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TABLE OF CONTENT

SNO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 4-15

2. Review of literature 16-22

3. Research Methodology 23-27

4. Analysis 28-67

5. Discussion 68-74

6. Findings 75-77

7. Suggestions 78-79

8. Limitations 80

9. Bibliography 81-83

10. Annexure 84-87

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In recent decades, organisational culture has become a popular construct. Yet, many authors
have criticised the light heartedness (even in terms of “fashions” and “fads”) with which it
has been studied. Despite the continued use of the organisational culture construct in practice,

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in management academia attention to the construct is waning. An important reason is that the
construct is left unclear.

DEFINING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

Organisational culture forms the glue that holds the organisation together and stimulates
employees to commit to the organisation and to perform. Literature on how to operationalise
this “glue” is fairly rare. In order to stimulate empirical, comparative research on
organisational cultures, we provide our own operational definition of the construct of
organisational culture. This definition is based on experiences with ten studies in which
organisational cultures were measured quantitatively (Wilderom, Van den Berg, Glunk, &
Maslowski, 2001).

Organisational culture is defined as shared perceptions of organisational work practices


within organisational units that may differ from other organisational units. Organisational
work practices are the central part of this definition. The definition is a shortened version of
Kostova’s definition: “particular ways of conducting organizational functions that have
evolved over time . . . [These] practices reflect the shared knowledge and competence of the
organization.”

Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) identified over 160 definitions of ‘culture’; consequently,
there is little agreement on what the term means and how it can be measured. Pettigrew
(1979) was one of the first to use the term ‘organizational culture’; it was however Brown
(1954, p. 6) who provided perhaps the first step towards defining ‘organizational culture’:
The culture of an industrial group derives from many sources: from class origins,
occupational and technical sources; the atmosphere of the factory which forms their
background; and finally, from the specific experiences of the small informal group itself.
Some of its more important manifestations may be classed as: occupational language;
ceremonies and rituals; and myths and beliefs. Barnard (1938), Selznick (1957), Gouldner
(1960, 1965), Saint-Simon (1975) and Weisbord (1987) recognized the need to consider
cultural aspects in the study of organizational performance. More recently, Denison (1984),
Fiol (1991), and Kotter and Heskett (1992) emphasized culture as key to improving
performance.

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Schein (1985) developed a three-stage life-cycle model of organizational culture change –
birth and early growth; organizational midlife; and organizational maturity – with each stage
having its own culture supporting different functions. Schein (1992, p. 2) subsequently
defined organizational culture as: a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group
learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has
worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as
the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.

The Nature of Culture

Culture is based on the uniquely human capacity to classify experiences, encode such
classifications symbolically, and teach such abstractions to others. It is usually acquired
through enculturation, the process through which an older generation induces and compels a
younger generation to reproduce the established lifestyle; consequently, culture is embedded
in a person's way of life. Culture is difficult to quantify, because it frequently exists at an
unconscious level, or at least tends to be so pervasive that it escapes everyday thought. This is
one reason that anthropologists tend to be skeptical of theorists who attempt to study their
own culture. Anthropologists employ fieldwork and comparative, or cross-cultural, methods
to study various cultures. Ethnographies may be produced from intensive study of another
culture, usually involving protracted periods of living among a group. Ethnographic
fieldwork generally involves the investigator assuming the role of participant-observer:
gathering data by conversing and interacting with people in a natural manner and by
observing people's behavior unobtrusively. Ethnologies use specialized monographs in order
to draw comparisons among various cultures.

The term was coined by Richard Hoggart in 1964 when he founded the Birmingham Centre
for Contemporary Cultural Studies or CCCS. It has since become strongly associated with
Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart as Director.
From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with his colleagues Paul Willis,
Dick Hebdige, Tony Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie, created an international intellectual
movement. Many cultural studies scholars employed Marxist methods of analysis, exploring
the relationships between cultural forms (the superstructure) and that of the political economy
(the base). By the 1970s, however, the politically formidable British working classes were in
decline. Britain's manufacturing industries were fading and union rolls were shrinking. Yet,

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millions of working class Britons backed the rise of Margaret Thatcher. For Stuart Hall and
other Marxist theorists, this shift in loyalty from the Labour Party to the Conservative Party
was antithetical to the interests of the working class and had to be explained in terms of
cultural politics.
In order to understand the changing political circumstances of class, politics, and culture in
the United Kingdom, scholars at the CCCS turned to the work of Antonio Gramsci. Gramsci
had been concerned with similar issues: why would Italian laborers and peasants vote for
fascists? Why, in other words, would working people vote to give more control to
corporations, and see their own rights and freedoms abrogated? Gramsci modified classical
Marxism in seeing culture as a key instrument of political and social control. In this view,
capitalists use not only brute force (police, prisons, repression, military) to maintain control,
but also penetrate the everyday culture of working people. Thus, the key rubric for Gramsci
and for cultural studies is that of cultural hegemony.
Write Edgar and Sedgwick:
The theory of hegemony was of central importance to the development of British cultural
studies [particularly the CCCS]. It facilitated analysis of the ways in which subordinate
groups actively resist and respond to political and economic domination. The subordinate
groups need not be seen merely as the passive dupes of the dominant class and its ideology.

This line of thinking opened up fruitful work exploring agency; a theoretical outlook which
reinserted the active, critical capacities of all people. Notions of agency have supplanted
much scholarly emphasis on groups of people (e.g. the working class, primitives, colonized
peoples, women) whose political consciousness and scope of action was generally limited to
their position within certain economic and political structures. In other words, many
economists, sociologists, political scientists, and historians have traditionally deprived
everyday people of a role in shaping their world or outlook, although anthropologists since
the 1960s have fore grounded the power of agents to contest structure, first in the work of
transaction lists like Fredrik Barth, and then in works inspired by resistance theory and post-
colonial theory.

At times, cultural studies' romance with agency nearly excluded the possibility of oppression,
overlooks the fact that the subaltern has their own politics, and romanticizes agency, over
blowing its potentiality and pervasiveness. In work of this kind, popular in the 1990s, many
cultural studies scholars discovered in consumers ways of creatively using and subverting

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commodities and dominant ideologies. This orientation has come under fire for a variety of
reasons.

Cultural studies concerns itself with the meaning and practices of everyday life. Cultural
practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as watching television, or
eating out) in a given culture. In any given practice, people use various objects (such as iPods
or handguns). Hence, this field studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various
objects and practices. Recently, as capitalism has spread throughout the world (a process
called globalization), cultural studies has begun to analyze local and global forms of
resistance to Western hegemony.

Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Culture

He has found five dimensions of culture in his study of national work related values:
• Low vs. High Power Distance - the extent to which the less powerful members of
institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Low power distance (e.g. Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand) expect and accept
power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another
more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable
with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decision making of those in
power. In High power distance countries (e.g. Malaysia, Slovakia), less powerful
accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates
acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain
formal, hierarchical positions. As such, the Power Distance Index, Hofstede defines,
does not reflect an objective difference in power distribution but rather the way people
perceive power differences. In Europe, Power Distance tends to be lower in Northern
countries and higher in Southern and Eastern parts. There seems to be an admittedly
disputable correlation with predominant religions.
• Individualism vs. collectivism - individualism is contrasted with collectivism, and
refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves and to
choose their own affiliations, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of a life-
long group or organization. Latin American cultures rank among the most collectivist
in this category, while Western countries such as the U.S.A., Great Britain and
Australia are the most individualistic cultures.

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• Masculinity vs. femininity - refers to the value placed on traditionally male or female
values (as understood in most Western cultures). So called 'masculine' cultures value
competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth and material
possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality
of life. Japan is considered by Hofstede to be the most "masculine" culture (replaced
by Slovakia in a later study), Sweden the most "feminine." Anglo cultures are
moderately masculine. As a result of the taboo on sexuality in many cultures,
particularly masculine ones, and because of the obvious gender generalizations
implied by Hofstede's terminology, this dimension is often renamed by users of
Hofstede's work, e.g. to Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life. Another reading of the
same dimension holds that in 'M' cultures, the differences between gender roles are
more dramatic and less fluid than in 'F' cultures
• Uncertainty avoidance - reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to
cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Cultures that scored high in uncertainty
avoidance prefer rules (e.g. about religion and food) and structured circumstances, and
employees tend to remain longer with their present employer. Mediterranean cultures,
Latin America, and Japan rank the highest in this category

JOB SATISFACTION

Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects,


people or events. They reflect how one feels about something. Work Attitudes are the feelings

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and beliefs that largely determine how employees will perceive their environment, commit
themselves to intended actions, and ultimately behave. Job Satisfaction is one of the many
work related attitudes individuals hold like Job Involvement, Organizational Commitment,
etc.
Job Satisfaction thus is a set of favourable or unfavourable feelings and emotions with which
employees view their work. A person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive
feelings about the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his/ her job holds negative
feelings about the job.Job satisfaction is an important concern for both the employee as well
as the employer as it has an impact on many organizational behaviours. Greater job
satisfaction has been generally related to reduced intent to leave the organization (Brayfield
& Crockett, 1955; Mowday, Koberg, & McArthur, 1984) and with reduced rates of
absenteeism (Porter & Steers, 1973). Job satisfaction has been shown to be strongly related to
organizational commitment (Porter, Steers, & Mowday, 1974) and to organizational
citizenship behaviors (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983; Organ, 1988).
Thus, the importance of job satisfaction lies not only in its relationship with performance but
with its stabilizing effects (reducing tardiness, absenteeism, and turnover) and through its
effects on cohesion (increasing organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational
commitment).

Job Satisfaction is an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. Locke (1976) gives
a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as involving cognitive, affective and evaluative
reactions or attitudes and states it is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from
the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction as an emotional response to a
job situation implies that it cannot be seen; it can only be inferred. Job satisfaction also
depends upon an employees’ perception of how well their job provides those things that are
viewed as important and is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed
expectations, e.g. if employees feel that they are working much harder than others in the
department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will have negative attitude towards their
work, boss, or co-workers, and they will be dissatisfied. It is generally recognized in the
organizational behaviour field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently
studied attitude

Approaches to study Job Satisfaction


There have been two approaches to study job satisfaction:-

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1. Global Approach: It treats job satisfaction as a single, overall feeling towards the
job.
2. Facet Approach: It focuses on the different aspects of the job such as rewards, other
people on the job, job conditions, nature of work itself, etc.
For the present study facet approach is being used as it presents a more complete picture of
job satisfaction. An individual typically has different levels of satisfaction with various facets.
He may be very dissatisfied with the fringe benefits but at the same time be very satisfied
with the nature of work and supervisors.

The Cultural Web- By Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes


The Cultural Web, developed by Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes in 1992, provides one
such approach for looking at and changing your organization's culture. Using it, you can
expose cultural assumptions and practices, and set to work aligning organizational elements
with one another, and with your strategy.
Elements of the Cultural Web
The Cultural Web identifies six interrelated elements that help to make up what Johnson and
Scholes call the "paradigm" - the pattern or model - of the work environment. By analyzing
the factors in each, you can begin to see the bigger picture of your culture: what is working,
what isn't working, and what needs to be changed. The six elements are:
1. Stories - The past events and people talked about inside and outside the company.
Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says a great deal about what it
values, and perceives as great behavior.
2. Rituals and Routines - The daily behavior and actions of people that signal
acceptable behavior. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations,
and what is valued by management.
3. Symbols - The visual representations of the company including logos, how plush the
offices are, and the formal or informal dress codes.
4. Organizational Structure - This includes both the structure defined by the
organization chart, and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose
contributions are most valued.
5. Control Systems - The ways that the organization is controlled. These include
financial systems, quality systems, and rewards (including the way they are measured
and distributed within the organization.)

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6. Power Structures - The pockets of real power in the company. This may involve one
or two key senior executives, a whole group of executives, or even a department. The
key is that these people have the greatest amount of influence on decisions,
operations, and strategic direction.
These elements are represented graphically as six semi-overlapping circles (see Figure 1
below), which together influence the cultural paradigm.

Using the Cultural Web


We use the Cultural Web firstly to look at organizational culture as it is now, secondly to look
at how we want the culture to be, and thirdly to identify the differences between the two.
These differences are the changes we need to make to achieve the high-performance culture
that we want.
1. Analyzing Culture As It Is Now
Start by looking at each element separately, and asking yourself questions that help you
determine the dominant factors in each element. Elements and related questions are shown
below, illustrated with the example of a bodywork repair company.
Stories
• What stories do people currently tell about your organization?

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• What reputation is communicated amongst your customers and other stakeholders?
• What do these stories say about what your organization believes in?
• What do employees talk about when they think of the history of the company?
• What stories do they tell new people who join the company?
• What heroes, villains and mavericks appear in these stories?
Examples (car bodywork repair company):
Rituals and Routines
• What do customers expect when they walk in?
• What do employees expect?
• What would be immediately obvious if changed?
• What behavior do these routines encourage?
• When a new problem is encountered, what rules do people apply when they solve it?
• What core beliefs do these rituals reflect?
Examples:
• Customers expect a newspaper and coffee whilst they wait, or a ride to work.
• Employees expect to have their time cards examined very carefully.
• There's lots of talk about money, and especially about how to cut costs.
Symbols
• Is company-specific jargon or language used? How well known and usable by all is
this?
• Are there any status symbols used?
• What image is associated with your organization, looking at this from the separate
viewpoints of clients and staff?
Examples:
• Bright red shuttle vans.
• Bright red courtesy cars - compact, economy cars.
• The boss wears overalls not a suit.

Organizational Structure
• Is the structure flat or hierarchical? Formal or informal? Organic or mechanistic?
• Where are the formal lines of authority?
• Are there informal lines?
Examples:
• Flat structure - Owner, Head Mechanic, Mechanics, Reception.

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• The receptionist is the owner's wife so she goes straight to him with some customer
complaints.
• It's each mechanic for himself - no sharing tools or supplies, little teamwork.
Control Systems
• What process or procedure has the strongest controls? Weakest controls?
• Is the company generally loosely or tightly controlled?
• Do employees get rewarded for good work or penalized for poor work?
• What reports are issued to keep control of operations, finance, etc...?
Examples:
• Costs are highly controlled, and customers are billed for parts down to the last screw.
• Quality is not emphasized. Getting the work done with the least amount of direct costs
is the goal.
• Employees docked pay if their quotes/estimates are more than 10% out.
Power Structures
• Who has the real power in the organization?
• What do these people believe and champion within the organization?
• Who makes or influences decisions?
• How is this power used or abused?
Example:
• The owner believes in a low cost, high profit model, and is prepared to lose repeat
customers.
• The threat of docked pay keeps mechanics working with this model.
As these questions are answered, you start to build up a picture of what is influencing your
corporate culture. Now you need to look at the web as a whole and make some generalized
statements regarding the overall culture.
These statements about your corporate culture should:
• Describe the culture; and
• Identify the factors that are prevalent throughout the web.
In our example the common theme is tight cost control at the expense of quality, and at the
expense of customer and employee satisfaction.

2. Analyzing Culture as You Want it to Be


With the picture of your current cultural web complete, now's the time to repeat the process,
thinking about the culture that you want.

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Starting from your organization's strategy, think about how you want the organization's
culture to look, if everything were to be correctly aligned, and if you were to have the ideal
corporate culture.
3. Mapping the Differences Between the Two
Now compare your two Cultural Web diagrams, and identify the differences between the two.
Considering the organization's strategic aims and objectives:
• What cultural strengths have been highlighted by your analysis of the current culture?
• What factors are hindering your strategy or are misaligned with one another?
• What factors are detrimental to the health and productivity of your workplace?
• What factors will you encourage and reinforce?
• Which factors do you need to change?
• What new beliefs and behaviors do you need to promote?

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Many researchers such as Hibbard (1998) and White (1998) have focused on values in
defining organisational culture. Whereas values are important elements of organisational
culture, research has demonstrated that organisations showed more differences in practices

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than in values (Hofstede, 2001, p. 394). Opposite results were found among national cultures.
Hofstede explained these results by the fact that values are acquired in one’s early life and
mainly in the family. This supports the view that organisational culture can better be defined
by organisational practices. Values are typically not directly visible for employees, but we
assume that organisational values are expressed, in part, in organisational practices.
Therefore, they can be derived from the existing practices within an organisation, department,
or work unit. In our past research (Wilderom & Van den Berg, 1999), we measured
organisational practices and values by asking for the extent to which the practices are present
or should be present, and we also found that organisations differed more strongly on practices
than on values.

Given the original emphasis on shared values, the idea of organisational culture strength
arose: in a strong organisational culture, employees would have the same set of values, i.e.
ideas on how a particular organisation should operate. This view was strongly influenced by
Peters and Waterman (1982)who argued that the best companies were characterised by values
to which employees were strongly committed. Many researchers and consultants assume that
successful cultures have employees with similar basic organisational values and assumptions
(see, for example, Hibbard, 1998; White, 1998). Academic evidence is limited to a few
studies; Denison (1990), Calori and Sarnin (1991), Gordon and DiTomaso (1992), and Kotter
and Heskett (1992) report a relationship between a strong organisational culture and
organisational performance. However, Brown (1998), O’Reilly and Chatman (1996), and
Wilderom, Glunk, and Maslowski (2000) have reviewed these studies critically. They showed
that these empirical studies lacked a clear connection between conceptual and operational
definitions of organisational culture strength. Moreover, culture strength, as reflected in most
operationalisations of the construct, indicates only the degree of employee consensus. Such
consensus information does not indicate the level of organisational culture on several
dimensions (see, for example, Reed & DeFillippi, 1990).
Thus, the culture strength variable is considered to be too limited to measure or understand a
phenomenon as complex as organisational culture (Kotter & Heskett, 1992; Kunda, 1992;
Saffold, 1988; Schein, 1985, 1992).

Our culture focus is on perceptions of organisational work practices, rather than on their
objective occurrence. That is, through the eyes of the members of a working group, one
assesses the patterns of regular work behaviors. This part of the definition emphasises the

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idea that organisational culture is, in essence, a perceptual yet organisational phenomenon. It
is observed or registered by individual employees. The inclusion of organisational work
practices does not neglect the employees’ points of view. Capturing the perceptions of a
representative sample of employees may often not be convenient (see, for example, Calori &
Sarnin, 1991), but should be part of any assessment of an organisation’s culture.

By defining organisational culture as shared perceptions of organisational practices, the


concept is similar to organisational climate, which has been typically conceived as
employees’ perceptions of observable practices and procedures (Denison, 1996, p. 622).
Denison (1996) indicated that both culture and climate studies focus on the internal social
psychological environment as a holistic, collectively defined context and that there is a high
overlap between the dimensions used. Traditionally, organisational culture studies were
qualitative and founded on social constructionism, while organisational climate studies were
quantitative and routed in Lewinian field theory (see Denison, 1996). However, Denison
(1996) reported that these differences are disappearing in more recent studies. Also, Parker,
Baltes, Young, Huff, Altmann, Lacost, and Roberts (2003, p. 389) noticed in their
metaanalysis a “considerable confusion regarding the constructs of . . . organisational climate,
and organisational culture . . .”. Therefore, we do not stress the distinction between
organisational culture and climate. However, an important distinguishing feature is that
climate relates to the evaluation of a current state of affairs and culture relates to the
registration of actual work behaviors (Denison, 1996). It may be wise to carry out both types
of assessment at the same time (see Ashkanasy, Wilderom, & Peterson, 2000).
Previous researchers have examined culture at various levels of analysis: from national
culture to group-level culture. First, it was strongly tied to the national culture. Second, the
construct was used to describe excellent organisations. Third, subcultures have been
discerned within organisations. Fourth, culture has been studied at the team level (for
example, Glission & James, 2002). We believe that company-wide cultures can only be
assessed accurately through team-level assessments. In order to capture the degree of sharing
about daily work practices within one organisation, one cannot but assess the smallest
meaningful workplace grouping, often teams. Within each team a certain degree of “shared
perceptions” about their organisational work practices can be established. How to compare
these “shared perceptions” of one group to another meaningful comparison group is the key
question that clearly remains. We will focus on this measurement issue below.

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Corporate culture
The concept of using corporate culture to analyze organizations was examined in a research
paper by Smircich wherein she found five primary research themes: comparative anagement,
corporate culture, organizational cognition, organizational symbolism, and unconscious
processes and organization. She proposes that researchers of corporate culture select their
research directions based on their own assumptions on organizations and “cultural
perspective”. The result of this premise is that those examining corporate culture will delve in
different directions, unearthing knowledge that will yield variant results depending on which
of the five research themes drives that researcher and that research stream. She concludes by
echoing earlier research [38] that organizational research study is moving from an area
dominated by the “open systems” metaphor to one accepting of the “culture” metaphor. This
implies that studies of enterprise mobility should incorporate the concept of corporate culture
and not merely the concept of the organization as a system.

Barney found that three attributes of a firm’s culture must exist for that firm to create a
sustainable competitive advantage. Those three attributes are: 1) the culture must be valuable,
meaning that it provides mechanisms that lead to better financial performance, 2) the culture
must be rare, meaning that it is not commonly evident in firms in that industry, and 3) the
culture is not “perfectly imitable”, meaning that other firms lacking that culture cannot easily
adopt or replicate it. The author does not imply that organizations with these cultural features
will automatically have a sustainable competitive advantage because there may be other
characteristics of the firm that negate the value of these cultural attributes.

Denison examined the difference between research on corporate climate and research on
corporate culture. One of his premises is that some quantitative survey methods used to
examine corporate culture are in opposition to the foundations of original culture research
methods. Furthermore, those same quantitative survey methods are strikingly similar to
methods used in earlier corporate climate research. He then contrasts the differences and
similarities between these two research approaches quite succinctly as “If researchers carried
field notes, quotes, or stories, and presented qualitative data to support their ideas, then they
were studying culture. If researchers carried computer printouts and questionnaires and
presented quantitative analysis to support their ideas, then they were studying climate.”
He concludes by speculating that the difference between the two is a matter of interpretation
rather than actual phenomenon.

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Cultural Studies in the 21st Century
Though a young discipline, cultural studies has established a firm footing in many
universities around the globe. With steadily rising enrollments, expanding numbers of
departments, and a robust publishing field, cultural studies steps into the 21st century as a
young yet successful discipline. The "discipline," if it can be called that (and there is
considerable debate among scholars to this effect) is filled with discussions about its future
directions, methods, and purposes.
Sociologist Scott Lash has recently put forth the idea that cultural studies is entering a new
phase. Arguing that the political and economic milieu has fundamentally altered from that of
the 1970s, he writes, "I want to suggest that power now... is largely post-hegemonic...
Hegemony was the concept that de facto crystallized cultural studies as a discipline.
Hegemony means domination through consent as much as coercion. It has meant domination
through ideology or discourse..." He writes that the flow of power is becoming more
internalized, that there has been "a shift in power from the hegemonic mode of 'power over'
to an intensive notion of power from within (including domination from within) and power as
a generative force." Resistance to power, in other words, becomes complicated when power
and domination are increasingly (re)produced within oneself, within subaltern groups, within
exploited people.
In response, however, Richard Johnson argues that Lash appears to have misunderstood the
most basic concept of the discipline. 'Hegemony', even in the writings of Antonio Gramsci, is
not understood as a mode of domination at all, but as a form of political leadership which
involves a complex set of relationships between various groups and individuals and which
always proceeds from the immanence of power to all social relations. This complex
understanding has been taken much further in the work of Stuart Hall and that of political
theorist Ernesto Laclau, who has had some influence on Cultural Studies. It is therefore
unclear as to why Lash claims that Cultural Studies has understood hegemony as a form of
domination, or where the originality of his theory of power is actually thought to lie.
This illustrates the extent to which Cultural Studies remains a highly contested field of
intellectual debate and self-revision.
Institutionally, the discipline has undergone major shifts. The Department of Cultural Studies
at the University of Birmingham, which was descended from the Centre for Contemporary
Cultural Studies, closed in 2002, although by this time the intellectual centre of gravity of the
discipline had long since shifted to other universities. These included the Open University

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(where Stuart Hall worked for the last 20 years of his career), Goldsmiths College (arguably
the most high-profile graduate centre in the discipline as of 2008), the University of East
London, and various North American and Australian institutions. Certain institutions, such as
the London Consortium (a collaboration between Tate the ICA, Birkbeck, University of
London, the Architectural Association and the Science Museum, formed in 1993), the Centre
for Cultural Analysis, Theory & History at the University of Leeds, Centre for Performance
Research and Cultural Studies (cpracsis)and the Amsterdam School of Cultural Analysis have
propagated a conception of the discipline which combines various kinds of philosophically-
informed art and film criticism with some attention to the cultural institutions that are
involved in the production, dissemination and consumption of culture, but which largely
foregoes the political orientation of cultural studies in the 'Birmingham' tradition. Such
postgraduate institutions may exert a powerful influence on the future of the discipline,
although it remains the case that scholarly journals such as Cultural Studies, Theory, Culture
& Society, Social Text and New Formations remain its key intellectual forums.

Social and cultural theories strive to explain how people relate to each other and/or the
surrounding environment. As people increasingly use technology to communicate with one
another, either as individuals, groups, or communities; social and cultural theories become
more relevant for HCI. Technology needs to be designed in a way that supports this
cooperative behavior. Sociability becomes as important as usability when designing
interfaces for collaborative/communicative technologies. Social and cultural theories can help
define new areas and give new perspectives to HCI research.
Social and cultural theories are very broad topic to discuss in a paper of this scope, so instead
of specific details, this paper attempts to give a general picture of the type of research that is
important to the HCI community. Many of these topics warrant full descriptions (or books) to
understand the impact, so in addition to the general overview, the reader is encouraged to
investigate the theories further by looking at the links and references.

Scope, Application, and Limitations


Social and cultural theories have broad scope in HCI research. These theories affect HCI
research and are affected by HCI research. In addition, while individual behavior (cognition)
is fairly well understood, group or cooperative behavior (social/cultural) is an active area of
research: there is still much to be understood. Social and cultural research is still at a defining
stage, as such; it may be difficult to apply the preliminary theories of this research to HCI.

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The CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) community is a new field that tries to
merge these areas (HCI and social and cultural models); Olson & Olson report that they are
still at the stage of “building illustrative point systems, or examples of what can be done to
support work with computers.” Evaluation, characterizing relationships, and finding models
or theories that guide system design are still primarily unexplored areas of research (Olson &
Olson 1997). Another limitation is that there is dispute about social theories and computer
related socialability: there is fear that online communities, email, or usage of the Internet
destroys personal social relationships. Technology greatly affects the social patterns of
people, and thus traditional theories of sociology might not be relevent when these new
factors (like the technology) are introduced. The way that social theories is understood can
also affect technology; and so the two interact in a complex way, which leads to very
qualitative research, often with unclear or disputed models or theories of interaction.

Principles
There are many social and cultural theories that relate to HCI, but this relationship is not
straight-forward. Social and cultural research is not "neat" scientific research: there are too
many factors that complicate the research. Much of the research in this area is qualitative, and
thus the theories tend to be more descriptive. Social and cultural theories can be useful in HCI
research, but the interaction goes both ways. This section outlines some of the areas of active
research in these domains, some of these domains center around one encompassing theory,
but others pull descriptive theories from several areas and try to start understanding the areas
of research that might produce new theories.

Social informatics studies social aspects of computerization, including use, design, and
consequences of technology. “The social context of information technology development and
use plays a significant role in influencing the ways that people use information and
technologies, and thus influences their consequences for work, organizations, and other social
relationships”(Kling). This field studies the aspects of technology and system design that are
relevant to people’s lives. It’s a new field that is still formulating theories about how social
aspects relate to computing in general, trying to predict under what conditions systems might
fail, or trying to understand and describe technical areas with complex or ambigious
outcomes

19
OBJECTIVE

Objective of study

1. To study the organizational culture in telecom industry.

2. To study the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

20
A descriptive research design was followed. The target area was the employees of AIRTEL,
RELIENCE and VODAPHONE. The research was done to analyze the organizational culture
and its impact.

Research Approach

For this research, the research approach was survey, by visiting the various organization and
doing survey. Survey was the best suited to fulfill the purpose of this research work, because
it helped to know about the culture of the organization .

Sample Size

The sample size for this survey consisted of 25 employees from each company. The
employees were selected at “simple random sampling.” and the area covered was the various
departments in Bharti Airtel Telemedia Services, Vodaphone and Relience telecom.

Research Tool

The instrument used for research was questionnaire. The respondents were evaluated using a
pre-formatted questionnaire (Questionnaire I – annexure). The project was concerned about
collecting information regarding the various factors affecting the work life balancing.

The dimensions which were taken were:

 ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

Organization design involves the creation of roles, processes, and formal reporting
relationships in an organization. One can distinguish between two phases in an organization

21
design process: Strategic grouping, which establishes the overall structure of the organization,
(its main sub-units and their relationships), and operational design, which defines the more
detailed roles and processes.

 INDIVIDUAL JOB CHARACTERISTICS

Individual job characteristics tell about the nature of the job, type of job, what is it all about
and the impact of it on individual.

 CO-WORKER RELATIONS

It tells about what type of relationship and bonding is being shared between workers.

 WORK ENVIRONMENT

It tells about the work climate, whether the employees are being valued in the organization,
whether they are able to achieve balance between work life and personal life and so on.

 SENIOR MANAGEMENT

This parameter talks about the ways in which senior managers who are the strategy makers
takes work from employees, there authoritative roles and responsibilities to achieve
collaboration across organization.

 WORK PROCESS

It tells about the method adopted to do a specific task. Every organization has a work process
in form of flow chart which tells about the steps to be taken to achieve final objective.

 COMMUNICATIONS

Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions,


or information by speech, writing, or signs...", it is an act or instance of transmitting and a
process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of
symbols, signs, or behaviour. Communication is a process whereby information is encoded
and imparted by a sender to a receiver via a channel/medium. The receiver then decodes the
message and gives the sender a feedback. Communication requires that all parties have an
area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speaking, singing

22
and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign
language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, by using writing.

Communication is thus a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to


create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal
and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and
evaluating. if you use these processes it is developmental and transfers to all areas of life:
home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration
and cooperation occur.

In context of organization communication is a formal way of giving information or guiding


someone and even ordering him to do a particular work.

 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

This parameter discusses about how much the organization focuses on the customer
satisfaction. and what all it does in order to achieve customer satisfaction.

The research was conducted using a combination of Primary as well as Secondary data.

• Primary Data

 Questionnaire

• Secondary Data

 Newsletters

23
 Circulars

 Website

 Newspapers

Scaling technique:

Likert Scale is used in the questionnaire administered for the study. Developed by Rensis
Likert, a Likert Scale is widely used rating scale that requires respondents to indicate a
degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the factors
undertaken. The scale has five response categories viz,

1. Strongly Agree
2. Agree
3. Neither Agree Nor Disagree.
4. Disagree
5. Strongly Disagree

Action Plan and Data Collection

For completing my Study on Organization culture. Study is undertaken according to


following action plan:

Step 1. Developing an approach to the problem, it involved formulation of objective, making


rough information needs, what all data was required, analyzing secondary data and
discussions with staff that helped in giving inputs as and when required.

24
Step 2. Review of company manuals, books, journal helped in the formation of objectives. It
helped in better defining the problem, what factors should be considered, helped in
formulating research design and also formed the basis of collecting Primary Data

Step 3. Distributed the Questionnaire to the executives in each department. I preferred to give
questionnaire to them and collected later, so that executives can provide thoughtful responses.

Step 4. After collection of questionnaire data analysis was done which is discussed in detail
later.

Step 5. Suggestion & recommendation are given at last.

Data Analysis

Data was analyzed by using SPSS software by finding out the correlation between various
dimensions/parameters of work life balancing. After finding out the correlations among
different variables and interpreting them, factor analysis was done to reduce the number of
variables to a small number of variables. Factor analysis groups variables with similar
characteristics together.

PROCEDURE

Each of the above sub scale/ parameters is composed of seven to eight questions which is
rated on a Likert scale. Respondent were asked to rate the scale as strongly agree, agree,
neither agree nor disagree, disagree and strongly disagree. Each response was assigned a
weight as mentioned above. The lower score indicated that respondent strongly agrees to a
particular statement and so on.

25
The analysis has been divided into to two parts:

Part 1: It comprises of mean

Part 2: It comprises of correlation analysis

Part 3: It comprises of anova

Part 4: It comprises of factor analysis

26
27
28
COMPANY A
Statistics
TOD_A TIJC_A TCWR_A TCWE_A TSM_A TWP_A TC_A TCS_A
N Valid 375 375 300 375 375 375 375 375

Mean 1.8533 1.6560 1.7967 2.0027 1.8907 1.9333 1.7440 1.6640


Std. Deviation .50910 .54386 .61909 .73673 .53866 .59708 .53594 .47297

TOTAL ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN:

Organizational design is important in the formation of organizational culture .The mean value
of OD is 1.853 which shows that people are satisfied with the culture prevailing in the
organization. People are aware about the goals and objectives of the organization. People are
well aware of their role and responsibilities. The organization has clear reporting structure
and employees pose right skills sets to perform their job functions.

TOTAL INDIVIDUAL JOB CHARACTERSTICS:

Individual job characteristics determine the individual skills and abilities. The mean value of
IJC is 1.65 which shows that people are satisfied with their current job reasonability. People
find their job challenging and also get the opportunities to develop their sills and
responsibilities.

TOTAL CO-WORKER RELATIONS:

The positive relationship between the workers helps in devolving a culture. The mean value
of CW is 1.79 shows that people are valued by their peers. People share their knowledge
across the organization. Employees consult each other when they need support. Employees
also appreciate the personal contribution of their peers.

TOTAL WORK ENVIRONMENT:

A good and healthy working environment helps in building a good organizational culture.
The mean value of WE is 2.00 which shows that people are valued in the organization.
Employees get enough time to maintain a balance between their family and work. The morale
of employees is high across the organization.

TOTAL SENIOR MANAGEMENT:

29
A good and corporative management helps in building good work environment. The mean
value of SM is 1.89 which shows that senior management encourages the employees to grow
across the organisation. Senior management also treats their employees fairly and set
standards of excellence. Employees trust the information given by their mangers and
appreciate their work.

TOTAL WORK PROCESSES:

An established work process helps in building a good organisational culture. The mean value
of WP is 1.93 which shows that people are aware of their well they can perform their job and
employees take the responsibilities for their actions and the work are completed by the
employees on time. Employees also use the work processes efficiently.

TOTAL COMMUNIUCATION:

A well developed communication process effects positively the job satisfaction of the
employees. The mean value of Communication is 1.74 which shows that employees are well
informed about their job to perform. Employees are also aware of how their job supports the
departmental objectives. People feel free to consult their peers for suggestions and ideas.
Employees contribute to the organisational performance through interpersonal
communication.

TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION:

Customers can only feel satisfied if the employees are satisfied and the organisational culture
is positive. The mean value of CS is 1.66 which shows that customers are satisfied as the
organisation understands the needs of the customers. Employees have always believed in
delivering high quality products and on time. The products delivered generally meet the needs
of the customers

COMPANY B

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Statistics
TOD TIJC TCWR TCWE TSM TWP TC TCS
N Valid 375 375 300 375 375 375 375 375

Mean 3.9173 3.7867 3.7233 3.2667 3.5300 3.6267 3.2947 3.1573


Std. Deviation .58602 .57332 .62831 1.09853 .65698 .53170 .56168 .60505

TOTAL ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN:

Organizational design is important in the formation of organizational culture .The mean value
of OD is 3.91 which shows that people are not satisfied with the culture prevailing in the
organization. People are generally not aware about the goals and objectives of the
organization. People are not well aware of their role and responsibilities. The organization
does not have a clear reporting structure and employees skills sets are not enhanced to
perform their job functions.

TOTAL INDIVIDUAL JOB CHARACTERSTICS:

Individual job characteristics determine the individual skills and abilities. The mean value of
IJC is 3.78 which show that people are not satisfied with their current job reasonability.
People do not find their job challenging and usually do not get the opportunities to develop
their sills and responsibilities.

TOTAL CO-WORKER RELATIONS:

The positive relationship between the workers helps in devolving a culture. The mean value
of CW is 3.72 shows that people are not much valued by their peers. People geneally do not
share their knowledge across the organization. Employees do not consult each other when
they need support. Employees usually do not appreciate the personal contribution of their
peers.

TOTAL WORK ENVIRONMENT:

A good and healthy working environment helps in building a good organizational culture.
The mean value of WE is 3.26 which shows that people are not usually valued in the
organization. Employees do not get enough time to maintain a balance between their family
and work. The morale of employees is not high across the organization.

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TOTAL SENIOR MANAGEMENT:

A good and corporative management helps in building good work environment. The mean
value of SM is 3.53 which show that senior management generally do not encourage the
employees to grow across the organisation. Senior management also do not treat their
employees fairly and do not set standards of excellence. Employees do not usually trust the
information given by their mangers and do not appreciate their work.

TOTAL WORK PROCESSES:

An established work process helps in building a good organisational culture. The mean value
of WP is 3.62 which shows that people are not aware of their job and employees don’t take
the responsibilities for their actions and the work are not generally completed by the
employees on time. Employees do not use the work processes efficiently.

TOTAL COMMUNIUCATION:

A well developed communication process effects positively the job satisfaction of the
employees. The mean value of Communication is 3.29 which shows that employees are not
well informed about their job to perform. Employees are also not aware of how their job
supports the departmental objectives. People do not feel free to consult their peers for
suggestions and ideas. Employees don’t contribute to the organisational performance through
interpersonal communication.

TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION:

Customers can only feel satisfied if the employees are satisfied and the organisational culture
is positive. The mean value of CS is 3.15 which shows that customers are not satisfied as the
organisation understands the needs of the customers. Employees have not always believed in
delivering high quality products. The products delivered generally don’t meet the needs of the
customers

32
Intra Correlation: COMPANY A

33
1. Organizational design:

Correlation between “Reporting structure” and “shared understanding between


employees”

There is a negative correlation between both the variables It implies that they are inversely
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If the organization will
not have a good reporting structure then there won’t be a shared understanding between
senior and subordinates as well as between peers. Whereas the correlation between both the
variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Roles and responsibilities of employees” and “reporting


structure”:

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. The employees
will understand their roles and responsibilities if there is an appropriate reporting structure.
Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

2. Individual job characteristics:

34
Correlation between “work add value to the organization” and “satisfaction from
current job responsibilities”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If an
individual thinks that his work adds value to the organization then he gets satisfaction
from the current job responsibilities. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is
significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Challenges in current job” and “add value to the


organization”

There is a negative correlation between both the variables It implies that they are
inversely proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If an
employee doesn’t find challenges in his current job role then he feels that he is not adding
value to the organization. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant
as it is less than 0.05.

3. Co-worker relationship:

35
None of the correlation is significant.

4. Work environment:

36
Correlation between “Work life balance” and “enjoy being a part of organization”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If an
employee achieves balance between his work life and family life then he enjoys being a
part of the organization. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant
as it is less than 0.05. Work-life balance plays a very important role in employee’s
satisfaction. If an employee is able to balance between his personal life and professional
life then it in turns increases his efficiency.

5. Senior management:

37
Correlation between “Treat employee fairly” and “Encourage collaboration”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. When
employees are treated fairly they achieve satisfaction from there seniors and gets
motivated to work in collaboration as they all are treated equally without any partiality.
Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Trust in information from senior management” and “Treat


employee fairly”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. Both the
variable are highly correlated if the senior management treats the employees fairly and
without any partiality then employees also trust in the information received from senior
management. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less
than 0.05.

6. Work process:

38
Correlation between “Work task completed on time” and “Clarity on how best to
perform task”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If the
employees will have clarity on how to perform task then work task will be completed on
time. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than
0.05.

Correlation between “Work task completed on time” and “every one takes
responsibility for their action”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If
everybody takes responsibility for their actions then work task will definitely complete on
time. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than
0.05.

Correlation between “Work group operates effectively” and “Work task completed
on time”

39
There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If work
group operates effectively as a unit then work task will be completed on time. Whereas
the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Work task completed on time” and “efficient work process
used to perform job”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If efficient
work process is used to perform the job then work task will be completed on time.
Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

7. Communication

None of the correlation is significant.

8. Customer satisfaction:

40
Correlation between “customer regularly tells that company is doing great job”
and “We understand specific need of customer”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are
directly proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If
employees will understand the need of customers then customer will definitely be
satisfied from the services of company and will tell that company is doing great job.
Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “customer regularly tells that company is doing great job”
and “focus on delivering high quality product and services”

There is a negative correlation between both the variables It implies that they are
inversely proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If
company does not focuses on delivering high quality product and services then
customer will not tell the company that it is doing great job. Whereas the correlation
between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

41
Correlation between “customer regularly tells that company is doing great job” and
“Delivering products and services on time”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If company
doesn’t delivers products and services on time then customer will not tell the company
that it is doing great job. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant
as it is less than 0.05.

Intra Correlation: COMPANY B

1. Organizational design:

Correlation between “shared understanding of what organization is supposed to do”


and “clarity of organizational goals and objectives”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If the
organizational goals and objectives will be clear to employees then they will develop
shared understanding of what organization is supposed to do. Whereas the correlation
between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

42
Correlation between “shared understanding of what organization is supposed to do”
and “Clear reporting structure”

There is a negative correlation between both the variables It implies that they are
inversely proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If the
organization won’t have a clear reporting structure then the employees won’t have a
shared understanding of what organization is supposed to do. . Whereas the correlation
between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

2. Individual job characteristics:

Correlation between “Challenged in current job role” and “skills and ability are
fully utilized”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If employee
doesn’t face challenges in his current job role then he cannot test his skills and abilities
and make optimum utilization of both. Whereas the correlation between both the variable
is significant as it is less than 0.05.

3. Co-worker relationship:
43
This is no significant correlation

4. Work environment:

This is no significant correlation

5. Senior management:

44
Correlation between “High standards of excellence” and “encourage collaboration”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If high
standards of excellence is set by senior management, then it should also encourage
collaboration across the organization because achieving high standards becomes easy
when employees collaborate and work upon it . Whereas the correlation between both the
variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “High standards of excellence” and “treat employee well”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If senior
management don’t treat employee well they will get demotivated and achieving high
standards will become difficult. Where as if employees are treated well then they will
work hard and high standards can then easily be achieved. Whereas the correlation
between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Work appreciated” and “High standards of excellence”

45
There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If
employees are appreciated for their performance then they will get motivated and will
work hard to achieve high standards of excellence set by senior management. Whereas the
correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

6. Work process:

Correlation between “Work task completed on time” and “every one takes
responsibility for their action”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If
everybody takes responsibility for their actions then work task will definitely complete on
time. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than
0.05.

Correlation between “Work task completed on time” and “efficient work process
used to perform job”

46
There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If efficient
work process is used to perform the job then work task will be completed on time.
Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Work group operates effectively” and “Work task completed
on time”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If work
group operates effectively as a unit then work task will be completed on time. Whereas
the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

7. Communication:

This is no significant correlation

8. Customer satisfaction:

47
Correlation between “Focus on delivering quality products” and “Understand
specific need of customers”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If
organization is not able to understand the need of customer then it cannot deliver quality
products as per the specification and requirement of customer. Whereas the correlation
between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “Focus on delivering quality products” and “delivering


products/services on time”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. The
organization should focus on delivering products and services on time and those products
and services should meet set quality standards. Whereas the correlation between both the
variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “customer regularly tells that company is doing great job” and
“We understand specific need of customer”

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There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If
employees will understand the need of customers then customer will definitely be
satisfied from the services of company and will tell that company is doing great job.
Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “customer regularly tells that company is doing great job” and
“focus on delivering high quality product and services”

There is a negative correlation between both the variables It implies that they are
inversely proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If
company does not focuses on delivering high quality product and services then customer
will not tell the company that it is doing great job. Whereas the correlation between both
the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

Correlation between “customer regularly tells that company is doing great job” and
“Delivering products and services on time”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If company
doesn’t delivers products and services on time then customer will not tell the company
that it is doing great job. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant
as it is less than 0.05.

CORRELATION COMPANY A:

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CORRELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL INDIVIDUAL JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND
TOTAL ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If there will be
an appropriate organizational design then employees will have a clear idea of their roles and
responsibilities and they will get satisfaction from their current job responsibilities as they are
clear how to perform and for what they are accountable.

CORRELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL WORK


ENVIRONMENT”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If senior
management treats employee fairly and appreciates the work employee it affects the work
environment directly as employee feel valued and their morale also increases. Where as if
senior management don’t treat employee fairly then employee don’t enjoy being a part of that
organization and never speaks highly about the organization.

50
CORRELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL COMMUNICATION AND TOTAL WORK
ENVIRONMENT”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other.
Communication is an essential element of today's work environment. As we progress through
an age of downsizing, workers tend to feel more vulnerable. As a result, morale and
productivity levels suffer. Effective two-way communication provides employees with a
sense of awareness, confidence and security. It gives employees the opportunity to express
what they intend to do. The lack of communication causes employees to feel a loss of control.
Without it they also feel disconnected and isolated.

CORRELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL COMMUNICATION AND TOTAL WORK


PROCESS”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. Work process
effectiveness lies in communication. If the employees are not properly communicated by their
reporting officers on how to perform work task then accuracy cannot be achieved. Work task
cannot be accomplished on time if appropriate work process is not adopted and as well as not
communicated to employees.

CORRELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL COMMUNICATION AND TOTAL SENIOR


MANAGEMENT”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. Senior
management sets high standards of excellence but to achieve those standards it should be
communicated to employees. Senior management should encourage collaboration across
organization to synergise the work output. But collaboration cannot be imposed for that
effective communication is required between employer and employees, so that employees
understand how they can grow through collaborative work.

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CORRELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND TOTAL
SENIOR MANAGEMENT”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. Senior
management makes strategies to retain their current customers as well as to get new ones. To
retain the existing customers it is very important to deliver high services to them and those
services should meet customer expectations, for that senior management makes strategies to
retain their customers and they have to keep a check on how the employees are working hand
in hand to achieve desired objectives.

CORRELATION COMPANY B:
CORRELATION TABLE:

CORELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL CO-WORKER RELATIONSHIP AND TOTAL


ORGANIZATION DESIGN”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If there will be
a good organizational design the roles and responsibilities will be clear to the employees and

52
they will work together to achieve desired targets. Organization design also determines the
pattern for information flow in an organization. If knowledge and information sharing will be
proper in a company then it will lead to a good co-worker relationship. Whereas the
correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

CORELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL WORK ENVIRONMENT AND TOTAL


ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If there will be
a good organizational design then it will lead to a healthy work environment. Whereas the
correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

CORELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL


INDIVIDUAL JOB CHARACTERISTICS”

There is a negative correlation between the variables. It implies that they are inversely
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If the senior
management is not at all cooperative with the employees and never thinks of their welfare
and never appreciate them for their performance then employee satisfaction level will
decrease. Whereas the correlation between both the variable is significant as it is less than
0.05.

CORELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL COMMUNICATION AND TOTAL CO-WORKER


RELATIONSHIP”

There is a positive correlation between both the variables. It implies that they are directly
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will increase the effect of other. If there will
effective communication between employees then it will help in reducing misunderstandings
and developing healthy relationship between employees. Whereas the correlation between
both the variable is significant as it is less than 0.05.

53
CORELATION BETWEEN “TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND TOTAL
ORGANIZATION DESIGN”

There is a negative correlation between the variables. It implies that they are inversely
proportional to each other i.e. increase in one will decrease the other. If organization design is
not appropriate the employees will not be clear about their roles and responsibilities and
hence won’t be able to deliver high quality product and services to their customers.

54
ANNOVA
COMPANY A

Annova and F test is being calculated for the parameters which have significant and low
correlation and to find the difference between the parameters. The significance indicates
significant level of F test.

1. Total Work Environment:

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD_A 1.259 0.686

TIJC_A 9.424 0.700

TCWR_A 0.623 0.647

TSM_A 2.176 0.771

TWP_A 0.264 0.901

TC_A 5.504 0.000

TCS_A 0.327 0.860

TOTAL COMMUNICATION:

The significance value for total communication is 0.000 which is less than .005, hence it
differ significantly from total work environment. The value of F test is 5.504 and shows how
total communication is in close group difference with total work environment.

If an organization has good communication system then the work environment will also be
healthy. Both these variables are directly proportional to each others. But total
communication differ significantly from total work environment because there is neck to neck
competition between employees and specially territory sales managers as their compensation
is directly proportional to the sales they get for the company, so they communicate with each
other and don’t collaborate with each other.

55
2. Senior Management

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD_A 2.820 0.725

TIJC_A 0.655 0.624

TCWR_A 1.547 0.689

TCWE_A 3.871 0.004

TWP_A 46.557 0.800

TC_A 18.366 0.600

TCS_A 12.598 0.590

TOTAL WORK ENVIRONMENT:

The significance value for total work environment is 0.004 which is less than .005, hence it
differ significantly from total senior management. The value of F test is 3.871 and shows how
total work environment is in close group difference with total senior management.

The role of senior management is to guide the employees and take work out of them. They
should contribute in creating work environment which is healthy so that employees get
satisfaction from their work and they should also understand the requirement of employees
and empathise with them. But total work environment differ significantly from total senior
management because senior management just focuses on getting task done from employees
and don’t focus on employees work life balance. Their main motive is to get desired sales.

56
3. Work Processes

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD_A 1.490 0.004

TIJC_A 0.400 0.809

TCWR_A 1.895 0.911

TCWE_A 4.523 0.601

TSM_A 79.703 0.760

TC_A 22.455 0.860

TCS_A 15.537 0.753

TOTAL ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN:

The significance value for total organizational design is 0.204 which is less than .005, hence
it differ significantly from total work process. The value of F test is 1.490 and shows how
total work process is close group difference with total organizational design.

Total organizational design differ significantly from total work process because
organizational design tells about the process to be followed to do a task and the reporting
hierarchy where as the employees don’t follow the desired work process and organizational
design. Their main motive is to close the sale target and don’t follow proper work process for
it.

57
COMPANY B:

Annova and F test is being calculated for the parameters which have significant and low
correlation and to find the difference between the parameters. The significance indicates
significant level of F test.

1. Total Organization Design

ANOVA
F Sig.
7.52791437
0.8116
TIJC 9
TCWR 10.1001928 0.0001
12.1171085
0.9000
TCWE 2
1.82933157
0.7211
TSM 4
0.25907642
0.7719
TWP 7
10.4858145
0.7344
TC 5
11.9230106
0.6533
TCS 9

Total Co-Worker relationship: The significance value for total Co-Worker relationship is .000
which is less than .005, hence it differ significantly from total organizational design. The
value of F test is 10.100 and shows how total Co-Worker relationship is in close group
difference with total organizational design.

The organizational design has direct relationship with Co-worker relationship. If the
organization design will be crystal clear then there will not be any barriers in communication
between employees, and it will lead to a healthy relationship between co-workers but co-
worker relationship differ significantly from organizational design because as per the design
Roles and responsibilities within the group are understood but employee don’t consult each
other when they need support.

58
2. Total Individual Job Characteristics

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD 2.237521 0.108157

TCWR 2.542977 0.080343

TCWE 0.314251 0.73053

TSM 4.852003 0.000

TWP 1.117164 0.328302

TC 0.277945 0.757496

TCS 0.22931 0.795194

Total senior management: The significance value for total senior management is .000 which
is less than .005, hence it differ significantly from total Individual Job Characteristics. The
value of F test is 4.852 and shows how total senior management is in close group difference
with total Individual Job Characteristics.

Senior management encourages collaboration and set standards for excellence, these factors
helps in bringing satisfaction of employees. But total senior management differs significantly
from individual job characteristics because senior management sets high standards for
employees which are sometime not feasible.

59
3. Total Co-Worker Relations

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD 2.408729 0.049483

TIJC 3.08508 0.716

TCWE 0.898716 0.76504

TSM 1.435743 0.222124

TWP 0.59265 0.668217

TC 2.963725 0.020

TCS 0.833728 0.5046

TOTAL COMMUNICATION:

The significance value for total communication is .020 which is less than .005, hence it differ
significantly from total co-worker relationship. The value of F test is 2.963 and shows how
total communication is in close group difference with total Co-worker relationship.

Interpersonal communication and relationships contribute to organizational performance, if


there will be a good interpersonal communication then it will lead to a healthy co-worker
relationship. But total communication differ significantly from co-worker relationship
because when employee need help they don’t communicate well with each other as they don’t
have good interpersonal relationships due to high competition between them, as their
performance is evaluated on the number of sales they close in a day.

60
4. Total Work Environment:

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD 6.154012 0.800

TIJC 3.222997 0.713

TCWR 0.490642 0.743

TSM 22.11031 0.000

TWP 0.931492 0.646

TC 9.135815 0.860

TCS 2.577741 0.737

TOTAL SENIOR MANAGEMENT:

The significance value for total senior management is .000 which is less than .005, hence it
differ significantly from total work environment. The value of F test is 22.110 and shows how
total senior management is in close group difference with total work environment.

If the organization provides a good work environment it leads to a balance between the
employees work life and family life. But total work environment differs significantly from
total senior management. senior management puts a lot of work load and high targets for
employees which inurns disturbers the balance between work life and family life.

61
5. Total Senior Management :

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD 1.461445 0.713

TIJC 4.471614 0.702

TCWR 1.243554 0.693

TCWE 2.289921 0.009

TWP 1.548416 0.188

TC 4.983525 0.701

TCS 6.424275 0.810

TOTAL WORK ENVIRONMENT:

The significance value for total work environment is .009 which is less than .005, hence it
differ significantly from total senior management. The value of F test is 2.289 and shows how
total senior management is in close group difference with total work environment.

Senior management plays a very important role in motivating employees as well as to guide
them properly so that they achieve organizational goals. But total work environment differ
significantly from total senior management because senior management is least concerned
about the work life balance of employees.

62
6. Total Work Processes :

ANOVA
F Sig.
TOD 0.19075 0.826

TIJC 0.881155 0.415

TCWR 0.64826 0.524

TCWE 2.872989 0.058

TSM 2.797722 0.062

TC 0.603015 0.548

TCS 12.74798 0.000

TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION:

The significance value for total customer satisfaction is .000 which is less than .005, hence it
differ significantly from total work process. The value of F test is 12.74798 and shows how
total Work Processes is in close group difference with total customer satisfaction.

Total customer satisfaction differ significantly from total work process because efficient
work process is used to accomplish the task and products/services are delivered on time but
once the sales has been closed the employee don’t care for customer needs.

63
FACTOR ANALYSIS

FACTOR ANALYSIS OF COMPANY A

Component Matrixa
Component
1 2 3 4
TOD_A .051 .760 -.128 .145
TIJC_A .043 .630 -.170 .550
TCWR_
.387 -.261 -.432 -.226
A
TCWE_A .259 -.214 .722 .387
TSM_A .606 .349 .357 -.301
TWP_A .580 .360 .105 -.504
TC_A .735 -.267 .019 .358
TCS_A .669 -.200 -.444 .250
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a. 4 components extracted.
The parameter which are most important which help in building an appropriate organization
culture which in turn leads to employee satisfaction are:
1. Organization design
2. Individual job characteristics
3. Work environment
4. Communication

FACTOR ANALYSIS OF COMPANY B

64
Component Matrixa
Component
1 2 3
TOD .540 .395 .548
TIJC .262 -.217 .419
TCWR .706 -.192 .255
TCWE -.232 .746 .445
TSM .080 .491 .569
TWP -.013 -.308 .341
TC .693 -.293 -.298
TCS -.654 -.418 .267
Extraction Method: Principal
Component Analysis.
a. 3 components extracted.

The parameter which are most important which help in building an appropriate organization
culture which in turn leads to employee satisfaction are:
1. Co-worker relationship

2. Work environment

3. Senior management

DISCUSSION
COMPANY A

Correlation between communication and work environment

65
According to correlation analysis there exist a positive correlation between communication
and work environment, this is also supported by the research of Bagin, Dr. Don. (1987). But
as per my findings communication also have direct relationship between work process and
senior management. There exists correlation between between communication and work
process because Work process effectiveness lies in communication. If the employees are not
properly communicated by their reporting officers on how to perform work task then
accuracy cannot be achieved. Work task cannot be accomplished on time if appropriate work
process is not adopted and as well as not communicated to employees. There exists
correlation between communication and senior management because senior management sets
high standards of excellence but to achieve those standards it should be communicated to
employees. Senior management should encourage collaboration across organization to
synergise the work output. But collaboration cannot be imposed for that effective
communication is required between employer and employees, so that employees understand
how they can grow through collaborative work.

Correlation between individual job characteristics and organization design

According to correlation analysis there exists a positive correlation between job


characteristics and organization design; this is also supported by research of W.Adorno
(1989) which states that if an appropriate organizational design leads to clarity in roles and
responsibilities of individual and hence employee get satisfaction from their current job
responsibilities as they are clear how to perform it.

Correlation between senior management and work environment

According to correlation analysis there exists a positive correlation between senior


management and work environment; this is also supported by research of Johnson, G. (1989),
which states that senior management effects work environment and can impact it as per its
actions.

Correlation between customer satisfaction and senior management

According to correlation analysis there exists a positive correlation between customer


satisfaction and senior management; this is also supported by the research of Kluckhohn

66
(1992) which tells that strategies made by top management has high impact on customer
satisfaction.

COMPANY B

Correlation between co-worker relationship and organizational design

According to correlation analysis there exist a positive correlation between co-worker


relationship and organization design; this is also supported by the research of Leibowitz,
Scholossberg (1982), & Shore which tells that both organization design has a strong impact
on co-worker relationship because if design is good employees have clarity in organizational
goals and collaborate to achieve it.

Correlation between senior management and individual job characteristics

According to correlation analysis there exist a positive correlation between senior


management and individual job characteristics; this is also supported by the research of
Chatman(1990), he says that individual can only get satisfaction from their job characteristics
if the job is challenging and enhances his knowledge base, senior management should match
right person for right job.

Correlation between communication and co-worker relationship

According to correlation analysis there exist a positive correlation between communication


and co-worker relationship; McMillan research (1989) also supports it which says if there
will be effective internal communication between employees this will help in building trust
and better relationships.

ANNOVA

Company A

Total Work Environment:

67
Total communication differ significantly from work environment as per the research and it is
also supported by the research of Deal T. E. and Kennedy, A. A. (1982) Corporate Cultures.
Which says that total work environment and communication are significantly different.

Senior Management:

Senior management differ significantly from work environment environment as per the
research and it is also supported by the research of Handy, C.B. (1985) Understanding
Organizations Which says that Senior management and work environment differ significantly
from each other.

Work Processes:

Total organizational design differ significantly from total work organizational design as per
my findings and it is also supported by the research of Kotter, John. 1992 Corporate Culture
and Performance.

COMPANY B:

Organization Design:

Co-Worker relationship is in close group difference with total organizational design as per
my findings, it is also supported by the research of Phegan, B. (1996-2000) Developing Your
Company Culture which says that both variables differ significantly from organizational
design because as per the design Roles and responsibilities within the group are understood
but employee don’t consult each other when they need support.

Work process:

Work process is in close group difference with customer satisfaction as per my findings, it is
also supported by the research of Kotter, John. 1992 Corporate Culture and Performance.

Which states that work process is not the only factor which doesn’t have high impact on
customer satisfaction. Where as corporate strategies have impact on customer satisfaction.

Analysing organization A and B on the basis of Johnson and Scholes model

68
Stories

• What stories do people currently tell about your organization?

Company A: It has a very good and healthy work environment, employees get enough
time to maintain a balance between their family and work.

Company B: It has a very good and healthy work environment but not better than
company A. Employees do not get enough time to maintain a balance between their
family and work.

• What reputation is communicated amongst your customers and other stakeholders?

Company A: Customer have a very good reputation about the company as the
company focuses on delivering high quality products and services and after sales
services too. The company focuses on the customer needs and provides schemes to
them as per their requirments.

Company B: Customer dont have a very good reputation about the company as
company products and services are not very innovative and its after slaes services are
poor.

Rituals and Routines

69
• What behavior do these rituals and routines encourage?

Company A: The rituals and routines encourages knowledge sharing, setting high
standards for excelence, encouraging collaboration across organization,
acknowledgement of good work, adopting effective work process and focusing on
customer satisfaction.

Company B: The rituals and routines dont encourages knowledge sharing, setting high
standards for excelence, encouraging collaboration across organization,
acknowledgement of good work, adopting effective work process and focusing on
customer satisfaction. But it encourages providing services at very cheap rates

• What core beliefs do these rituals reflect?

Company A: It reflects that work of this company is more organizaed , it has a better
structure and work process. Customer satisfaction is the USP for the organization.

Company B: It reflects that work of this company is unorganized. The work process
adopted by this company is not at all efficient. Company only provides less expensive
for services attracting more customers, where as doesn’t adopts innovation in its
products and services. And doesnot focuses on providing good after sales services to
retain its existing customers.

Symbols

• What image is associated with your organization, looking at this from the separate
viewpoints of clients and staff?

Company A: From client/customer perspective it is a company which is highly


innovative, understands customer needs, does every thing for customer satisfaction. From
the view point of staff the company focuses on employee welfare, senior management
treats all employees fairly and appreciates individual work.

Company B: From client/customer perspective it is a company which donot focuses on


providing high quality services which meets customer expectations. From the view point
of staff the company donot focuses on employee welfare, senior management donot treats
all employees fairly and partiality.

70
Organizational Structure

• How effective is current organization structure

Company A: The organization has clear reporting structure and employees possess
right skills sets to perform their job functions. The employees have clearity about their
roles and responsibilities. Clear reporting structure has been established in the
organization.

Company B: The organization donot have clear reporting structure neither the
employees have clarity about the goals and objectives of the organization.

Control Systems

• Is the company generally loosely or tightly controlled?

Company A: The company is tightly controled, it has an established reporting


structure which is properly followed. Work task are completed on time and senior
management keeps a check on the whole functioning. People take responsibility for
their action and are also accountable for it.

Company B: The company is loosely controled as the employees don’t follow the
reporting structure properly. People don’t take responsibilities and passes on their
work to others. Senior management also never keeps appropriate check on employees.

• Do employees get rewarded for good work or penalized for poor work?

Company A: Yes employees do get rewarded for good work and they are also
penalized for poor work as their salary is directly proportional to their performance
because their compenation pacakage also have variable component.

Company B: Yes employees don’t get penalized for poor performance

Power Structures

• Who has the real power in the organization?

71
Company A: The real power lies in the hands of the chief managing director, top
management and the CEO’s who develops business strategies for the organization to
achieve desired goals and objectives.

Company B: The real power lies in the hands of the top management and the chief
managing director(CMD) who develops business strategies for the organization to
achieve desired goals and objectives.

FINDINGS
VARIABLE 1: ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN

72
FOR COMPANY A:

Organizational design is important in the formation of organizational culture. People are


aware about the goals and objectives of the organization. People are well aware of their role
and responsibilities. The organization has clear reporting structure and employees pose right
skills sets to perform their job functions.

FOR COMPANY B:

People are generally not aware about the goals and objectives of the organization. People are
not well aware of their role and responsibilities. The organization does not have a clear
reporting structure and employees skills sets are not enhanced to perform their job functions.

VARIABLE 2: INDIVIDUAL JOB CHARACTERSTICS

FOR COMPANY A:

Individual job characteristics determine the individual skills and abilities. People find their
job challenging and also get the opportunities to develop their sills and responsibilities.

FOR COMPANY B:

People do not find their job challenging and usually do not get the opportunities to develop
their sills and responsibilities.

VARIABLE 3: CO-WORKER RELATIONS

FOR COMPANY A:

The positive relationship between the workers helps in devolving a culture. People share their
knowledge across the organization. Employees consult each other when they need support.
Employees also appreciate the personal contribution of their peers.

FOR COMPANY B:

73
People generally do not share their knowledge across the organization. Employees do not
consult each other when they need support. Employees usually do not appreciate the personal
contribution of their peers.

VARIABLE 4: WORK ENVIRONMENT

FOR COMPANY A:

A good and healthy working environment helps in building a good organizational culture.
Employees get enough time to maintain a balance between their family and work. The morale
of employees is high across the organization.

FOR COMPANY B:

Employees do not get enough time to maintain a balance between their family and work. The
morale of employees is not high across the organization.

VARIABLE 5: SENIOR MANAGEMENT

FOR COMPANY A:

A good and corporative management helps in building good work environment. Senior
management also treats their employees fairly and set standards of excellence. Employees
trust the information given by their mangers and appreciate their work.

FOR COMPANY B:

Senior management do not treat their employees fairly and do not set standards of excellence.
Employees do not usually trust the information given by their mangers and do not appreciate
their work.

VARIABLE 6: WORK PROCESSES

FOR COMPANY A:

An established work process helps in building a good organisational culture. People are aware
of that they can perform their job and employees take the responsibilities for their actions and
the work is completed by the employees on time. Employees also use the work processes
efficiently.

FOR COMPANY B:

74
People are not aware of their job and employees don’t take the responsibilities for their
actions and the work are not generally completed by the employees on time. Employees do
not use the work processes efficiently.

VARIABLE 7: COMMUNIUCATION

FOR COMPANY A:

A well developed communication process effects positively the job satisfaction of the
employees. employees are well informed about their job to perform. Employees are also
aware of how their job supports the departmental objectives. People feel free to consult their
peers for suggestions and ideas. Employees contribute to the organisational performance
through interpersonal communication.

FOR COMPANY B:

Employees are not well informed about their job to perform. Employees are also not aware of
how their job supports the departmental objectives. People do not feel free to consult their
peers for suggestions and ideas. Employees don’t contribute to the organisational
performance through interpersonal communication.

VARIABLE 8: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

FOR COMPANY A:

Customers can only feel satisfied if the employees are satisfied and the organisational culture
is positive. Customers are satisfied as the organisation understands the needs of the
customers. Employees have always believed in delivering high quality products and on time.
The products delivered generally meet the needs of the customers.

FOR COMPANY B:

Customers are not satisfied as the organisation understands the needs of the customers.
Employees have not always believed in delivering high quality products. The products
delivered generally don’t meet the needs of the customers

There is high level of customer satisfaction in employees of company A than in company B

HENCE COMPANY A IS BETTER THAN COMPANY B & EMPLOYEES OF


COMPANY A ARE MORE SATISFIED WITH THER JOB

SUGGESTIONS
75
Improving Organizational Culture

• Training employees in the right way is an important step towards improving


organization’s work culture. When employees know how to do things the right way
and what the company expects from them, the rate of conflicts and errors can be
brought down significantly.
• Analyzing the existing cultures and comparing it with the expectations and
perceptions of your clientele. Bring changes accordingly.
• A basic requirement for a productive environment is a diverse team of enthusiastic
people, who are interested in working as a team and improving the work atmosphere,
as a whole.
• Organize discussions with team members and talk about matters pertaining to the
current culture of the organization. Try to improve the changes that you find justified.
• Maintain a healthy communication with your team. Tell the team members about the
leadership of the organization and the strategies adopted to build a more attractive
culture in the company.
• Share information broadly with the employees so that they have a clear view of the
things and know how to best perform their task. Makes it a point to share information
about such matters as daily sales results from each hub with all of the employees, so
that employee can compare their performance with others.
• Accessibility to employees- Managers make sure that people within the organization
see them as fellow human beings rather than figures living in an ivory tower. To be
able to trust, employees need to feel some sense of what kind of people are in
management — whether they are trustworthy.
• Willingness to answer hard questions- The senior management should be willing to
answer hard questions of employees. It helps in clarifying doubts of employee and
employee develops confidence in top management.

• Delivering on promises: The top management should keep it a point to fulfil the
promises it makes to the employees as well as customers.

• Showing recognition and appreciation: The superiors should recognize the good work
of employees and appreciate them.

76
• Demonstrating personal concern: Senior management should demonstrate personal
concern to its employees because it helps in helps in increasing employees motivation
and commitment towards the organization and its work

Engaging groups in exploring organizational culture and taking targeted actions to better
align it for future success can result in:

• A high engagement work environment that attracts, motivates and retains top talent
• Higher productivity by eliminating 'culture drag' that impedes group performance
• New capacities for adapting to external changes and emerging as a stronger player
• Development of hard-to-imitate practices and behaviors that create competitive
advantage
• A safe environment for employees to feel free to talk about what they are
experiencing
• Delivery of brand promise for increased client loyalty
• On-time projects and improved change planning when the way things really get done
is better understood and responded to

LIMITATIONS

77
Limitations of the study

• Study is done by using a small sample size which is approximately 10% of the total
population

• The employee productivity or output reports are confidential were not available for
study. Actual performance aspects could be studied with these reports

• All the departments of the organization are not covered in the study

• The respondents were reluctant to fill the questionnaire and number of them refused

• The results in the analysis are approximate percentages and might vary to some extent

BIBIOGRAPHY

78
Herscovitch, L. and J. P. Meyer (2002). ‘Commitment to Organizational Martin, J. (1992).
Cultures in Organization. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Martin, J. (2002). Organizational Culture Mapping the Terrain. Sage Publications, Beverly
Hills, CA Ott, J. S. (1989).

The Organizational Culture Perspective. Brooks Cole, Pacific Grove, CA.

Peterson, M. F. and P. B. Smith (2000). ‘Sources of meaning, organizations, and culture:


making sense of organizational

Trice, H. M. and J. M. Beyer (1993). The Cultures of Work Organizations. Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Organisational cultures quantitatively analysis (Wilderom, Van den Berg, Glunk, &
Maslowski,

Organisational cultures by Kroeber and Kluckhohn

Study on cultural analysis by Hofstede's

The Cultural Web- By Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes

Bagin, Dr. Don. (1987) The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life

W.Adorno (1989) Organizational Culture and Leadership

Johnson, G. (1989) A Culture of safety, Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal

Kluckhohn (1992) Organizational Culture and Identity

Leibowitz, Scholossberg (1982) Organisational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed for
Strategic Success

Chatman(1990) Corporate Culture and Performance

McMillan research (1989) Beyond 'Culture': Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference

Deal T. E. and Kennedy, A. A. (1982) Cultural Account Chicago: University of Chicago


press

Handy, C.B. (1985) Understanding Organizations

79
Kotter, John. 1992 Corporate Culture and Performance

Phegan, B. (1996-2000) Environment and cultural behavior

80
ANNEXURE

QUESTIONEER

Category: Organization Design

STRONG AGREE NEITHER DISAGRE STRONGL

81
LY AGREE E Y
AGREE NOR DISAGRE
DISAGREE E
1. The organization’s goals and
objectives are clear to me.

2. Employees have a shared


understanding of what the
organization is supposed to
do
3. Roles and responsibilities
within the group are
understood.

4. Clear reporting structures


have been established.

5. Employees at this
organization have the right
skill sets to perform their job
functions

Category: Individual Job Characteristics

6. I gain satisfaction from my


current job responsibilities.

7. My skills and abilities are fully


utilized in my current job.
8. I have the opportunity to
further develop my skills and
abilities.

9. I find that I am challenged in


my current job role.

10. My work adds value to the


organization.

Category: Co-Worker Relations

11. I feel my input is valued by


my peers.

12. Knowledge and information


sharing is a group norm
across the organization.

82
13. Employees consult each other
when they need support.

14. Individuals appreciate the


personal contributions of
their peers.

Category: Culture / Work Environment

15. I feel valued as an


employee.

16. I enjoy being a part of this


organization.

17. Employees have a good


balance between work and
personal life.

18. Morale is high across the


organization.

19. Employees speak highly


about this organization.

Category: Senior Management

20. Senior management sets high


standards of excellence.

21. Senior management


encourages collaboration
across the organization.

22. Senior management treats


employees fairly.

23. I trust the information I

83
receive from senior
management.

24. I believe senior management


appreciates the work I do.

Category: Work Processes

25. I am clear on how best to


perform my work tasks.

26. Everyone here takes


responsibility for their
actions.

27. Work tasks are completed


on-time.

28. My work group operates


effectively as a unit.

29. We use efficient work


processes when performing
our jobs.

Category: Communications

30. I receive the information I


need to perform my job well.

31. I am clear on how my job


supports the department's
overall objectives.

32. When I need help, I can ask


others in my work group for
suggestions or ideas.

33. Interpersonal communication


and relationships contribute
to organizational

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performance.

34. Our face-to-face meetings


are productive.

Category: Customer Satisfaction

35. We understand the specific


needs of our customers.

36. We are focused on delivering


high-quality
products/services.

37. We deliver our


products/services on-time.

38. Our products/services meet


our customers'
expectations.

39. Customers regularly tell us


that we are doing a great
job.

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