Presented By, Bibi Mohanan M.Tech,OEC Roll No:7



Introduction Components Comparing LASER & SPASER Spasing action Advantages Applications Demonstration of SPASER SPASER as an ultrafast quantum nanoamplifier Conclusion Reference


A spaser, one of the smallest lasers ever made, shines brightly.


Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation  Need of SPASER  Surface Plasmons  NSOM  Surface Plasmon Resonance(SPR)


Surface plasmon dispersion curve

(a)TIR (b) Kretschmann configuration.





Resonant medium
Metal or composite nanoparticle Plasmon mode in UV,visible or IR Coinage metals(Ag,Au,Al,Pt) Silver nanosphere:-radius=10-50 nm Silver nanoshell:thickness=5-20 nm, radius=50nm

Nanoshell geometry and the local optical field distribution for one SP in an axially symmetric dipole mode


Components continued  

Active medium
Rare-earth ions & semiconductor quantam dots(QD) Must have dipole oscillator strength for transitions Can be outside the nanoshell or inside the core 

Components continued«  


Energy source
Excites active medium Optical,electrical ,chemical or nuclear Optical: excitation frequency different than generated frequency

Spasing mechanism




Generate dark modes Coherent,strong fields No radiative losses Shape of nanoparticle does not affect gain generate pulses of localized optical fields with durations on the femtosecond scale can be integrated with nano-photodetectors and nanosensors highly resistive to ionizing radiation, high temperatures and other adverse environments Ultrafast detection and sensing Heating effect localized on nanocsale



Nanoscale lithography, microscopy Optical computing Magnetic data storage enhancement Analyzing individual molecules


electronic data storage and retrieval

Spectroscopy application

Comparing LASER & SPASER 

Laser ± photons. Spasers ± surface plasmons Laser cavity -half the wavelength Resonant cavity replaced by nanoparticle Energy source (gain medium) excited externally Both undergo stimulated emission


Demonstration of SPASER 

SPASER using Gold Nano particle

Stimulated emission

SPASER using Cadmium Sulphide nanowire

SPASER as an ultrafast quantum nanoamplifier 

problem of setting the spaser as an amplifier The monostable spaser as a nanoamplifier The bistable spaser (with saturable absorber) as an ultrafast nanoamplifier



SPASER is not a laser: Its two-level emitters (QDs, in particular) do not emit light waves, but rather undergo radiationless transitions where their excitation energy is transformed into quasi-static electric field energy of SPs. The stimulated nature of this energy transfer causes buildup of macroscopic numbers of coherent SPs in individual eigen modes of a nanosystem. It is possible to generate dark SPs that do not couple to far-zone fields. SPASER generates intense, nanoscale-localized optical-frequency fields with many possibilities for applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology, in particular for near-field nonlinear-optical probing and nano modification A spaser that is electrically pumped would be particularly valuable, although this possibility still needs to be explored.



Mark .I. Stockman ,Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER), United States Patent , 7,569,188 Mark.I.Stockman, Spasers explained, nature photonics , Vol 2 June 2008 Suface Plasmons Optrel GbR ‡ Strasse der Jugend 27-29 ‡ D-14532 Kleinmachnow ‡ ‡ ³The Spaser Nanolaser´, IEEE Spectrum, October 2009 M. I. Stockman Spaser as Nanoscale Generator and Ultrafast Amplifier, J.Opt. 12,024004-1-13 (2010) , N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakisi and V. A. Fedotov ,Lasing spaser

Reference continued«« 
M.A Noginov,G.Zhu,R.Bakker,S.Stout,E.Herz ,Demonstration of a SPASER based Nanolaser, vol 460/27 August 2009/ Nature08318, pp 110-112 D.J Bergman and M.I Stockman ,Can We Make a Nanoscopic Laser?, ,Laser Physics, Vol 14 No 3,2004,pp 409-411 Mark.I Stockman, David.J Bergman, Quantum Nanoplasmonics: SPASER Stefan Alexander Maier ,Plasmonics:Fundamentals and Applications,


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