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# UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Faculty Course : : Engineering & Science Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechanical Engineering Year 3/ Semester 1 Unit Code Unit Title : : UEME3133 Mechanics of Machines

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**Experiment 1 : Epicyclic Gear Train
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1. Objectives • • • • • • • To understand the working principle of epicyclic gear system. To calculate gear ratio of the epicyclic gear system. To determine the input power and output power of the epicyclic gear system. To determine the power loss of the epicyclic gear system. To measure the different stage epicyclic gear systems speed output. To measure the output torque generated by the epicyclic gear system. To calculate epicyclic gear system efficiency.

2. Theory 2.1 Introduction A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. It reduces speed and increases torque. To create large gear ratio, gears are connected together to form gear trains. They often consist of multiple gears in the train. The smaller gears are one-fifth of the size of the larger gear. Electric motors are used with the gear systems to reduce the speed and increase the torque. Electric motor is connected to the driving end of each train and is mounted on the test platform. The output end output end of the gear train is connected to a large magnetic particle brake that is used to measure the output torque. Simple Gear Train - The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type can be spur, helical or herringbone. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. The main limitation of a simple gear train is that the maximum speed change ratio is 10:1. For larger ratio, large size of gear trains are required; this may result in an imbalance of strength and wear capacities of the end gears. The sprockets and chain in the bicycle is an example of simple gear train. When the paddle is pushed, the front gear is turned and that meshes with the links in the chain. The chain moves and meshes with the links in the rear gear that is attached to the rear wheel. This enables the bicycle to move. Compound Gear Train - For large velocities, compound arrangement is preferred. Two keys are keyed to a single shaft. A double reduction train can be arranged to have its input and output shafts in a line, by choosing equal center distance for gears and pinions. Epicyclic or Planetary Gear Train - It is made of few components, a small gear at the center called the sun, several medium sized gears called the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear. The planet gears rolls and revolves about the sun gear and the ring gear rolls on the planet gear. Planetary gear trains have several advantages. They have higher gear ratios. They are popular for automatic transmissions in automobiles. They are also used in bicycles for controlling power of pedaling automatically or manually. They are also used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.

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the planetary gears simply rotate about their own axes at a rate determined by the number of teeth in each gear.2 Epicyclic Gearing Epicyclic or planetary gearing is a gear system that consists of one or more outer gears. or -3/2. then the ratio is equal to -S/P.2. each planet gear turns at 3/2 the rate of the sun gear. particularly because there are several ways in which an input rotation can be converted into an output rotation. In many epicyclic gearing systems. The three basic components of the epicyclic gear are: • • • Sun . or -3/2. For instance.3 Gear ratio The gear ratio in an epicyclic gearing system is somewhat non-intuitive. one of the two remaining components is an input. in the opposite direction. 2.5 counterclockwise turns of the planet gears. Annulus . same size. If the sun gear has S teeth. The ratio of input rotation to output rotation is dependent upon the number of teeth in each gear.An outer ring with inward-facing teeth that mesh with the planet gear or gears. Typically. and each planet gear has P teeth. and upon which component is held stationary. while the ring gear is fixed. and each planet has 16 teeth. ring gear sun gear planet gear carrier (A) (B) Figure 1 The epicyclic gearing shown in Figure 1 is to increase output speed. or sun gear.The central gear. or planet gears. Note both the marks (A) on the planet carrier and (B) on the sun gear before and after the input drive have rotated 45° clockwise.Holds one or more peripheral planet gears. rotating about a central. providing power to the system. 2 . if the sun gear has 24 teeth. then the ratio is -24/16. Here. The planet gear carrier is driven by an input torque. One situation is when the planetary carrier is held stationary. the planet gears are mounted on a movable arm or carrier which itself may rotate relative to the sun gear. The planet gears turn in a ratio determined by the number of teeth in each gear. meshed with the sun gear. Epicyclic gearing systems may also incorporate the use of an outer ring gear or annulus. while the last component is an output. Planet carrier . one of these three basic components is held stationary. which meshes with the planet gears. In this case. receiving power from the system. planet gear sun gear planet gear carrier Figure 2 Figure 2 shows the carrier is held stationary while the sun gear is used as input. The sun gear provides the output torque. the ratio is -24/16. and the sun gear is used as input. this means that one clockwise turn of the sun gear produces 1.

Extending this case from the one above: • • One turn of the sun gear results in . simply plug in the known values and solve for wout: where N is the number of teeth. Now. with input provided to the planetary gear carrier. you arrive at the equation from above. the ring moves that same speed the other way relative to the arm. in a corresponding ratio. The annulus may also be held fixed. The gear ratio in this case will be 1 / (1 + A/S).This rotation of the planet gears can in turn drive the annulus.S / P turns of the planets One turn of a planet gear results in P / A turns of the annulus So. For instance. NOTE: If the arm is the input or output. More planet and sun gear units can be placed in series in the same ring gear housing (where the output shaft of the first stage becomes the input shaft of the next stage) providing a larger (or smaller) gear ratio. equal to 1 + A/S. then the annulus will rotate by P/A turns for each turn of the planet gears. Apparatus 1. From the arms reference frame the ratio is always Nin / Nout. one turn of the sun gear results in . To derive this. So to write this relative relationship. but from your frame all the speeds are increased by the angular velocity of the arm. make sure Nsun + 2Nplanet = Nring where N is the number of teeth. Any gear can be the input or output. 3. This type of gearing is sometimes used in tractors and construction equipment to provide high torque to the drive wheels. the planet carrier will be the output. say the ring is the output/input instead and reverse the direction (since if the arm moves a certain speed relative to the ring. 2. and the planets 16. This is the way some automatic transmission work.S / A turns of the annulus. and an arm holding the planet. output rotation is then produced from the sun gear. with the planetary carrier locked. if the annulus has 64 teeth. a single planet. just imagine the arm is locked. one clockwise turn of a planet gear results in 16/64. then unlock the arm. since N is directly proportional to diameter. If the annulus is held stationary and the sun gear is used as the input. Stop watch 3 . If the annulus has A teeth. This configuration will produce an increase in gear ratio. and calculate the gear ratio wout : win = Nin : Nout. w is rpm. and obviously the arm does not have a tooth count to plug in). Motorized Epicyclic Gear Train which consists of: A = Spring scale B = Pulley and belt C = 3rd stage epicyclic gear train D = 2nd stage epicyclic gear train E = 1st stage epicyclic gear train F = Inductive sensor G = Main On/Off H = Motor speed controller and digital speed display I = Digital torque meter J = Digital speed meter (for annulas of the 1st stage) K = Geared motor 2. the annulus. or 1/4 clockwise turns of the annulus. including the arm.4 A simpler way to calculate the output RPM from the input RPM It is first drawn simplified as the sun. This simply says that the gears will fit. Also. This is the lowest gear ratio attainable with an epicyclic gear train.

Ensure all the digital meters are working in order. Ensure the belt if properly sit on the pulley (B) and tighten to the spring scales (A). Clear all the maximum and minimum value of the meters by pressing the max/min 4 . 2.Useful Information Number of teeth Sun Gear Planetary Gear Ring Gear 18 21 60 Pitch diameter (mm) 36 44 120 Pitch size (mm) 7 7 7 J H K E D C A I B G F Figure 3 – Epicyclic gear train apparatus 4. 4. 4. Reset the speed and torque digital meter (I. No body part should touch any rotating object. 2. Apply 6 kg to each of the spring load by turning the wing nut provided. Do not run the motor for more than 70rpm 6.1 Procedures 1. Use a calliper. 5. Safety and Precautions 1. Ensure the belt if properly sit on the pulley and tighten to the spring scales. Stop the apparatus immediately if the gear system does not move when the motor is running. Do not attempt to change any setting of the digital meters. Do not impact the load cell. Record this value. Switch ON the main switch (G) of the apparatus at the control panel. 3. measure the diameter of the pulley. 3. J) to zero by pressing the up button. 5. Experiment 5.

6. From the spring scale (A). State down the time taken to complete 1 cycle using a stop watch. 10. (NOTE: Do not run the motor for more than 70 rpm). The motor speed is shown on the speed controller. (NOTE: Take few set of reading to achieve better average time). 40. State down this reading. The torque reading will be fluctuating. State down the time taken to complete 1 cycle using a stop watch. Calculate the 3rd stage ring gear output speed (C). Switch ON the gear motor and slowly increase the speed of the motor to the 30 rpm by pressing the ^ button of the motor speed controller (H). 5. State down the torque reading from the digital torque meter (I).e. State down this reading. measure the force generated.2 Result Motor Speed (RPM) Torque Input (Nm) 1st Stage Ring Gear Speed (RPM) Force Output (kg) 1 2 3 4 30 40 50 60 Calculation of power input to the epicyclic gear system Motor Speed (RPM) 1 2 3 4 30 40 50 60 Motor angular speed (rad/s) Torque Input (Nm) Power Input (W) Calculation for the 2nd stage ring gear speed Motor Speed (RPM) Number of cycle Time (s) 2nd stage ring gear speed (RPS) 1 2 3 4 30 40 50 60 RPS * 2π (rad/s) 5 . Press on the max/min button to obtain the maximum torque reading.button for 1 second. 9. 7. Take the different between the maximum and minimum value as the force reading. Repeat step 3 to 9 using different type of input speed (i. 5. 60 rpm). 11. 50. State down the 1st stage ring gear speed from the digital speed meter (J). (NOTE: Take few set of reading to achieve better average time). Both of the scale will move up and down. 8. Calculate the 2nd stage ring gear output speed (D).

η Calculation of speed ratio of the epicyclic gear system Motor Speed (rad/s). R1 1 2 3 4 3.284 1st stage ring gear speed (rad/s).189 5. R3 3rd stage ring gear speed (rad/s).237 6.Calculation for the 3rd stage ring gear speed Motor Speed (RPM) Number of cycle Time (s) 1 2 3 4 30 40 50 60 3r stage ring gear speed (RPS) RPS * 2π (rad/s) Calculation for torque & power generated at the 3rd stage of epicyclic gear Motor Speed (RPM) Force Output (kg) 1 2 3 4 30 40 50 60 Force Output (N) Torque Output (Nm) Power Output (W) Calculation of power loss and overall efficiency Motor Speed (RPM) 1 2 3 4 30 40 50 60 Power input (W) Power output (W) Power loss (W) Overall efficiency. R2 2nd stage ring gear speed (rad/s). R4 6 .142 4.