aHH 51 MH n aT4HKa He cjJH KCHpOBan C51 ,
B npy rov nOMeWeHI1H, HaXO,U5l weMC5l ua paCCTOlJIII111 OKO: IO
150 MOT II pOC3, KCfl lJaCTHCy pOUlieMrpoaa B npenen ax 50-60
6b lJlH IIpOBenCHbl o nblTbl 110 sxpauupoaamuo 11 Mny.'l bCHoro ':>.1CK­
TPOMUI'HIHHoro H3JIY'leHllfl OT MOHllTo pa x ov ru. ic r epa. Ll aT411K11,
n pHII HMaIOUJ.He curuanu ua ' laCTOTe SO icIu, paCI10.1ara .l I1Cb aa .i e ­
pe nsuuoa nepcroponxoa. Il pu MOHIiT ope (sepc,
5 MI1H nocn e RKJI104eHI15l) aMI1. lIHTY,la c ur s ana He3<1 WII U\eIJHOI
3Kp aHoMnaT4H Ka B03POCJlil no 800- 900 MKB. n OI<a3aHl1fl lJ,aPI
xa, s xpaauposaanoro MaTepHa J10M URSN' , RapbHpOU aJIH n
3TOM B npenenax 80- 100 MKB . OTc4eT aMI1JlI1TY,Ubl BbJnOJlH51JlCfl
B BHne 3anl1CH Bbl60pOK nl1KOBbl X 3Ha4eHI1H CHrHaJlOB C nncxper­
HOCTblO 100 MKC 11 06w.eA nJlHTCJl bHOCTblO 0. 1 c . Ha puc. 36
nOKa3aH x apaxrepaun Y'-! aCTOK TaKOH Bbl60PKH ,QJlI1Ho fJ 10 MC.
Crene-n, oCJla6JleHI151 eCTeCTBeHHb lX aHOMaJlHH I1MnYJlbCHOrO
3JleKTpOMar HHTHo r o 1J:l.1Y4e HII51 npoaepanacs ua npauepax, pa ­
HCC ,1,eTaJl bHO 11 3Y'-!eHHbIX C nOMOWblO r eOJlOrI14eCKI1X, r eorpuau ­
4eCKI1X H MenI1KO- CTaTHCTI14eCKI1 X MeTOnOB reonarore unux 30 H.
• • •
3KOJIOfI151 ­
A, MlI;8
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
100
10
20
30
40
50
60
____
200 300 400 500 600 700 800

F-::::l
VI n8HTOYHbie rm"Hbi

. . . . 06aOAH8HHbl8 nec xa
D
······
. , "
B eHACKlIl8
[ill
(KOTI H1HCKV18) rJU'IHbl
3 0 Hbl p a 3IlOMOB
[ZlJ
aMnm" TYAbl CV1 r H8l10B 3neKTpO­
MarHVlTHQr o Ha yaCTQr8 100 Kr U.:
.....-- 6e3 3KpaHa - C3KpaHoM
PaCCTORHYle, M
900

Puc. 4. OCJI a6Jl eHI1e 3Kpa HOM 113 MaTepl1aJla URSA@eCTeCTBeHHblx all OMaJlI1H 3JleKTpOMarHHTHorO H3Jly4 eHHR B reonaroreau u x 30Hax Ipaxc­
na ucxo ro npocnexr a Ca uxr - Flere priypr a
Fig. 4. Att enuation by the URSA@materi al scr een of nat u r al an omalies of the electromagnetic r ad iation in geopathoge ne zones alo ng
Grazhdansky avenue (St-Petersburg)
B
A , MKB
a
0,2
0,1
0,1
0,0
3 HayeHI1R ¢11 3 I1yeCK I1X
0
napaverpoe :
150 50 100 150
-- 6e3 3KpaHa
- - C3KpaHOM
6
II\MI 3 0Hbl pa3 J1 0MOB E. MK,/l,l+c
• 3J1eKTpO CI1J10Bb l e
y CTaHoBKI1
0,1
0,01
50 100 150
0 50 100 150
\1
11111
\
r
\" '\'\
Pu ,' ·. 5. Oc nafineuae 3KpaHOM H3 MaTepl1aJla URSA@eCTeCTBeHHblX 11 r exuo reuusi x aHOMaJlHH HMnYJlbCIIOrO 3JleKTpOMarHHTHOrO H3JlY4eHHR
B r;OMewell I1H «pynuoro ofiuiecraeuuoro 3na ll HR
A .:. aMnJlftTYll 3 Ol"l 10310lJleH ClIrl IaJIOB W{JlY'IClIlln ua 4aCTOTax 100 xIu ( a) H 50 xIu ( (i - r); E - I Wp3MCTp npenu uienus 3f1 epr HH H3J1Y4eHHH Han epOH OBOi1 ;
B - napnv cr p lICCTal ll lOlI apWICTlI 111.1Y4eHHH
Fig. 5. Attenuati on by the URSA" material sc r een of na t ur al and man -made anomali es of the pul se el ect ro magne tic radi at ion in a h all
of th e l arge public building
A, MKB
60

O nHH H3 06beKTOB HCCJlenOBaHHfl - o nopa u a npodiuns no
fpa>KJ\aHCKoM y npocnexry. B npenenax OTpe3 Ka onopuoro npo­
cjJHJlfl nJJHHOH I KM Bbl flB Jle Hbl 4 naroreanue reoaxrn an u e 30 Hbl
[4]. Ha6moneHHfl npOBOnHJlHCb C noreouuao npaoopa Er- 6M sa
yaCTOTe 100 xIu c ur arov 20 M. B Ka>KJ\OH TOYKe Ha6 Jl lOneHHfl
BblnOJlHflJlH Cb H3M epe HHfl BepTHKaJlbHOH KOMnOH eHT bl HMn yJlb ­
CHOro 3JleKTpO Mar HHTHo ro H3JlyYeHHfl 6e3 sxpana H C r o pH30H ­
Ta Jlb HO pacnonoxenau» 3K paHo M H3 MaT epHaJl a U R SA@ (xpas
MaTa n onrH6 aJlHCb nonxoeooopaauo BO H36 e>KaHHe HX o r H6aHHfl
Jl HHHfl MH 3Jl eKTpOMa rH HTHo ro nons ). 1-13 pu c. 4 BHn HO. YTO acno­
Jl b30Ba HHe sxpaua n0 3BOJlHJlO n OJlHOCTblO HeHTp aJl H30B aTb aHO­
MaJlHH HMnyJlbCHOr O 3JleKTpO MarHHTHoro H3JlyYeHHfl Han BceMH
reonaror eaa ux n 30Ha MH.
B n OMew.eH HH xpynaoro 06w. eCTBe HHoro 3na HHfl , pacnono­
>KeHH Or O Ha Y3Jle nepecexenua neyx p a3JlO MOB. 6 blJlO nposeneuo
oorree nera nsuoe H3yY eHHe H3MeHeHHfl pa3JlHYHbi X cjJH3HyeCKHX
napaaerpoa eCTeCTBe HHbl X H rexnoreuuux H3Jl yy eHH H npu
npHMeH eHHH sxpasa H3 MaTepHaJla URSA@ (puc. 5) . Haomoae­
HHfl npOBOnHJlH Cb aa nepaov 3Ta>Ke no npocjJHJl flM C uraron
10 M. n OMHMO H3MepeHHfl BepTHKaJlbHOH KOMn OHeHTbl HMnyJlb­
cnoro 3JleKTpOMarH HTHo ro H3JlyYeHHfl Ha yaCTOTe 100 xI u C n o ­
MOW.blO npuoopa Er-6M Ha yaCTOTe 50 xlu n pHM eH flJl Cfl npu­
60p «Aaren».
Il puoop «Aure.n » BblneJl fleT H3 xonrponapyevoro cxr uana
HM nyJl bcHylO y a CTb H onpene nser Ha p flny C n pyr HMH xapaxre ­
pHCTHKaMH H3JlyYeHHfl 3Hep reTHyeCKHH napaMeTp E H napav erp
HeCTa UHOHa pHOCTH B . Il apauerp E noxasueaer BeJl HYHHY npe ­
BblweHHfl 3 He pr HH Han cjJOHOBOH. 6 e3p a3M epHbl H K03cjJcjJHUHeHT
B 3a BHCHT OT paavaxa a MnJl HTynHblX KOJle6aHHH H3JlyYeHHfl BO
Bp eMeHH H MO>KeT CJlY>KHTb MepOH ero n aTo r eHHOCTH, nOCKOJlb ­
KY HMeHH O aMnJlHTynH bi e nepenanu OKa3blBalOT Ha H60Jl ee CHJlb­
Hoe OTpHUaTeJl bHOe aoaneacraue Ha HOpMaJlbH Oe cjJ yHKUH OHHp O­
BaHHe 6 HOJlOr Hy eCKHX 06beKTOB H yeJlOBeKa.
Yi cnOJlb 30 BaHJ1e sxpaaa H3 MaTepHaJla URSA@ npaaonar K
peaxovy CHH>KeHHIO a MnJl J1Tyn bl J13JlyYeHHfl Ha y aCTOTe 100 xlu
H K n OJl HOMY YHHYTO>KeHHIO aHOMaJlHH 3Ha yeHHH cjJ H3HYe CKHX n a­
paverpoa aa yaCTOTe 50 «Iu,
3aKJIlO4eHHe
Ilpuaenea aue asuu e peayn sraru s xcne pa veuransnux HC­
CJlenOBaHHH n 03BOJlfl IOT nars CTpOHTeJlbHbl M Ma Te p HaJlaM Map­
KH U R SA@ npouasoncrsa OAO « <l>JlaHn e pe p - Hynoso» OyeHb Bbl ­
COKYIO oueuxy KaK cpencrsy sauurru OT B03neilcTBHfl naror eu ­
Hbl X HMn YJlbCHbl X 3Jle KTpOMa r HHTHbiX H3Jly y eHH H eCTeCTBe HHoro
H r ex s o r eaaoro npOHCXO>KJ\eHHfl.
n pJ1MeHeHHe 3 Kpa Ho B H3 MaTepHaJla URSA® 0 6 eCneYHBaeT:
1. K OHTp acTH o e OCJla6JleHHe HMnYJl bCHbl X 3Jl eKTpO Ma r HHT ­
HblX H3JlyYeHHH B WHpOKOM nHana30He yaCTOT. B TOM YHCJl e H B
Ha H60Jlee Bp en HOHn Jl fl anopoass senosexa HH3KOy aCTOTHOH sa­
CTH c nexrpa .
2. Pesxoe OCJla6Jle HHe H3Jl yYeH Hfl B MeCTax nposaneuan ec­
TeCTBeHHblX H re xaor enaux a HOMaJlHH HMn yJlbCHOr O3Jle KTpOMa r­
HHTHoro nons npaKTHYeCKH n o ypoass 06bl YHOrO cjJoHa .
3. npaKTHYeCKH n OJlHOe Cr Jla>KHBa HHe nepenanos HHTeHCHB ­
HOCTH H3JlyyeHHfl BO Bp eMeHH, flBJlfl lOW.HXCfl HaH60Jlee CHJlbHblM
diaxropoa orpauarensnoro B03n eHcTBHfl HMnyJlbCHOrO 3JleKTpO­
MarHHTHoro H3JlyYeHHfl aa xenosexa.
B nacrosuiea paoore HaM epeHHOHe 06Cy>KnaIOTCfl cjJH3HyeCKHe
MexaHH3Mbi norn oui enas H3JlyY eHHfl MaTepHaJlaMH URSA"!, no ­
CKOJlbKY CBeneHH fl 0 HHX cnenyer paCCMaTp HBaTb KaK KOMMepYeC­
KYIO Ta HHy npennpasras -narcroeurena. B Me CTe C TeM He06x o,QH ­
MO nonsepxuyr», '11'0 3cjJcjJeKTHBHOCTb sx paaa B3HaYHTeJl bHOH Mepe
3a BHCHT OT e ro pacnonosceaas OTHOCHTeJlbH O HCTOYHHKa H3JlyY e ­
HHfl . n 0 3TOMY npHMeHeHHe 3a w. HTHbIX 3KpaHO B B o6w. eM cnysae
rp eoyer axc nepr aoa oueino: 3KOJlOrH yeCKOrO COCTOfl HHfl nov eui e­
HHfl H onpeneneuas npHYHH uapyureuus cjJoHa.
Jl s r e p a r y p a
I. Apmauonoe JI. B.. M eAbHUK0 8 E. K, MOAO'lKOI3 r. B., Pbl6a ­
KUH B. H. BJlHflHHe npocr paacrseau o-apevenuux aHOMaJlHH eCTeCTBeH­
aoro 3JleKTpOMarHHTHo r o nona 3eMJlH Ha )I{H3HeLleflTeJlbHOCTb H 3LlOPO­
ase yeJlOBeKa (0630p) / / BecTHHK Cn6fY. <PH3.; XHM. Cn6. 1995.
c. 18-40.
2. MeAbHUK08 E. K., MyCUU'lyK 10. H. K OM6HHHpoBaHHoe BJlHflHHe
aar ponoreuuux H reOJlOr HyeCKHX cj>aKTopo B ua YaCToTy onyxones
B Kpy n HoM repone / 3KOJlo r HyeCKafl 6e30naCHOCTb roponos. Cn6. 1993.
c. 210-2 11.
3. MeAbHUKOI3 E. K. , MyCUU'l yK 10. H., flpU4UH C. C. U op. 30Hbl
6HOJlOfH yeCKOrO LlHCKoMcj>opTa. CB5I3aHHble C r eOJlorHyeCKHMH HeOLl­
HOPOLlHOCTflMH. H HX BJlHfl HHe ua pa3BHTHe oHK03a6oJleBaHHH B Ca HKT­
Ilerepoypre / / Bonpocu OHKOJlOrHH. 1994.1. 40. 1-3. C. 99- 100.
4. M eAbHuKo 8 E. K., PyJHUK B. A., MyCUU'lyK 10. H. , Pu u a ­
pee B. H. Ilar oreasoe B03LleHcTBHe 30 H aKTHBHblX pa3JlOMOB 3eM HOH
xopu Caaxr-Tl er epriyprcxoro peruoua / f e03KOJlOrHfl. 1994. 4.
C. 52-69.
5. MeAbHUK08 E. K. 0 BJlHflHHH a KTHBHblX pa3JlOMOB na paaveure­
HHe roponos H COCTOflHHe 3LlOPO Bbfl HX uacenesus / / np06JleMbi r eo­
LlHHaMHyeCKOH rieaonacuocru (reOMe)l{L\YHapOLlHoe coaeurauae 24­
2706.97). Cn6. 1997. e. 294 -300.
6. MeAbHUK08 E. K., CKaKYH A. Il. K eonpocy 0 MeTOLlHKe Bbl,lleJTeHHfl
reonar ore nuu x 30H / / n p06JleMbi r eoLlHHaMHyeCKOH 6e30naCHOCTH ( reo­
Me*L\YHapoLl Hoe coseuianae 24-27.06.97). Cn6. 1997. e. 282-289.
7. M eAbHuKo B E. K TeKTOHHyeCKHe pa3J10Mbl H BJlHflHHe CBfl3a HHbiX
CHHMH r eo cj>H3HYeCKHX nOJleHHa anoposse H noaeneuse csne peaK UHHse ­
JlOBeKa / n CHXOJlOrHfl POCCHH. n p06JleMbi 6e30nac HoCTH HHcj>opMaUHoH­
HblX npoCTpaHCTB H ncuxocdiep u cr pauu . C n6. 1997. e. 29-30.
8. M eAbHUK08 E. K, PyJHUK B. A. Ieoaxrneu ue 30 Hbl H HX BJlHfl­
HHe ua ano po ase xenoe exa / / Pa3BeLlKa H oxpa na nenp . 1998. 7-8.
e. 54-57.
9. M eAbHuKo B E. K. A Ham13 H nporuos B03LleHcTBHfl r eonornsec xa x
ueonuoponnocr en xa aao posse nacenenus CaHKT- Fler epoypra H J1eHHH­
rpaacxca / M e>K.!lYHapoLlHafl xourpepeuuna « 3 KOJlOn t yeCKafl
6e30naCH OCTb sa nopor e XXI eexa », Te3HCbl Cn6.: j,13Ll- BO
BCHEY!. 1999. e. 118-119.
10. HUKumUHa B. H. ECTeCTBeHHble 3JleKTpOMarHHTHbi e nons
snopoase sen oeexa / KOHcj>epeHUHfl no rtpooneve «Ieoaxrnauue H r ei
naroreaxue 30Hbl» ( TPYLlbl KOHcj>epeHUHH). Cflo.: PAEH <PMT. 190
EBreHHH KOHCTaHTHHoBH4 MEJlbHHKOB - KaH,UJ1,UaT r eOJlOrO-MHHepaJlOrH'l e CKHX nayx, Be.nywJ-li-i CneUHaJl HCT Iocy­
,UapCTseHHOrO reOJl OrHyeCKOrO npe,UnpH51TH5I « H e s c Kr e OJl Or H51» MHHHCTepCTBa npaponuu x p e cypc os Pet>
AneKceH BaJleHTHHOBH4 BAw,t:.HOK - r eH epaJl bHbl H ,UHp eKTOp 000 « V1Hs e HT»
AHaTOJlHH naBJIOBH4 CKAKYH - Ka H,UJ1,UaT Te XHJ1'l e CKJ1X nayx, CTapwHH HaY4Hbl H COTp y,UH J1 K BHVlMVI
..
------------------------3KOJIOfl15I ­
n. C. PbI6aKOB, B. B. faBpHJIeHKO
Heicoropsre 3KOJIOfWIeCKHe H conaansnsre
rrpOOJIeMbI KapeJIHH
The paper tr eats some principal ecologic al problems in Karel ia. Part icul ar attentio n is focused on challenges related to the mi ning
i ndustry development.
« P ec ny 6 JH1Ka Kapenaa - per nou POCCHH , rJle COCTOfl HHe
OKpY>KalOw,e H n pHpOJlH OH cpensr xa paxre pnayerca CJla60 H Ha­
npsxcennocrt.io. OJlHa KOOTHOCHTeJl bHO BbICOKafl creneas sarpaa­
He HHfl npHpOJlHOH cpenu coxpauaerc a B npOMbrWJleHH bl X ueur­
pax - roponax neTp0 3a BOJlCKe , Cerexce, K OCToM yKwe, K OHJlO­
n ore, n . Hanaouusr » ( << r OCYJla pCT Be HHbrH JlOKJl3Jl 0 COCTOflH HH
OKPY>KalOw,e H npHpOJlHOH cpenu Pe cny 6 JlHKH Kapenus B 1997 r.».
n eTp03a BOJlCK, 1998).
npa KTH4ecKH BO scex 0 lPHu.HaJlbHbI X JlOxnanax, C006w,e HHfl x ,
HayYH bIX ny6JlHKau.Hfl x, C KOTOpbl MH npHXOJlH Jl OCb HMeT b neno,
Pecnyrinaxa Kapenas B 3 KOJlo r H4e CKOM nnaue BblrJlHJlHT ripen­
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cs KOHCTaTHpOBaTb , 4TO H B aaureu « Ko pOJle BCTBe » nanexo He
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ny 6 JlHKH OTHOCfl TCfl : YHH4TO>KeHHe nOCJleJlHHX Ma CCHBOB ecre­
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JleflTeJ1bHOCTblO (CTap OB03paCTHbrx) JleCOB, B03JleHCTBHe ropno­
pYJlHOr O KOMnJleKCa, Ka4 eCTBO n HTbe BOH aonsr, HaKOnJl eHHe OT­
XOJlOB npOH3BOJlCTBa H norpeoneuua. HeJlOCTaTOK aeneau x Ha­
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1. Coxpauenae JleCOB
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CTBOM npH06w,eHHfl K npHpOJlHOMy HaCJ1eJlHIO, TeCHO CBfl3a H­
M C 3THMH JleCaMH Hau. HOHaJl bHbIM HCTopH4ecKHM HaCJl eJl HeM
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X03flHCTBeHHOH JleflTeJlb HOcTblO. B nacr o s uiee speva B « 3 eJl e ­
HOM n once » ua repparopuu Kapenun BeJlYTCfl HCCJleJl OBaHHfl H
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weH nnoiuanu C03JlaBaeMOr o Hau.HOHaJl bHOrO napxa «Kaneaans ­
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penuxroaue neca cesepnee y>Ke HMe lOw,erOCfl anecs nauaonans­
uoro napxa «Flaaaas peu».
2. B03AeHCTBHe ropuopynnoro KOMnJleKCa
3KOJl Or H4e c KYlO o n a CHOCTb ropaopynnoro KOMnJleK Ca Pee­
ny6JlHKH Kapenus MO>KHO YCJ10BHO nonpasnenun, ua peansuyio
H noreuun ansayio. C nepsos CBfl3aHO B03JleHCTBHe Ha oxpy ­
>KalOWYIO npH p OJlHYIO cpeny H 3JlOpOBbe 4eJl OBeKa pacoraiouiux
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HHpyeMbl X. BHCTopH4eCKOM acnexre, npHMeHflfl cneuatpaxecxne
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B 3 aOHe>Kbe), Ka MHe06 pa6 aTbl Ba lOw, He npennpaarus , a TaK>Ke
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KHH OKaTbI Uj)) . 3 a ronu 3K Cn JlyaTau.HH XBoCTOXpa HHJl Hw, a, 06 ­
paaosau uoro aa MeCTe 03 . K OCTOMyKwcK o r o , B HeM ua nnouiana
30 KM
2
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psesuyio yr poay paccu arpaaaior npeJlCTaBH TeJlH oc uiecr aeuuux
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npaso nonssoaaauua HeJlpaMH C uenuo pa3BeJlKH H Jl06bl4Hypau­
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na.LlMa
Storage of radi oaktive wastes at the Srednyaya Padva deposit
Il anva (MeLlBe>Kber OpCKI1H pari ou Pe cny 6J1fIKI1 Kapenus), o u n a
co snaua B COOTBCTCTBHI1 C pe WeHl1eM K OOPLlHH3WlOHHor o COBe­
'ra nenpaauren scr eenaoa opraa uaaunu Accounauns «sen eaux>
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MblM OTKn OHHTb npen craan euuue LloKyMeHTbl.
B 3Kc nepTHOM3ilK.n 104eHHH OTMe
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O He>KCKOr O03e p3 . TeM He MeHee B 3TI1X MaTepl1il.nil X OTCyTCTBy ­
lOT Kal\ l1e -.nH60 KOHKpeTHble LlilHHbie no npl1pOLl HOH xapasrepn­
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3KOn Or I14eCKOH, r eOXI1 MI14eCKOfi H reonornv ecxof 06 CTaHOBKe B
pilii oHe MeCTOpO}KLleHI1 51 . He conepxcar OHI1 11 I1HcP opMaUHI1, Kil­
ca io uiea c» OUeHKI1 B03LleHCTBI151 npennonaraenux pa 60T Hil OK­
py sca rouiyio c peny, a TaK>Ke 3 cPcPeKH IBli OCTI1 B03MO>KHbIX pe we­
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A BTOpbl npennO>KeHI1H, CyLl51 no scev y, C4 11 Tilnli , 4TO 6yD,yWHH
npoe xr C T04 KI1 3pe HI151 3KonorH4eCKO H o naCHOCTIi OT.nI1 Yile TC51
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CTa B pya flXODJITypa uoa ue MI1Hepa.n bl. Onuaxo 3TO He TaK. 3 ao­
He>Kbe 5lBMleTC51 YHfl Kan bHbl M n pl1pOLlHbl M Ii I1CTOpI1KO- Ky.nbTy p­
HblM paii oHoM 6e3 pa3BI1TOii n po iVl bl w .neHHoii f1HcPpacTpyKTy p bl.
VI Ha4ano pa 6 0T no C03LlaHfl10 ropn opyzutoro KOMI J.nCKca C[ IOc0 6 ­
HO uaacerna oripenenart, cYll,b6 bJ npupons: 11 06 [I ICCTBa Ha 3TOfi
II n puncra jouur x K Heii r ep puropns x. Henocpencr ucuuas 6nl1 ­
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.n or u-reckux, 3Ko.nOrH4eCKI1X cPilKTOPOB - BOT B 4eM OCHOBHil51
c ne u jup axa npoon e vu. o n penen 51 IOWil 51 He06xoll,I1MOCTb 04eHb ill, ­
xypar noro 11 BHII Mil Te.nbHorO nonxona K ee peuieiuuo.
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npeLlCTilB.n51IOT He r o.nsko ncnocpencraeuuo y pau , Hil KOTOPblfl
ec erna oc06 0 06pil 1U3eTC51 BI IHM3 Hl1e, 11 n py r ue 51LlOBHTble sn e­
MellTbl , CO,lCP>KilW I1CC51 B KOMfweKCHblX py,18X, HO 11 o r po u n ue S
ne pcnexraa e M3CChi TOKCII 41lbiX OTXOLlOB OT I1X nep epacor x u .
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B «,Ilono.nHeJ-lfI51 X K KOJ-l Ky pCHblM npeIJ,nO>KeHH51M.. . » 3il 51 BHTeml
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K3K y pas , r a« H pas u ooopasn ue TOKCHKil HTbl, n peLl CTilBn51IOWl1e
onac nocrs : 1.n51 r l1LlpOCI1CTCMbl HC r onsxo 3il OHC>K b51 , HO 11 sc ero
O He>KCKO rO oaepa .
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MI14eCKI1e 3liOM a.nl1l1, B03HI1K31OWI1e npn Bb[eMKC PYLl 11 ox o.no ­
PYLlHbl X 06pa30BilHHH, no caoeny xapaxrepy 6yD,yT CYllleCTBCHHO
OTn I14aTbC51 OT n pnponuux il HOMan I1H, xa paxrepu u x Ll.n51 Llil HHO­
OCTaTKH uiaxruoro KOMnJleKCa H rn aa MeCTOpO>KD,eHHH naD.Ma. HIOJ1b 1999
Remains of th e shal f mine complex and remnant equipment of Geologi cal enterpri se «Nevskgeolog i a» at the Srednyaya Padma or e deposit.
July 1999
sz
- 64
- ---------- ----- -------3KOJIOrI15I ­
r o pa uoua . Flpnponnue reOXJ.1MH4 eCKHe aHOMaJ1HH, B TOM 4J.1CJ1e
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aHT paaanr us MO>KHO Ha6 J1 fO,UaTb H na reppuropu n n po sen eu nux
32-H naprnea I'Il «Heecxreonor ua» n penu ny umx pa60T. 1--13-3a
OTCyTCTBHfl cjJflHaHco B nOJ1 HOueHHo H peKyJ1bTHBa UHH B paii o ue
Cpe,UHeH n a,UMbl He C,UeJlaHO. H Y4aCTOK repparopu u npencraana ­
er C060H ne-ran su oe 3peJ1J.1We. B CJ1Y4ae ,UOCP04HOH OCTaHOBKH
npoe xrnpy eaux pa6 0T 3K0J10rH4eCKHe HCOUHaJ1bHblenOCJ1 e,UcrBHfl
;'])151 3aOHe>Kbfl H OHe>KCKOr O oaepa 6ynyT KaTaCTpocjJH4eCKHMH.
3aO He>KCKHH 51BJ1fleTCfl YHHKaJ1bHOH npHpO,UHOH
H HCTOp HKO- KyJ1 bTy p HOH reppuro pnes , 3,UeCb 06Hapy >KeHbl 3a­
nac u 4HCTeHWHX nO,U3eMHblx BO,U, «oro pue MOryT HCn0J1b30BaTb­
ca KaK CT0 J1 0 Bbl e H J1e4e6Hbl e. CJ1aBHTCfl 3aOHe>Kbe H nnono­
p0,UHeHWHMH n04BaMH, pacn0J1 0>KeHHbIMH sa urynr urax, H, KaK
CJ1e,UCTBHe, OTHOCHTeJ1 bHO He nJ1 0XO pa3BHTbi M CeJ1bCKHM X03 51H ­
cTBoM.llJ1fl3aoHe>KaH, J1f0651WHXCBOfO3eMJII0 HYMefO wHX na HeH
TPY,UHTbC51 , 3TO KaK nonapox CY,Ub6bI.llonoJ1HflfOT rapMOHHfOn oxa
euie 6J1aro,UaTHoro «pas coxpauueumeca Ha non yocr po se naM51T­
' HKH HCTOp HH H Ky J1bTypbl. A 0 3HaMeHHTbiX KH>KaX 3HaeT aecs
Ip! «Ceronns na xa uie BeCOB HaXO./lHTCfl pa3JIH4 Hble 60raTcTBa. ­
QOPHT nertyrar 3aKoHo,UaTeJ1bHOrO coopauus Pecny6J1 HKH Ka­
nHfl BaJ1e HTHHa E BceeBa. - C O,UHOH CTOpOHbl, 3TO - 06Ha py­
: HHbl e B 3aOHe>Kbe n0 J1 e3Hbl e HCKonaeMble, co,Uep>KaWHe onac­
Ilble KOMnOHeHTbl , C,UpyroH - Bo,Ua, 3eMJ1fl , HCTOpHfl , KyJ1bTy pa H
ce MHTblCfl 4Hoe HaCeJ1eHHe » . l.{ TO Bbl6epyT J1fO,UH, npHHHMafOWHe
pelueHHe, nOKa>KeT BpeM51.
E CJ1H rOBopJ.1Tb 0 np06J1 eMa X r opHo py,UHo r o KOMnJ1eKCa B ue­
J1 0M, TO CJ1 enyeT OTMeTHTb, 4TO B K a peJ1 HH ,uo CHX nop He 6blJ1H
,UOJ1>KHbI M 06pa30M nOCTaBJ1eHbl re03K0J10rH4eCKHe, BKJ1f04afl
J1aH,UwacjJTHo - r eOXJ.1 MH4eCKHe, HCCJ1 e,UOBaHHfl, B nOJ1 HOH Mepe He
g: n po rH 03HpOBaJ1 HCb 3K 0J1 0 r H4eCKHe H 3KOHOMH4eCKHe nOCJ1 e,U­
CTBHfl pa3BJ.1THfl r o pHo py,UHo r o KOMnJ1CKCa , He Bblpa6aTbIBaJ1HCb
C'I

aeooxonnw ue B CBfl3H C 3TJ.1 M peKOMeH,UaUJ.1H . M e>K.uy TeM H3-3a
He,UOCTaTKa re03K0J10 r H4eCKOH HHcjJopMaUJ.1H B BbI XO,UflwHX e>Ke­
rO,UHO Iocynapcraeuuux ,UOKJ1a,Uax 0 COCT051HJ.1H oxpyxcaiouief
n pJ.1pO,UHOH cpeau Pecny 6J1HI( H Kapenus B pasnene « B J1 Hfl HHe
pa3J1H 4Hb1X OTpaCJ1eH uaponnoro X03flHCTBa ua oxpyxcatouiyio
c peny» MeCTO ropuopynacay KOMnJ1eKCY no xa e uie He HaH,UeHO.
Te M He MeHee B TeKYlUeM rony Y1 HCTHryT r e0J1 0 r HH Ka p eJ1 bCKOr O
uaysuoro uesrpa PAH npucrynaer K ocyweCTBJ1eHHIO TpeXJ1eT­
He H nporpaMMbl no 3KOHOMH4eCKOMY H 3K0J10rJ.1 4eCKOMY 060CHO­
BaHHfO pa 3BHTHfl ropuopynnoro KOMnJ1 eKCa KapeJ1HH .
3. KalJeCTBO BO.ll.bl
n o npHpO,UHOMy XHMH4e CKOMY cocraey H Ka4eCTBY no s epx ­
HOCTHbl e BO,UbI KapeJ1 HH eecsva pasuooopaau u H HMelOT CBOH
oc06 eHHOCTH. 3a pe,UKHM HCKJ1f04eHHeM OHJ.1 MaJ1 0MHHe paJ1 H30 ­
BaHbl (no 100 Mr!J1) H 0 4e Hb M51r1<He ( ,UO 4 %>KeCTKocTH) . n o
3TJ.1 M n p H3Ha KaM HX MO>KHO 6 blJ10 6bl OTHeCTH K Bo,UaM 04e Hb
euco xo r o Ka4eCTBa.
O,UHaKO Ha 60J1bWeH 4aCTH Tepp J.1TOpHH Ka4 eCTBO pesuux BO,U
YXYAwaeTC51 H3-3a HaJ1H4Hfl B HHX o kpaureuuux ryaycosux Be ­
uiecr s . 3TH BO,Ubl COAep>KaT no s uureuuue KOHueHTpaUHH >KeJ1e­
aa, a rpeccusua K 6eToHy H MeTaJ1J1H4eCKHM KOHCTpyKUHflM.
6e,UHbl 6 HoreHHbl MH BeweCTBaMH H cjJTOpOM. Bce na uuue n p HBO­
,U51TCfl B « f ocY'uapCTBeHHOM ,UOKJ13,Ue 0 COCTOfl HHH oxpyacaiouies
npHpO,UHOH cpenu P ec ny 6 J1 HKH Kapenas... ». Y1 MeHHo Ta Ka 51 BOAa,
nacuuieu uas ryMycoBbl MH seuiecr ea vu, CHOCJ.1TCfl CTOKOM peKH
Ill ya B paHO H ueHTpaJ1 H30 BaHH oro BO'u03a60pa n eTp03aBOACKa .
n OCJ1 e,UCTBHfl n pOBO,UHMOH B COBeTCKHH nepnon MeJl HOpa UHH,
pe syn sr aru >KH3He,UeflTeJ1bHOCTH ropona, paocra npennpasr u a
YXY,UWHJ1H J<a 4eCTBO BO,Ubl ,UO TaKOH crenenu, 4TO, KaK nO,UTBep ­
,UHJ1H cjJHHCKHe sxcnepru, nHTb BOny J.13 neTp03aBO,UCKOH ry6bl B
crsope YJlHUbl MOCKOBCKOH, me y crpoeu Hbl He ,UeHCTBYfOWHH
BOA03a6 0p, He6e30 naCHO. CerO,UH51 yxc e HeJ1 b351 , KaK BcnOMHHa ­
fOT B pecny6JlHKa HCKHXr aser ax CTapO>KJ.1J1bl, « ne pe KYCJ.1 B nO-CTY­
,UeH4eCKJ.1 6aTOHOM , aa rnrrs ero BO'uOH H3 Jl OCOCJ.1H KJ.1 ( npucnoco­
6HB WHCb BHaKJ10HKY na O,UHOM H3 KaMe WKOB )>>. Bce 3TO norovy,
4TO H BO,Ubl n pOTeKaJOWHX s epea r opon pe x Jl OCOCJ.1 HKH H
H er JlHHKH sa rpssnenu T5I>KeJ1bI MH Me TaJ1J1aMH ( Me'ub, Ka,UMHH),
>KeJle30M, nedrren ponyxravu, HMefOT n pyrue orpa uarensuue xa ­
paKTepHCTHKH. TeM He Me Hee, naxce HeCMOTpfl Ha nepeur eu uocn,
np06JleMbi 04 HCTKH H Ka4eCTBeH HOH no,UrOTOBKH BOAbI LJ)lfl rnrr s ­
esux Hy)KJl, CneUHaJlHCTbI Mn « n eTp03aBO,UCJ< BO,UOKaHaJla» no ­
n ar aior , 4TO « B n pau u nne, aona , KOTOpyfO Mbl norpeons e» ce a ­
-rac, BOBce He nn oxa , OHa COOTBeTcTBy eT seen YCTaHOBJleHHblM
xapaKT e pHCTHKaM, KpOMe O,UHOH - Y Hee nOBbIWeHHa 51 UBeT­
HOCTb» (ras era « n eTp03a BO,UCK» , NQ 38, 18 CeHT5I6 p 51 1998).
lleHcT BHTeJl bHo , UBeTHOCTb BO,UbI HaCTOJlbKO n o s u ur ea a , 4TO
cxpsrn, ee npOCTO HeB03MO>KHO, TaK »ce KaK H orapar urensusrf
sa nax BO,Ubl ropfl4eH , a BOT 4TO- TO cnenar s, 4T0 6 bl H3MeHHTb CH­
TyaUHfO, He ynaercs yxce B Te4e HHe uen o r o ,UeCflTHJ1eTH5I . Ewe
O,UHa npooneva - 06pa60TKa sonu XJ10pOM, ucnon say eaaa ua
aononposonnux 04 HCTHbiX coopyacen usx « Il er poaaeoncxsonoxa­
HaJ1 a » LJ)l5l ee 06e33apa>KHBa HH5I. «Flpn XJ10pHpOBaH J.1H LJ)l5l ue n­
TpaJ1 bHOr O eonocuaoxce a us BO,Ubl . uacsuueunue oprauuxon,
CTaHOB5ITCfl He6e30naC HblMJ.1 LJ)lfl 3,U0POBb51 J.1 3- 3a 06pa30BaHHfl
XJ10pOpraHH4ecKHx coe,UHHeHJ.1 H» ( «Iocyaapcr aeuuu f ,UOK.na,U. .. » ).
Me>K.uy TeM, LJ)lfl Tor o 4T06bl n p0 J10>KJ.1Tb 'uo pory Ha MHpOBOH
Pbl HOK nponyKUHH MeCTHo ro J1J.1 Kep O-BoA04Hor o 3aBo,Ua, Ha JlB3
ocyweCTBJleHa n porpaMMa no OpraHJ.1 3aUJ.1 J.1 ,Uo n0J1 HJ.1 TeJlbHOH 04H­
CTKJ.1 BO,Ubl LJ)l5l H3roTOBJleHHfl KpenKHx HanJ.1TKOB C npHMeHeHHeM
HOBeHWJ.1Xc noc060B. AJ1bTepHaTJ.1 BHbl e cnoc06bl 06e33apa>KH BaHHfl
BO,Ubl WHp OKOH3BeCTHbi BOBce M MJ.1pe. 3TO - 030HJ.1pOBaHHe H B03­
,UeHCTBHe yJl bTpn cjJHOJ1eTa. l.{ TO KacaeTCfl nOCJ1e,UHer o , TO, Han pH­
Mep , B H H>KHeM HOBropO'ue KOOpAHHaUJ.10HHbIH ue HTp nporpaMMbl
« nOMO>KeM peKe » ,U06J.1J1C5I npoBe,Ue HJ.1 fl 3KCne p J.1MeHTa no 3aMeHe
nepBJ.1 4HOrO XJ10pHpOBaHHfl BO,Ubl Ha 06pa60TKY yJ1bTpacjJHOJleToM.
3KCnepJ.1MeHT Bc,UeTC5I no'u 06weCTBeHHbi M KOHTpOJ1eM «3eJleHbIX».
9
65
B 6J!H)f{aHWHX nnanax H «3e.Jl eHbIX» KapeJJHH - senocpencraen­
HaHnOMOW,b no npHBJle4eHHIOB pecrrynnuxy HOBeHWHXTeXH0J10rHH
.WlH 04HCTKH H nOLlroTOBKII nHTbeBOH BOLIbI, a raiose nOHCK Kpe.nH­
TOB LlJIH ocyuiecraneuaa nporpaMMbl oeaonacnoro BOLlOCHa6)f{eHHH
B Ilerpoaasoncxe.
4. npo6.lleMbl C TBepAblMH oTxoAaMH
nOJlO)f{eHHe C OTXOLlaMH npOH3BOLlCTBa H nOTpe6J1eHHH B
Pecny6J1HKe Kapenna OCTaeTCH cepseanua. TOJlbKO ua peann­
3aUHIO OCHOBHbiX np06J1eMHblX BonpOCOB He06xOLlHMbi LleCHTKH
MHJlJlHapLlOB py6J1eH. B Kapenan nonaraior, 4TO B cHTyaUHIO
LlOJl>KHO BMewaTbCH npaBHTeJlbCTBO Pecny6J1HKH Kapenna. OCO­
60e oecnoxoacrao auauaaior nepenonuenuue CBaJlKH npovsuu­
JleHHblX H 6blTOBbiX OTXOLlOB non Iletpoaaaoncxoa. OLlHa H3 HHX
HaxOLlHTCH B paiione Mecre4Ka «neCKH » ua nepexuxxe (!) Me>K­
.ny OHe>KCKHM 03epOM H 03epOM Jlorvoaepoa. 3TO - WJlaMOOT­
san (CKJlaLI ropenos 3eMJlH) AO «Fler posaaoncxaaur». nOJlb3Y­
HCb OTCyTcTBHeM oxpauu, CIOLla >Ke CB03HJlH CBOH OTXOLlbl H
npyrne npennpasraa ropona , B uacroauiee BpeMH CBaJlKa « u a ­
BHCaeT» HaLIBOLl03a60pOM neTp03aBOLlCKa H HBJlHeTCH npH4HHOH
pacnpocrpaaesua TOKCH4HbiX BeweCTB B oxpecruue PY4bH, pozi­
HHKH, a raiose B nonseauue BOLIbI. Bropaa - CBaJlKa 6blTOBbJX
OTXOLlOB B MeCTe4Ke Opsera. Ha cerOLlHHWHHH LleHb BJlaCTH H3bIC­
KHBalOT B03MO>KHOcrH JlOKaJlH3aUHH 3arpH3HeHHH OT LleHCTBYIO­
WHX CBaJlOK, a raiose HaMe4alOT Mecra CTpOHTeJlbCTBa HOBblX
nOJlHrOHOB. OLlHO BpeMH, 4T06bl H36aBHTbCHOT Bce B03paCTalO­
utero KOJlH4ecrBa raepnux 6bITOBbiX OTXOLlOB (T50), HX C>KHra­
JlH npHMO B MyCOpHblX KOHTeHHepax. C nOHBJleHHeM B TOprOBJIe
TOBapOB B nnacraxosoa, conepacauiea XJlOP, ynaxosxe 3TO CTa­
JlO onaCHblM. Cyuiee 6e3yMHe C>KHraTb TaKHe OTXOLlbl, npH4eM
npHMO B6J1H3H )f{HJlbJX LlOMOB, 3arpH3HHH TaKHM 06pa30M npo­
CTpaHCTBO HeCOBMeCTHMblMH C >KH3HblO BeweCTBaMH (LlHOKCH­
HaMH)! Lla MaJlO JlH 4TO ewe MO>KeT BblLleJlHTbCH B pesynsrare
ropeuas T50!? nOHBJlHeTCH see 60JlbWe JlIOLleii . KOTOpblX He
paayer BHLl nonuxaioumx H LlblMHWHX KOHTeHHepOB, 6eCX03HbiX
CBaJlOK. Y! Bce-TaKH HaM nOTpe60BaJlOCb HeCKOJlbKO ner, 4T06bl
y6eLlHTb anacrn aanperurs C>KHraHHe OTXOLlOB H Mycopa B CTO­
JlHUe pecny6J1HKH .
5. KaK 03eJ1eHHTb ropon?
np06J1eMa 3eJleHOrO crpourenscrsa roponoa H nOCeJlKOB Pee ­
ny6J1HKH KapeJJHH C4HTaeTCH npopaoorauaoa. Bo MHOfHX CJ1y­
4aHX, B TOM 4HCJ1e B neTp038BOLlCKe, OTMe4aeTCH HBHblH HeLlO­
CTaTOK nnouiana C3eJleHblMH Haca)f{LleHHHMHua onnoro )f{HTeJlH.
np06J1eMOH HBJlHeTCH KaK He060CHOBaHHoe H3bHTHe uacascne­
HHH B ropoaax, TaK H OTCTaB8HHe no TeMnaM nocaaxa nepeases
H KYCTapHHKOB, crasuree B nOCJ1eLlHHe ronu KpHTH4eCKHM . Kpo­
Me roro, Ha6J1IOLlaeTCH HBHoe yruereune HMelOWHXCH 3K3eMnJlH­
pOB pacrenaa B pesynsrare XHMH4eCKoro 3arpH3HeHHH ropOLlCKOH
cpenu, HX nOBpe)f{LleHHH MaWHHaMH H MexaHH3MaMH B peayns­
rare npOBeLleHHH pa3J1H4Hb1X pa60T, npHMeHeHHH COJIH B
3HMHHH nepaon, a raioke eapaapcxoro OTHoweHHH K «3eJleHOMY
npyry> CO CTOpOHbl «onpenen eunoa 4aCTHHaCeJleHHH» . Ipynnoa
aBTopOB non PYKOBOLlcrBOM KaHLlHLlaTa 6HOJlOrH4eCKHxuay« KHMa
Anapeeaa paspaooraa npoexr «3eJleHblH WHT neTp03aBOLlCKa »,
npe.nyCMaTpHBaIOWHH nocanxy 100 TbIC. nepeases H KYCTapHHKOB
K 300-JleTHIO ropona (2003 r.). BblOOJ1HeHHe npoexra, B KOTOpblH,
no 3aMblCJ1Y aBTopOB, 6YLleT BOBJIe4eH Ka)f{LlblH rOpO)f{aHHH. no­
Tpe6yeT OT 2 LlO 2,5 MJlH py6. B HacroHwee BpeMH 0 npoeKTe H3­
seuieua A,uMHHHCTpaUHH caaoynpaanenna neTp03aBOLlCKa, A c­
COUHaUHH «3eJleHbIX» Kapena» sener nOHCK cnoncopos.
6. Heanopouua ofipaa >KH3HH
ECJ1H, no LlaHHblM B03, 3KOJlOrH4eCKHe cPaKTopbl BJlHHIOT ua
anopoase JlIOLleH B 2 % CJ1Y4aeB, TOYCJ10BHH H 06pa3 )f{H3HH - B
50-55 %. K LlpyrHM cPaKTopaM OTHOCHTCH reHeTH4eCKHe H3Me­
HeHHH (J 5-20 %) H CHCTeMa anpasooxpaaeaas (LlO 10- 15 %).
B Pecny6J1HKe KapeJlHH cpeLlH OTpaBJleHHH nepBoe MeCTO Ha
npOTH)f{eHHH LleCHTH ner YCTOH4HBO 3aHHMalOT OTpaBJleHHH 3TH­
JlOBblM cnHpTOM . npH4eM aa nepaon C 1992 no 1995 r. 4HCJ10
TaKHX cxepreneuux OTpaBJleHHH B03P0CJ10 B 3,2 paaa «<Iocy ­
LlapCTBeHHblH LlOKJlaLI... »).
no LlaHHblM onpoca, npoaeneuuoro COTpYLlHHKaMH KacPeLlpbl
cPaKYJlbTeTCKOH repanua Flerpoaaaoncxoro rOCYLlapCTBeHHoro
yHHBepcHTeTa, 46 % onpourennux My)f{4HH H 7 % )f{eHWHH KY­
pHT. MeHee rona Ha3aLI paCCTaJlHCb C 3TOH onaCHOH npHBbl4KOH
ewe 25 % My)f{4HH H 15 % )f{eHWHH. no LlaHHbJM yvenux, naro­
JlOrHH 6POHXO-Jler04HOH CHCTeMbl B peruoue auuma B nOCJ1eLl­
HHe ronu na 4 -e Mecro cpena npH4HH CMepTH HaCeJleHHH Ka­
penns. MeLlHUHHcKHMH, 06weCTBeHHblMH H HaY4HbIMH oprann­
3aUHHMH B pecny6J1HKe npOBOLlHTCH 04eHb TpYLlHaH paoora no
03LlOpOBJIeHHIO oripaaa )f{H3HH 4eJlOBeKa. TaK, B Te4eHHe nOJlY­
ropa ner, Ha4HHaH C 1997 r., LleJlaJlHCb ynpsaue nonurxn npe­
KpaTHTb B cpeacraax MaccoBoH HHcPopMaUHH pexnaay Ta6a4Hbix
H3LleJlHH H aJlKoroJlbHOH nponyxua», H TOJlbKO K cepezuure npo­
uinoro rona HaMeTHJlCH 3aMeTHblH cnan nOLl06HoH peKJlaMbl B
CMY!. PyKOBOLlCTBO Ilerpoaaeoncxoro rocynapcraeunoro yHH­
aepcarera, co caoef CTOpOHbJ, npeononesaa >KeCTKOe conporns­
neuae, sanperano KYpeHHe B creuax aJlbMa-MaTep. 3TO nOHHT­
HO, nOCKOJlbKY B Ta6a4HoM LlblMe K uacroauieay BpeMeHH 06Ha­
pyxceuo 4 TbIC. XHMH4eCKHX coeLlHHeHHH, MHorHe H3 KOTOpblX
HBJlHIOTCH cPapMaKOJlOrH4eCKH aKTHBHblMH, TOKCH4HblMH, MyTa­
reHHbIMH . Cpenn HHXHal1.neHo 43 xaaueporeua. Y!3BecTHo, 4TO B
pesynsrare KYpeHHH oxpyxcaiouiee npocrpancrso 3arpH3HHeTCH
KaLIMHeM, K06aJlbTOM, paLlHoaKTHBHblM BHCMyTOM, 4TO oc06eHHO
onacno ua 6bITOBOM yposne. HaXO)f{LleHHe B npOKYpeHHOH KOM­
uare auausaer y aexypsuiero 4eJJOBeKa norepio LlO40% TpyLlo­
cnoc06HoCTH.
K CO>KaJleHHIO, 3TO He ace COUHaJlbHO-3KOJlOrH4eCKHe npoo­
JleMbl, CBOHCTBeHHbJe cesepuoa pecnyonnxe. OTLleJlbHO CJleLlO­
BaJlO6bl norceopurs 0 npooenax B uanoroaoa 3aKOHOLlaTeJlbCTBe,
He Y4HTbiBalOweM 3KOJlorH4eCKHe sanpocu BpeMeHH, H3J1HUJHeH
nOJlHTH3allHH nOHHTHH «yCToH4HBoe pa3BHTHe» Hero CMeweHHH
B COUHaJlbHO-3KOHOMH4ecKYIO o6JlacTb C cPaKTH4eCKHM arnopn ­
pOBaHHeM COUHaJlbHO-3KOJlOrH4eCKoro acnexra, HBHOM HeLlOC­
TaTKe LlaHHblX 0 3arpH3HeHHH reppnropna pecny6J1HKH oc060
onaCHblMH BeweCTBaMH, BKJlI04aH paLIHOHyKJ1HLlbl, TH>KeJlble Me­
rannu H cynep3KoTOKCHKaHTbi. B TO >Ke BpeMH 3KOJlOrH4eCKaH 1\
IOpHLlH4eCKaH 6e3rpaMOTHOCTb HaCeJleHHH, 4HHOBHHKOB, pyxo­
BOLlHTeJleH pa3J1H4Hb1X yposnea, pa60THHKOB cYLle6HbiX opraaos
H npoxyparypu, HeLlOCTaT04Hbie opraHH30BaHHOCTb H nOLlrOTOBKa
Y'laCTHHKOB «aeneuoros LlBH>KeHHH HBJlHIOTCH npH4HHaMH MHoro·
4HCJ1eHHbIX HapyweHHH npuponooxpaauoro 3aKOHOLlaTeJlbCTBa I
3KOJlOrH4eCKHX npaa rpa)f{LlaH Pecny6J1HKH Kapenus. 50JlbWHI
CTBO H3 Ha3BaHHbiX np06J1eM B TOH HJlH HHOH Mepe xapaxrepa
LlJIH POCCHHCKOH et>eLlepaUHH B ueno».
OmaeAbHble pasoenu patiomu npll !pUHa
C080U nOaaepJICKe npOi?pWUlbl "YHlwepcumembl Poccuu».
)l.MHTpHH CepreeBH'I Pbl6AKOB - KaHJl-II,L1,aT reOJlOrO-MIIHepaJlOrHl.JeCKHX HayK, cTapwHH HayYHbJH COTpyJl-HHK I1HCTH­
TYTa reOJlOrHH KapeJlbCKOrO HayYHoro ueHTpa
BJ1aAHMHP BaCHJ1beBH'I rABPI1J1EHI(O - Jl-OKTOp reOJlOrO-MIIHepaJlorH4eCKHX HaYK, npoepeccop KaepeJl-pbl MIIHepaJlO­
rllll , KpIICTaJlJl orpaepII II , neTporpaepllH Cnrrl1 (TY)
-------------- ----------3KOJIOfI15I­
Some significant peculiarities of their accumulation are deciphered for heavy metals concentrated in algae
of the Barentz sea.
MopCKl1e BO,ll0POCJ1I1, K3K 11 see p3CTeHI1H 3eMJlI1, KOHl.leHTpl1­
PYIDT 113 OKpyIK31D1lleH cpenu paccesanue B HeH 3JleMeHTbl. OT­
MeljeH3 cnoco6HOCTb BO,ll0pOCJleH H3K3nJll1B3Tb nexoropue MeT3Jl­
Jlbl B 1000-10 000 p33 60JlbWe no cp3BHeHI1ID C I1X CO,llep>K3Hl1eM
B sone (Bailey, Stokes, 1985). ECTecTBeHHo, B03HI1K3IDT sonpo­
CbI, K3KOB MeX3HI13M H3KOnJleHI1H MeT3JlJlOB BO,ll0POCJlHMI1 11 ecrs
JlI1 npene,n 3TOMY H3KOnJleHI1ID' K3K BO,ll0POCJlI1 BbI)J(f1B3IDT B TOK­
Cl1ljHOH cpene? MOIKHO JlI1 no 3T11M BO,ll0POCJlHM cynirn, 0 COCTO­
HHI1I1 cpenu, T. e. HBJlHIDTCH JlI1 OHI1 MOHI1TOP3MI1? B03HI1K3eT 11
npyroa, ljl1CTO np3KTI1ljeCKI1H sonpoc: eCJlI1 BO,ll0POCJlI1 HBJlHIDTCH
3KKyMynHTop3MI1 MeT3JlJlOB - He onacuu JlI1 OHI1 M51 ljeJlOBeK3'
Bens B r33eT3X 11 llKyPH3Jl3X, no P3,1ll10 11 TeJleBl1,1leHl11D npoxonnr
nOCT051HHO I1HepOPM31.11151 0 l.le.ne6HbIX CBOHCTB3X 3TI1X Opr3HI13MOB.
Bypue BO,ll0POCJ111 rO,llHTC51 He TOJlbKO MH C3Jl3T3, HO 11 M51 MOHI1­
TOpI1Hr3. Dpo6JleM3 33rp513HeHI151 OKe3H3 npusnexaer B nocne­
,IlHl1e ronu Hl1ljYTb He MeHbwee BHI1M3Hl1e, ljeM np06JleM3 33rp513­
HeHI151 cyum. YI eCJlI1 np06JleM3 33rp513HeHI151 Ml1pOBOrO OKe3H3 B
ue.nov M51 K31K,1l0rO ljeJlOBeK3 3BY'1I1T, MOlKeT 6blTb, HeCKOJlbKO
a6 CTpaKTHO, K sonpocy 4HCTOTbi npH6peIKHbiX BOn , C KOTOpblMH
OH co n puxacaer ca Ka/Ktl bl Hneus, HHTepec KOHKpeTHbIH. K aK paa
Mop CKoe MeJlKOBOnbe - KOHTaKTHafi 30Ha CYWH H OKeaHa - flB­
Jlfle TCfI He TOJlbKO 30 HOH BblCOKOH 6HOJlOrH4eCKOH nponyxrne­
HOCTH, n pH6peIKHoro np ovucna, HOH 30HOH HaH60Jlee aucoxoro
aarponore u uoro B03ne HCTBHfI. VI H3Y4eHa sr a 30Ha B nnaue 3KO­
JlOr H4eCKOH 4HCTOTbl, K COlKaJleHHIO, 04eHb MaJlO. )lJlfl HCCJI enO­
BaHHfI JlI060r o npouecca B IKHBOH n papone He06xon HMa CHCTeMa
perynspaux Ha6J1 lOneHHH, oue uxa HJlH, rosops fl3blKOM HayKH,
MOHHTopHHra. K HaCTOflUleMYBpeMeHHCepOpMHpOBaJlCfI «06J1HK»
npHr OnHblXtlJI fl6HOMOHHTop HHr a aar pasueuaa MOpfi op r aHH3MOB.
B Ka4eCTBe o praHH3MOB-MOHHTOpOB Hcn OJlb3YlOTCfI MaCCOBble ,
WHpOKO pacnpocrpaue u uue H MHOrOJleTHHe BHn bl , xo ropue Be­
nyT np HKpenJl eHHblH HJlH MaJlOnOnBHIKHblH 06 pa3 IKH3HH, ne rxo
n06blBalOTCfI. TaKHe BHn bl 06J1analOT cnoc06HOCTblO uaxannaears
xo urponu pye aue aa rpaaueuua, coxpauas npn OTHOCHTeJlbHO
Bbl COKHX HX KOH ueHTpaUHfi X B BOne IKH3Henefl TeJlbHOCTb H reHe­
TH4eCKYlO cTa6HJlbHOCTb. B nOJlHOH Mepe 3THM Tpe60BaHHflM
OTBe4alOT oypue BOnOpOCJlH , B oc06eHHOCTH diyxycos u e. WHpO­
KO pacn pocrpau en aue B MOpfi X se v uo r o w apa. Csoe Ha3BaHHe
oypue BOnOpOCJIH nOJlY4HJlH H3-3a OKpaCKH, KOTOpylO ooecne­
4HBaeT COOTHoweH He xnoporpunna, OCHOBHoro epOTocHHTeTH4e ­
CKOro nurveura, c n py r uv u nHrMeHTaMH. H aM H3 oypux sonopoc­
JleH HaH60Jlee 3HaKOMa MopcKafi xanycra: JlaMHHapHfI anoncxaa ­
B BOCT04HbiX MOpflX, JlaMHHapHfI caxap ucras - B ce eepaux,
H3 KOTOpOHnenaior ceH4ac MHOr04 HCJIeHHbi e canarsr, nauieaue
n06aBKH. 3 TH BonopOCJJ H OTJl H4alOTCfI HaH60JlbWeH YCTOH4HBO­
CTblO K B03neHCTBHIO pa3J1 H4Hb1X diaxropos - 06Cbl xaHHIO Ha
KaMHflX JleTOM H 3aMep3a HHIO3HMOH BOBpeMfi OTJlHBOB, a r axxce
on peCHeHHIO BeCHOH, xorna Ha4HHaeTCfI raa uue c ue ra H PY'lbH
CTeKalOT K MOplO.
KaK BO.ll.0POCJIH uaxannusaior MeTaJlJlbl
Il ornouieuue TfllKeJlblX MeTaJlJlOB BOnOpOCJlfl MH H3 sonu npo­
HCXOnHT HenOCpenCTBeHHO BceH nOBepxHOCTblO. Il pennonaraer ­
CfI, 4TO3TOT npouecc MOlKeTHnTHnaccusao. T. e. H3 BonHOHepa3bl,
r paHH4aUl eH C nOBepxHOCTblO paCTeHHfI, pacrso peaasre MeTaJlJlbl
COp6Hpy lOTCfI na ero nOBepxHOCTH, 3aTeM nyrea nHepepy3HH OKa­
3blBalOTCfI B KJleTKaX H pa3HOCflTCfI no ece vy opraHH3MY. M Ho­
ru e aaropu c4HTaIOT, 4TO Mexa HH3Mbi COp6UHH 3J1eMeHTOB, r a­
KHXKaK Zn , Cu, Mn, Fe, aa no sepxs ocru KJleTOK csaaaau Cdi o ­
TocHHTeTH4ecKoH H nblXaTeJlbHOH aKTHBHOCTblO. B pesynsrare
BblneJleHHfI H nOrJlOUle HHfI KHCJlOpOna cpena sox pyr KJleTKH
nOnUleJIa4 HBaeTCfI H oopaayrorcs r nnpooxu cn MeTaJlJlOB. TaKHM
06pa30M, npu JlOKaJlbHOM noauurenu a pH MeTaJlJlbl epH KCHpy ­
IOTCfI na nosepxuocr u KJleTOK (naTHH, 1981; Xpucrodiopoaa,
1989 ).
4 aCTb MeTaJlJlOB uaxonurscs B pacreuuax B HOHHOM
COCTOfl HHH, He 6yny4H CBfl3aHHOH C BHYTpHKJleT04Hb l MH coen n­
HeHHflMH, a npy r aa 4aCTb oo pasyer c paBHHTeJl bHOYCTOH4HBbie
KOMnJleKCHble coenuueu aa C 6eJlKa MH, nopepHpHHaMH, epocepa ­
TaMH, XHHOHaMH H JlHnHnaMH, xcr opue Y4aCTBYlOT B 06 MeHHbix
n po ueccax (Baxapoea, YneJlbHOBa, 1977). OnHH H re IKe Me­
TaJlJlbl MOryT 06pa30BbiBa Tb KOMnJleKCbl C 6eJl KaMH (Fe, Z n , C r,
Mo), epJlaBHHaMH (Fe, Mo, Mn), nopep HpHHaMH( Fe, N i , Ti , Cu ,
M n ) (60H4eHKo, YneJlbHafl , 1986). 6 e3 Y4aCTH51 pflna nepe4HC­
JleHHblX MeTaJlJlOBHeB03MOIKHOnpenCTaBHTb epepMeHTaTHBHbie
npoueCCbl , npOHcxonfl Ul He B BOnOpOCJlflX. BMeCTe C TeM 0 epH ­
3HOJlOr H4eCKOH 3Ha4HMOCTH HeKOTopbl X MeTaJlJlOB, BCTpe4alO ­
UlHXCH B n pOMblCJlOBblX BOnOpOCJlHX B 60JlbW HX KOH ue HTpaUH­
fiX (Sr, Cd , H g , Pb, Au, As), H3BeCTHO04eHb MaJlO. n pOaHaJlH-
3HpOB<JB aKKyMyJlfl UHIO BonopOCJJfl MH ur u poxor o cnexr pa T51 lKe ­
JlblX MeTaJlJlOB, VI . B . Tpornm (1992) npuui en K 3aKJlI04e HHIO,
4TO B OTHoweHHH scex uccn enyea u x MeTaJlJlOB pacnpocrpaua­
eTCH neHCTBHe nonucaxapunuo ro CBfl3blBaHH fI , B OTJlH4He OT
6eJl KOBOrO, aKTHBHOCTb xo roporo OTMe4eHa n pa HaKOnJleHHH
Cu, pexce Cd, M n , N i, Zn. Y MaKpoBOnOpOCJleH rt po aanser ca
cnoc06HOCTb perynupoaars conepsca uue MeTaJlJlOB, HMelOUlHX
ep H3HOJlDrH4e CKHe epyHKUHH ( Tponuu, 1992). H a psne BHnOB
6blJla no xaaaua B03 MOIKHOCTb nasce y MepTBbl X BOnOpOCJleH
06MeHHBaTbcfI HeKOTopblMH 3J1 eMeHTaMH C aono a, 4TO rOBo pHT
o HaJlH4HH KaK 6HOJlOrH4 eCKHx, TaK H epH3 HKO-xHM H4ecKHx
MexaHH3MOB KOH ueHTp HpOBaHHfI - 6HOaKKYMyJlflUHoHHoro H 6 HO­
copounouuor o yCBoe HHfI MeTaJlJlOB (Vl BaHoB H np., 1979; PbIH­
nHHa, Poxcaucxaa, 1975; Ka MHeB, 1989) . M eTaJlJlOycToH4H'
BOCTb H MeTaJlJlOeMKOCTb JlaMHHapHeB blX H epyKyCOBblX Bono ­
pOCJleH, orpaxcaio ura a B 60Jl bWHHCTBe CJlY4ae B conepsca uae
3J1eMeHTOB B MOpCKOH BOne, cs aaaaa . nO- BHnHMoMy, C HaJlH4H­
eM B HHX ansrunoaux KHCJlOT, JlOKaJlH30Ba HHbiX B KJleT04 HbiX
CTeHKax H MeIKKJleT04HOM n pOCTpaHCTBe. Ansr unoeue KHCJl O­
Tbl riypux BonopOCJJ eH - nOJlHMepbl d -Ma HHypoHOBOH H l-ry­
JlypOHOBOH KHCJJOT ( Haug et aI., 1967). Il pn 3TOM d-Ma HHypo ­
uosaa KHCJlOTa uaxonurcs B MeIKKJleT04HOH CJlH3H HJlH B xn e­
T04HOH CTeHKe MOJlOn bl X TKaHeH, l- ryJly poHoBaH JlOKaJlH30BaHa
B CTeHKax KJleTOK (Preston, 1962). Ilpennona raercs , 'ITO ryJlY­
POHOBble KHCJI OTbl 06pa3ylOT uepa craopnaue B BOne aJlbr HH<J Tbl
TfllKeJl blX MeTaJlJlOB (Preston, 1962; Xpucrodiopoea. 1989) , au­
nOJlHfI fi oapsepuyio epyHKUHIO Ha nYTH n pOHHKHOBeHH5I MeTaJl­
JlOBB KJleTKY HonHOBpeMeHHOfl BJlflflCb npH4HHoH tlJIHTeJlbHOCTH
nepuona nonyauseneuua 6HOJlOr H4eCKH CBfl3<1HHbiX MeTaJlJlOB,
KOTOp blH COCTaBJl5IeT B uexor o pux CJlY4aflX 100 -1 80 n HeH
(Gut k necht , 1965; B ry an , 1969) . Conepscaaue MeTaJlJlOB 3<1 ­
BHCHT OT B03paCTa TKaHeH BOnOpOCJlH H r ex yYaCTKOB, xoropue
HCnOJlb3YIOTCfI nJlfl aua naaa (Eide et aI., 1980; 6 y pn HH H np.,
1987; Cullinana, Whelan, 1987). Pesynsraru HccJJenoBaHH H
nOKa3aJlH, 4TO B epy Ky COBbl X BOnOpOCJlflX conepxca uue Fe , Zn,
M n, Cu 3Ha4HTeJlbHO au uie y crapux pacTeH HH, 4eM y MOJlO­
nux. Kpove roro, y JlaMHHapHeBbix sonopocnea H3 ry6 Bapeu ­
uesa MOpfi 6b lJl H 06HapYIKeHbi cavue BblCOKHe KOHueHTpaUHH
MeTaJlJlOB B p usounax, CTBOJl HKaX (crapsrx 4aCTfiX paCTeHHfI) H
ca vue HH3Kli e B 4aCTfi X nn acruuu. BonopOCJJ H 5lBJl 5I­
IOTCfI r er eporeua u v n opra HH3MaMH, H n0 3TOMY conepscauue
MeTaJlJlOBnaxce y onaoro anna, ooarao uiero B paauu x MecTax,
CHJlbHO sapsupyer. He06bl4 aHHo aucox aa KOHueHTpaUHfi TfI­
xcenux MeTaJlJlOB B sonopocnax n pH6 peIKHoii 30Hbl MOp51 MO­
»cer 6bITb 06b5lCHeHa KaK aarponoreuua a B03ll.eHCTBHeM, TaK
H CTOKOM pe x , nporexaiout ax sepea MHHepaJlH30BaHHbie 30Hbl.
Ha6J1lOneHH5I, nposenea asre B KOJl bcKOM 3aJl HBe Bape uuesa
MOpfl, n OKa3aJlH npfiMYIO 3aBHCHMOCTb conepscanun TfllKeJlblX
MeTaJlJlOB (Zn , Pb) B diyxycax OT 6J1 H30CTH K HCT04HHKY aa r­
pfl3 HeHHfI . Hopaexccxue HCCJlenOBaTeJl H n po senu H3Y4eHHe
conepxcaua» UHHKa, onaoro H3 HHn HKaTopHbl X 3J1eMeHTOB OC­
Boe HHOCTH no6 epeIKbfl 4eJlOBeKOM, y diyxy co nux BO,ll, 0 pOCJl eH
BO ep bopnax na 3ananHOM nocepexcse Hopser au. me HMeIOTC5I
MeCTOp0/Ktl eHH5I 3To ro MeTaJlJla. 6blJlO nOKa3aHo, 4TO B YCTbe
peK H Vl cTBHc (HopBerHfI ) COneplKaHHe UHHKa B epy Ky ce ny­
3bl p4aToM (Fucus ves ic u losus) nOCTHraeT 2200 MKr/r cyxoro
Beca, 4TO cpaBHHMO C coneplKa HHeM UHHKa B KYTOBOH, caMOH
3arpfl 3HeHHoH 30He Cep - epbOpll. a, KYna UHHK nOCTynaeT H3 nJl a­
BHJlbHOrO 3aBOna. A . 6 0H (Bohn, 1979) eUle no Ha4aJIa pa3p<l ­
60 TKH CBHHUOBO-UHHKOBoro MeCTOp0/Ktl eHHfI H3Y4HJI H3MeHe­
HHe ConeplKaHHfI Tfl lKeJlblX MeTaJlJlOB B Fucus vesicu losus Cyna­
-
- - - - - - --- - --- --
-----------------------3KOJIOrl15I­
JleHHeM OT san eraau a pY,/lHOr O rena ua IO)KHOM nocepexcse npo­
JlHB a C TpaCKOHa (KaH a,/lCKHI1 ApKTH4eCKHH a px u nena r ) . H a
pa CCTOllHHH 18 KM OT 6Jl H)KaHWeH pex u , npeuupyrouie n reppu­
TOpH IO MeCTOp 0)K)leHHll H ananaouieti B npOJlHB, conepxcaane
Zn - 27 MKr /r cyxoro aeuiecrsa , CXO,/lHOe C,/laHHbIMH Mil epy­
KyCOB OTKPblTbl X n06epe)KHH C HH3KHM ypoaaea HHnycTpHaJl b­
aoro npecca. Ilo Mepe npH6JlH)KeHHll K MeCTOp0)K)leHHIO KOH­
uenrpauas UHHKa B BO,/l0POCJlll X B03paCTaeT H ua paCCTOllHUH
0,1 KM OT p exa ,/lOCTHraeT 138 MKr/ r CYXOH MaCCbl. H. K. X pH ­
CTOepOPOBOH (1989 ) ua OCHOBe c ono craan euun c on epxcau aa
Tll)KeJlbi X MeTaJlJlOB B di yxy c ax ATJl aHTHKH H n aUHepHKH o n pe­
ne.neu ypoaeu s 3arpll 3HeHHOCTH npH6pe)KHbl X BO,/l OT,/leJl bHbIX
paaouoa cese puoro nonyuiapus H oxapaxrepn aoaauu peruo­
HaJl bHble epoH oBble H HMn aKTHble YCJlOBHll c pen u. Ilp oeeneu­
HblH eio aHaJlH3 ,/laHH bIX 0 CO,/l e p)Ka HHH UHHKa n03BOJlHJl cne ­
nart, 3a KJlI04eHHe, 4TO ua orxpurux MOpCKHX 6eperax C HH3 ­
KHM a ur po noren n u a npeCCOM dioao sue KOHueHTpaUHH sroro
MeT aJlJla nexcar B npenenax 20-40 MKr/ r CYXOH MaCCbl. ,ITJlll
nOJlY3aMKH YTbi X MopeH C oonee BblCOKI1M aurponoreuuua BJlI1­
llHl1 eM epOHOBblH yposens Z n nO,/lHI1MaeTCll L\O 50-70 MKr /r.
B HMnaKTH bl XYCJlOBHllX, B JlOKaJl bHbl X pauoaa x n06epe)KHH, n on
BJlI111HHeM MeL\HO-UHHKOBbI X HJlH CBHHUOBO-UHHKOBbI X npOH3 ­
BOLl CTB KOHueHTpaUHH 3JleMeHTa L\OCTHraIOT 1000-2500 MKr/r.
B 30H3X, HaXO,/lIl !UHXCll Me)KJlY epOHOBblMH H HMnaKTHbl MH y c­
JlOBHllMH, CO,/lep)K3 HHe Zn COCTaBJl ll eT HeCKOJlbK O COTe H MKr /r
CYXOH MaCCbl.
H36blTOK TSI>KeJ1bIX MeTaJlJlOB speneu He TOJlbKO 'IeJ10­
aexy, HO 11 BO,Ll,0POCJJSlM ...
He,/l3BHO a Me p HKaHCKHMI1 HCCJle,/lOBaTeJl51MH 6blJl3 BblflB ­
neua xerxaa 3a BHCHMOCTb Me)K,Ll,y ycneaaeaocr s :o , pa60T O­
c noc06HOCTblO WKOJlbHHKOB H CO,/lep)KaHHeM B HX o p r a unaa e
caanua . B 3KOJl OrH 4eCKH He 6JlaronOJlY4Hbi X paaouax y nere a
H36Jl IOL\aJl3Cb nOCTOllHH311 y CTaJlOCTb, Cpe,/lHHH 6 3JlJl ouesox
6bl Jl 3Ha4 HTeJl bHO HH)Ke n o cpaBH eHH IO C 3KOJlOrH4eCKH
6Jl arOnOJlY4HblMH pa HOHa MH . BKJl104HB B ruuue aof paUH OH
,/leT eH BO,/l0POCJlH, 6 HOJl Or H4eCKH a KTHBHbl e KOMn OHeHTbl H3
HHX B Ka4 eCTBe 3HTe p o co p 6eHTOB, yn anocs pe3KO CHH31iTb
conepscauue CBHHU3 H COOTBeTCTBeHHOnOBbl CHTb y cneaaeaocn,
WKOJlbHHKOB. MO)KeT 6blTb, H B P OCCHH pe3KO B0 3p aCTeT 4HC­
JlO n a ypearos Me)KJlYH ap0,/lHbI X npeMHH. n a H npOCTO YMHbl X
JlIO,/leH, eCJlH npOBeCTI1 B WKOJl3X, HHcTHTyTax aHTH CBHHUOBble
MepOnpl151TH51?
Y Ka)K)lOr O BH,/la BOL\OpOCJleH T3K)Ke cyuiecrsyer uexoropsra
npenen, nocne xoroporo nocrynnsume B oprauusn MeTaJlJlbl yr­
HeTalOT )KH3He,/le51TeJl bHOCTb BO,/l0POCJl H, uapyuiaror epH3HOJlOr H­
4eCKHe npoueccu, B TOM 4HCJle MexaHH3Mbi pe ryn uposa uua CO­
,/lep)KaHH51 MeTaJlJlOB . B ,/laJlbHeHWeM yace npOHCXO,/lHT ueperyna­
py euoe nocrynneaae MeT3JlJlOB B Opr aHI13M BO,/l0POCJlH, xoropoe
MO)KeT CT3Tb npH4HHOH ee rH6eJlH (6YP,/lHH H np., 1990). 6 0Jl b­
w oe BJlH51HHe OKa3bIBa IOT T51 )KeJl bl e MeTaJlJlbl Ha crpyxrypy HepyH­
KUHIOXJlopOnJl aCTOB( T ho mos et aI. , 1980 ) - rJlaBHOH s ue prer a­
4e CKOH crpykrypu KJleTKH BO,/l 0pOCJleH. Iloapeacaenae MeM6paH
XJlopOnJlaCTOB npHBO,/lHTK paapyur eiuuo nHrMeHT-JlHnOnpOTeH,/l­
noro KOMnJl eKCa , BblUBeTaHHIO xnopodiann a. Ilon B03,/leHcTBHeM
noasuuennux KOHueHTp3uHH Cu CHH)KaJlOCb con ep xca a ae
XJlOPOepHJlJl OB H KapOTHHOH,/lOB Ha 30-50 %(nOJl HlllYK, 1973).
E. 10. 30Jl OryXHHOH C KOJJJleraMH (1987; 1990) Ha ,/laJl bHeBOC­
T04H biX MaKpoepHTax nOKa33HO, 4TO nepBH4HbiM MexaHH3MOM Ha­
pyweHH51 epOTocHHTe33 npH BblCOKI1X KOHu eHTpaUH51X C u H C d
51BJlll eTC51 H3MeHeHHe epOTocHHTeTH4ecKoro 3Jle KTpOHHor o TpaH­
.
N
c nopr a , a BTOPH4 Hbi M - nepecrpoaxa B nHrMeHTHOM annapa­
r e. MeTaJI.T1bl , HaXOjJ,51111HeC51 B cpene, ,/le HCTBYIOT no-paauovy
ua BO,/l0 POCJl H H3 pa3JIH4Hbi X CHCTeM 3TH'l eCKHX rpynn. Bbl51C­
HHJlOCb, 4TO npu BblCOKHX xouueurpaua ax Pb B cpene (100­
1000 Mr/ Jl ) oypue BO,/l0 POCJlH )KllByT B,/lBOe n onsure xpacuux
( Zavo d n i k, 1977) . TOKc H4ecK HH 3epepeKT MeTaJlJl OB 3a BHCHT
OT BpeMe HH HX B03,/leHCTBH51 ua BO,/l0POCJlH. Hanpuaep, Cd B
xo uueurpauun 4,5 r /Jl o xaauaaer neran su o e ,/le HCTB He aa
L aminari a saccharina uepea 6 CyTOK, a n p u oo.n ee )lJlHT eJlbHO H
3Kcn 03HUHH neraru.nu oon ee HH3KHe KOHueHTpaUHH. Bono­
POCJlH cno coouu H 4aCTH4HO HeHTpaJl H30 Bbi BaTb TOKCH4e CKHe
CBOHCTBa MeTaJlJl OB H BbIBO,/lHTb HX H36blT04Ho e KOJlH4eCTBO.
YCTOH4HBOCTb K ,/leHCTBHIO T51)KeJlbIX MeT aJlJlOB MO)KeT 06b 51 C­
HllTbCll JlH60 Bbl COKOH MeTa6 0JlH4eCKOH a KTHBHOCTblO, ooecne ­
4HBalOllleH rpau cnopr B KJleTKY H H3 KJleTKH, JlH60 HaJlH4HeM
MeXaHI13MOB ,/leTOKCHKa UHH.
B opraaasve BO,/l 0 pOCJle H O,/lHOBpeMeHHO nporexaior pa3JlH4­
Hble npoueccu: nocrynneune MeTaJlJlOB, nponopuaouansuoe
KOHue HTpa UHH B sene, H auseneuue MeTaJlJlOB, x oro poe aos pac­
r aer npa nosuureaan KOHueHTpa UHH. K 0 3epepHuHeHT aaxonne­
HH51 MeTaJl OB B eCTeCTBeHHblX YCJlOBH51X or paxcae r paBHOBeCHe
Me)KJlY 3THMH npoueccaau. Ilpu BblCOKHX KOHu eHTpaUH51X Me ­
TaJlJlOB B acne Mbl Ha6Jl IO,/laeM BHa4aJle pesxoe yc xo pe u ue Bbl­
aen euan, 3a TeM, npu YXY,/lWeHHH epH3HOJlOrH4eCKoro COCT051HH51,
asmeneuue 3aM e,/lJllleTCll H npOHCXO,/lHT 6blCTpoe HaKOnJJeHH e
MeTaJlJlOB, npHBO,/l51111ee K rH6eJlH BO,/l0POCJlH. TOKcH4H oe ,/leH­
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H BCc-TaKH, MO.>KHO JlH HX CCTb?
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MexaHH3Mbi perynupoaaaaa MeTaJlJlOB SMOpCKHX
MaKpOSO.llOpOCJ1 HX II BecTH. Mry. Cep. 16. 1990. NQ 2.
C. 139 - 149.
2. Saxapoea JJ. H.. yo eJl.bli08a T. M. n OJlHBaJleHTHble MeTaJlJlbl B
npouecc H epOPMbl HX II YcnexH co­
BpeM6HOJl OrHH. 1977, T. 83, Bun. 2, C. 274- 286.
3. 3 oJl.o myx uli a E. 10., Faepu.ae-uco E. E. CSH3blBaH He MeJlH,
KaJlMItH, »ceneaa, UHHKa H MapraHua S 6eJlKaX BO)tHbIX MaKpoep HTOB II
<).l H3HOJI . paCTeHItH. J 990, T. 37, Bun. 4, C. 651-660,
4. Sono muxuno E. 10 .. Iaepunen xo E. E., 6YPouIi K. C
HOH OS UHH Ka It Me)J.H Ha epOTocHHTe3 H)tblxaHHe MOpCKHX MaKpOSOJlO­
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S.Heanoe B. L, Eeopoe B. H.. POJ/CGHcKafl JJ. /1. 06M eHH saxon­
JleHHe Zn Te3. JlOKJ1 . 3·r o Bcecoros . coaeui. no MO pCKOH
aJ1 br0J10 rJW-Ma KpoepHT06eHTocy. Kaea, 1979. C. 51 - 52. Kasocee A. H
Cr pyxrypa H epyHKUHH 6ypblX sonopocneii. M ., 1989. 200 c.
6, Ilamu« CA., Moposoe H. Il. M HKp03JleMeHTbi BMOpCKHXopra­
Hlt3MaX H3KOCHCTeMax. M.: Jl er. H nnui . npOM- CTb , 1981. 152 c.
7. n OJl.UU{yK P. A. 3 HJlOreHHbie pHTMbl norJ10THTeJlbHOii It Bbl)teJlIt­
TeJ1bHOH epYHKUItH sO)t0pOCJ1eH -lepu oro MOpS! Ka K rpaxrop
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HOCTIt 4epHoro It Cpennae u uoro MopeH, HCnOJlb30SaHH IO It oxpaue HX
pecypcos. Kne s, 1973. C. 149 - 151.
8. n OJl.UU{yK P. A. 0 cucreue )teTOKCHKa UHH MeJlH y Ulva ri gida I
we.a"eposbIX30HMHpOBoro oxeaaa. BJla.llHBOcTOK. 1982. T. 2.
C. 17- 22.
9. Puniuu«: ll.ll.. POJlCGHCKafl JJ. /1. POJ1b nonucaxapanoe 6YPOH
BOJlOPOCJ1 H Cyst oseira barbata B H3BJle4eHHH Maprall ua H3 MOpCKOH
BOJlbl II 1975. NQ 3. C. 65- 68.
10. Caenxo F. H. M eTaJ1J1 bl Jj ranoreuu BMOpCKHX oprauuaaax. M.:
Hayxa. 1992, 200 c.
I I . Tponun H. B. 3K0J1 0rH4eCKHe H6HOXHMWIeCKHe acnexr u axxy­
MYJ15t UItHaexoropax T5I)KeJ1 bIX MeTaJ1J1 0BMOPCKHMH
Asroperp . )tHC. " , KaH)t. 6H0J1 . aay« (03.00.18). M. 1992, 20c.
12. XpucmO¢Op08G H. K. H MOHHTOpHHr. Jl .: Hayxa.
1989. 192 c.
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V. 20. NQ 3, P. 167-170.
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OHH BOWJlH B MHHepaJlOrH4eCKHe y4e6HHKH scex CTpaH,
ny6J1HKyIDTC51 MHOr04HCJleHHbie CTaTbH, C60pHHKH H 1'.10­
norpadiuu, npOBO,A5lTC51 perynspnue WKOJ]bl no OHToreHHH
MHHepaJ]oB. B 1975 r . n. n. Ipuropseeua H A . r.>Ka­
6HHbiM onyonuxoeana B HOBOM, pacumpeuuoa H yrnyo­
JleHHOM napuanre 4aCTb ero nepaon MOHorpacjJHH «OH­
TOreHH5I MHHepaJlOB. VlH,nHBH,nbl » (M.: Hayxa, 340 c.). Ilon
penaxunea n. n. Ipuropseaa ony6J1HKoBaHa MOHorpacjJH51
B. VI. naBJlHWHHa, H. n. 10wKHHa, B. A. Ilonosa «OHTO­
reHH4eCKHH MeTO,n B MHHepaJlOrHH» (KHeB: Hayxosa nyM­
ka, 1988, 120 c.) .
AKTHBHO npononacas CBOH HCCJ]e,nOBaHH51 B 06J1aCTH OH­
ToreHHH MHHepaJlOB, Zl. n . Ipuropsea B nocnenaee BpeM51
ocorioe BHHMaHHe ynenser ee B3aHMOCB513H C eCTeCTBeH­
HO-HCTopH4eCKHM MeTo,nOM H npHKJla,nHbIMH np06J1eMaMH
(nOHCKOBbIMH, TeXHOJlOrH4eCKHMH H np.), BHenpeHHIO OH­
ToreHH4eCKHX H)l.eH B npenonanaaae MllHepaJlOrHH.
¢YH.AaMeHTaJlbHOe 3Ha4eHHe HMeeT H pa3pa60TaHHa51
n . n. Iparopsesu» B 60-x rr. KOHuenUH5I «oncmumquuu
stunepanoe, 06be,AHH5IlOll.I,a51 06 I1XCOCTa­
Be, crpyxrype H MOpcjJOJlOrHH. Oc060e BHI1MaHl1e B Heij
oripauraerca, C onHOH CTOpOHbl, Ha 3HalleHHe Hen OCTaTOll­
HO Y4HTblBaBweik51 3JleKTpOHHOH crpyxrypu, a Cnpyron ­
ua crpoeuue MHHepaJlbHblX HHnHBH,nOB KaK pea.n.aux
cjJH3H4eCKHX TeJ] . KOHuenUH51 6blJla ony6J]HKOBaHa B Blue
Bbl,nep>KaBWeii HeCKOJlbKO pyCCKHX H aHrJ]0513bI4HbIX 11 3­
,naHHH KHHrH «OCHOBbl KOHCTHTyUHI1 ( 1962,
1964, 1966). Iloaanee ny6JlHKyIOTC51 «pynaue CTaTbH, pas­
BHBalOll.I,He 3TO yYeHHe. 3H34HTeJ]bHa51 113 HHX ­
« P aCW Hpe HHo e nOH51THe 0 KOHCTHTYUHH MHHepaJ]OB»
(B KH.: KpHCTaJI,1I0rpacjJlI51 H MHHepaJ]OrH51. Jl. 1972.
C. 28-39), B xoropou n. n. Iparopsee paccaarpasaer
KOHCTlnYUHID MHHepaJ]OB B e,nHHCTBe HX 3JleKTpOHHOH H
3TOMHOH CTpyKTyp, MaKpocTpyKTypbl, T. e. H aHaTOMHH H
MopcjJOJlOrHH. VIM oc06eHHO neransuo pa3pa6aTbIB3eTC5I
aH aTOMH4eCKHH yposens: CcjJOpMyJ]HpOBaHbl caao nOH5I­
THe 06 anamouuu scunepanoe, OCHOBHble 33KOHbi aHa­
TOMHH, paspaooraaa MeTo,nOJ]orH51 aHaTOMH4eCKHX HCCJle·
,noBaHHH.
Hacrynneune KOCMH4ecKoH apu, Ha4aBWeHC51 BbIXO,nOM
4eJlOBeKa B KOCMOC, pesxo YCHJlHJlO HHTepec K HCCJ]e,nOBa­
HHIO KOCMH4eCKoro aeuiecraa, He TOJlbKO MeTeopHTHoro,
HO H y>Ke ,nOCTaBJ]51eMoro Ha 3eMJ]1O KOCMH4eCKHMH anna­
paT3MH. n. n. lparopsea CYBJ]e4eHHeM paspaoarusaer 3TO
HOBoe nanpaanenue. Ha3BaB ero KOCMUlleCIWU suinepa­
Il02ueU. B 1962 r. OH ony6J1HKoBaJl B « B ecTHHKe Axaae­
MHH HayK CCCP» npcrpawauyio CTaTblD « KocMH4eCKa51
MHHepaJlOrH51 - HOBa51 BeTBb HayKH » . C03,naHHeM KOCMH­
4eCKOH MHHepaJlOrHH 03HaMeHOBaJlHCb MHorOJ]eTHHe
MHHepaJ]OrH4eCKHe HCCJ]e,nOBaHHHn . n . Ipuropseeua KOC­
MH4eCKoro, B 4aCTHOCTH MeTeopHTHoro, seuiecraa Hero pa­
60Ta B Ka4eCTBe npencenarens nO,nrOTOBHTeJlbHOrO KOMH­
rera no MeTeopHTaM Me>K,AyHapo,nHOH MHHepaJlOrH4eCKOH
aCCOUHaUHH (coyspenarenev H nnue-npeaunenro» KOTO­
POH OH 6blJl B 1958 r .) H MHorOJJeTHero rrpencenarens co­
3,na HHo H no ero HHHUHaTHBe KOMHCCHH no KOCMH4eCKOH MH­
aepanoruu MMA.
Kpyr HaY4HbiX HHTepeCOB n. n. Iparopseaa He orpa­
HH4HBaeTC51 TOJlbKO Ha3BaHHblMH ssnue HOBblMH uanpaa­
JleHH5IMH. 60JlbWOH HHTepec scerna Bbl3blBaJlH H npo­
,nOJl>KaIDT Bbl3blBaTb ero paooru no npHKJla,nHOH MHHepa­
JlOrHH, HCTOprHl MHHepaJlOrHH, My3eHHoMy,neJ]y, 0 POJIH
MHHepaJ]OB B HCTOpHH H KyJ]bType 4eJ]OBe4eCTBa, no Me­
To,n0J]orH4eCKHM np06J]eMaM MHHepaJ]orHH H np. WHpO­
KOH nonyJ]51pHOCTblO nOJlb3yeTC51 HanHCaHHa51 COBMeCTHO
C VI . VI . WacjJpaHOBCKHM KHHra «Bunaioumecs pyccxne
MHHepaJlOrH» (M.; Jl . : AH CCCP, 1940,273 c.), conep­
xcauia» 04epKH 0 >KH3HH H,ne51TeJlbHOCTH Bbl,nalDll.I,HXC51 MH­
aepanoroa POCCHH . npaKTH4ecKH BceM KpynHblM MHHe­
panorav MHpa nOCB5Ill.I,eHbl ero onyonaxoeannue B paa­
Hble ronu CTaTbH H 3aMeTKH, npH4eM HaH60J]ee 51pKHe H3
HHX paCCKa3bIBalOT 0 BeJlHKHX cOBpeMeHHHKax n . n . Ipa­
ropseaa: B. VI. Bepaaacxov, A. K. Bonnupese. H. B. 6e­
JlOBe, r. r. JleMMJleHHe, C. C. CMHpHoBe, VI. VI. Illarppa­
HOBCKOM H MHorHX npyrnx.
I
Ba>KHeHWHM neJlOM )1. n . Ipnropseea scerna 6blJlO H
OCTaeTCH npenoaananae MHHepaJlOrHH, K KOTOpOMy OH OT­
HOCHTCH TBOp4eCKH, CJII060Bbi O H 6eCnOKOHCTBOM 0 pe­
3YJlbTaTaX. OH HeO.n.HOKpaTHO aucrynan B neuaru H Ha
COBelllaHHHX CO CBOHMH MbICJI51MH HnpenCTaBJIeHHHMH 0 pa­
UHOHaJlH3aUHH nenarornsecxoro npouecca, 0 CTpOrOM OT­
cope npennaraeaoa cryneHTaM HHepOpMaUHH. C 1990 r. OH
naxan ny6J1HKoBaTb B rJlaBH OM MHHepaJlOrH4eCKOM xcyp­
aane POCCHH - «3anHcKa x Bcepoccuacxoro MHHepaJlOrH­
xecxoro 06111ecTBa» - He60JlbWHe, HO HpKHe 04epKH «1'13
onura npenonaaauas MHHepaJl OrHH ». KaK xanna >KHBHUbl,
OHH Me)J)leHHO, HO BeCOMO HanOJlHHJlH xonuerrryansusni
cocyn, Hxorna HX 4HCJlOnOCTHrJlO nOJIYTopa neCHTKOB, OKa3a­
JlOCb, 'ITO OHH HenpOH3BOJlbHO CJl O>KHJlHCb Bonpeneneuuyio
HneOJlOrH4eCKYlO H MeTO.n.OJlOrH4eCKY IO cucr ev y H npen­
CTaBJlHIOT CaMOCT051TeJlbHYIO MeTO.n.H4eCKYIO paoory,
HMelOlllYlO K TOMy >Ke H cepsesnoe uay-ruoe 3Ha4eHHe.
Mbl C06paJlH HX HH3naJlH Bsane KHH>KKH «PaCCY)K)l.eHH51 0
MHHepaJlOrHH» (CbIKTbIBKap: Ieonpnnr, 1998), npenuaa­
Ha4eHHOH B nepayio osepens )J)I51 CTyneHToB H npenona­
aarenea By30B, HO aecsva nOJle3HOH H )J)IH scex cneuna­
JlHCTOB, nporpeccaonansao paoorarouiax C MHHepaJlaMH .
KHH>KKa MrHOBeHHO paaouinacs, nonyxana BOCTOp>KeHHble
OT3bIBbl, a Ha cseaae Bcepoccuacxoro MHHepaJlOrH4eCKO­
ro 06111eCTBa B 1999 r. OHa ouna OTMe4eHa MenaJlblO BMO.
)leHTeJlbHOcTb)l. n . Ibaropsesa KaK ysenoro H nenaro­
ra nOJlY4HJla MHpoBoe npH3HaHHe, 0 4eM CBH)l.eTeJlbCTByeT
H36paHHe ero n04eTHblM 4J1eHOM POCCHHCKOH aKa.n.eMHH
eCTeCTBeHHblX nayx, Bcecoiosnoro MHHepaJlOrH4eCKOro
06111eCTBa, MHHepaJlOrH4eCKHx 06111ecTB I1H)l.HH, 60JlrapHH,
ABCTpHH, nOJlbWH, YKpaHHbl, ¢paHUHH, .n.eHCTBHTeJlbHbIM
4J1eHOM MHHepaJlOrH4eCKoro 06111eCTBa AMepHKH, Heveu­
COEbITI15I -
xoro, I1TaJlbHHcKoro MHHepaJlOrH4eCKHx 06111ecTB, WBeH­
uapcxoro MHHepaJlOrH4eCKOro H nerporpadiauecxoro
06111ecTBa, Me>K,ll,yHapOnHoH aCCOUHaUHH nJlaHeTOJlOrOB H
MHorHX npyrux HaY'lHblx 06111ecTB.
)l. n . Iparopeesy npucsoeuo 3BaHHe «n 04eTHb1H pas­
Ben4HK nenp> H ueJlblH psn npyrux n04eTHbiX 3BaHHH, er o
Tpy.n.bl OTMe4eHbi opneuca, MHOr04HCJleHHblMH MenaJlHMH,
nHnJlOMaMH, BTOM 4HCJle HMe>K,ll,yHaponHbIMH, KaK, nanpa­
Mep, MenaJlblO 3MaHy3J1H 60p>KHUKOrO OT Kapnosa YHHBep­
CHTeTa. Cpena rocynapcrnennux aarpan ocoooe n04TeHHe
Bbl3bIBalOT MenaJlH, nocasuieaaue nooene B BeJlHKOH OTe­
4eCTBeHHOH BOHHe HJleaaurpany, CBHneTeJlbCTBYlOlllHe 0
My>KeCTBe H repcusve B TH>KeJJble rOnHHbl POCCHH.
)l. n . Ipnropsea He TOJlbKO OKa3aJl saaernoe BJlHHHHe
aa pa3BHTHe MHHepaJlOrH4eCKOH reopua H npaKTHKH B HO­
BblX HanpaBJleHH51X, HO Hcurpan 60JlbWYlO POJlb BepOpMH­
pOBaHHH H.n.eHTeJlbHOCTH MHHepaJlOrH4eCKHX KOJlJleKTHBOB
B pa3J1H4Hb1X roponax COBeTCKoro COlO3a H sa py6e>KOM.
OH noousan, nasepuoe, BO scex yHHBepcHTeTCKHX H axa­
neMH4eCKHX roponax crpanu , 4HTaJl HeH3MeHHO HHTepec­
Hbl e Hyanexarem.uue JleKUHH, oecenosan CMHuepanorava,
pacxpuaas HOBbie nepcnexrnau HaweH HayKH. CBepMOBCK,
MHacc, TOMCK, 5IKYTCK, AJJMa-ATa, TawKeHT, JIbBOB, KHeB,
KpHBOH Por, HOB04epKaCCK, Anararu, CbIKTbIBKap, He
rosopa yxce 0 Jleuunrpane H MOCKBe - 3TO JlHWb HeKOTO­
pue H3 ropoaoa, CTaBWHX uenrpava pa3BHTHH rpnropses­
CKHX OHToreHH4eCKHX HneH. Ero sxnan B C03naHHe H non­
.n.ep>KKY pernonansuux MHHepaJlOrH4eCKHx WKOJI neouenaa.
Ilon BJlHHHHeM )l. n. Iparopseea, npu ero .n.06pOM ysac ­
THH , nonnepaoce epOpMHpOBaJlHCb HaY4Hbie cy.n.b6bl MHOfHX
ysenux, neCHTKH H3BeCTHbiX MHHepaJlOrOB naauaaior ero
CBOHM Y4HTeJleM, HaCTaBHHKOM.
OCHOBHbIE ,Ll,ATbI )KYI3HYI YI ,Ll,E5ITEJ1bHOCTYI
nO'l.emHOZO «nena MUHepaJlOZU'l.eclCozo o6U4ecm8a
npodieccopa Canxm-Ilemeptiqpecsoeo ZOpHOZO uncmumqma
)l.MHTpHSI naBJIOBHlfa rPHrOPbEBA
)lMHTpHH naBJlOBH'I Iparopsea PO.n.HJlCH 29 OKT516p51
1909 r. B Ilepau.
1929-1934 rr. Y4HJlC51 B JleHHHrpancKoM ropuov HHCTH­
ryre, OKOH4HJI HHCTHTyT co 3BaHHeM HH>KeHepa-reoJIora.
1934r. AccHcTeHT na Kaepenpe MHHepaJIOrHH BJleaunrpan­
CKOM ropuov HHcTHTYTe. Y136paH 4JIeHOM Bcecoioanoro MH­
HepaJIOrH4eCKoro 06lllccTna.
1934-1935 rr, OpraHH30ll aJI npn Kacjlcnpe MHHepaJlOrHH
Jlenxnrpancxoro ropnoro HHCTHTyTa Jla60paTopHIO sxcnepu­
MeHTaJlbHOH MHHepaJIOrHH H neTpOJlOrHH, HCCJIe.n.OBaHHH
KOTOpOi'! nOJIy4HJIH MC)K)l.yHapo.n.HylO It3nCCTHOCTb.
1935-1945 rr. YilCHblH cexperaps MHHepaJIOrH4CCKor o
ocuiecraa.
1936 r. no ora uny I(OMIICCHII B COCTanc npotpeccopos
A. K. Bonnu peaa, O. M. Anuieneca H C. C. CMHpHOBa aa­
r paxoieu n04CTH biMOT3b1BOM Bcepoccnacxoro MHHCpaJI OrH­
seckoro 06111eCTBa «3a aunaioumec s pa60TbI no H3Y'lCHHIO
MamC3fIaJlbIl0->KeJIe3HCTbIX CJIIOn. It BOC06CHHOCTH sa 3aMC­
!
4aTeJlbHbiC onsrru no HX IIcKYccTBeHHoMy nOJIYllcHHIO, npa­
"..
.
BCnWHe K npOMblWJI eHHoMy HCnOJlb30BaHHIO nonysenuor o
nponyxra».
1937 r, OpraHH30BaJl BrOpHOM My3ee OTn.CJI HCKYCCTBCH­
HblX MHHCpaJlOB. nOJIY4HJI y4eHylO CTcnCHb KaHAMaTa reono­
ro- MHHCpaJIOrH4CCKHXHayK. Y136paH 4JIeHOMJlenunrpaacxoro
061llCCTBa CCTeCTBOHCll blTaTCJlei'!.
1940 r. n OJIy4HJI ysenoe aaauue )10UCHTa. no nOCTaHOB­
nenmo Ilpesanayaa AKa)1CMHH nayx CCCP H 1(0MHTeTa no
)1eJIaM sucurea WKOJI bi npH CHK CCCP nOJlYIIHJI Iocyaap­
cTBeHHylO )10KTOpaHTcKYIO CTHneH)1ltlO.
1940-1956 r. 3aMeCTlITeJI b penaxr opa >KYpHaJia «3anHc­
KH Bcecoioaaoro MHHepaJlOrH4eCKOro oouiecr aa».
1941-1942 r r . HCnOJlHHJl 06H3aUUOCTH saaenyio ui er o
KaepC.llpOH MllllepaJlOrHH Jl eunnrpancxor o ropuoro fIll CTH­
ryTa .
1942 r. 3alllHTHJl B HHCTHryTe reOJl Or H4eCKHX aayx
AKan.CMHH uayx CCCP .llOKTOpCKYIO ,llHCCCpraUHIO aa reay;
«CHIITe3 H HCCJleAOBaHHH rJlaBHeHWHX MHHCpaJlOB-CHJlH­
KaTOB CJlery411MH KOMnOHeHTaMH». onno-
N
!!
HeHTbI: aKaJl. B . A. Oripyxes, a xan, A. E. <1>epcMaH H
aKaJl.11.. C. 5eJ1f1HKHH.
1942-1945 1'1'. CTapwHI'\ HaytlHbIH COTPYJlHHK, 3aBeJlYIO­
lllHH J1a60paTopHcH 3KcnepHMeHTaJ1bHoi\ MHHepaJ10rHH
Hucruryra reOJIOrHlJeCKHX uay« AKaAeMHH nayx CCCP.
1944 -19451'1'. OpraHI130I3aJ1 B fopHO-re0J10rlllJCCKOM HH­
cTHTyTe YpaJ1bCKOrO ¢HJIHaJla AK3JlCMHH uayx CCCP Jla60­
paropmo 3KcnepHMeHTaJ1bHoi\ MHHepaJ10rHH H 3aBeJlOBaJ1 eIO.
1946 r. Yl36pau nporpeccopoa. 3aBeJlYIOlllHM Ka¢cJlpoi\ MH­
nepanorua J1eHHHrpaJlCKOrO ropuoro HHCTHTYTa.
1947 r. BblCTynHJ1 ua I06HJ1ei'fHoi\ ceCCHH Bcecorosnoro
MHHepaJ10rHlJeCKOrO 06111ecTBa C JlOKJ1aJlOM «0 reuesnce
MHUepaJ10B», B KOTOpOM snepeue 6blJ10 I3blCKa3aHO npencraa­
J1eHHe 06 OHToreHHH MHHepaJloB.
1947-1951 1'1'. 3aBeJlYlolllHH OTJleJ10M MHHCpaJ10rHH B
)KypHaJ1e «Ilpnpona».
1953-19621'1'. Pa60TaJ1 B fOpHOM My3ee HaJl3KCn03IfUH­
eH OHToreHHH MllflepaJlOB.
1956 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM COBcTa Bcecoiosnoro MHUepaJ10­
rHlJeCKOrO 06111ecTBa. Ilpencenare.u, KOMHCCHH no HOBbIM
MHHepaJ1aM Bcecoroauoro MHHepaJ10rHlJeCKoro 06111ecTBa.
1957 r. LIJ1eH Oprxoaurera MC)K)lyHapOJllIOH MHHepa­
J10rHlJeCKoi\ aCCOUHaUHH, H36paHHbli\ na c06paHHH MHHe­
panoros B MOHpeaJ1e (Kanana),
1958 r. Bnue- npesuneur Me)K)lyHapOJlHoi'f MHHepaJIOrH­
'IecKoi\ aCCOUlfaUHH, H36palJllblH na YlJpCJlHTeJ1bHOM C'be3JlC
B MaJlpHJle (Hcnauua) ua 1958-1960 1'1'. Beuren B COCTaB
YlHTepHaUHOHa.rIbHOH KOMHCCHH no HOBblM MHHepaJ1aM KaK
npeJlCTaBHTCJ1b MHHepaJ10rHlJeCKOrO 06111ecTBa CCCP.
1959 r. Yl36paH HHoCTpaHHbIM 'lJ1eHOM YlHJlHHCKOro MH­
lIepaJ10rHlJeCKOrO 06111ecTl3a .
1960 r. Ilpencenarem, nO)lrOTOBHTeJ1bHOrO KOMHTeTa
no MeTeopHTaM Me)KJlYHapOJlIIOH MHHepaJ10rHlJeCKOH aCCOUH­
aUHH, H36paH na Konrpecce AccoUHaUHH B Koneurareue
(ll.aHHfl ).
1961 r. Ilpencenarens KOMHCCHH no KOCMHlJeCKOH MHHe­
paJ10rHH. Yl36paH na VII csesne AccoUHaUHH B BaWHHrTOHe
(CWA). Yl36paH lJJ1CHOM Ieorparpmeckoro 06111eCTl3a CCCP.
1964 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM MHHepaJ10rH
'leCKOro
06111ecTBa
BeJ1HK06pHTaHHH H YlpJ1aIlJlHI1. Yl36paH lJJleHOM COBeTa
Bcecoioauoro MHHepaJ10rH'leCKOro 06111ecTBa. Yl36paH HHO­
CTpaHHbIM lJJ1eHOM nOJ1bCKOrO re0J10rHlJeCKOrO 06111ecTBa.
1965 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM AMepHKallcKoro MHHepaJIOrHlJe­
cxoro 06111ecTBa. Yl36paH lJJleHOM <1>paHUy3cKoro ornuecrna
MHllepaJ10rHH H KpHCTaJ1J10rpa¢HH.
1966 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM Heveuxoro MHHepaJ10rHlJeCKOrO
06111ecTBa. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM l-lranssacxoro
cxoro 06111ecTBa.
1967 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM Heveuxoro 06111ecTBa re0J10rH­
'leCKHX nay«.
1968 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM ABCTpHHcKoro MIlHepaJ10rHlJCCKO­
1'0 06111ecTBa. Yl36paH Fellow-sneuox Aaepmcancxoro MH­
nepanora-reckoro 06111ecTBa.
1969 r. Yl36paH nOlJeTilbIM 'lJ1eHOM 50J1rapCKOro re0J10rH­
-recxoro 06111ecTBa. Yl36paH lJJleHOM nOJ1bCKOrOMHHepaJ10rH­
-iecxoro 06111ecTBa .
1970 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM MC)K,L1)'BapOJlHOH aCCOllHaUHH
nJlaneT0J10rHH. Flepeuaopau 'IJ1eHOM npeJlCCJlaTeJ1CM KOMHC­
CHH no KOCMH'leCKOii MHHepaJ10rHH MMA na IX cseaae Acco­
UHaUHH B 5lnouHH. Yl36p311 'lJ1eHOM Illaeauapcxoro MHHepa­
J10rHlJeCKOrO H nerporparpavecxoro 06111ecTB3.
1971 r. Yl36paH 1l0lJeTllhIM lJJ1enOM Bl:eC0103Horo MHltepa­
J10rHlJeCKoro 06111ecTBa.
1972 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eHOM BCCcoI03Horo aCTpOHOMO-reOJle­
3H'IeCKoro oourecrsa. npa)KCKHH KapJ10B yaasepctrrer IIpH­
CYJlHJ1 Me)KJlyuapOJlHylo narpaay - MeJlaJIL HMellH 3MaHy3J1f1
50p)KHLlKoro. Yl36paH lJJ1ellOM Haysaoro COBeTa <1>paHUy3l:­
xoro 06111cCTBa MHHepaJ10rHH Il KpHCT3J1J10rpa¢HH.
1973 r. nOJlYlJHJ1 « Cepc6 pHHbl H suax Kapnosa YUHBep­
CHTCTa ».
1974 r. Ilepeusopau npencenarenea KOMHCCHH no KOCMH­
lJCCKOH MHHepaJIOrHH MMA aa X CbC3Jle AccoUHaUHH B <1>Pf.
1976 r. Yl36paH nOlJeTllblM lJJ1eHOM AHCTpHHCKOro MHllepa­
JlOrHlJCCKOro 06111ecTBa.
1978 r. Flepeuaopan npencenarenea KOMHCCHH no KOC­
MH'ICCKOH MHHCpaJ10rHH MMA na XI Cbe3JlC AccoUHaUHH
B CCCP'
1979 r. Harpaxoicu Floueruoa rparsorof Bcecoioaaoro
MHllepaJ10rHlJeCKOrO 06111ecTBa. Yl36pall 1l0lJeTHbIM 'lJ1eUOM
nOJ1bCKOrO MHllepaJ10rHlJeCKOrO ooiuecrea. YTBep)KJleH lJJle­
HOM KOMHTeTa no MeTeopHTaM AKaJleMHH aayx CCCP' Yl36paH
3KCTpaOpJlHHapUbiM lJJ1eHOM Ilonscxoro re0J10rHlJeCKOrO 06­
iuecrsa.
1985 r. Bunan lJ.HllJ10M CCCP aa OTKpblTHe NQ 270 «Baxo­
novepaocrt, rtpocrpancraeuno-npeaenuoro H3MeHelIHH MOp­
¢0J10rHH MHllepaJ1bHblX HHJlHBHJlOB B npoueccax npuponuoro
KpHCTaJ1J1006pa30BaHHfl » . BblJlaH JlHIlJIOM 50J1rapHH ua
OTKpbITHe NQ 4 «Saxonoa epaocn, B KpHCTaJ10MOP¢0J10)KHa­
ra 3BOJlIOUHfl na MHHepaJ1HTe npn MHHepaJ1006pa3yBalllHTe
npouecn-opori ». Yl36paH nO'leTHbIM lJJleHOM YKpaHHcKoro
MHUepaJ10rH'leCKOro 06111el:TBa.
1986 r. Yl36paH nOlJeTHblM 'lJ1eHOM <1>paHuy3cKoro 06LUC­
CTBa MHHepaJ10rHH H KpHCTaJ1J10rpa¢HH.
1989 r. Ilpnceoeuo 3BaHHe «nOlJeTHbli\ pa3BeJllJHK aenp»
Mf CCCP'
1990 r. Yl36paH lJJ1eUOM -y'lpeJlHTeJJcM AK3JlCMHH eCTeCTBCH­
HblX nayx POCCHHCKOi-i <1>eJlepaUHH.
1992 r. Yl36paH nOlJeTBbIM lJJ1eHOM AKaJleMHH eCTeCTBeH­
HblX uayx (AEH).
1994 r. Flpucyxoieua Iocynapcrseuuas HaY'IHafl CTllnCH­
,TJ.H5f J.lJI5f BbIJlalOlllHXCH yseuux.
1997 r. nOBTOpHO npacyaoiena Iocynapcraeauas naysnaa
CTHneHJlHH J.lJIfi aunaiouu-xca yueuux.
1998 r, Ilpnceoeso 3BaHHe «Floser uu f pa60TBHK auciue­
1'0 llpo¢eCCHOHaJ1bHOrO 06pa30BaHHH POCCHH ». 3a 60JlbWOH
BKJ13Jl B JleJ10 pa3BHTHH Iopnoro HHcTHTyTa narpaxcreu 30J10­
TblM HarpYJlHblM 3HaKOM «Flepsoe aucuiee TeXHHlJeCKOe yseo­
ace aaseneane POCCHH» (NQ 59 30 .09 .98).
1999 r. Ilpucysoieaa MejlaJ1L Bcepoccuncxoro MHUepaJ10­
rHlJeCKOrO06111enBa aa MOHorpa¢HIO « PaccY)KJleHHH0 MHHe­
paJ10rliH» .
Harpaxcieu 0pJleHOM Ilosera.
HHKOJla" naBJIOBHlJ IOWKHH - aKaneMHK PAH, saue-npeaunetrr MHHepaJ10rW-lecKoro 06LUecTBa PAH
IOpH" 60pHCOBH'·1 MAPHH - npodieccop, saue-npeannenr MHHepaJ10rH4eCKoro o6LUecTBa PAH
COEbITI15I ­
B. E. nOnOB, A. r. Mapxeuxo
4-» MEJK)l;YHAPO)l;HAH KOHcDEPEHQIIH
no
POCCUfl, Cauxm-Ilemeptiupe, 7-10 UI01lJl 1999 zooa
Euie 25-30 ner TOMy Ha3a,U n pe,UCT3 Bn eHIHI 0 aynxauore n­
Ho -oca,U04HOM py,U0 06pa3 0B aHH H paCCMaTp HBanH Cb Ka K rnnor e­
TH4eCKHe H OCTaB anHCb npe,UMeTOM OCTp bl X ,llHCKy CCHH. C erO,LJ,HfI
>Ke aynxaaorenno-ocanosuoe npOHCXO>K,!leHHe MHorHX npoauui ­
n eHHO B3>KHbIX MeCTOp0 >K,!leHHH He susuaaer COMHeHHH . L!.a >Ke
o pHeHTHp OB04 Hble oueHKH nOK33bIBaIOT, 4TO B HHX CKOHueHTpH­
posan u rpo wanaue aanac u scenesuux pyn, Me,UH, canuua H UHH ­
«a, 30 Jl OTa, CaMOpO,LJ,HOH cepu , cjJ OCcjJOp HTOB H npyrax nonesuux
acxonaesiux. E,UBa JlH He peuiaiouiyio POJlb B npeapauieu an r n­
nor esu BYJlKa HOreHHo-oca,U0 4Horo 0 6 pa30Ba HH5I B CTp OHHy lO
TeopHIO, npaKTH4eCKHe CJle,UCTBHfI KOTOpOH HblHe WH pOKO npu­
Me H51IOTC5I n p H nporH03HpOBa HHH 11 n OHCKax MeCTOp 0>K,!l eHHH,
BHeCJlH HCCJle,UOBaHH5I r HraHTCKHX « nO,UBO,UHbIX naoopar opaa » ­
n OJle H coapeneaaoro PY,LJ,OOTJlO>KeHHfI Ha OKeaHH4eC KOM ,UHe, CBfI­
3aH Hbi X C nO,UBO,UHbIM ByJl KaH H3MOM. Vl 3j"1 eHHe rny 6HH MHpO­
aoro okeana, BblnOJlHeHHOe CneUHaJlHCTa MH POCCHH, CWA, B e­
JlHK0 6pHT3HH H, f epMaHHH, 51noHHH H 'up yrHx CTpaH, CTaJlO B03­
MO>KHbIM TOJlbKO BO BTOPOH nOJlOBHH e XX B.
HblHewHfI fI KOHcjJepeHUH fI 6 blJla nocasui eaa Mo,UeJl flM syrn ca­
Ho r eHHo - o ca ,U04HbIX pynoocpas yioumx CHCTe M . Il epexon OT aa­
KOnJleHHfI cjJa KTo B H HX CHCTe MaTH3a UHH K Mo,UeJlH pOBaHHIO npo­
u eCCOB H CHCTe M - CBH,UeTeJlbCTBO pa 3BHTHfI HayKH . VlM eHH o
r en ep s, xorna HaKOnJle H 60Jlb WOH 0 6beM 3 Mn HpH4ecKHx ,UaHHblx,
nos aanacs B03MO>KHOCTb pa 3pa60TKH ,UOCTa T0 4HO nonuux MO­
,LJ,eJle H, xoropue He TOJlbKO oT0 6 pa>KalOT M0 6 HJlH3aUHIO pynuoro
se uiecr sa , ero TpaHcno pT Hp OBKY H OTJlO>KeHI1e , HO H n03BOJlfl IOT
nporu oaapoaart, Me CTOp 0 >K,!l e HHfI nonesaux acxonaevsrx, B TOM
4HCJle HeTpa,LJ,HUHOHHbl e THnbl pya, xor opu e 6 y.uyT BOCTpe 6 0Ba­
Hbl 4eJlOB e'leCTBOM B XXI B.
011 ) peuuua I.IJla l:03HllH8 110 IIHIIUlfaTIIBC POCCIli'ICKOil
KUl lI l M C)I{,, 1\j' t1a pOlllloii nccOLlHaUIIII no reHC31l Y PYIUtblX
O'lH
I CT P >KlI,eull il (IAGOD) II r 0 1IICCIIII PAJI no nynxauoreauo-oca­
My PY1l0 opasoaamuo npn cnoucopcxon noaaepsoce MIIHII ­
cpcrsa npnponnux pecypcos Pel>, Poccujlcxoro cjJOHM cjJyH­
aMellHIJlbHbl X HCCJle,UOB3HIIH (P<t><t>VI) H 06w.eCTBa 3KO­
tlOMlI'lCCKHX reonorou. Oprauusauaonnue raroru B3f1J1H
na ce 651 BCEfEVI, BHVlVlOKeaHreOJlOn 151 II fC<t> « M II Hepa Jl » , B
nOMew.eHH51X KOTOpbl X npOXO,UHJl H nneuapuue 11 ceKUHOHHble aace­
,UaHH51. O,LJ,HO H3 3a ce,UaHHH, Ha KOTOpOM 0 6cy>K,UaJlc 51 o n biT npeno­
,UaBa HHfI recnoruu BynKaHoreHHO-OCa,U04HbIX MeCTOpO>K,!leHHH,
6 bl JlO n pOBe,UeHO B CaHKT-neTep6yprCKOM r ocy,Ua pCTBeHHOM y HH­
BepCHTeTe.
B KOHcjJe peHUHH npHH51JlH Y'laCT11e oxono 150 cn eUH anH CTOB
H3 POCCHH H 6JlH >KHerO aapyoexcsa, a Ta K>Ke H3 B eJlHK0 6pHTa­
HHH, fe pMaHHH, VlTaJlHH, Vlcn3HH H, Vl 3paHJl51, Knras, <t> HHJl51H­
,UHH H WBeUHH . Buno aacnyuiauo 4 7 ,UOKJla,UOB, H euie 4 6 ,UOKna­
,UOB 6 blJlO npe,UCTaBJl eHO Ha CTeH,Uax.
K OHcjJ epeHUHfI 6 bIJla nOCB5Iw.eHa 2 7 5 - Jl eTHIO P OCCHHCKOH
a Ka,UeMHH uay«, n0 3TOMY B ,UOKJla,UeL!.. B . PyH,UKBHCTa H B . E . no­
nos a na nneua puov 3a c e,UaHHH, or xpu s ure» KOHcjJep eHUH IO,
r OBOp HJlOCb 0 POJ1l-1 p OCCHHCKHX Y4 eHbi X B C0 3,UaHHH reopnn syn­
KaHoreHHO-OCa,U04Horo pyaor euesa H 0 Me»<.uyHapO,UHOM COTpy,U­
HH4 eCTBe B 3TOH 0 6JlaCTH. L!.eHcTBeHHocTb Me»<.uyHapo,UHbIX
KOHTaKTOB s auina or pasceuue B COCTa Be Opr KoMHTeTa KOHcjJe­
peHUHH, n 04eTHbl MH npencenarenswu «oroporo 6 blJlH H36paHbi
X.-ID. P eCJlep(<t>paH6eprcKa51 ropaas a Ka,UeMHfl) H H. C. CKpHn4 eH­
KO (HoB04epKac c KHH TeXHH'l eCKHH y HHBe pcH TeT), BHeCWHe OCHO­
aononaraiouurf BKJla,U B HCCJle,UOBaHH51 no ,Ua HHo H npooneue H co­
3,UaBWHe KOJlJleKTHBbl , aKTHBH O npononxcaiouure HCCJle,UOBaHHfI.
Cep H51 ,UOKJla,UOB, B KOTOpbl X 0 6 cY>K,!laJlHCb 0 6w.He np0 6Jl eMbi
MO,LJ,eJlH pOBaHH51 BYJl KaHOreHH o-oc a,U04HbI X CHCTe M, 6blJl a aac­
nyuraaa Ha 3ace,UaHH51 X BO BCEfEVI H BHVlVlOKeaHreonorl1f1 .
Cnexr p C0 0 6w.eHH H OXBa THn npaKTH4 e CKH see uanpaenenas .
B03HHKWHe B Mo,UeJlHpOBaHHH py,LJ,006pa30BaHHfI B n OCJle,UHHe
,Ue C51THJl eTH51. HaH60Jl ee npo,UBHHyTbiM aa ce rona 51 , nO>KaJlyH ,
l1RJI51eTCH TepMoJUHlaMlI ' lccKoe na npa uneuue, ocae uiea uoe B
Ol
Ol
Ol
:Y4aCTHHKH KOHljJepeHllHH H reOJlOrH4eCKoH 3KCKypCHH B CeBepHOM
nPHJllUlOlKbe. Cneaa uapaa o: Beus-LllearSanr (TaHBaHb). AHTOHHO
Appuoac (HcnaHHR), BHKTOp EBreHbeBH4nOnOB (POCCHR), ,lllKyH- 4HHb
Haur (TaHBaHb)
Partical of the Workshop in geological excursion at the Northern
Priladozhye: From left to right: Wen-Sheng Wang (Taiwan), Anlonio
Arribas (Spain), Vidor Popov (Russia), Yui-Chin Ch ang (Taiwan)
OCHOBOnOJlaralOweM noknane .LJ..B.rpH4YKa(MfY) «Tepa onnua­
MH4eCKaH MOneJlb KOHBeKTHBHoH runporepaansuof CHCTeMbl B
oxeanasecxos xope» H B npyrnx noxnanax no nOH npotineve
(.LJ.. B. Ipnvy«, E. E. Aopaxoaa, A. B. TyTy6aJlHH H np., Mry;
B. H. Illapanoa, A. C. )KMonHK, CO PAH; B. YI. et>enopoB,
B. E. Ilonos, O. r. WyJlHTHH, BCEfEYI, BHYlYlOKeaHreOJlOrHH).
Cpenn reOJlOrH4eCKHX MOneJleH npHBJleKJlH K ce6e BHHMaHHe
nonsrrxa YBH3aTb nJleHTTeKTOHH4eCKHe npoueccu C xonsena­
Ho06p230BaHHeM (YI. YI . A6paMoBH4, BCEfEYI), a TaK)Ke MO­
neJlH 3BOJllOUHH pynooripaayioumx CHCTeM (B. YI. CTapocTHH,
B. B. ABnoHHH, MfY; B.A.llpoKHH, et>.1l.5YCJ1aeB, YpO PAH;
T. H . CypHH, 4eJlH6HHCKreOJlKOM; YI. M. MHJleeBa, OM3,
r. Anexcaanpos ). PHn nOKJlanOB 6blJl nOCBHWeH neTaJlbHOMY
cjJaUHaJlbHoMy aHaJlH3Y cpenu pynoornoxceana (B. B. 3aHKoB,
B. B. MaCJleHHHKOB, YpO PAH; P XeppHHrTOH, MY3eH
eCTeCTBeHHOH HCTOpHH, Jlounou; H . Oanop, 5epJlHHCKHH HH­
CTHTyT reOJlOrHH. reocjJH3HKH H reonndiopaarux»: et>. YI. YlCJ1a­
MOB n np., TaWKeHTreOJlOrHSl). OC06blH mrrepec Bbl3BaJlO pac­
CMOTpeHHe POJlH opranuuecxoro eeuiecrsa B pyno06pa30BaHHH
(A. M . Axaenos, BCEfEYI; H . M. 4epHblweB, BOpOHe)KCKHH rY;
B. .LJ.. KOHKHH, r. B. Py4KHH, E. 5. COJlOBbeB, H. K. Kypoanoa,
n. r. Ky4epeBcKHH, UHYlfPYI; 51. 3. IOnoBH4, KOMH HU PAH;
B. H . Jlyxauma H np., YlO PAH). B HeCKOJlbKHX nOKJlanaX 06­
cY>KlI-aJlOCb npHMeHeHHe MeTonOB H30TonHoH reOXHMHH MH pac­
WHcjJpOBKH nOJlHreHeTH4eCKHX pynuux aCCOUHaLl,HH (A. B. -lyra­
ea, B. A. Jleeenes unp., YlfEM PAH; E. 10. PbIUK, P W. KPbIM­
CKHH, Ylff.LJ. PAH).
CepHIO 6J1eCTSlWHx nOKJIanOB npencraenna, KaK 06b14HO,
OKeaHOJlOrH H MopcKHe reonorn, H3JlO)KHB HOBeHWHe naHHble
no H3Y4eHHbiM B nOCJ1enHHe ronu cerweuraa cpenunno-oxeauu ­
4eCKHX xpecros H npyrHM pynHblM nOJlHM B MHpOBOM oxeaae
(10. A. Bornauoa, B. H. Jlyxaunur. B. 10. Pycaxos, A. n. JlHCH­
UbIH, A . 10. JleHH, E. r. fypBH4 H np., YlO PAH; B. 51. .LJ.aH4eH­
KO, A. B. PbI6HH, .LJ.BO PAH ; r. A. Hepxaurea, JI. YI. AHHKeeBa ,
C. YI. Annpeea, C. M. CynapuxoaHnp., BHYlYlOKeaHreOJlOrHSl).
KOHTHHeHTaJlbHblH pynoreaes 6blJl paCCMOTpeH na 4aCTHbiX npn­
Mepax (A. O. C060JleB, BCEfEYI; K. A. llweHH4Hb1H, C1l6fY;
B. B. H.LJ. . B. Poraseuxo. YKpaHHcKHH fYlMP; r. M . Iaepaneu­
KO, .LJ.BO PAH). .LJ.ocTaT04Ho MHoro BHHMaHHH 6blJlO yneneuo
BYJIKaHOreHHo-ocan04HbIM npoueccaa cjJOpMHpOBaHHH MeCTO­
p0>Kll-eHHH ypaua (r. A. WaTKoB, 3. M. llHHcKHH, r . 6. K04KHH,
A. B. MOJl4aHOB, B. B. llypHHr, BCErEYI; A. YI. Kpacucs.
E. 5. BbICOKOOCTpoBcKaH, BYipr- Pynreorpuauxa ).
Y4HTblBaH cneUHcjJHKY eynxauoreaao-ocanoxuoro pynooripa­
30BaHHH B nOKeM6pHH, 3TOH rewe 6blJl nOCBHweH OTneJlbHblH
ceMHHap . Yl3 nOKJIanOB, ua HeM npenCT2BJleHHbIX, OTMeTHM HO­
sue pa3p260TKH A. A. KpeMeHeLl,KOrO HH. A. IOwKo (YlMrp3),
B KOTOpblX nOK23blBaeTCH B2)KHeHWaH POJlb cenHMeHTaUHOHHO­
3KCraJlHUHOHHoro 3Tan2 npn cjJOpMHpOB2HHH YHHKaJlbHOrO
30JlOTOHOCHoro n2Jle062CCeHH2 BHTBaTepcp2Hn, a TaK)Ke cooo­
uieune P et>pH4a (YHHBepcHTeT Jlynea, WBeUHH), nOK232Bwero
B32HMOCBSl32HHOCTb 06p230BaHHH )KeJle3Hb1X H cyJlbcjJHnHo-no­
JlHMeTaJlJlH4eCKHX pyn WBeUHH .
B pane nOKJIanOB HaWJlH OTpa)KeHHe HOBbIe nonxonu K Mone­
JlHPOB2HHIO nyrea HcnOJlb30BaHHH MeTOnOB cjJpaKTaJlbHOH reo­
MeTpHH (10. B. JlHp, YI. r. CaBHHa, cnerrin KOMnblOTepHOH
paCWHcjJpOBKH CTpyKl)'P cxnansarsrx pynHblx nonea (B. A. CTpO­
MOB, B. E. 1l0nOB, BCErEYI; E. 51. CMHpHOB, C1l6rY). 1l0Ka­
3aHbi B03MO)KHOCTH HCCJlenOBaHHH BYJlKaHOreHHo-ocan04HbIX
pynHblx cucrea H2 OCHoBe npenCT2BJ1eHHH 06 HX c2Moopr2HH32UHH
C HcnOJlb30BaHHeM HHcjJopMaUHoHHoH 3HTponHH (A. r. M2p4eHKo,
Cflof'I'I-l ) H nyrea MoneJJHpOBaHHSl HH3K03HT2JlbnHHHblX npouec­
COB (M. Bpauxa, Y. Ma3H, M . HHKOJleTTH, YlTaJlHH) . HaMeTHJlCSl
nporpecc B H3Y4eHHH rJly6HHHbiX «xopuea» pynooopasyioumx CH­
CTeM, HCnOJlb30BaHHSl J\HCTaHUHoHHbIX MeTonOB MH 3THX uenen,
yrnyrinennoro nerponorusecxorc aHaJlH32 pynoaveuracuiax syn­
KaHHTOB (YI. H. H K. YI. rOpHHHOBbl, A. C. CMeKaJlOB, H . YI . Iype­
BH4, E. r. ACTacjJYPOBa, BHYlYlOKeaHreOJlOrHH; .LJ.. B. Jlonarua ,
BCHEYI; B. B. ABnOHHH, MrY; C. M. Kponases, Y.LJ.H; n. 4eHb
Hnp., HaHKHHCKHH yHHBepcHTeT, KHTaH, Hnpyrne asropu).
C aHaJlH30M THnOBblX nerean reOJlOrH4eCKHX xapr H npenno­
)KeHHHMH no HX nopaoorxe MSl B03MO)KHOrO OTpa)KeHHH ua
xaprax cjJaKTopOB aynxaaoreauo-ocano-nroro pynooopaaoaauna
sucryrtnn B. B. CTap4eHKO (BCEfEYI). 1l0nTBep>Kll-eHHeM TaKHX
B03MO)KHOCTeH nOCJ1Y)KHJla npencraaneuuas ua KOHcjJepeHUHH
MeTaJlJlOreHH4eCKaH xapra Paaxe-JlanO)KCKOH 30Hbl, COCTaB­
JleHHaH COBMeCTHO cjJHHCKHMH H pOCCHHCKHMH CneUHaJlHCTaMH
(3. 3KJ\aJl, feOJlOrH4eCKaH CJ1y)K6a et>H HJlSl HnHH; H . 5 . et>HJlHn­
nOB, r. W . MypanblMOB, fCet> «M HHepaJl»). KaK npnxep xpyn­
HOMaCWTa6Horo MHHepaJlOrO-reOXHMH4eCKoro KapTHpOBaHHSl
6blJla nponeaoucrpnpoaaua xapra MapraHueBoro MeCTOpO>Kll-e­
HHH Kuaun-Taiu (E. B. CTapHKoB2, A. YI. 5pyCHHUbIH, C1l6fY;
YI . r. )KyKoB, YpO PAH) .
06cY>Kll-eHHe onura npertonaaauua reopan ByJlKaHOreHHO­
OC2n04Horo pyno06pa30BaHHH cTyneHT2M reOJlOrH4eCKHX cneun­
aJlbHOCTeH nOK23aJlO, 4TO HapHny C ycnexaau, npexcae scero B
06JJaCTH HCnOJlb30BaHHSl KOMnblOTepHoro 06y4eHHH (YI. B. Byn­
naxos, M. M . Bonnsrpesa, C1l6fY; M. B. 50pHCOB, .LJ.. B. Ipn­
4yK, MfY), Heace aaecs 06CTOHT 6Jl2rOnOJlY4HO. CHCTeMHoe H3­
JlO)KeHHe ByJlKaHoreHHO-OCan04Horo pynoreueaa ewe He HaWJlO
nOCTOHHoro MeCT2 B xypcax no reOJlOrHH nonesnux HCKon2eMbIX.
Onsrr senyiunx By30B - MOCKOBCKoro H Cauxr-Ilerepoyprcxo­
ro yHHBepcHTeTOB, C2HKT- Ilerepoyprcxoro ropuoro HHCTHl)'Ta,
HOB04epKaCCKoro HTOMCKoro TeXHH4eCKHX yHHBepcHTeToB non­
)KeH nOJlY4HTb oonee WHpOKoe pacnpocrpaaenne.
.LJ.HCKYCCHSl no 06CY>Kll-2BWHMCSl np06J1eM2M npOTeK2Jl2 aecs­
M2 2KTHBHO. Hapnay C nOCTH)KeHHHMH 6blJlH OTMe4eHbi
cepsesaue HenOCTaTKH BopraHH3aUHH HCCJ1enOBaHHH. llpe>Kll-e
scero, 3TO oTCyTcTBHe 06WepOCCHHCKHX H Me)Krocyn2pcTBeH­
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JlOrHH C HCCJlenOB2HHSlMH BYJlKaHOJlorOB. TeM He MeHee, He­
CMOTpH na nenpocryio 06CTaHoBKy nJ1H 061,enHHeHHSl YCHJlHH
-
COEbITI151 ­
pa 3p 03He HHbiX KOJ1J1 e KTHBOB, HaMe4e HO n pOBeCTH CJ1 enylOW,y1O
KOHep ep eHUHIO no BYJ1KaHOreHHO-OCa,l104HOMY PY,ll0 0 6 pa30 Ba­
HHIO B 2002 r. B POCCHH. Ee u en s ro oyner pacc ao r pea ne npo­
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nor o C HHMH PY,ll0 0 6 pa30 BaHHR B HCTOp HH 3eMJ1H. Y4acTBo ­
BaB WHH B KOHepepeHUHH pe r HOHaJ1 bHblH npesanear Oouiecr sa
3KOHOMH4eCKHX re0J10rOB AHTOHHO Appncac (Hcnanua) n o­
ooeuian nonnepxcxy K OMHCCHH PAH n o BYJ1Ka HOr eH HO-OCa,l104 ­
HOMy PY,ll006pa30BaHHIO.
3aseplUe HHeM KOHepepe HuHH CTaJ1a r e0J1 0rH4eCKaR 3KCKyp ­
CHR B Cesepuoe Il pnnanoscse, opraH H30 BaHHaR rcet> « M HHe ­
pan» C 10no 14HIOHR. TenJ1aR 101 C0J1He4HaR J1eTHRR norona no ­
3B0J1HJ1 a 03Ha KOMHTb ee Y4acTHHKoB C OCHOBHbl MH paapeaaxn
PY,llOHOCHOH cOpTaSaJ1bCKOH cepun HH)KHerO npore posoa. n0 3BO­
J1 RIOWHM H pexoucr pynpoaan, HX KaK ocanosuo-synxauore nuue
KOMnJ1eKCbl OKeaHH4eCKoro naa, a TaK)Ke nponeaoacr pnposan,
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MeTaMopepH3Me 101 r paHHTH3aUHH. Il pooneau PY,ll0 0 6 p a30 BaHHR
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uoro nOJ1 R H nOHCKOBbl X yxacrxax K HpbRBOJ1aXTHHcKo ro KYnoJ1a.
3aKOH4 HJ1aCb 3KCKYpCHR noceuteuaev B aJ1 aaMCKOr o apxnnena­
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101 npH4Y.llJlHBbI X J1a,llO)KCKHX urxep,
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pacunrpeuuu e Te3HCbl ,llOKJ13.ll0B ( short pa pe r s ) ua pyCCKOM 101
aHrJ1HHCKOM asuxax. Il onpoonee C MaTepH aJ1aMH KOHep ep eHUHH
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poccaacxoro r e0J10r H4eCKoro HHcTHTyTa ) .
n o MaTepHaJ1 aM KOHepep eHuHH H3,ll aTeJ1bCTBOM « E l s evi er »
npennonaraer cs ny 6J1 HKaUHR CneUH aJ1bHOr O s u nycxa
« O r e G eol ogy Revi ew s » .
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HHK Bcepoccuacxoro reOJl OrHlJe CKOrO HHcTHTYTa ( BCE f E VI)
[gJ 19 91 0 6, Cn6, C pe.ll.HHH np.i n . 74. Te,n. (812) 328 9 13 3
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Baacnsre ztarsr ;
o no 01.03.2000 - noztaxa perHCTpaUHoHHOI'i <pOPMhI
• no 01.04.2000 - noaasa Te3HCOB nOKJIanOB
• anpen s 2000 - pa CChIJIKa 2- ro unpx ynapa
• no 20.05.2000 - perncrpanna y qaCTHHKoB Kpyrnoro CTOJI a H CneUHaJIH3HPOBaJIHOH Bhl CTaBKH
KOHTaKTHaSi MHepopMaI.4MSI:
A;J.pec OprKOM/IITeTa: 199026, CaHKT-neTep6ypr, 21 -S1 nMHMSI, A. 2, MMHepanOrM'feCKOe 061..1.4eCTBO
Tenetponu: (812) 328-86-40 cexperaps: T. A. KapSlKlIlHa), (812) 328-84-98 (611l6nlllOTeKa Oouiecraa)
3neKTpoHHaR no-rte: meeting@mineral.ras.spb.ru
I1HTepHeT: http://www.mineral.ras.ru/MinSoc/conf/gs2000.html
C 26 no 29 OKTSlOPSI B HOBOCHoHpcKe COCTOSlAHCb Bcecatiapcxaa BbICTaBKa nOAe3­
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xonaesuax,
3HAMEHI1TbIE KAMH I1 MI1PA ­
A. f. Bynax, B. B. faBpMJIeHKO, E. f. IIaHoBa
Ilypnypasrit KaMeJ!b
IIIOKIIIUHCKUU
Shokshi nsky quart zite is the famous purpl e stone occurri ng at the Onezhskoye lake coast. The sarcophagus of Napoleon set up in
the Dome des I nvali des in Paris is made just from this rock. It was used also 10decorate a lot of the well-known monument s and
historical buildings in Saint -Petersburg and Moscow.
B ueurpe Il apioxa B BCJl H4eCTBeilHO M Co6ope nOMa J.1 l1lJa ­
mlnOB 15 nexaops 1840 rona 6bIJl noxopou cu HMrJ epaTop et> paH­
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)0 roitll hlit. 1i3 xoroporo uano 6blJlO H3r OTOBHTb capxodiar
eparopa. vi M CTaJl KaMeHb H3 POCCHH: B 1845 r. ua 6epery
(' tcxor o osepa, y CeJleHH51 W OKwa, ocyuiecr ansna cs JlOMKa
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llioxaHcKIi H nOPcPHp» 6blJl nonape u <!>paHuHIi. 1'13 POCCHH AO­
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bL10 l KOH K3MH51 B npHoHeiKbe pyxosonan nOnp51n4HK r. 5y51T­
" II [91.
3 HaMeHHTbl ii apx urexrop T.-n . BHCKOHTH B 1848 r. C03JlaJl
npo exr orpo vno ro capxorpara, ona ro ponaoe BeJlW1He xoroporo
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HeMepKHyweH co BpeMeHeM nOJlH pOBKOH .
rOCTH r opona H3 acex CTpaH MHpa npHXOn51T B Co60p nOMa
l luaanuaos, 4T06bl or nan, naHb naM51TH Hancneoua Hnpu 3TOM,
r:OHe4 Ho, HeBOJlbHO JlI06YIOTC51 KpaCOTOH nypnypu oro K3MH51 .
B nyTeBoAHTeJl51X no Il apuxcy H KpaC04HblX aJlb60 MaX 0 HeM
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cnOKOHHOH H rJly60Ko fl OKpaCKH, COOTBeTcTBylOweH ua­
CTpoeHHIO, koropoe AOJl)J{ Hbl Bbl3blB3Tb BeJlli4eCTBeHHble osep­
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usernue KBapUHTo- nec4aHHKHCoeperos Oneaccxoro oaepa HC­
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pnan npn su nnasxe »cenesa H3 03epHO-6oJlOTHbIX pya, H o nexo­
par uauue CBOHCTBa KaMHS1 no AOCTOHHCTBy OueHHJl H JlHWb BO
BTOPOH nOJlOBIi He XVIII B.
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H n aAO/KCKHM 03epaMH. OHa oxapaxr epusoaaaa B CT3Tbe
A. M . Ax Me)J.OII<J C coaaropaau, nOMeweHHOH B 3TOM HOMepe
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uyio 'I<J CTb p<J3pe33 OHH BCTpe4aIOTC S1 B TaK uaausae ­
MOH WOKUHHICKOHCBIiTe, npeACTaBJl eHHOH pa3HOUBeTHbIMHxsap ­
UHTa MH H nCC4aHHKaMH06 weH MOWHOCTblO He MeHee
200 M. B HIiX rop H30HTaJlbHaS1 11 xocas CJlOHCTOCTb,
Puc. I . Co6op )loMa HHB3.I1 HAOB B Il apasce, B KOTOpOM YCTaHOBJIeH
capsodi ar c TeJlOM Hanon eoaa 121
Fig. I. The Dome des Inv alides pal ace in Pari s where Nopol eon ' s
sarcophag us is installad
3HaKH pSl6H, rpeuiuau ycuxauua [ 10]. Il oponu pasoaru nJl 3C­
TOBOH OTAeJl bHOCTblO, H MOlllHOCTb OTAeJl bHbl X nJl3CTOB peAK O
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rpeuuru noponu npaoopenu oypue TOHa OKpaCKH H yrepann CBOH
nexoparuanue Ka4eCTBa .
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TaK, HaH60Jlee 3HaMeHHTaSl , ox pauieanas B TeMHO-MaJlHHOBbIH
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N2 16». OHa >Ke B pasnoe apexa HMeJl a H npyr ne Ha3 BaHHSl ,
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xpacno-oypun CJlOHCTblH KaMeHb N2 17» [ II ] .
B cepeznrue XIX B. WOKweHCKHe Jl OMKH npuuannexcann yn­
paBJleHHIO THBAHHCKOr O 3aBOAa . KaK onscaao B «fOpHOM >KYpHa­
ne » aa 1851 r., A06bl 4a «ui oxaaa» npoH3BOAHJlaCb C novouruo
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peAKHX CJlY'laSlX, H TO Mil n OJlY'l eHH Sl He60JlbWHX 6JlOKOB nope ­
AbI, «norouy 4TO KaMeH b 3TOTb, npa sucrpenaxu; nepenxo na­
ers spenaua rpeuuiau » [7. C. 88 ] .
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uapCKOM CaHKT- Ilerepoypre OH HCnOJlb30BaH JlHWb B HeCKOJlb­
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uy n cpruxa TSlHeTCSl cPPH3 H3 MaJl HHOBO'KpaCHoro WOKWHHCKO­
ro KaMHSl. Pansui e ua HeM 6blJla uannncs, HCnOJlHeHHaSl 30Jl 04e­
HblMH 6POH30BblMH 6yK BaMH cPpa3a H3 Caauieunoro Ilncaans :
«llo My Tsoeuy nOA06aeTb CBSlTblHSl Iocnonas BbAOJlrOTY AHeH » .
Ilpn B03BeAeHHH 3AaHHSl HCn OJlb30 BaJlHCb rorosue MaTepHaJlbl :
KaK H sees cPpH3, HaAnHC b a a HeM n e pso aa-ran s n o npenaaaaasa ­
nacs MSl Hcaaxnescxoro cooopa [ I].
C 3TOH HaAnHCblO, OT KOTOpOH n ocne COBeTCKHX apeveu oc­
TaJlHCb JlHWb TeMHbie n srua aa x pa cnov KaMHe, CBSl3aHO OAHO
H3 npeAaHHH Canxr -Flerepoypra. Bcxope n ocne r oro KaK cPPH3
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>KeHHaSl KceHHSl, xoropaa ouna H3Be CTHa B Il erepoypre CBoeH
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CHX nop. Bo BpeMSl npa3AHOBaHHil IOOO-JleTHSl Kpeuieuua PyCH
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KOro KBapUHTa 3AeCb BblnOJlHeHa 4aCTb nbeAeCTaJla naMSlTHHKa
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cPeppaHa. POBHblH no oKp ac Ke KaMeHb, yKpaweHHblH CJlO>KHOH
pe3b60H, SlBJlSl eTCSl YAa4Ho H paMOH M Sl 4eTbipex rOpeJlbecPOB co
cueHaMH H3 BpeMeH uapc TBOBallHH HMn epaTopa HHKOJlaSl I.
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pororo KaMHSl . Ho He nponanana H or uienu H CKOJlbl OT Hero.
npHMepOM raxoro nparvaruaa a MO>KeT CJly >KHTb ucxycnoe
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np. YepHblweBcKoro, 8 (3pX. C. A. Bapanxeea, nocrpoea B 1910­
1911 rr.) [3,4].
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CTBeHHOCTb HJlH TOp>KeCTBeHHocTb coopyxenns. nasce B COBeT­
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KaMeHb H3 Flpuonexcsn . 6YKBbi H BeH4a lO1ll3 Sl 4aCTb MaB30JleSl
JleHHHa B M ocKBe BblnOJlHeHbl H3 WOKWHH CKoro KaMHSl. Yl 3 Hero
>Ke B MOCKBe H B neTp03aBOACKe HCnOJlHeHbl AeTaJlH CTporHX B
CBoeH KpaCOTe naMSlTHHKOB BOHHaM, n orH6wHM B BeJlHKOH
OTe'leCTBeHHOH BOHHe 1941 -1945 rr., - MOrHJl Heuaaecruoro
COJlAa Ta.
YYAecHblH K3MeHb yxpacan TaK>Ke COBeTCKHe naBH.l bOHbl sa
MelKllYHapoAHblX sucraexax B Huo-Hopxe H Il apasce. H n I b­
30 Ba H OH 6blJl H B ocP0pMJleHHH UOKOJlSl 3AaHHSl rana
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CKBe . B 1952 r. WOKWHHCKHH KaMeHb 6 bl Jl n I .1lISl
yspaur eusa 106HJl eHHOrO cPoHTaHa, coopysceu en b
800- JleTHSl r opona KOCTPOMbl [8] .
B Jl HTe parype YKa3 bIBaJlOCb, 4TO H3 MaJlHHO
xoro KaMHSl CAeJlaH H n aMSlTHHK A. YI . Kynpa .­
KJlaA6Hllle B Ilerep oypre {8] . B KHHre « YlCTOp ' _.'
uia Ilerepoypra» nanncauo, 4TO naMSlTHHK n pezc
rpatur rny io nnnry [5]. Ha caMOM AeJJe , noceuia se.t a -
Puc. 2. 3aroTOoKH KOJIOTOrO KaMHR 0 WOKWM
JleHHH . 1996 r .
Fig. 2. Workpieces 01 the broken stone in SllIIh.!o-- _ .-' _ arry, the
year 1996
Puc. 3. Y'laCTOK nJlOlllllAH 0 [lerpoaaeoncae
Fig. 3. Segment 01 the square in Petrozav
Puc. 4. C1>PH3 H3 WOKWHHCKoro xsapusra H. XaHJlOOCKO­
ro 3aMKa
Fig. 4. Fr ieze made lrom shokshinsky quam ­ sade 01Mik­
hailovsky Castle
Puc. 5. naMRTHHK HHKOJlalO I ua Hcaaxaes H 0 CaHKT­
Ilerepoypre. Ero nsenecran nexopaposan llJO<03,,·"iu:l''3I KOapl.lHTOM
Fig. 5. Monument to the emperor Nickolas I a ac' s square
in Saint- Petersburg. Its basement is deco shokshlns ky
quartzite
Puc. 6. C1>parMeHT naMRTHHKa .MorHJla HeH3:soe-::->-I_ co.111aTa 0
MOCKoe»
Fig. 6. Fragment 01 the memorial .Tomb 01 the l
in Moscow
Puc. 7. KpacHaR nJlOlllllAb. Ma030JleH B. H.•f]eHHH
Fig. 7. The Red Square, mausoleum 01 V. I. Lenin
3
81
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1999. 160 c.
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1996 396 c.
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1993. 63::! (
6. Kapc.1J,CK3H ACCP Flpupona. Xo:m HCTIlo. Kape­
.'111H. 1986. :279 c.
7. N J.' WpO(J t. 0 crponrensuux MaTeplia.l ax OJIOI1eUKOi'1ry6cpIHIH / /
",;yplla JI. 1851. 1I. II. KH. X. C. 86-89.
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CCBepo- 3 aIl 3.13 PCetJCP B cTpOHTeJlbCTBc//06,1I1 UOBOYl lhICK3MIII1. M .:
Hayxa. 1974. C. 36-38.
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CT,HIICTHKlI II sr aor padnu: Onoueuxoro KIJafl. Bun. II. Flerposaeonc«,
I 86. C. 29-30.
10. n YTCBOJl.HTeJlb r eon or uvecxu x 3KCKypCHH no Kape.nua . Ilcrpo­
3aHO.1CK: k13;l . KetJAH AH CCCP, 1987. 93 C.
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A. M. AXMe;::J;OB, E. r. IIaHoBa,
B. A. KpyIIeHHK, K. 10. CBelIIHHKOBa, C. 10. Enransrsea
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II B03MO)KHble KOJIJIeKTOpbI aJIMa30B
Two unique series of red sandstones acc umula ted in tile Precam brian and t he Devonian at t he terri tory of South Karelia and
Leningradskaya region are described i n t he paper from various poi nt s of view. From one side, t hey are supposed to be diamond ­
bearing forma tio ns. From the ot her one, their unique li thol ogic composi t ion makes to consider them as the geological memorials,
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B npouinue ncxa, HeCMOTpfl ua 6 Jl H30CTb K CTOJll1u e HMn epHH H
r y 6 e p Hl1l1, 3Ta cr pyxr ypa peznco noc euianacs reOJl Or3 MI1: 06b­
f1C Hfl JlOCb 3TO nOJlHbl M OTCyTc TBl1eM npOe3)KI1X no por H pac npo ­
cr paae uueu 06WHp Hbi X Jl eCOB 11 60Jl OT, B KOTOpblX npar anucs
rnyxue nec a ue norocr u , CKHTbl 11 nYCTbIHH, rne 11,U0 HaW I1X ,UHeH
COXpa HI1JlI1Cb penxue n o Kp aCOTe nep ea suuue uepxnyurxa. B OT
Ka K On l1CbIBaJl 3Tl1 MeCTa M. H . MHKJlyxo-Ma KJlaH - nepau a
Pbl6peKa
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
".....-;-, vl

1 12 I
v
v 3 1+++14 1--..--15
'-----'y.---­
1
r::iJ 6 CZJ 8
Puc. I . Il aneodiaunansnas cxesra Ilpuou esccxoro np orafia B Be n CI1" '
cxoe BpeMR
I - epall HH: a - PYCJlOBble. AeJlbTOBble. nJm>KCBbIC, 6 - npH6pe>KHo ' MCJl­
xouoauue, II - y,lil.'leHHO-MCJlKOBO;UII,le; 2 - TCJl a sppynr uponaunu x opex­
' 1IIii ; :l - noporu-i ;JlOAHKOBHH: 4 - rpaiurr s: apxert: 5 - r panuua ycr yna 0
peJlbccjJ e KpaTOHn : 6 - uanpaa.ncune cnoca 06JlOM04HOro M8TepHil JW; 7 ­
Ob' XO,l bl Kp;,cHouBeTOB lIel lCllH; 8 - a - lKeJlC3HaHnopora, 6 ­
asr onopora
Fig. I. Paleofacies sketch map of the By-On ezhsky trough
reo.nor. n oceruaunnl eepxoass pexu B a il\ IIH I\H B 1880 r.: « .. . Eac­
c e ii H PCKIl B ai KHHKH H30 6 HJl y eT 60,nOTa MH H noro uy OH n 0 4TII
II c o O'ITae M. Pexa B a lK HHl<a oopasyer soaonanu. Ca Mhlii acpxuuf
11:1 nux - Bepeaoa u f - HaXOIUl TCfl Ha rpa HHue Il er poaano.i cxoro
11 O JlOllCUKOro y e3LlOB. l-I a n pOTfl i l<e HHH 60/l ee LlBYX ncpcr 0 11
COOOlIT It3 OflTH ycrynoa, CJlOiK<.' II [l bI X H3 xpacso ro ksaprurra... »
( 1\'\I I Kl y x o- M a KJl a li , 1897 r.).
B IlOCT0 4HOH 4a CTli nporuoa xopeuuue 06Hal1<em t H ucrpe ­
'1ilIOTC5I TOJlbKO sno.m. 6 e pe r o B Ouexcckoro osepa , B CKa,lbllf>IX
Il bIXO.1aX W OKWHHCKOfl rpsnu , CJIOIKe HlI o ii M3Jlll i i OBbl MI1 H
KBa p u HTa MH, a r atoxe 11<1 ose pe bpycuo. Il on I W3 IJil ­
xpacnoro nopdiupa 3TOT Ka Me ll b 6 paJlCH 331LO,nr o )1, 0 OCHO­
Ba m l SI Cauxr -Flcrepoypra. a B npouecce CT[l0 IIT<.'.1bCTBil
us-aa caoe u xpacor u H re eruocru uie.t Ha orne.rxy i l BOp UOB H
I WM51 TI IHKo n . K aMeH b nOCTa HJISWCH BO MHorHe crp auu E BPOllb[ ,
B TOM fi BO ¢P,JI-I UHfO, H ucr opua umpokoro IIp":lla ll51
ero [l e;1KOfl xpacor u LlOJl>KHa 6 b[Tb n pe;I,",1eTO" 1cneuuo.u.uoro [l a c­
CKa3a . H o ! lJ1 51 Hac r.naBHb[M 51 B.'J51 CTC51 npeoonanaioiuec pa3B HTHe
ua 3TOH orpoxtnof TCp pHTOpHH xpacuoueer xux OTJlOIKCHl tii , CJI<J ­
raroum x MOW HhlH (c asuue 2 KM) KOMII : leKC nopon. 0 11 nacr e b ­
KO OTJl H4aeTC5l OT scex OKpYil< a lOWHX ero 06p330Ba1Hl ii. 'I TO CII O­
pu 0 ero B0 3paCTe J.,l HTCH yxce oonee 100 ner . M . H. M. HICIYXO­
M aKJJaH, ne p Bbl H .1aB WHH nonpoouoe onucaaue «pacuouucr uux
xeapuur oa, OTHec nx K nesouy. Fl ossce B . P aM celi fI V!. Ce.tcp­
XOJlbM paccv ar pnaanu ax B COCTilB e n 0 3nH 'C 1'0 n OKeM6pH51 (uor ­
HHH). Hccnenosanus B. M. THMoepee Ba , a 3a Te M .n. n. fclJln o 6 fi ­
HOH, E . n . MHx a H.nIOK, A. V! . K il l1p 51 Ka H H . M . 3KMil Ha nOK a33Jl H
n OKe M6 p HHCKHI1 B03pacT kpacuouaer uu x 06pa30flaIl fl H WOKWHH ­
cxoro xosmnexca, a K. O . Kpar u H K . A. W y p KHH ( 1971 ) aune­
JlfiJlIt e ro non H33Ba Hlt e M Be n CI I51 . O KOHy al c: lbHaH TOYI( il 6blJl a
n OCTa BJl e Ha u a OCHOBa HfI fi fl3 0 Xp OHbi ( 1770 ± lO MJl H .1e T) ,
nOJl )"-leHHo f l ,aJl fl r a o o po -nnaoaaos. p BYWHX xpacnou eer u WOK ­
WH HCKOH CSHTbl ( Dfl 6f1KO Ba [1 n p . . 1990). Bee HCC: l ei l OBCl Tem i
npflOHe>KCKOr O n p oruoa OTMe'13Jlfl. LITO WOKlI [ fl HCKHe OTJIOIKe­
Hfl51 Kp OMe KpaCHOUBeTHOCTH Bb!LlE'. ·[SHOTCfl 60Jl b WHM KOJlHLle -
Pile. 2. POlK!le CTBeHCKaH uepxoa s ( XVII B. ) B nocen xe rpHMpeKa.
<POTO B. B. r aBpHJleHI<O
Fig. 2. The Chri stmas chu rc h (XVII century ) i n Gi mrek a vi ll age .
Photo V. \l Gavri lenko
Puc. 3. 3HaKH B neC4aHHKax WOKWHHCKOH CBHTbl ( se ncaa ,
PR , ) , pexa Ba)KHHKa, <POTO B. A. Kpyne-nnca
Fig . 3. Ripple marks in sandst ones or sho kshi ns kaya seri es (veps iy
age, PR, ) , the Vazhi nka river. Phot o V A. Krupenik
CTBOM r excr yp MeJl KOBOLlb fl : paanooo pasuux 3HaKOB p fl6 H H
Tpe W II H ycuxaun«, a 00 cocr asy cpenu Hfi X npeocnanaior MO ­
HO,UI KTORb[e pasuocr u kaapu-rros . n o A. H. Kas ps xa
( 1969) , s cenepuon -racr n nporu oa pacnonaraer cs Cy6 W HpOT ­
II bl H WOS - ycryn .ipcs uero Kpa TOH3 , 1\ tory OT «oroporo pe3 KO
B0 3p3CTaeT MOWHOCTb «pacuoueero aIlegcr anre nu-o , nOT WOB
epltl\cHpyeTc 51 no r eoepfl 3f14eCKHM n3HHbIM, a He r o OTMe 4a ­
IOTC5l rp3 Bfi :vteT p,14eCKII C a HOMaJll 1l1, KOTOpbl C 6 blJl H sckpu ru B
1984-1 988 rr, nro " H e BCKr eOJlOr Hfl » 6ypOBbl :vtH npoepl w51Mfi _
B HlI X 6bIJIO 0 6 H3py IKe Ho HeCKO.% KO «pyrmux TeJI 3[l [l y nTl 1RHbIX
6 pCI\
L
lH i\ cyuca pcxo r o It n penaencaac k o r o ( n ano c cxoro l a peve ­
HII , na x o ropuc U CB5l3fi co cneu Hepfi Ko H pa60T B r e r oau li e Ob[JI O
oopa urcuo BHHM3 11It e . CO BpeMe HHo e fl3Y4eHHe COCTa Ba '3Tfi X 06 ­
PCi 30S 3Hfli i nOKaJ aJIO, LITO OHH 6Jl H3KH K c eMe Hcm y KItM6epJl fi ­
TOB- .nG1Mn pO HTOB. Kpove Taro, H3Y4eHHe BMewalOWfi X 3TH r en a
OTJlO>KeHfl H na.ll.OCCKOH CBHTbl n03BO: U1.10 A. n. K a3aK Y YCTaJ-IO­
BHTb B nOCJlenHI1X I lrHf CYTCTBHe IlJlbCC KUHOHHbl X Ty cjJcjJH3HTOB, KO­
r opue CJlY>KaT :l13HTHHUOrO Mar M3n 13M3 , B TOM 4HC­
n e H KHM6e p.nJHOBoro ( Ka3a K, 1999).
Kpacnouacru ue OTJlO>KeHHH senc ua C pa3MbiBOM ,10>KaTCH Ha
pa3 HO B03paCTHbi e KOMnJleKCbl a pxes fl pauuer o npOTep030H, a
TaK/Ke H ua r e.r a a ppynr unu u x 6 peK4HH. M aTepH aJl ux pa suuea
npucyrcr ay er B n c ponax Be nCHH, pac ce s u uo ro c pe.tu npony« ­
TOB a uaerpasa u u a rp3 HHTOfl ,lHbIX n o pon n pe s uero KpaTOHa.
Bce Ha6JJ10,llaTeJl H OTMe4aJl H Bbl COKYID cr ene n s AHcjJcjJ epell Ui la­
UHH fI OK3TaflHOCTH 06Jl OM04 HOr o MaTepfl aJl3 , xo r o poe au pa xca ­
eTCH B ua xonnc u u u MOHOMHKTOBbl X KBa pUHTOB, rpa Be.fJHTOB H
I{B3plleBb1X KOHrJJ OMepaTOB, co ztep xcauur x CKOnJl eHHH UHp l{OHa,
HJlb MeHHTa, pYTH.1a. au ar ura , Ty pMaml Ha (f3Jl,ll06 HHa , 1958;
Ka Hp HK, 1969 ). I lo.nesue pa60TI>I no n poexry « Vl HTerpaUHH» no ­
3BOJl HJlH YT04Hfl Tb COCT3fJ THiKC: lOft cjJ paKu HH BenCHHCKHX xpac ­
HOUBCTO[l • .lOnO: I II HB ee XPO\f CO,llep>KaWHx :lHlHepa ­
JlOB: XPO,\ I,lHOnCI1.13. XP0 ;llnl IK3nI T3 II rpauar a . COCT3R xor o po ro
YT04HHCTCH. (oCTaB THMe: l l l l t cjJ paKl ll l H YK33LIR8eT ua p83:111>IB
s ppy n r unuu x 6 peK 411 11.' . Ibr pa CH Bfloro - cy 6111CJI04 11 0 r o cocr a ­
aa, pBYWHX n pe. taen cn fi c k ue OT.l Oi Kt' Hl l fl . O c0 6 0e ooorauieuuc
TfliKe.'lbI MH .reuaer cs tl110 pO.'l.8X PYC.10 RbIX 11 ,:I.eJl b ­
en
TOBbl X BhU .'I ll . Ill . H3 ' II u pe ay.i sr ar e aHa: l f138 r ex cr yp
en
BencH HcKHX Kpa CHOllB TOB. Henpe \leHfl LI;II YC.l 0llHt'M naxon.rc­
en
...
[EOJIO[v}l..IECKI1E ITAM5ITH vIKI1 -
Puc. 4. Kpynusre KOCble cep ua BKpaCHOIJ,BeTHblX nec-rauaxax cpen­
Hero AeBOHa . Pexa Op enesc , nOceJTOK CI1BepCKHI1 . C!J OTO E. r. Fla ­
HOIlOH
Fig. 4. Large cross ripple marks in the Middle Devonian red sand­
stones . The Oredezh river, Siversky village. Photo E. G. Panova
Puc. 5. Kon rno a ep ar si ua rpauuue cpenuero Haepxuero AeBOHa, pexa
Ope ne:«. C!J OTO E. r. Flauonon
Fig. 5. Conglomerates at the boundary between Middle and Upper
Devon ian, the Oredezh river. Photo E. G. Panova
Puc. 6. nJT aCTHH a nea oucxoa Pbl6bl B06Ha*eHHH ua p. Jlyra .
C!J or o r. n . n aHoBoH
Fi g. 6. Slab of pla coderms of the Devoni an fish in the sandstone
outcrop at the Luga river. Photo E. G. Panova 1­
HHfl TSUKeJlbl X MHHepaJlOB nOJllKe H 6blTb cTa611JlbHbl H TeKTOHI1­
4eCKHH peIK11Mpa3B I1T11 fl BenCI1HCKOr O naneooaccenua, KOTOpbI H
onpenenun cjJOpMl1pOBaHl1e BbICOK03peJJbIX MOHOMI1KTOBblX ocaa­
KOB. Haxoueu, BalKHblMH arearau u B ne311HTerpaUHH 06JlOM04 ­
11 01'0 M3TepHaJla H HaKOnJle HHH pocc une u 5lBJlfl JlHCb 3p HnHblH
KJlI1MaT 11 HaJlH4He csooon ao r o 13 araocdi epe, KOTO­
pu c crlOc06cTBOBaJlH 60Jl ee r Jly60KOMY pa3JlOIKeHH10 rJlI1HI1 CTO­
1'0 ueuiecraa . BnJJOTb no n05lBJleHHfl KaOJlflH I1 Ta. ECJlH ripen­
nOJlOIKHTb, 4TO c pena pa3MblTbiX appynruauux r en npucyr ­
CTBOBaJll1 H3JlMa30 HOCHbie pa3 HOBHnHOCTI1. TOBnOJlHe Bep05l THO.
4TO B COCT3Be Tfl lKeJlOH cjJpaKUI1H PYCJlOBblX 11 nem.roaux cjJaUI1H
MoryT np acy r cr aosan, H aJlMa3bI. B 3TOM OTHoweHHH nepcn ex ­
THBHa ceae po -aa n aa sas 4aCTb nporuria, BCKpbITa5l 13 BepXHeM
Te4eHIH1 peKH BaIKHHKH. 3TOT paHOH ceH 4ac OTfiOCHTeJlbHO no­
cryne n, CTOI1T JlHWb npoexars 28 KM OT noc . CB5lT03epO ( aa
rpacce Ca HKT- Flere poypr - Flerpoaaa oncx) no r py nrosof no­
pore K n oc . Bepxnue BalKHHbl Hnan ee npoar« neWKOM asepx no
peke 8-1 0 KM. 3necb orxpu aaerca ynHBHTeJlbHbIH no KpaCOTe 11
cypOBOCTI1 xacxan nopor os (YP0411 w.a MypHO- Kaxce 11 feHCOH­
Cem.ra). B HI1X06HaIKeH Hal 160JJee nOJlHbl H paspea aeneas. ripen­
CTaBJle HHblH OTJlOlKeHH5lMH nensrosux H nJl5llKeBblX
cjJaUI1H . P030Bble, xpacsue, MaJlI1HOBble H cjJHOJleTO Bble pa3HO­
ll HnHOCTH KBapUI1TO- neC4aHI1KOB B cp enHeH 4aCTI1 paapesa 3aK­
Jl104a10T Jll1H3bl BaJlYHHo-raJle4 HbIX KOHrJlOMepaTOB, pa cnon ara­
iouuteca aeepoccpasuo B r ornue KBapUI1TOB. Il pu CpaBHI1 TeJlb ­
1i0 He60JlbWOH MOlllHOCTI1 ( 1,5-2 M) Jl l1H3bl xo nr.noaeparos
MlwroKpaTHOnOBTOp5lI0TC5l B paspeae, oopasys C KBapUHTaMH H
rpaBeJl HTaMI1 na4KI1 MOlllHOCTbl0 no 200 M. Kpove IKI1JlbHOrO
xsapua B COCTaBe 06JlOMKOB n pucyrcray icr ra JlbKI1 lKeJJ e311 CTO­
xpevuncroro , Kpe MHHcToro COCTaBa H He60JJbWHe cjJparM eHTbl
OCHOBHbIX ByJlKa HHToB. Da3aJlb HbIH ueveur KOHrJlOMepaTOB 060 ­
rarue u PY,ll.HbIM Bew.eCTBOM: I1JlbMeHHTOM H, ocorienuo. reMaTH­
TOM, KOTOpblH CKanJlHBaeTC5l B BHne T51IKeJlOH cjJ paKUHH H B KO-
Puc. 7. )l,eBoHcKaH naHUHpHaHpbl6a (Pteriohthis Milleri) - pecr aa­
paUHoHHblH BHA:
a - IlHil C60Ky; 6 - co cnll Hbl
Fig. 7. The Devonian pl acoderms fish ( Pteri ohthis M illeri ) - i n i ts
restored outl ook:
a - the side viev; B - the backside
COCJl OHCTblX cepuax KBapUHTo B. 3 l1.eCb IKe OTMe4aI0TC5l 3HaK I1
30JlOTa (KaHp5lK, 1969). Buco xas crenea s BbIBeTpI1 BaHI1 5l 11 pas ­
JlOlKeHH5l 06JlOM0 4Horo MaTepHa Jla nonr sepxoiaercs 11 HaxonKoH
B uexoropux xaapueaux ransxax 6HoreHHonon06Hbix MI1 KPO­
crpyxryp, «oropue MOry T npencr aan ars C060H nceanoaopo oau
OKHC.nOB »ceneaa no Kp HCTaJlJlaM KaOJlHHI1Ta. C lI.eJlbTOBblMH H
nJlflIKeBblMH cjJaUH5lMH CB5l3aHO npeoc n an ai o uiee pa3BIlT I1 e 3Ha ­
KOBpfl 6 11 MeJlKOBO,ll. bfl , CKOTOPbl MI1 accounupyior rpeuiua u yc u ­
xauus . rJlHnrOMopcjJ03bl no KpHCTaJlJlaM rnnca HJlH aarnnp ura,
cnenu xanens ,ll.0>K,D.5l H r nepor.nudi sr. O HI1 4aCTO 6blBa10T paa ­
MbiTbl , 11 Ha HHX CHeCOrJlaCHeMJlO)f(aTC5l 3HaKH p5l6l1 npyroH pas­
Mep HOCTI1 , KOHcjJ HrypaUHl111 OpHCHTl1pOBKI1, 4TOc Bl1neTeJlbCTByeT
06 H3MeHeHH5lX aanpaan enus serpa H npI1JlHBHO-OTJlHBHbIX KO­
JJ e63IIH5lX nHa B nJlfl lKHOH 30 He. lloeepxaocn, 3T11X n peB HeHW I1 X
nJ1Sl)f( eH MeCT3MH HaCTOJl bKO xopowo ornpenapapoaaaa . 4TO
MOlKeT HnTH no HI1M C nepepusaa a no npocrupa­
HI1I0 B HeCKOJlbKO COTeH MeTpOB. O c06eHHO3TOXopOWO Bl1nHOB
yuic.n,e feHCOH- CeJlbl"3, me KpaCHOUBeTHble OTJlOlKeHH5l nJlfllKeH
H neJl bTbI cneziyi or ycr ynavu asepx no peke na paCCT05lHl1e 60­
nee 3,5 KM. B ny-iax COJl Hua se e 3TO csepkaer H nepenasaer cs
non TOHKll M n pos pasu oa BO)J.bl MaJlI1HOBblMll 11 P030BblMH
6JlHK3MH. YnHBHTeJlb HYI0 xpacory pexn nOnOJlH5lI0T Bbl COKl1e (no
100 M) crea u YW.eJlb5l MaJl HHOBOro H cjJI10JleTOBOro UBeTOB B 06­
paMJl eH1111 TeMHO- 3eJleHbIXeJleH. De3 COMHeHH5l, CKaJl bHbIe BbIXO­
,ll.bI «p acsou eer os aen eas, pacnono xceuuue B sepxoas nx peKH
B alKeH K11 . nOJlIK HbI 6bITb or neceuu K 4HCJlY OAHHX 11 3 ca MbIX
IKI1BOnHCHblX r eOJlOrH4 eCKHX naMfl THI1KOB Ka peJI HH. VI 3TO He
TOJlbKO ncrovy, 4TO OHI1 npenCTaBJl5lI0T c060i1 nOK3 euie He TpO­
ny r sre pyxof LICJlOBeKa pen xue no KpaCOTe CBHneTCJlbCTBa reo­
JlOrH4eCKOH HCTOpHH. n o CYUICCTFl Y, OHH SlBJl5l10 TCSl OTKpblTOH xa­
MeHHOf1 KHHrOH, 4HTaTb KOTOpyl0 npaas auu cneuuan ac r u , CTy­
ne HTbl- r eon oru H ace re, KOTOpblM nopora eCTeCTBeHHaSl HCTOpH5l
POAHHbJ.
PaHOH pex Openesc H J1yra
D.eBoHcKHe noponu IUI1POKO pacn pocr paueuu ua cesepo -aa ­
naa e PyCCKOH nnartpopwu . oopasys TaK aaausaevce Ina s noe
Ileaoucxoe none.
H a Teppl1TOpHH B paiione pe x Opene:« HJlyra « n aJle03011CKOH
3KCnen 11 Ul1eH» Onl1CaHO oonee 50 06HalKeHHH, xerupe 113 KOTO­
pux yrsepscaeuu B crar yce llaMfl THHKOB npnponu, 11 HeCKOJlbKO
06b eKTOB pesoaeunonaua KYTBep>K,D.eHI1I0( K l1ceJleB I1np., 1997).
K naM5l THHKaM npaponu OTHCCeHbl 06HalKeHH5l x pac uouaeruux
neCLl aHHKOB, conepxca uiue OCTaTKH neBOHCKI1X pbl 6 , y nepeeuu
Eenoropxa, Bopmoao, Il coem., 51 M- Teco so . 3 raxsce caMblH
Kpy nHbl H JlenHHKOBbl r'i B3JJyH JleHHHr panCKOH 06JlaCTH «Jl YHHbIH
KaMeHb» . Ero nHaMeTp oon ee 6 M, H nepsouaxan sn o OH Ha3bl­
BaJlC5l « B aJlYHHbIH KaMeHb ». Il ocr eneano n puc rasxa « sa» OT­
nana H CJlOBO npes parun ocs B ac noe .lJ.Jlfl scex Ha3BaHI1 e «Jl y a ­
Hblll KaMe Hb» .
v13y4e HHe ne BOHCKI1 X OTJlOlKeHHH 6b lJlO Ha4aTO B nepsof no ­
JlOBHHe XIX CTOJl eTH5l . Il epsoe crpar ur padiavecxoe pacs neue ­
HHe CI1CTeMbl npOH3Ben eHO X. Il annepow, BbIll.eJl I1BWHM no
Jl HTOJlorl14eCKI1M npH3HaKaM rpn spyca . H a4aJlOneTaJJbHOrO na ­
JleOHTOJlOr H4eCKor o 113Y'leHHfl nesoua PyCCKOH nn a TcjJOpMbl no ­
JlO)f( I1 JlI1 paocru Il . H. B eHI0KOBa ( 1884), A. H . M HKJlyxo -M aK­
n aa ( 1897) H BnaJlbHeHWeM np01l.0JllKeHbl P <P. feKKepoM ( (929),
D.. B . 06PY'l eBbIM ( 1930), 5. n. AcaTKHHbIM (19 34). B 1951 r.
npl1H5lTa nepBa5l, a B 1988 r . BTOpa5l y HHcjJ HlJ. HpOBaHHa5l cxeMa
CTpa Tl1r pacjJHH ll.eBOHCKHX OTJlOlKeHHH Ce Bepo -3ana.n.a PyCCKOH
nJlaTcjJo pMbl. B OCHOBy nOCJlenHeH cxeMbl nOJlOlKeHbl HCCJle1l.0­
BaHH5l B . A. CeJlHBaHOBa( (948), Jl. 5. PyxHHa ( 1961), C. B . TH ­
XOMHpoBa ( 1987); Jl . C. n eTpoBa ( 1953), M. A. PaTeeBa (1961 ),
A. 5 . POHoBa H A. M . MHr,IH1 COBa ( 1970 1' .), B . A. <PHJlHnnO­
BOrt ( 1965 ), B . M . Kypwca ( 1973) H MHorHX npyrHx r eOJlOr OB.
OTJlQ)KeHfl 51 nesoua npencrasnea u : I) MaCCItBHblMH H KOCO­
CJlOH4aTbi MII neC4ilHHKaMH : 2) rJlItHaMH, aprHJ1JlItTaMIt , aJ1eBpO­
3) fI3BeCTH5IKaMfl, jJ,O.nO M flTaMIt , MepreJlHMIt : 4) npocno­
51Mll , J1ItH3aMH, r aJ1 bl<ilMII rJ1HH. KOHrJ10MepaTaMH. KOCI Kpell-fI5lMIt
rjJO CrjJOpItTO B.
Kpove KpaCHOll-BeTOB B paap ese BCTpe4a IOTC5I TaK Ha3blB aeMbie
ne crpouaerusi e pa3HOCTII n opon, ox pa c xa KOTOpbl X aunepsc au a B
lKe J1TO- 3eJ1 eHbIX TOHax. TaKaH o xpa cxa 06yCJ10B.neHa BTOPH4Hbl­
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eH 3CTeTI1 KoH). KapOJlI1H M aKfl1J1J1 aBpl1 (Fo.nnaunns) aHilJlH311 ­
pOBaJla Ce'l eHI1 e MHor OrpaHHI1 Ka nJlOCKOCTbfQ [ - 5- 8- 2,
napannensuoa KapTI1 HHOH nJlOCKOCTI1 , H Bbl411 CJlI1J1a nenocpen­
CTBelIHO 3Ha4eHI1e Ct. = 79 ± 1
0
[1 1. nOp a311TeJlbHO, 'lTO3T1106a
aSTopa npOHrHOpl1pOSaJlI1 cjJYHllaMeHTaJlbHYfQ pa60Ty n aHoB­
ckor o 11 CaKCJl a, B KOTOPOl{ WeCTbfQll,eC51Tb fQ ronanu paaee naer ­
C51 npaSI1J1bHOe 3Ha4eHI1e OTHOWCHI1 51 nnar onaacn ( I I : 10) 11
yr .n a o: «OKOJlO 80' » [ 2]. M eTollo M, CXO,nHbl:vl CMCTO,nOM K. M aK­
f I1Jl.'I<.I spl1 , no yscJlI1 4ell ll oH KOnl111 rp amopu 113 C06paHI1 51
Iocyaap cr s eu uoro 3 pMI1Ta)l<a MHOfQ nOJlY4eHO3Ha4CIII1 C Ct. =
= 77,2' ± 0,8' BI1,nI1MO, HaH60Jlee Bep051THblM I1CTl1 l1 l1 blM3Ha4C­
HHe\! yrna Ct. CJleDYeTC'l11TaTb 79' , CB03MO)l<HOH norpeurnocn.io _ 2"­
HecMoTp51 Ha 6J1 1130CTb pesyasr aro a, 3 . Illpenep H K. lV\ aK­
npiuunu K COBepweHHO pa3J1 1l'l HbIM SbIBO,'WM 0 upu ­
pone fi306pa)l<eHHOrOLlfQpepoM 06beKTa, LITO, BH,1. HMO, IICHXO­
JlOrH4eCKH ori ycno aneao HX npodiec cas u« . Lll pcnepa,
CneUHaJlHCTa no Ha'lepTaTeJlbHOH reou erpuu H 3HaTOKiJ re ope­
TI14eCKI1Xpa60TLl fQpepa, oeccnopuo YM03pHTeJlbHoe KOHCTpyH­
posanne MHororpaHHHKa XYllO)l<HI1 KOM; «pacrannor parp C WI1PO­
KI1MH CSfl3flMI1 S cpene MI1 HepaJlOr os, M aKfl1J1J1 aspl1 CTOJlb xce
ysepeaa S MI1HepaJlbHOH npapone sr or o r e.. 'i a.
HeCTaH.lla pTHOCTb KOM611 HaTopHKK HMeTpKKIl MHoro r paHHHKa
oaana-uiaaer . 3Ha51 rJly60KyfQ oCBellOMJleHHOCTb LlfQpepa 0 nee­
Tl1)1<eHK51X aHTI1 4Hoi1 K cospeMCHHOH ev y r eOMeTpKK, 6blJlO 6bl
HeYDJ1BKTeJlbHo 06 Hapy)l<KTb aa r pamope , uanpuv ep, O.llHO K3
n51 TK nJlaTOHOSbIX ren (r er pasnp, Ky6, oxra snp, 1l01leK3.:J;1{J K: IK
11 xocasnp), «oropue K3llasHa conOCTaBJl51 JlHCbC cyui ­
HOCT51MH 6bITK51 . Ll sa nOCJlellHKXMHor or paHHKKa KTOMy )l<e MO­
ryr 6blTb nocr poeuu aa OCHOBe npfl Moyr o.1hHI1 Ka «30JlOTOr Oce­
'l eHK51 », xor opoe 3aBOeSaJl Oocoriyro nonynapn ocrs Ka K pas BO
apeueua Ll fQpepa. Er o CTapWHHcOBpeMeHHKK uranss ueu JlYKa
n a'l 0Jll1( OKOJl O1445 - nocne 1509 ) 113llaJl B 1509 r. 06WI1 pHbl ii
r pyn «0 60)l<eCTSeHHOHnponOpUI1II » C11 3JlO)l<eHHe\ 1CBOi1CTS30­
JlOTOrOCe4eHI151, a Ll fQpep, llBa>K,Qbl noceuiaaumn VlTaJll1fQ, 6blJl
XOPOWO 3Ha KOM CO BCeMI1 HOBOCT51M I1 ryJl bTypbl KBaTp04CHTO[3J.
OllHI1M K3 cjJ YH,naMeHTaJl bHbIX 411CeJl BTeOp1111 30JlOTOro ce4eHK51
51 BJ1 fleTC51 yron 72' ( nanpasrep, BOKpy>KHOCTH - 3TO ueHTpaJl bHbl H
yr OJl1l/I51 nocrp oeuun neHTarpaMMbl KJlK npasansuor o nar tryrons-
HKKa). n03TOl\<I)' HCKOTOPblMI1 aer opaa u BblCKa3bl1JilmlCb npezmo­
,;IO)l<eHK51 0 3H<Jlf ell l1 51X Ct. = 72' ( 11.'111 90" - .1l.J1fl «yoa): OHI1 ll0mKHhi
OblTb OTSCprHyTbI 11 3-3a pa3HI1Ubi Conpe.i cncmILI.\I s uure ssa-te­
Hll e\ l, HaMHor o npeesnuaioi uef S03MO)l<HYfQ norpeumocn, KaK 3TO­
1'0 onpeneneuus, r a« II H306pa)l<eHI151 nonusapa XYilO)l<HI1 KOM.
Ewe O.:UIil fl03MO)l<II 0CTb KOHCTPYIlPOflilll l1 51 Ll fQpepoM sr or o
Ylll1BI1 TeJlbllo ro TCJI<.I (nycrs K Ha ocuose !<<J KOH -TO ror cnoa ec ­
r ecrn eunof ,\ \OlleJlK) COCTOI1T B HCnOJlb30SaHI111 BnI1 Cil HHoi1 II: IJI
Onl1CaHHOH OKOJlO ccjJepbl ( I1J1 K OKPY)l<HOCTI1 ) ­
KaK IWIIOOJl ee COBepWCfl HhlX cjJHlyp KJIaCCI1 LleCKOH reOMeTpl1l1 . ­
a sens 06a 'i TK 06p<J3a npacyrcrayior ua rpaaro pe. TaKOC no­
rryui eune r ev OU,1ee Bep051THO. 'l TO I1 MeeTCfl KOMn0311 uliOHHa51
casas Me>K;J.y MHor or paJ-J HKKOM 11 panyroji : ero OCb IIpOXOlll1 T
-rcpca UCHTp I<PHBK:J ll bl pa.tyru , a uerrr p nOJlK3:lp a Ha
np0,ilO: I)I<CIIIII1 pauyrn non rOpI130HTO\1. C KOM ­
n03111lJ-J01I 1I O CR51 3all a II cdiepa: ee uearp ,ne>I(HT nU4TK TO'l HO na
np51 MOfl, npOXOn51l11eH -r epea BepWI1Hbl 6, 12 11 -repes rna nuyio
T041<y A r pasiopu. MH ororpaHflKK l(aK 6bl nonaeuren K ueurpy
panyr u, a crpepa - 1\ T04Ke A. Me/K1l.y np04HM, pacnonoscenue
ueurpa p,qyn l II<J r opH30HTe H HeCKonbKO npasee T04KH A
noauox ner onpcxe.ur n, rtori oxceaae Co.tuua: C3al1H, 4yTb ,1eBee
XYI10il\ HHKa, Ha rop H30HTe. nO -BHllHMOMY, 3TO - 3aKaT, coco ­
walOWHfl Bcel1 KapTHHe CBOHM TYCKnO-MS1r KHM CBeTOMnono.n­
l'lHTe,1 bHYID TOHanbHO CTb.
Hccnc.tys ce-ienue iV1HororpaHHHKa n,lOCKOCTblO [ -2-5-8
(p uc. / 6), Cnoaouiuo HeCnOil\ HbIX reoaerpusecs ax COOTHowe­
HHfI nerxo yCTaHoBHTb , 'ITO B;18 IIlIylO KOM6HHaUHIO pOM603D.pa C
IIHII<JKOHD.OM snacars wap HC:l b351 ,
3 TO P3CC,\IOTpeHHe nonxpenn ser BepcHIO, cornacno KOTOpOH
MOD.enl,ID MllororpaHHHKa nocnYil\Hn xynOil\HHKY sno.tue KOHK ­
peTHblH KpHCT3n:1 1<3KOrO- TO MllHepan3. Ho H3 raxoro 3aM104e­
HHlI CP33Y C:ICJlYIOT .ma aonpoca: 0 paavepe nonusapa II 0 ero
MHHepanLHOH npHHa;l,l Cil\ HOCTH, Bens RC,lHLiH Ha npnponaux
KpHCT3nJ1 0B ReCbMa CKpOMII3 , acero HeCKonbKOcaHTHMeTpoB, H
r onsko penxai'lIII He, YHI1Ka,nbHbl e 3K3eMnnS1pbl 110CTHr alOT He­
C'l
C'l
CKonbKO MeTpOB.
C'l
...
N
Z
Flo- HHilJIMOMY, p,lOpepOBCI\HH no.nusnp OTHOCHTCS1 HMeHHOK
yHHKyMaM. Cpaauen ne C HaXOilS1WHMHCS1 n06nH30CTH npenxe­
TaMH (MOnOTOK, aecsi, cryneasxn neCTHHUbl) n03BOnS1 eTOueHHTb
ero sucory oxono 1 M, Bcnee T04HblH KonH4eCTBeH­
Hbl H MeTOil OCHOBaH sa Hcnonb30BaHHH rnasnoro paccToS1HH S1
(OTrnasa XYilOil\ HHKa no KapTHHHoH nnOCKOCTH), xoropce onpe­
l1enHeTCH no nepcnekr uaaoay cOKpaweHHIO pasnux orpeskoa,
napannen suux npyr npy ry H KapTHHHoH nnOCKOCTH, 3 TO, uanpn­
Mep, pe6pa pOM603npa 1-2, 3-4, 5- 8 (puc. / 6 ), HnH oTpe3KH
BepTHKanbHblx pe6ep cre xu OT KapHH3a 110 HaX0I1HWHXC51 B pas­
HOBeCHH xaure« BeCOB. n o pac-rer av pasaux aBTopOB , rnasaoe
paCCTOHHHe ne}KHT B npenenax OT 21 110 25 CM. ECJ1H npHH51Tb
ero cpensee 3Ha4eHHe (0, 23 M) HpaCCTOHHHel10 nonusnpa (4 M),
npa H3MepeHHoM Ha opur uaane r pastcpu nonepe-ntuxe MHoro­
rpa unnka 0,045 Mnonepeuau« KpHCTanJ1a Baar ype110J1il\eH6blTb
0,78 M, a BblCOTa 0,95 M, 3TO 3Ha4eHHe snonae corn acyerca C
Ka4eCTB eHH OH oueHKoH.
33n.epil\ HMC51 ewe HeMHoro ua 3TOM sonpoce, 4T06bl npo­
«onrponnposars nonyYeHHblH peaynsrar C nOMO WblO OCTpOyM­
HOH MeTOI1HKH, npellnOil\ eHHOH npoo eccopov J1oHI10HCKOro
yaaeepc urera C. TonaHCKHM. Ero Hl1eS1 COCTOHT B conocrasne ­
HHH MaCWTa6a H306pail\ eHH51 npenv eroe H3 p33HbiXnnauax xap­
THHbl C pa3MepaMH npHcyTcTBylOWHX na HeH il\ e Co.na ua HnH
Jlyasr. 3HaHHe HCTHHHoro yr nosoro I1HaMeTpa 3THX CBeTHn (0,5°)
n03BonHeT oueuurs nor peuruocr a B nepcnexr uee KapTHHbl HnH
B H306pail\ eHHH caMHX He6ecHbix CBeTHn [4].
Ha rpaaiope TaKil\e ecrs 06b eKT C H3BeCTHbl M H He 3aBH­
C51WHM OT paCCT051 HH51 yr noa u u paIlHyCOM, paBHbl M 42', - 3TO
panyra. Vl3MepeHHe nokaasraaer , 'ITO ropH30HTan bHblH nonepe-r­
HHK MHororpa HHHKa BHl1eH XYI10il\ HHKY r atoxe non yrnou 42' ,
n pHHHM3H, KaK H npexoie, paccroanae OT r nasa XYI10il\ HHKa 110
no.nasnpa 4 M , HaXOnHM, 'ITO caa MHorOrpaHHI1K HMeeT none­
pe4HH K 3,6 M. TaKHe ero r aoaparu pe3KOpacxonsr ca Cnpenu­
nywHMH I10CTaT04HO KoppeKTHblMH oueHKa MH. Cnenosar ens no,
yrnosue paavepu panyru npeyaensurenu xynOil\HHKOM npH6nH­
3HTenbHO B 4 paaa. C06cTBeHHo, B 3TOM HeT HI14erOynl1BHTenb­
uor o: ecnu npnaar s panyre npaBHnbHblH MacwTa6 , coxpaana
(XOTH6bl) nonoscenue ee rtpasoro KOHua, Ha none H306pail\ eHI151
OCT8HeTC51 nHWb He60nbwoHcer aeur, 'ITO COBepweHHO YHH4TO­
il\ HT ec KOMn03HuHOHHoe H 3CTeTH4eCKoe 3Ha4eHHe.
YCTa HOBneHHe MHHepanbHoro BHl1a, xpncrannu xoroporo 06­
nanaior nOJlXOn51weH MeTpHKoH, Yl106HO npoaecru C nOMOWblO
rparpaxa, csaauaaiouiero yron a Cnpyroa kpacrannorparpuue­
CKOHKOHcTaHToH: OTHoweHHeM c/a (puc, 3a, 6). Ha sepr nxans­
HOH OC H r pacjJHKa naneceuu nOnOil\ eHH51 pacnpocrpane uuux
B npupoae MHHepanOB H3 xnacca Kap60HaToB. nonyseuaue no
yr.naxi xapaxre puu x I1n51 HHX pOM603npoB (OTHoweHHe c/ a Jl,Il51
crpyxrypnux H4eeK 3THX MHHepanOB B 2 pasa ocn sure). POM60­
snp BKOM6HHal lHH Cn11HaKOHI10M5lB.1S1 eTC51 06bl4HOHcjJOpMOHxap­
60HaTOB. Ho 60nbWHHCTBO H3 3THX MHHepanOB 04eHb penxo 06­
pa3YlOT xpynnue Hxopowo or panennu e xpucrannu. YicKnlO4eHHe
COCTaBJ151eT KanbUHT, peKOpl1HblHxpncrann xcroporo HMen BbICO­
ry oxono 6 M: HO KaK paaJl,Il 51 Hero 3Ha4eHHe c/a HaH60J1ee CHnbHO
OTKnOH51eTC51 or 06naCTH, COOTBeTcTBylOweH nonasnpy Ihopepa.
Bce OHH, Bnp04eM, CJ1HWKOM penKH, 4T06bl npereanosa n, Ha pons
era npOTOTHna. Hanoonee BepOHTHblM KaHJll1naTOM cnenyer see
»ce C4HTaTb «pacran,n «akoro-nnoo Kap60HaTa (cxopee acer o,
KanbUHT3. K3K 3TO Yil\e npennonar anocs [5D·
n pHMe4aTenbHOH oc06eHOCTb lO 06naCTH 3Ha4eH HH c/a, 3a­
naBaeMOH nonH311pOM ,UlOpepa, S1Bn51eTC51 HaXOil\JleHHe BHyTpH nee
I1ByX cneuaansnux 4Hcen: 1,618... H 1,633,.. Ilepsoe H3 HHX, <p,
aupaxcaer Yil\ e YIlOM51HYToe 30nOToe ce4eHHe. HMelOwee npuno­
il\eIl H51 Bcauu x paanu x 06n3CT51X MaTeM3THKH, HO He ar paiouiee
01
HH KaKOit pO,DH B KpHCTaJlJl Orpa qJf1 H, Eonee roro,
B cuny rpexuepuo-nepaozntv eckoro CTpOeHH51 KpHCTaJlJl OB na
HI1X HeB03MOIKHbi r ena Ilnaroua, CB 51 3aHHbi e C q> , T, e.
none kasnp HHKOCa31lp (XOT51 H au ckaa ueanu cs pesoauu e npen­
nOJlOIKCH H51, npooopasaau M51 nOCTpOeHH 51 Ma­
TeMaTHKaMH3THX ren nOCJlYIKHJlHnpuponau e xpucr annu napa­
r a, FeS
2
, HMeJOWHe n01106HylO cjJOpMy). KalKeTc51 3a6aBHblM,
ornepr nyroe asnue no kpur epmo yrna a. 30JlOTOe ceuenue
B03HHKaeTBHOBbyxce s npyroa cjJopMe. He cnenyer, 01lHaKO, nyc­
l<aTbC51 Ha OCHOBaHHH sroro diaxr a B paccy)i(JleHH51 06 H306peTa­
Te.nbIl OCTH XY1l0IKHHKa, CTOJl b 3aMblCJlOBaTO3awHcjJp013aBWerO
4H CJl Oq>: M51 3TOro 6blJlH6bl He06xoll HMbi npellCTaBJI eHH 51 0 CTpyK­
Type KpHCTaJlJla H nOH51THfI, au paoor auuue TOJlbKO K KOHLJ,y
XIX B. B MHor or paHHHKe llJOpepa OTHOWeHH51
ci a = q> rop aaao npouie 06bflCH51 eTC51 ero 6.DH30CTbJO K
1,633.", lleHCTBHTeJlbHO TeCHOCB51 3aHHOMY CreoMeTpHeH KpH­
CTaJl JlO B.
CTpYKTypa MHorHX BeweCTB nocrpoena no npuuuany
nJlOTHeHWeH uraposon ynaKOBKH. B TaKOfl ynaxo exe Ka/Kllbli'l wap
«acaerc a naeaanuar tr apy rux, M 51 pa3Mew eHH51 ew e XOT51 ,
6bl 01lHOr Oui apa r oro /Ke pam- yea MeCTa He OCTa eTC51, Cyurecr sy­
lOT nsa OCHOBHblX no CHMMeTpHHruna rrnora eu­
WHX ui apoau x ynaKOBOK: H reKCarOHaJI bHa51 . n OC­
JlellH51fl KaK paa Hxapasr epnsyerc s OTHo weHHeM ci a = 1,633 " .
B KpHCTaJl,naX C 3T0i'l yn ax oskon pOM6031lp, crpor o r OBOp51 ,
HeB03MO/KeH, T, K, er o CHMMeTpH51 He cornacyercs CCHMMeTpH­
ei'l pacnOJlO/KeHH51 3KBHBaJIeHTHbiXnJlOCKOCTeii 13 CTpYKType. 011­
HaKO 130 MHor HXcnysasx HOHbl nOMewaIOTC51 B ny ­
CTOTax ynaxosxa H nOHH/KaIOT ee CHMMeTpll lO, TaK 4TOn051BJl51 ­
IOTC51 ceMei'lcTBa n,nOCKOCTeH, COOTBeTCTBYJOWHe pOM6031lPY,
B pav xax TaKoi'l cxeMbl MO/KHO HI-ITepnpeTHpOBaTb cr pyxrypu
ynOM51 HYTbiX auui e Kap60 HaTOB, rne cpaBHHTeJlbHO xpynuu e
HOH bl KHCJlOpOlla pacnonaraior cs no MOTH By nJlOTHeitwei'i yna ­
KOBKH, a paaaeui euue HOHOB Ka,n bUH51 ( 13 KaJlbUHTe) ooecnesu­
saer cyui ecr nosan ue nnocxocreu .
Bneps u e reOMeTpHIO nJlOTHeftWHXui apoau x ynaxosox CHCTe­
paCCMOTpeJl l-l or auu Kennep B 161 1 r., cnycrs no­
100 ner nocne C031laHH51 lllopepoMcsoef rpasiopu . LITO /Ke
KacaeTCS1 MeTpHKH ynaxo aox (B OTI-I OWeHH51 ci a ),
TO OHa 6blJla ner ans uo paapaoo ra ua JlHWb K KOH Uy XIX B.
13 r pynax BHJIbflMa Eapnoy ( 1845-1 934) [ 6] , HeT
1l0KYMeHTaJl bHbiX OCHoBaHHi'i npenrronarars, lllOpep HJlI! KTO­
,nH60 H3 ero COB peMeHHHKOB cneuuaru.uo 3aHHMaJlHCb aonpoca ­
MHn.nOTHei'iwei'l YKnallKHctpep pasuor o pannyca Bnpocrpaucrne.
11 see /Ke secsu a aa rpaarope COCellCT BYIOT
cdiepa HMHor orpaHHHKCOTHoweHHeMci a = I ,633 OT­
noureuae nonepe-uuuca MHor or paHHHKa K1l1i aMeTpy «p cpu OT­
OT q> Bcer o Ha 1%). 3 THM KaK 6bl H':1.1IOcTpHpyeTC51
HHTyHUH 51 xY1l0/KeCTBeHHor o YJla B.:IIIBaIOW<JH rJlY­
6HHHbie CB513 11 Me/Kny cOBepweHHo pa3HOpOllHbiMII 06beKTaMH
llefl CTBHTe.nbHOCTH .
B CYWHOCTH. TaK JlH Y/K BaIKHO. KaKoi'l HMeHHOMHHepaJl npH­
H51Jl llJOpep 3a 06pa3eUM 51 CBoer o npOH3BelleHH51? fOpa31l0 Ba/K­
Hee llpyr oe. n o Bbl pa/KeHHIO 01lHOrO H3 rJlaBHblX TBOPUOB CTpyK­
Typ HOi'l KpHCTaJIJlOr pacjJ Hlt EBrp acjJa et>e,UopOBa
(1 853- 19 19), «KpHCTa.nJlbl 6Jlewy T cHMMeTpHei'i», Anb6 pexT
lllOpep 6blJl 3THM 6JleCKOM6e3YCJlOBHO04apOBaH, - HOHeTOJlb­
KO. Bbl60p CTOJl b 3K3OTWIeCKoro no KaHOHaMMHO ­
ror paunuxa 3aCTaBJl51 eT npe,UnOJlQ)J( HTb, lllOpep nepsua no­
CTaBHJl aon poc (npurov CTOJlb llJl51 COBpe MeHHoi'i
HayKI1cnocooov) 0 nPOHcxO/KlleHHH cjJOpM . He­
-r epnuearoutero OTl3eTa na Hero He Hai'i.ueHo110 CI1X nop. Has ep­
1I 0e, MOIKHOlla/Ke CYTb aaranxn . npellJlOlKeHHOH lllo­
pepou : eCJ1I t Ilpu pona rilpMOHH'IHa, no-reay npOH3BO,UHMble eio
MHoro r paHHHK11«BOOOll \e» He 51 BJI5lIOTCS1 npaBHJlbHbIMH?
110 , nOCTaBI1Tb eonpoc r axoro pona, He06xollHMOnpeaoi e
nyrev H3MepeHI1H Y.ll.OCTOBCPI1 TbC51 13 cnpaBCM I1 BOCTI ! np51 MOrO
HJlI1 ooparu oro YTBep/KileHI1S1 . LITO r axue 11 3MepCHHH KaK 6YllTO
6bl TOJlbKO4TO nponenaau , MOIKer CRl1l1eTeJlbCTBOBaTb I\HPKYJl b
13 pykax nev osa. A HlleOJlOrH51 H3MepeHltfl. KaK nauan suor o 3Ta­
na JII060ii HayKI1 , aapoxcaanacs KaK pas 130 apev eaa llKJpepa.
B TaKOM cny-i ae lllOpepa cnenyer He TOJlbKO nepBblM
xpncra nnorpadioa . HO H O,UHI1 M H3 nepsu x yCO MHHB­
Wl1 XC51 B rpaacuesneuranssoro, see­
06'bCMJIIOWCrOTOJIKOBaHH51UpaBI1Jl bHbiXreo aerpa-recxux cjJHry p.
1'1eC.DH'n o TaK, TO CMeJIOCTblO:l<lbICJIH OHHaMHor o onepenun csoe
BpeM51 : aens .ll.peBHeH eaaun oucxo-numaropeiickoa Tpa,UHUH H
060/KeCTB.neHH51 '1HCeJI H cjJ Hryp cnenoaann eUI CH CTO, 11 1lBCCTii
Jl eTcnYCT51 Tal<IICru rauru. «ax Horaan Kennep ( 157 1- 1630) II
Iorrppan BllJIbreJIbM.nCfIOHII U ( 1646-1 716); na 11 B HaWIi .ll.HH
HayKH 3TO Hile51 aaxonur Bee HOBblX CTO­
pOHHHKOB.
YMeCTHbl M sr or o He6oJIbWOrO HCCJIet!.OBaHII51
MO/KeT nOCJI Y/KIiTb, na MOH B3rJI511l. CTli XOTBOpeHHe «BeJIIIKOr O
uin ucccnsoypxcua » Hll KOJIa51 AJIeKcaH,UpOBH4a M op030Ba
( 1854-1 946) «Kpucrannu ». nOCFl Hw eHHOC E. C. et>e,UopoBy:
B He dp a ).' CrlleK. l,ci.H HbIX ibua.ioe.
C l 0 t/ HO {J().l w eOH I:Jll CI\ !!_lh fll1lOp .
Ceenuue epa nu "pUCmO.l .10(l
Jlenum OeC1{aemHblli pacm aop.
B Hac U3 Cfl. lemeHwi He.'1CHbi X
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[peahl muopenuu npespaciucx
Bewno U(lJi em Haw y.u.
POrJC111 li t!H ce. ll bi! sutnepai on
Afll[J (iecme.iecnu» uueil .
Ipea« , KW{ epanu K{JIlCmQ..z.101l .
Bxpan. icw« u dylllll X AKJUelt
CTI1 XOTBOPCHlIC nanu cauo B 1919 r., 'I CpC3 450 JIeT nocne
C03Jlil ll H51 JllopepOi\l cnoef rpamop u. KaK BI1JlHO. uapu KpI1CTaJI­
JIOIJ Re' IHbl. ..
Jl u r e p a r y p a
I. E. Panofsiu], F. Saxl. Darers «Melencolia I ». B. G. Teubner.
Lei pzig; Berl i n. 1923.
2. E. Schroder. Durer-Kunst und Geomet ri e. Akademi e Ver­
lag. Berlin. 1980.
3. F. n. Mam BueBcKafl. AJlb6peXT lliopep - M .:
H ayKa.1987.
4. C. TOfta HCKuii. ItJIJ1I03Ii H. M .: M Hp. 1967.
5. D. P. Cri.gori.ev, I. I. Schaf rallovsky. Ober ei n riHselhaftes
Pol yeder in Al brecht Durers Kupfersti ch «M elencolia 1» ( 1514),
Fort schr, fur M i nera]ogi e, Bd . 50, August , 1973.
6. 11. Keil Aep. 0 weCTl1yrOJIbHblXCHeIKIi Ii Kax. M. : HayKa. 1982.
7. 11. 11. Wal/JpaHo8cKuU. 11CTOpH51 Kpl1CTaJIJIOr pacjJ lt ll - XIX 13,
.n. HayKa. 1980.
8. [J. r. HecceAbwmpayc. Anb6pexT lllO pep, .n ,;M . VlcKYc­
CTBO. 1961.
AneKceii I1BaHoBH4 rJlA30B - nOKTOp reOJlor o-MHHepaJlOr H4eCKHx HayK, nOLLeHT Kaepenpbl MHHepaJlOrHH, KpHCTaJlJlO­
rpaepHH Hner porpaepYlH CaHI<T -n eTep6yprcKor o rocynapCTBeHHoro ropHoro HHcrHTyTa (TY)
, ' 199026, CaH KT-neTep6ypr, 21 JlfiHIi51 . 2, Kaepenpa MI<H TeJl. (8 12) 328 82 66, 328 82 47
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I
B. E. nOIIOB
Ma./tou3(3ecmuble xumep 1
l-iozatctca BOA
U01fem1l0Z0 «xena POCCUUCKOZO
KTO 5101 "'lor nOAyMaTb. 'I TO B H3 CAeAIH 1 I'ere e uje OCTaAI1Cb CTI1 ­
XI1. He nepeneaeaaue aa P YCCKI1H 1I3bIK? Vl M eHHO sro n pl1111AO
MHe 13 rOA013Y. xorz,a COTPYAHI1KI1 I1HCTI1-ryTa Fer e - Opr3HI13aTO ­
psr BbICTa13KI1 . nOCI3IIUjeHHOt1 2 50-AeTI1IO 13eAI1Koro n 0 3Ta 11 MbIC­
AI1TeAII, 05P3TI1AI1Cb KO .\\He C n p o c s fi o a n o zao -r s 13 nepecoa e A13YX
TeKCT013. TepMI1HOAOfl1'1eCKI1 TPYAHbIX AAII <pI1AOAOr013 11, 13epOIIT­
HO. n03TOMY 050HAeHHbiX I1MI1. BpeMII 5blAO HeYAo6Hoe, II 6bIA C
YTP3 AO HO'l11 3aHIIT np013eAeHl1e.v\ KOH<pepeHyl1l1 no 13 y il Ka Hor e H­
a o - o c a a o x u o w y pYAoo6pa30 13aHI1IO (CM . penopTalK 13 3TOM HOMe­
pe »cypxaxa), HO npeAAQ)Ke Hl1e 313Y'lailO CAI1111KOM 3aM3H'II1130.
VI II He yCTOlIiI - HO'lblO, 13 rrpoweacyrx e MelKA Y Map lll p y Ta MI1 reo-
MU/l bIM l{ BemaM, YlOm,
Ilmuust U seepu ocantuj notom;
)/(au U ecmpe ua ii HaC - UMbl me6e B aOM
Tuxipo padocms - KaMHU nece.s«.
Kasujuce« - C/lOBHO UZpa /lbHaR Kocmb ­
Taiino 3aayMau, «a csacmse nootipocs.
Ilemcxoii py'l OHKOU «aumu U ctiepes»,
# 3 6e3ae/lYlUeK - eeunocm» ueene-cs.
Ma/lb'lUK, moi BUaUlUb, «mo «aseen» eomoe
Jleu» B OCHOBa Hbe U cme n»i aOMOB.
C l{ e/lblO maKOIO U me: COZ/laCUCb,
KaMHIO sa nO/lb3Y eeo nOK/lOHUCb.
Kasuuue« K KaM ylUKy MUp o6pacmem,
cnoco6 C03aa HbR naiidem;
B mUXOM eonnenee me! B 3a/lY eoii deiu», ­
Kasieu« sa eemnsui He cp asq HaUaelUb.
3 aeCb couemanue KpaCOK /l 106bIX:
Kpa cnue ucxpe: B /l y 'l ax ZO/ly6bIX,
Ho cpedu ecex U CU/lbH eU URCHeu
flpa3aHU'lHblU 6/leCK 6/l aZOp OaHbIX KaMH eu.
flpU3MO'lKU smu, «mo eac uuuupoean,
MamOBblM epausc« «mo tiaec« npudaea.n?
B eop neie mp euiuuu (J Z/l y 6b 3aZ/lRHU ­
TaM U3 nopod eupacmaiom OHU.
B Be'lHOM deutncense npupoda »cueem,
DOZ paspuiuaem U DOZ co siiaem;
AOrl1'1eCKOH 3KCKypCI111 B npI1AaAQ)I (be. YCTPOI1A ce5e rOA0130AOM­
Ky H3 A Te KCTa M I1 nO'l TI1 ABy x c o TAe TH e H AaBHOCTI1.
MHe T p yAHO CYAI1T b. HaCKOAbKO yAaAcli nepenoa. CaM I'er e, KaK
11313ecTHo. 13 C130I1X «MaKCI1MaX 11 pe<pAeKOIIIX') yBeplIA, 'ITO «ne­
peBOA'II1KI1 - 3TO XAOnOTAI113bIe C130AHI1 KI1, 13CII'IeCKI1 13blXBaAIIIO­
Ujl1e HaM nOAYCKpblT)'fO 13yaAblO Kpaca13l1yy; OHI1 13035YlKAaIOT aeo­
AOAI1MOe CTP eMAeHl1e K opuruuaxy». (nepenoz, H. BI1AbMOHTa 11
H. M a H) . C \eAYII 3TOMy 13bICI<a3blBaHI1IO. 3AeCb npeacracxeuu 11
Opl1fl1Hail 11 nepenoa - AAII cpaBHeHI1II . Flpu zopafio'nce pyCCKOro
TeKCT3 iI n Oilb30 13aACII KOHCYAhT<l 411IIMI1 fepM3HI1CT3 VI. C. AAeK­
ceenofi - Goxr.uioc e i-i cnac ufio.
Singen sie Blumen der kindlichen Huh,
Kiifer und Vogel und Tiercben dazu;
Aber du wechest, wir treten herein,
Bringen was ruhiges, bringen den Stein.
Steinchen, die bunten, ein lustiges Spiel!
Was man auch wiiund wie cs auch fie I.
Kindishen Hiindchen entshnikt sich so Iein,
Knohlein und Bohnen und Edelgcs tein.
Knabe du siehest nun Stein behaun
Ordncnd sich fiigen, zu Haiiscrn slch baun.
Wobl! du verwunderstdich, summes t mit ein:
Das is t wahrhaftig ein niitzlicher Stein!
Steinchen um Steinchen verzet tel t die Welt,
Wissende hubert's zusammen gestellt;
Tritts t du begierig zu Zalcn herein,
Siehst du zuers t nicht den Stein vor dem Stein.
Doch untersheidest and merkest gcnau:
Dieser ist rot and ein endrer ist blau,
Einer, der kliirsl, von Fsrben so rein,
Farbig erblitzet der edelste Stein.
Aber die Siiulchen wer schliff sie so glatt,
Spi lz l c sie, schiirit e sie gliinzend and matt?
Schau in die Klii fl e des Berges hinein,
Huhig entwickelt sich Stein aus Gestein.
Ewig natiiriich bewegende Kraft
Gottlich gesctzlich entbinder and shaffl;
en )/(U3HblO eaUHOU BCIO :JtCU3Hb aOp O:JtCUM, Trennendes Leben, im Leben Verein,
en
en B He6e aYlUa, HO nod KaMHeM /le:JtCUM . Oben die Geisler und unten der Stein.
...
95
CTI1XI1 TII1 nanucaau I'ere 110 n noxae 3peAOM 1l03pacTe, «oraa
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«noaapamrrexsxoro- TeKCTa, II HeM JlCHO 11l1AHbl l1 <pl1AOcoepCKl1e TeH ­
Ae HIJI1I1, Bropoe CTI1XOTll Op eHl1e - 3TO He6oAbllioT1 orpsmox 113
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'1eCKt>1M Al1aAOrOM Me)KAY rHOMaA111, r eOrH03l1eT1 11 TeXHI1KOT1», O H
narn-can AeCJl Tb AeT c n YCTJI (1828).
11 ece JIG (JAR pasip«: nepe eiuuuii (Jpye
Hasc eeouempun, ntupca ecex nau«:
E(JUHbIMU 3aKOHaMU CUAb Ha,
Ilpocm pancm eo KaK cmpyKmypy spurn OHa;
'lepmoeu uupa c «ea nonnu «pacu ;
PUmMU'lHbl KaK mO'lHeULUUe «acu ;
Ee (JYX08HO tiesepanu-tnsu; Kpye
Omxou.: npocmop (JAR HaLUUX JlGaAKUXpyK,
OHa enepeue HaM puuae oana,
HaM«oneco UeauKy cosoana;
Hanop ee ma KOB, «mo CJYH08eHbe
113 mecnomu, U3 nqcmom u pooum CJ8UJlCeHbe,
308em 3aKOHbi meopuecmea pacxpums,
Lfmo6 CUAy CUAOU onnocomeopumo.
B OTTO'leHHbIX <pOpMyAl1pollKax lleAI1KOrO CTaplja COAep)l(I1TCJI
He TOAbKO KOHCTaTaIJI1J1 AOCTOI1HCTll HayKI1, HO 11 Ka K 6bl npeanu­
AeHl1e nepCneKTI111ee I1cnOAb3011aHI1J1, K CTaTI1, eCAI1 r OBOpl1Tb 0 reo­
MeTPl111 II reoxorua, TO a a ee npl1MeHeHl111 311)KAeTCH OIJeHKa 3<l­
nacon PYA; II nOCAeAHl1e WAbl lice 60Aee llil1pOKOe n pl1MeHeHl1e x a­
XOAJlT TOMorpa<pI1J1, <ppaKTaAbHblT1 aHaA113, rtaxeopexoacrpyrcua«
aa OCHOlle pa311epTKI1 CKAaA'IaTbI X CTP y KTyp e tc.
BI1KTOP nOnOB - aKa,QeMHK PAEH, ,QOKTOP reO.nOrO -MHHepa.nOrH4eCKHX nayx, ,QeilcTBHTe,1bHblH 4,l eH Bce­
pOCCHHCKOro MHHepa.nOrH4eCKorO 06w.eCTBa
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peKAaMHbIH MOAYAb:
420 y. e.
3AKA3 MO:>KHO CAEAATh
nOAOCbI 240 y. e.
no TeAeQ>oHy (812) 326-2428;
KOMMepqeCKOe npeAAO:>KeHHe:
1190y.e. I/BnOAOCbI 20y.e.
no Q>aKcy (8121 528-8958;
999 y. e. 1/ nOAOCbI 12 y. e.
no e-mail: mineral@mail.wplus.net;
920 y. e.
16
no noxre: 195021, Canxr-Ilerepoypr, a/Sl 151
PeKAaMHaSl CTaTbSl:
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CTOH)IOCTb OAHoro HO)lepa >KypHilAa C Y'!eTOM nO'ITOBblX pacxoaoe
n o Poccsra - 5 y , e. B CTo mlOCTb He BXOAHT AOCTaBKd B CTp an bl
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:>KYPHAAA no nOqTE
4. MbI HanpaBJ\.5IeM BaM :>KypHaJI. nO'lTOH
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KOAH'leCTBO 3K3e lTIJ\.5IPOB - - - - - - - - --- ­
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ron scxoro 11 ra.
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1724 r. OCHOBaHl1e AKa)leMf111 aa y« B Flerepoypre
1935 r. OCHoB3HHe K3cj:>enpbl nerporp arpnn B Il erepoypr­
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1992 r. Y4pe>KJleHf1e TOO «I1HBEHT» B Il erepoypr e.
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1l 0 JTy4HJ1 lJ BbJCIII Ct ,(, P:J.'lO B3 HHC.
II C JT e,,0 1l3 Te,l bc Koi'! J.e>lTl'.nb­
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1999 rr. HanpaBJleHf1H B f1306pa3f1TeJlbHOM f1CKyccTBe.
Pas p a oork a CI1MBOJlI1KI1 ,QBH>KeHHH. nepco­
l-l d Jl bHbl C f1 KOJlJleKTHBHble BblCTaBKI1 xyno>Kl-Il1­
xoa-rrer por p a cj:> I1CTOB.
2000 r. OCHOBaHl1e COI03a nerpor p aqincros
C 0 f[ C 0 K .1 [,1 T cpa T y P b[:
1 Bauieno« A. B., KUI.UUH B. 11. Fler porp atpua a - 1·[OBOe
ua npaane nue B H306pa3f1Te.nbHoM HCKycCTBe. 'V\.HHepa,1, 1998,
Ng 1.3 C. 06.1.
2. fplj30ee B. N. TPH HCT04HHKa H TpH COCTaBlwe 4aCTfi
ner por parpuawa NlfIHepa.n. 1999, c.94-95
3. c[:>eHOMeli ner por parpus s a Koa n.nexr OTKPblT01(. KO,1,1.
aBT.. Ba uicuo« A. B., Fpyaneu B. 1-1., KawHH B. it H np. C06.:
TOO «vJI-IBEI-IT», 1998 r.
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n pOEKT ME)KJ.lYHAPO,UHOrO HAY'-1HO·llPOMbIWnEHHOrO <DOPVMA "BEJl VlKV1E PEKV1'2000" / le Ef
HltlKHltM Hoeropon:
TeJle<!>oHbl : +007 ( 83 12)
77-56-90,77-54-14
<!>aKcbl : +007 (8312)
77-55-68, 77 -56-65
e-mai l: irinka@yarmarka. ru
htt p:/ / www.yarm arka.ru/index_lce f .hIm
B MoeDe:
Ten/ <!>sKCbl : + 007 (095)
209-37-21, 209-37-95
e-mail : yar marka@4nnil .ru
B CSHKT·nerep6ypre:
Ten/ <!>sKcbl: +007 (8 12)
325- 54-25. 110-10-82
E-mail : csca@msil.wplus,nsl
CI»opyM " BenltKlt e peKIt'2000" np0 6neMs M 11 co uaansao ro pa3Bl'lTl'l1l I..\l'lBl'lnl'l3aI..\l'liii 6scce AHoB
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anM33bl; 3onOTO, nna raaa), COCTOIlHl'le l'l nepcneKrnBbl P03Sl'lTII Il or npOrH03l1pOBaHI-1Il , pa3Be.aKl'l 1-1 noneaasix l'lCKOnaeMbIX AO
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CPBAbl; ennaparypa Anll reonoro-axonor w-ecxor o xoarpona.

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