The Yoga Sutras Threads of Union Aphorisms explaining the Uniting with Pure Consciousness Establishing the Essence
of Awareness A Recipe for Enlightenment By Patanjali Translated by Jim Berg, MD Copyright, 2010 Barefootmd@aol.com
I-1 Now a discourse on yoga At this moment begins an exposition on joining with one’s essential nature From this instant starts the instructions on becoming one with pure awareness Thus the clues for recognizing consciousness The following teaching is on experiencing reality I-2 Yoga is the resolving of the perturbations of the mind Yoga is the harmonizing of the disturbances of the mind-field Yoga is the putting to rest the suffering conditions that affect consciousness Yoga is the stilling of the movements of our psyche Yoga is the disciplining of the dysfunctional transformations of our awareness Yoga is the settling of the mental dissonances that fog our insight Yoga is the control of those thoughts that cause dissatisfaction Yoga is the recognition of thought-waves as fundamentally fluctuating Yoga is the quieting of the mental operations that occupy our attention Yoga is the restraint of the modifications of cognition Yoga is the suppression of the anxious ways of knowing Yoga comes when the activities of the mind have quieted I-3 Then a being moves forth from one’s truest self Once yoga is achieved, the witness is established in its most fundamental nature Upon this, a seer remains in its most insightful way In the state of Yoga, the knower is conscious of That which is knowing Awareness thus becomes aware of its own essence as consciousness Experience becomes truer when recognizing the difference of form and cognition of form When successful at yoga, sentience remains accurately insightful Thus a being realizes itself I-4 Otherwise a being misidentifies awareness with the objects one is aware of In other times, consciousness attaches itself to the forms it beholds
When not in yoga, awareness mistakes itself for mental operations If confused, the field of awareness believes the formations it experiences to be real I-5 There are five basic mental operations, and they can either be disturbing or not The fluctuating mind-stuff has five aspects, and can be painful or not painful There are five kinds of transformations of mind and they can be perturbating or stabilizing The five types of modifications of the psyche can be dissonant or consonant. The five classes of thought patterns can be either destructive or constructive The five experiential oscillations can be resonant or dis-harmonic I-6 These five fundamental psychic operations are: Accurate insight, inaccurate insight, imagination, deep sleep, and memory The five kinds of mental transformations are: Truthful comprehension, illusion, delusion, unconsciousness, and remembering The five classes of thought patterns are: Rightly knowing, wrongly knowing, making it up, not aware, and glimpses of past experience The five categories of cognitive functions are: Experiences that correlate with reality, experiences that do not correlate with reality, fantasy, Non-awareness, tags of the past awareness The mind can take form in five ways: Valid cognition, invalid cognition, creative cognition, oblivion, past impressions Experience can fluctuate in five ways: Perception, misperception, representation, the void, experiences templated from previous experience I-7 Accurate insight comes from direct clear perception, inference, and testimony of reliable authority Experience that correlates with what really is, originates from a truthful sensory input, figuring it out, or someone else figuring it out Correct knowledge can come from perceptual contact, thought, or trusted explanation Valid cognition arises from sensual experience, reason, or someone else’s reason I-8 Invalid cognition is an illusion not based in reality Misperception is mistaking the unreal for the real Wrong Knowledge is based on experiences that do not really exist One can be fooled by a perception or conception that does not correlate with what actually is Miscomprehension can come from a hallucination Illusory insight deludes awareness from seeing the true from the false Illusions blind our insight into the true nature of things Incorrect knowledge is a misunderstanding that confuses the representation for the actual form An illusion is a misperception that mistakes what appears to be for the actual object I-9 Conception is a representation of an object that has no origination in the world outside one’s psyche Fantasy is an image created in one’s mind that can be described but does really exist otherwise Words are not the things they represent Thoughts are words conceived by awareness but are empty of substance Imagination is a sound or image that has no form outside our own consciousness Concepts have the form of words but not the form of the objects they stand for Coming from our own fancy, thoughts don’t exist except as symbols
I-10 During dreamless sleep, the mind has no content In deep sleep, experience is suspended, occupied by no objects While unconscious, all the thought patterns cease The body can be alive but without awareness; Here, all mental operations are quiet. The mind at rest can loose consciousness and hence is occupied by no forms. Unwillingly, one can have a overwhelming sense of not being One can loose awareness when unconsciousness and not think or feel or perceive or have insight One can experience nothing in deep sleep The psychic transformations can come to rest during unconsciousness, and a being has nothing disturbing the mind While alive, but not conscious, cognition ceases Sleep is an example of being alive but not conscious The mind can loose consciousness during sleep In sleep one is aware of nothing I-11 Memory is a mental object that is based on previous experience Awareness can recollect an experience from the past The mind is capable of remembering events that occurred in the past A mental modification that recreates a past experience is called a recollection Memories are a recreation of a previous conscious impression The mental process of remembering brings to the present awareness a recollection of the past The mind can simulate the past faithfully Memories can disturb the mind-field, by recalling a previous impression I-12 These disturbances of the mind-field can be mastered through both a disciplined control and letting go Open minded and disciplined, one can put the mental dissatisfaction to rest Through practice and sincere perseverance, one can reach peace of mind By hard work and continual re-focusing on the more right way, one achieves a tranquil state Detachment and discipline are necessary to be successful at quieting the unsettled mind The proper way settle the disturbances of mind by restraint and by being willing to let go of our desires A tranquil state comes through practice and by not wanting nor being repelled by mental objects I-13 Practice is the is the disciplined intention to control the thoughts Success at quieting the disturbing mental processes requires a strong effort Steadfast effort can harmonize the disturbances of the mind Through persistent attempts one can achieve tranquility By continually trying to gain this skill, one can become peaceful Steadiness of the mind-fields comes by persistent principled endeavor I-14 Effort that is practiced persistently for a long time, with the proper intentions, is secure. Right Intentions sincerely applied patiently with the right actions become grounded in the skill to become peaceful. One can settle the unsettled mind through by years of applied effort. Success at quieting the disturbances of our thoughts requires sustained skillfully applied technique It takes a long time of earnestly re-attempting to control the mind until it comes to be tamed Years of sincere practice is necessary to master the ups and downs of the attached mind
I-15 The mastery of non-attachment occurs when awareness beholds perceived objects without wanting, nor not wanting them Freedom from desire allows the perceptions of objects to be comprehended as they are Dispassion is the lack of craving for sensual objects of experience Once the thirst for phenomenal objects is renounced, the profound insight is comprehended. Consciousness that does not move upon contact with an object is disciplined towards the right way One must devotedly practice not reacting to objects emotionally or biasly, in order to be free from the stress of those objects I-16 Ultimately, this mastery leads to knowing the difference between the knower and the known. Awareness must detach itself from all the objects it wants or avoids to have insight into its own subjectivity Consciousness can remain in its pure insightful tranquility when not disturbed by desire Supreme non-attachment allows the being to remain stabilized in pure awareness free from the attractive qualities of objects The highest freedom comes when one remains undisturbed by the qualities of any object The value of any object looses its glamour compared with the value of the insight itself The most profound awareness is free of the influence of any objects with qualities Thus a seer is seen distinct from that which is seen The clearest insight come I-17 The early stages of success in this endeavor comes with four types of cognition: Thought, discrimination, feeling good, sense of “me” The first stages of insightful focus on this path are accompanied by: Ideation, reflection, bliss, the sense of individuality Wise concentration includes the proper conceptions and comprehensions and raptures and ego The higher insights come with valid deliberation and concentration, contentment, a sense of I-amness. The truer way of seeing cultivates good logical abilities, good understanding, good feelings, and self-awareness The initial ability to distinguish subject from object requires supportive thoughts, insights, joy, and esteem. Absorption in pure awareness can come from contemplation, attention, security, and the intent to distinguish self not-self One type of absorption occurs with an object, like an idea, an insight, and a feeling and still has a sense of me and that. I-18 As mastery continues, the mental processes quiet, but there is still an influence from past tendencies Another type of absorption comes when the mental chatter stops; One still has to deal with the previous habits of mind. A higher type of alert attention can focus more profoundly as the mind quiets. Experience is still conditioned from previous conditionings. A more profound recognition of pure consciousness comes when the mind-field is tranquil; This still leaves past memories to disturb the peace. The seer is more established in its own nature as these above four processes cease; Unconscious habits of the mind are potentially capable of returning. Another type of focus entertains no objects; still impressions from the previous tendencies can distract our attention. Alertness can remain without mental processing; But the tendency to mentally process still remains. One can remain concentrated on awareness when the cognitive functions stop. The subconscious can still be impulsive. I-19 Even this Samadhi does not have the final detachment, therefore the consciousness seeks to return to the body Because of these latent impressions remaining, the awareness reattaches to objective form Even though dissociated from the body in this Samadhi, past memories entice conscious back into the body In this state of bodiless Samadhi, one will come back to the world in there is still attachment for physical form
In these higher states of insight, even with excellent control of objective form, one is bound to return to the world because of past habits of being materially oriented As one merges with the formless, a special spiritual realization occurs For those who mastered this Samadhi an insight into the formless way of nature occurs This formless state of Samadhi is more natural for those who are already disembodied I-20 Other who have not had success in this formless samadhi can pursue it through: Faith, strong effort, recollection, concentration, and the persistent pursuit of wisdom Confidence, discipline, remembering, mindfulness, and discernment lead to samadhi without form Trust, enthusiasm, memory, successful meditation create the path to discriminative enlightenment Belief in the importance, vitality, recalling the necessary recollections, merging subject and object help succeed to a tranquil state of alert, insightful, awareness The pure light of awareness (asamprajnata samadhi) can be achieved if one constantly remembers to faithfully try hard to succeed at meditation One succeeds at objectless meditation by right attitude, right effort, right consideration, right focus, right meditation I-21 For one who practice as such is intense, success is near One can achieve these results most quickly if one’s will-power is strong in each of these techniques If you sincerely pursue this endeavor with these skills, then you are most likely to succeed When the desire for samadhi is very strong, progress is the most rapid The rate of progress towards this goal is quickest for those whose enthusiastic effort is vigorous Samadhi without form is available to those who try really hard I-22 Success depends on whether the effort is mild, moderate or intense. One can pursue this endeavor gently, vigorous, or in between The momentum towards objectless samadhi can be weak, middling or complete This discipline can be slight, medium or ultimate The applied force of this effort can be low, average, or superior This path can be walked feebly, fully or with mediocrity. I-23 Success also comes to those who fully surrender to pure awareness One can also achieve this through devotion to the most true reality Pious faith in the supreme being helps Dedication to merging with the Ultimate Spirit also increases our spiritual momentum This samadhi is imminent for those who devote their complete attention towards the universal consciousness Practicing the presence of God (Ishvara) is another way to succeed I-24 Ishvara is a type of consciousness that is free from afflictions, conditioned impulsion, and desire Pure awareness is a special state of awareness that is not prone to suffering, the repercussions of previous actions, or want Pure spiritual consciousness is unique in that it untainted from the painful conditions, disturbing habits and covetings God is the Great Spiritual Principle and does not experience dissatisfaction, moral debt, or a conditioning to disturb the equilibrium At the source of all seeing and knowing, the essence of awareness is not effected by any discontentment, action or yearning The Universal Witness remains untouched by distress, reactions from previous conditions, or craving
The true Spiritual Reality stays untarnished by the causes of unrest, the effects from past unrest, or any hankering that leads to unrest The true soul is not affected by any unsettledness, past impressions, or inclination to suffer I-25 The intelligence of Ishvara is limitless The insight ability of pure awareness is infinite God is omniscient Consciousness can potentially know anything The knower is the source of all knowledge Knowledge originates in the consciousness that is cognizant of it The soul is the seed of all cognition Awareness precedes all mental functioning Pure consciousness is ultimate origin of all that can be known I-26 Unconditioned by time, pure consciousness is the great teacher also of the ancient ones Not effected by the passing moments, the source of all cognition teaches even the ancestors Because it is primordial, the essence of awareness is the master of the masters God is timeless and thus available to teach the elders of days past. Knowing is eternal and instructs even the historical authorities I-27 The fundamental harmonic of the eternal mind-field is AUM. The vibe of awareness is OM The pure consciousness is tuned to the sacred syllable The sound of the resonant frequency of experience is A-U-M The soul vibrates at a fundamental which sounds like a hum The sacred mantra –om- tunes one in with Ishvara is symbolized as the sound AUM Om is an onomonopia for God I-28 The Great Spirit can be called forth by Om-ing The purpose for doing so becomes clear when sincerely chanting AUM By saying it over and over, the significance of the sacred syllable becomes evident The meaning of the sound is experienced as the om-mantra is repeated By sounding the Om and reflecting on its meaning, one can advance on the yogic path Repeating the om-vibe manifests its significance I-29 The soul is realized by this, overcoming any obstacles By Om-ing, all hindrances are removed and the seer remains established in its fundamental frequency This sound dissolves blockages and turns the attention inward towards awareness Chanting AUM directs consciousness inwardly towards the graceful path By this mantra, the personal consciousness introspects and works through hurdles I-30 The following are obstacles to fully fulfilled awareness: Illness, procrastination, doubt, negligence, laziness, false dogmas, fickleness, and mental instability Disease, mental apathy, uncertainty, carelessness, slothfulness, lust, delusions, ungrounded, uncentered.
Sickness, lack of proper intelligence, lack of confidence, distraction, idleness, hedonism, bias, discouragement at failure to progress, slipping into old ways Physical impairment, psychological retardation, loss of faith, inattentiveness, wasting time, pleasure seeking, false beliefs, disenchantment, psychological unbalance I-31 From these obstacles comes all stressors, depression, anxiety and irregular breathing Suffering, sadness, panic and imbalance of the nervous-respiratory system All forms of anguish come from these, including dissatisfaction, despair, nervousness, and disturbed respiratory These distract our attention by causing frustration, melancholy, mania, and erratic inhalation and exhalations These hindrances are accompanied by lack of freedom, lack of contentment, lack of peace, lack of harmonizing breath The consequences of these obstacles are unhappiness, discontentment, unsettleness, and nervousness I-32 These obstacles are resolved through the disciplining according to the essential principle By remaining concentrated on the fundamental yogic path, these barriers are removed Cultivating the right way, negates all the distracting paths The way to overcome these hindrances is to stick to the straight and narrow path Consistent effort applied the more right way redirects consciousness away from the more wrong way I-33 Consciousness becomes more peaceful when one is pleasant to those who are happy, compassionate to those who suffer, well-intending to the well-intended, and indifferent to those with cruel intent. Cultivating friendliness to those doing well, and concern for the less fortunate, equanimity to the virtuous and vicious harmonizes the mind-field Awareness gets more tranquil as one becomes caring to those enjoying life or in despair and remains even-minded to those acting kindly or rudely. Peace of mind comes to those who act kindly to both the fulfilled and not-satisfied; and treats with the same good-regard to those who act benevolently or maliciously. The mental disturbances quiet as one is happy for those who are doing well, sympathetic to those in misery, glad for those who do good, and non-judgmental to those who do what seems like evil. I-34 Or by the letting go and holding on of the breath Also through the expiration and inhalation Absorption in pure awareness can also arise from the controlling of bring in and manipulating the vital energies Regulating breathing out or retaining the air can harmonize consciousness Peace of mind can come by disciplining the releasing and absorption of energy from the atmosphere Intentionally tuning the way hold onto energy and let is out I-35 Or by witnessing the materialization of perceptions Stability can also come by watch the sensory perceptions arise Peace also is found by concentrating on one object and holding that perception steady Tranquility of the mind-field can also manifest by focusing on the more subtle sensory objects By observing the way we perceive we can settle the disturbances of our mind I-36 Concentrating on the inner clear light free of karmic recourse, can also settle the mind Or by looking for the source of luminosity, untouched by sorrow Peace can also be achieved by cultivating serene visionary experience
By searching for the emanation point of the inner light one can also become tranquil Focus on that which is free from stress and darkeness to become enlightened I-37 Or by focusing on beings who are free of actions that lead to suffering Or by contemplating a mind-field that has no disturbances Or by considering objects that do not stir up attachments Also by concentrating the mind on those who have mastered desire One can become tranquil by admiring an enlightened sage The mind settles when reflecting on those who have harmonized the disturbed mind Peace can come by studying those who are free from agitation Cultivate the mind-state like those who have mastered their impulsions and compulsions I-38 Or by honoring an auspicious dream Or by being tranquil in dreamless or dreaming states One can also cultivate insight during lucid dreaming Peace can arrive in peaceful sleeps and dreams as well One can remain conscious steady state of awareness while dreaming or in deep sleep I-39 Or by sustained concentration on the object of choice Peace of mind also comes through meditation on something very dear Pay close attention to that which is precious Meditate sincerely on whatever worthy object for tranquility Focus intently enough on any meaningful object and the mind-functions may cease I-40 One who has achieved this state, has insight into the finest particle and greatest mass When successful at yoga, the yogi joins with the infinitesimal and the infinite Thus one can contemplate anything from the smallest to the largest Then a yogi can become successful by meditating on the most minute and the most vast Upon this accomplishment, even tiny or huge objects can become objects of concentration I-41 Once the mental functions have cease, awareness is like a crystal, taking on the same characteristics as the object it beholds When settled into its undisturbed state, consciousness can become like a clear gem, becoming one with the perceived As the modifications of the mind-stuff settle, the soul, like a crystal transmitting the light, recognizes that knowing and the know is actually the knower As the cognitive operations are almost ceased, the separation of self and object also cease, like an image in a mirror. As the perceptual and conceptual thought waves clear, the insight dimension experiences a sense of identity with the object it is concentrating on, just as an object becomes one with the image within a crystal. Coinciding with the tranquilizing of the psychic disturbances, the experiencer forgets about self and object, and experiences the object as it is, like a jewel reflecting the object I-42 One stage of concentration continues to associates the object with a word or representation. This is called absorption
in thought. At a particular point in the meditation, called savirtarka samadhi, there still an experiencing duality-- the conceptions and internal dialogue appear to awareness that they are separate. Simultaneously identifying any vibration or meaning or any consequence knowledge with an object is one phase of full attention If naming and reasoning are experienced, even though the mental function are tranquil, then this place in samadhi is called samadhi with thought Language and meaning can occur as a unified comprehension, yet awareness still considers object separate from subject I-43 When there is no longer any personal memories associated with an object, the reality of the object is clear. This is called Nirvitarka samadhi Nirvitarka samadhi is a stage of meditation when there are no recollections tagged onto the object, and the object becomes simply the object. Once awareness finally lets go of all preconceived notions projected onto a perception, then that perception can be considered as it is, a perception of the perceiver. Eventually, awareness can experience an object without any memories associated to it, comprehending the object for what it actually is, object of our awareness. When consciousness beholds an object without any association of representation, value, or meaning, this is called Nirvitarka Samadhi I-44 Even when focusing on more abstract objects, these same principles apply; One type of samadhi can be with reflection, and another without The same goes for more subtle objects, they can occur with or without the projections of past associations When focusing on objects beyond the senses, similar stages of absorption occur, a Savichara Samadhi and a Nirvichara Samadhi, i.e. with and without deliberation. Spiritual objects also can be experienced in meditation with or without enquiry Even the most indiscriminable objects of concentration can be distinguished by whether or not they are experienced with reactions tied to it, or not. I-45 These subtle objects extend all the way to the most non-manifested of the material The abstract things may be the comprehension of the physical cause itself A very transcendent object of attention can be of the root nature of that object These two types of samadhi can be distinguished even when understanding the ultimate cause of things Even if awareness could beware of the true reality of the world, this awareness could occur with reflection or without. I-46 These types of samadhi are concentrations on something The absorptions just described, have an object These stages of mediation are with a seed These attentions still distinguish subject and object These samadhi still have attachment potentials Samadhi on these ordinary objects, which entice our desire, still have the seeds of potential consequences I-47 In the state of non-reflection with no seeded reaction, awareness remains tranquilly illuminated When there is no reactive conditioned association with something, consciousness is enlightened to its true nature Awareness remains established in its resonant nature if it can contact experiential objects with no seed of consequence Consciousness established in its own sentient luminosity without any attachments to objects is Nirvichara Samadhi, i.e.,
successful meditation without reflection When absorbed into a focus on the source of luminosity, the experiential subject experiences the subject as it is, free from the contamination of objects I-48 Here consciousness has clear insight With this samadhi comes the deepest wisdom The wisdom from this state is the most illuminating The truthful knowledge that arises from this experience is profound Once illuminated as to the true nature of awareness as it is, all objective knowledge comes into proper perspective All understanding and comprehension originates from this awareness In this state of pure illuminous sentiency, one comprehends truthfully Skillful discipline according to righteous principles is gracefully manifested through this seedless samadhi I-49 The insights of from this deeper samadhi is not the same as than knowledge derived from testimony or inference Awareness now knows the difference between the field and the knower of the field, unlike teachings and reasonings Once consciousness recognizes its true nature, it gains an understanding that one can’t conceive of or be told of. The direct experience of this samadhi is different that our conceptions or instructions about a particular object Consciousness should not confuse ideation and the scriptures from the actual experience of Nirvichara samadhi The real experience of this, is altogether different than reasoning or some authoritative source, because they are objective by their very nature. I-50 In this seedless samadhi, the tendency is to reduce the tendency for negative consequences This Samadhi only forms latent impressions that restrain the formation of other latent impressions Born from this realization of our essential consciousness come habits that discipline other habitual reactive patterns When coming from our true self, our impulses and compulses are relieved The direct experience of our essential subjective nature hinders future despair The impressions created by samadhi with a seed still provoke stressful consequences I-51 Upon the suppression of the impressions that the suppress the impressions seedless samadhi is achieved When the urge to restrain even the finest of impulses to restrain is finally effectively inhibited, then there is no potential created for further consequence. As this previous samadhi is controlled and put to rest, then there is nothing that will bear fruit Nirbijah samadhi, “seedless samadhi” results when there is the cessation of all attempts at controlling Nirbijah samadhi, “seedless samadhi” is the absorption that comes with letting go of letting go When the memory of the experience of samadhi is ignored, then there is no object remaining, and thus only consciousness As the very desire to remember the experience of seedless samadhi is disciplined, then truest seedless samadhi occurs, with pure consciousness, no object and no further tendencies.
II The Way of Worthy Discipline The Path of Manifesting Yoga Directions for Achieving the Goal
Foundations for Correct Practice Successful Effort To Fulfill This Result II-1 The practical type of Yoga discipline includes severe austerities, study, and devotion to God A few ways of realizing ones true nature, are to apply a strong effort in strict restrictions, reading the scriptures, and prayer. Kriya Yoga is the active pursuit of restricting the sensual desires, adhering to the advise of the wise ancient ones, and longing to be immerged with pure consciousness One type of yoga, “The Yoga of Skillfull, Strong Effort” is through purification training, keeping in mind sacred words, and surrendering to the most righteous way. A pragmatic method for this path to our subjectivity, is to have strong willpower and honor to our conscience, to apply the teachings of the teachers, and to commit oneself to Ishvara II-2 Kriya yoga is designed for the purpose of eradicating the causes of our afflictions and to achieve Samadhi The goal of this way is to deal with our stresses and to quiet to mental operations This practical yoga can lead to freedom from painful conditions and absorption into pure consciousness The yoga of applied action reduces future suffering and leads to the settling of the thought-waves of the mind Kriya –“Action” yoga can reduce the kleshas – that which agitates experience-, and lead to samadhi – merging with pure consciousness This skillful way to fulfillment can clear what poisons the awareness and settle the field of the seer II-3 These poisons to awareness include: Ignorance, Selfishness, Desire, Repulsion, Survival Instinct The Kleshas – causes of despair – can arise from not knowing better, our wanting or not wanting, our inflated sense of self, or our natural inclination. Our delusions and biased beliefs, our misconceiving we are an identity and that this identity is important, craving after sensual fulfillment, avoiding distresses, and impulsion. Suffering continues by misconceptions, mis-identity, mis-valuing, mis-not-valuing, and struggling to survive. Future afflictions may arrive through lack of knowledge, poor self-esteem, lust, avoidance, and will-to-live. II-4 Ignorance is the root cause of all the other causes of suffering, which may be inactive, mild, temporarily suspended, or fully expressed Not have insight into the right way is the reason for the others. These kleshas – causes of suffering – could be fully dormant, weak, intermittent, or manifested Delusions and false beliefs and lack of comprehension – avidya- is the basis for all the other causes of distress. These conditional sufferings can be off, on, alternating off and on completely, or somewhere in between off and on. Any painful condition can occur, not occur, occur sometimes, occur a little, or occur a lot. Stupidity – the lack of intelligence - is the reason for the others. II-5 Avidya – Ignorance – is the mistaking of the impermanent, impure, not-valuable, and non-conscious for the permanent, the pure, the valuable and most consciousness. “Not having the insight to know better” includes the not knowing that something is fleeting, karmically disrupting, painful, and false when one believes something to be eternal, purifying, enjoying, and illuminating. Lack of proper intelligence can be believing a thought or situation to be forever, part of our discipline, and path of bliss and enlightenment, when in fact they were transitory, not our most graceful way, not leading to
happiness, nor spiritual fulfillment. Avidya is the confusing of: that which last with that which doesn’t; that which harmonizes our way with that which disrupts; that which is relieves distress with the cause of distress; and that which is real with that which is not real. Lack of correct insight can cause the mis-believing of: that which is temporary, to be forever; that which is disrupting, to be stabilizing; that which is vicious, to be virtuous, and that which is not the truth to be the truth II-6 Misidentification is the mistaking the seer for mechanisms of seeing The consciousness assumes an identity, misidentifying awareness for the cognitive faculties in its field Awareness can confuse the mental processes for its true nature; this is called Asmita. One type of ignorance called asmita, is the believing that one’s essential nature is the forms it beholds. Asmita – egoism – is the illusion that the body and the mind is the soul, that we are this person. Consciousness can miscomprehend the field of awareness for the awareness of the field. II-7 Raga is the tendency to pursue a desired pleasurable object in hopes of fulfillment A wanted object causes an impulse to want the wanted object in the future; this is called an attachment. A conditioned response to a rewarding stimulus causes further conditioning and potential despair A desired object causes our experiential space to curve accommodating that object The anticipation of reward from a coveted object is disturbing II-8 Aversion is a cause of suffering that comes from wishing to not suffer Distress is the cause of repulsion A painful circumstance tends to lead to the desire to not experience that painful circumstance Anxiety from avoiding a potentially miserable experience can be disturbing Hatred can cause a lot of sorrow II-9 Even those who are very wise, they too cling to life and hope for their life to continue Those that know better still fear death and have a strong instinct to hold onto life The will to live is instinctual even in those that are educated The learned continue to thirst for immortal existence of the body; this craving is called Abhinivesa. All creatures, even the most intelligent, fear the cessation of their identified being. II-10 As these kleshas, causes of suffering, become more subtle they can be remedied by pursuing their most fundamental resolution These painful conditionings, as they diminish, can be ceased by fulfilling their opposites In their weakened stage, these disruptions can be quieted by resolving their original root causes When the kleshas move from the grosser manifestations to the more abstract, their disturbances can be harmonized by focusing on the upright way More esoterically, these dysfunctional mental processes can be healed by gaining insight into the functional mental processes Reframe destructive cognitions into it’s constructive counterparts to stop these destructive forces II-11 Meditation can harmonize the grosser disruptive patterns Sustained concentration holding the mind steady also helps to resolve the kleshas – painful conditionings A disciplined attention attenuates the negative reaction from these afflictions
Mindfulness is critical to subdue the impulsive patterns arising from previous attachments Pay close attention and control these disturbing mental-emotional traits II-12 These kleshas engender corruptive karma that can continue to instigate similar disruptive pattern throughout Life The afflictions create a momentum of further reactive impulse that is a reservoir of further Further negative patterning continues into the future as latent impressions influencing our experience These painful conditionings give birth to future painful conditions that one cannot imagine A future reaction from our present disruptive choices can be stored and expressed later in our life II-13 These kleshas are so fundamental, that they remain the root cause of our suffering, determining our economic success, our longevity, and the tone of our experience How we deal with the afflictions are the basis for our status, our lifespan, and resulting kind or vicious Experiences These imperfections can fester into consequences at any point in our entire life As long as consciousness is colored by these kleshas, one will still crave for existence, continue to live, and have disruptive experiences When the seeds of despair remain alive, they will continue to bear fruit as our lot in life, how long we live, and our material enjoyment II-14 The quality of the fruits of one’s birth, longevity and worldly happiness depend on our virtues and our vices Our life appears as pleasureable or painful based on our merits or demerit. Contentment and dissatisfaction have their seeds in our constructive or destructive actions Our karma directly determines the well-being of our worldy fate Delight and despair we reap find cause in the good and bad actions we sow II-15 A discriminating person looks at all worldy endeavor as potentially painful, either from past negative karma, impermanency, or by the very nature of physical reality as being constantly agitated The wise see angst in all of our objective experience, relating to the ever changing nature of things, our past indiscretions, and from the tendencies of the essential material qualities to be in conflict One who knows better considers living as fundamentally disturbing since everything will eventually fade away, we have already conditioned ourselves towards painful consequences, and because nature’s basic energies are in opposition Those who have had the insight, discover that all worldly experience is imbued with anguish; This is because all objects change; we already have past tendencies that cause anquish One who comprehends, understands that any involvement in the world is distressing due to the nature of physical reality is always transforming, and the mind by its nature is fundamentally unsettled, and because we already have the momentum of past latent impressions to deal with. II-16 Suffering that is still to come is potentially avoidable Future distress can be averted Misery that has not occurred yet may be prevented Potential anxiety can be diverted Unmanifested dissatisfaction could be warded off II-17
The cause of all this suffering is the mistaking of the seer with the seen This distress exists whenever the witness identifies itself with something else The confusing of awareness with the objects it beholds is the fundamental cause of this misery The merging of consciousness with the screen of consciousness leads to our torment The superimposition of the subject with the object is why one experiences pain II-18 Objective reality has the characteristics of apparent luminosity, activity, and inertia; Physical reality exists to be perceived and so that consciousness can be illuminated That which is seen by the seer, has three fundamental qualities: vibrational resonant frequency, movement, and stability. The purpose of the seen is to have sensations and to give opportunity for enlightenment for the seer. All that can be known has three basic attributes, a proper way, energy and matter. The known exists for the knower have sense experiences and to know its essential nature as the knower Physical materials have three main properties: sentience, transformation, stasis. This stuff comes into being for the enjoyment and liberation of the soul The elements can have, by their nature, luminosity, mutability, and mass. These elements have the ability to be sensed and can be used by awareness to evolve into full sentiency II-19 The basic elements can be at the following stages: differentiated or non-differentiated, with a distinct boundary or with no distinct boundary Every physical material can be at a place of being a particular object, not a particular object of being All of nature can be found in one of the following stages: specific, universal, unmanifest or manifest The qualities of the objective world can be differentiated into these phases: in a gross form, subtle form, primordial or evolved Matter can, depending on its state, be concrete or abstract, potential or kinetic II-20 The seer as pure awareness tends to take on the characteristics of that which is seen Pure consciousness is colored by the mind, to believe it is with the mind that we see Essential awareness seems to operate through the mental faculties, but is actually distinct and clear Deceived by the act of seeing, the witness often believes it is the psychic operations who is seeing The soul remains untainted by objects, but can confuse perception and conception for awareness itself II-21 The whole purpose of material reality is to serve as the field of knowledge for the knower of that field The world of all phenomena exists to fulfill the soul All that we see is for the seer to see so that it can reach its goal The sole reason for material reality is for the enlightenment of the pure consciousness Objects exists simply to help sentient beings realize their sentiency The purpose of experience is for the soul to realize its spiritual nature. II-22 In one who has realized their essential consciousness, all objective reality no longer is real. The nonilluminated continue to believe their common physical reality is the same reality For those who remain the knower, the field of knowing is an illusion. For others, it seems so real. Phenomena continue to appear to exist for the average person, but for those who have firmly established their awareness, they cease to truly exist Material existence continues to be the reality for most, but for the yogi, objective reality is beyond knowable
For the yogi who has achieved yoga, the physical world is unnecessary; For those otherwise, the world exists. II-23 Consciousness participates with the world in order to realize the difference between subject and object. The seer is the master of the seen, and these powers can allow the seer to recognize its true nature The awareness can create a special alliance with the objective phenomena, for it is the necessary way for the awareness to reach its spiritual goals The knower must use knowledge to become knowledgeable. Once wise, the knowledge is not necessary. If one masters them, objects and the objective faculties can help differentiate the distinction between the pure consciousness and those objects II-24 The basis for the joining of consciousness with the world is ignorance The soul takes interest in the world because it doesn’t realize the consequences Awareness believes life is necessary to live because it has misleading insight The seer mistaking itself for the seeing and the seen is delusional The cause for this merging of subject with object is naivity II-25 Once the awareness has the critical insight, the alliance between matter and spirit is realized as delusory, and awareness is free This merging of consciousness with the world is gone once the soul resolves this ignorance The seer can remain content as it is, once the comprehension of the distinction between the seer and the seen is made The soul reaches fulfillment and remains established in its own serene sentiency upon the removal of this naïve belief that it is the mental modifications The association of the consciousness with matter ceases once unbounded awareness is discerned II-26 The remedy for this ignorance is the uninterrupted practice of discriminating the real from the not real The solution to not knowing is putting continuous effort into making a distinction between the field and the knower of the field. In order to recognize the difference between the seer and the seen, one must pay very close attention Incessantly to this differentiation This miscomprehension is healed by constantly being aware of being aware Liberation of soul identifying with matter is dependent of soul-awareness II-27 The wisdom path towards this discrimination has seven stages There are seven ways helpful to discern this distinction The stages to this freedom are sevenfold There are seven stages to gain the necessary right knowing Consciousness can be illuminated by seven degrees of insight II-28 The branches of yoga include techniques to eliminate the impurities eventually developing the sincere cultivation of the necessary discriminative wisdom. The yogic path destroys that which deludes us, thereupon freeing consciousness to discern awareness Clear cognition requires a strong effort through yogic practices to destroy the negative tendencies The turbidity that fogs awareness can be settled by sustained effort in yoga until the light of the soul shines The skills of Yoga are necessary to discern the real from the unreal until finally illuminating the seer
II-29 The eight parts to this yogic discipline are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi The eightfold limbs towards yoga include: Social-control, Self-control, Posture, Vital-energy control, Withdrawal of the senses, Concentration, Meditation, Absorption There are eight branches towards this path to samadhi: Ethics, Morality, Non-distracting of position, Breath control, Focus on non-sensory awareness, one-pointed focus, sustained focus, stilling of the thought waves The way to fulfill the final union has eight components: External disciplines, internal disciplines, comfortable position, Focus the attention away from external perception, pay attention to an object, keep paying attention to an object, let go of object and keep paying attention There are eight rungs of skill needed to achieve peace: Restraints in relation to the world, Restraints in relation to oneself, Relaxed but alert body, manipulation of bioelectricity, turning off sense input, placing mind on a point for a moment, holding mind on a point, and full engrossment II-30 Ethical disciplines include: Abstention from harming, lying, stealing, molesting, greed Social rules are: Non-hurting, truthfulness, not taking what does not belong, celibacy, non-covetousness The Yama are externally directed vows to not: Inflict onto another suffering, bear false witness, swindle, disrespect life, or be avaricious The restraints in regards to the world include: no killing, no speaking untruth, no pirating, no raping, no over-indulgence The commitments the yogi makes are to not abuse others, not to deceive, not pilfer, not play inappropriately with another sexually, and not be possessive The external controls are: Nonviolence, honesty, no thievery, no sensual indulgence, generosity II-31 These are the great ethical vows and they are universal and remain enforce regardless of social status, place, time, or circumstance These restraints hold in all considerations, no matter ones position, the space, the synchronicity, or the particular condition These promises are not restricted by the conditions you are born into, or happen to be in the space-time continuum, or any other situation These sacred commitments should be honored in full, taking into account even one’s rank, the particular instance or occasion, or any custom These Yama are indelible commitments to be true for every person, every moment, every dimension, every consideration II-32 The moral disciplines are clean mental and physical habits, an optimistism, sincerity, study of the sacred, surrender to the “Great Spirit” The Niyama are purity, satisfaction, austerity, learning the scriptures, devotion to the goal Personal obediences include having a healthy hygiene, be contentment, be strict, investigate the wise texts, and have reverence
The internal disciplines are clean living, enthusiasm, severe determination, self-study and piety to pure consciousness The self-restrictions are impeccable intentions, impeccable attitude, impeccable effort, impeccable listening to the elders, impeccable awe II-33 When tempted to break these observances, doing the very opposite When considering behaving one negative way, reconsider its positive way If disturbed by troublesome thoughts leading astray, pursue the thoughts to the contrary Inhibit provocations to deviate from the path by reframing with their righteous counterpart Resolve troublesome vices by reflecting on their corresponding virtue II-34 It is important to consider these opposing good thoughts to these negative considering their result which is to continues the ignorance and ensuing infinite torment, and this goes for whether these temptations are committed by oneself or you provoked another; whether done for money; whether done in anger, or in insanity; or done a little bit, medium amount or done a lot Deviant thoughts and actions lead to further foolish suffering, whether caused by ones own doing directly or indirectly through another, upon your encouragement; when done out of greed, loss of temper or psychosis; or done minutely, moderately or excessively and this is why to consider their contrary. Ill-guided intentions fall back into the cycle of reaping more ignorance and misery, even if just meant in a small amount, middling or extreme; even if done professionally, or proxied to another, and even if done when mad, or confused. Thus the urgency to consider their solutions. Any deed done contrary of these restraints festers more stupidity and distress, no matter how big a deed or how little or in between, not matter if done personally, for economic benefit, or by personal authority; no matter if done in a fit or when crazy. Keep the right way in mind. The necessity to reflect on these opposites is clear when one realizes the recurring cycle of causing more foolishness and despair; These deviations may be anywhere between tiny and huge, and can take place within oneself, with our blessing on another, from revenge, or when we are out of our mind II-35 Once one is not harmful, others become peaceful When ahisma – non-violence- is mastered, all violence stops Nobody gets mad in the presence of those with firm commitment to not abusing others All need to hurt subsides around those steadily devoted to not hurting Being grounded in the vow of protecting life, the yogi puts to rest all hostility from others II-36 Once truthfulness is mastered, the intentions of a yogi manifest Honesty creates an opportunity for the will of the yogi to come to fruition Grounded in the truth, the words of a yogi come to be When one’s integrity is well established, a yogi’s actions bear the fruit directly according to the effort As one is firmly committed to satya – being truthful – the karma of a yogi becomes in synch with truth II-37 Prosperity comes to him who has mastered not stealing
Those with no intention to take what is not their own, benefit by wealth coming to them Unseen riches fall on those who are firmly established leaving to each their own The firm commitment to not taking other’s property, can materialize vast gems Once one gives up taking advantage of other’s wealth, then true wealth comes II-38 Vitality comes to those who control their vital energies True vigor is the result of yogis who abstain from sensual indulgence Intense energy is available to those who have mastered their sexual desires When one has full control over one’s impulses, this passion is sublimated into spiritual energy A yogi gains full strength when completely celibate II-39 Once greed is mastered, one comprehends how things come to be as they are and where they go When one is steady in non-possessiveness, the insight comes into history and destiny How one got here, and to where one is going comes into vision for those well-committed to non-greed A yogi’s purpose and fate become clear once they renounce all want Once firmly established in non-grasping, a yogi witnesses the reason for past and future incarnations II-40 By mastering cleansing the body, a yogi gains insight into the disgustingness of the body and avoids contact with other bodies because they are so disgusting. Through purity of habit, the yogi sees the impurity of other bodies and looses interests in them One gets detached from the body and a disinclination towards other bodies once the body purified Upon witnessing the effort it takes to take care of the body, a yogi turns the attention away from one’s own and other bodies Purging the body sufficiently allows the yogi to witness the putridity of the body and avoids contact with it and other bodies II-41 This purification can also encourages a clarity of insight, a pleasant way, control over our bodily senses, and visions Mastering strict hygienic health habits brings with a luminosity, a sense of satisfaction, and an acuity of perception, as well as insight By taking excellent care of the body , “sattva” - upright conditions, prevail, with a cheerful disposition, control of the sensual, and a vehicle prepared for the realization Purity of body also has the advantage of purity of a bright mind, with a sweet temperament, a keen focus and spiritual perspective Cleansing is accompanied by harmony, happiness, sharpness, and mystical awareness II-42 Once satisfied, ultimate happiness is achieved Upon contentment, there comes an a real sense of joy When the disturbances are settles, fulfillment is attained An unsurpassed bliss can be gained from contentedness In this state of wanting no more, arrival of the final good is available II-43 The body and the sense organs gain special powers once impurities are destroyed by austerities The physical form and its windows reach perfection by the fire of severe discipline For those who practice fierce restraint, the body and the senses reach their excellence
The body and its perceptual abilities come to their fruition when one maintains a strict restriction The more stern the ascetism, the more the body becomes vital and the senses strong. II-44 By studying one self, one can join with the divine Upon repeating sacred words with sincerity comes manifestation of the ideal those words represent Taking the wisest scriptures to heart, consciousness can contact a superior being When one sincerely fulfills the words of the wise ancient ones, the ancient ones arrive for guidance The austere consideration of ones own nature can manifest the same in ourselves as those we respect Studying the scriptures can enliven the gods we worship II-45 Faithfully re-orienting towards peace tunes the yogi towards pure consciousness Practicing the presence of the “Great Spirit” settles the thought-waves of the mind Samadhi comes to those who are fully devoted to God Full absorption into peace is accomplished by those dedicated to the True Guru Complete concentration is achieved by those who surrender to the source of awareness II-46 The meditation posture should be comfortable and stable Asana works best if relaxed and easy. The position should be non-disruptive and firm The seat for samadhi should have a secure base and should be An asana is a steady, alleviating posture II-47 Asana allows attention to become focused with that which is beyond the physical A steady, comfortable position gives opportunity for concentration on the endless Posture is perfected by becoming more relaxed and merging with the Infinite By letting go of the tension, awareness can focus on anything This asana allows the releasing of stress, so the concentration can merge with the boundless II-48 By perfecting posture the opposing forces of nature have no impact on the yogi A stable posture protects the yogi from the fluxuating circumstances of the world A yogi firm in a comfortable, grounded position is insulated from effects of the polarities of life Desire and avoidance is not necessary in this secure asana Asana keeps the yogi beyond the disturbances of all this or that II-49 Once asana is accomplished, pranayama ensues to regulate the in and out and holding of breathe. After comfortable posture is achieved, the yogi manipulates taking in, and letting out and retaining of the vital energies As the effort relaxes from the steady position, the a yogi stills the passing of inhalation and exhalation In this asana, it is possible to restrain the flow of breathing in and out With this position, one can practices purposely adjusting the breathing inward, outward and holding II-50 The breathe becomes extended and soft as the yogi skillfully adjusts the number and timing and point of focus of inhalation, exhalation and retention The patterns of breathing in and out and the pause in between can be regulated according to the
environment and the proper duration and place of attention causing the breath to become slow and subtle Controlling the internalization, holding and releasing of energy, the yogi adjusts the rhythm, amplitude and emphasis to allow the breath to become gentle and long The breath can be coming in , or going out or motionless; It can be adjusted according to place, time, and amount; It can become shallow or very expanded. One can be inhaling, exhaling or retaining the breath and it can be further adapted by the location, by the period, by the count, and by the area of attention. One can prolong and refine the breath. II-51 As inhaling and exhaling fall away to nothing, the fourth type of pranayama transcends objects of experience A fourth type of breath regulation goes beyond mere inhalation or exhalation Another fourth control of the prana, vital energy, can occur beyond breathing in and out and retention The other fourth pranayama surpasses the realms of in and out and holding of breath The internal and external techniques are cast aside for the fourth pranayama that regulates fields deeper than where the breath can reach. II-52 From this pranayama, the veil that obscures the inner light is lifted The results of this fourth pranayama is that the shade blocking the illumination is diminished Upon this, the covering over the lightsource is taken away These techniques when applied allow the inner vision to see through the confusion Thus successful pranayama dissolves the blinders to the light II-53 As this point, the mind is prepared to concentrate Upon succeeding in pranayama, the mental faculties have the potential to pay attention Thus, the mind is now fit for focusing, Dharana Only after this is the psyche capable of being one-pointed This is how to ready the mind for mindfulness II-54 Pratyahara is the deliberate diverting the attention away from contacting objects of the senses When the mind withdraws focus away from external perceptions, then the perceived objects it encounters fall out of awareness As awareness dissociates from objective phenomena, the senses don’t register objects and awareness is available to itself Pratyahara is the purposeful separation of the focus of the mind from objects and activities from the world; The sensory-motor systems quiet, as the mind focuses its attention away from sensory input II-55 It is with pratyahara that control over the sensory temptations occur The practice of this technique brings mastery over the senses Pratyahara leads to the ultimate control over any perception Then, the yogi has expertise in avoiding the attractions of external objects Then, the senses have no allure
III-Vibhuti Pada The Path of Supernormal Powers The Way to Extraordinary Abilities How to Gain Paranormal Capacities Skilled Attainments Mystical Aptitudes III-1 Dharana is the restricting of the mind to a bounded area Concentration confines awareness to a particular place Dharana is the focusing of attention to a point Concentration converges consciousness to remain on the object When the mind is fixated to remain confined location, one is concentrating III-2 Sustained concentration on an area of is Dhyana Once uninterrupted attention of the mind is directed to the object, sustained concentration is achieved Meditation is achieved once there is extension of that one-pointed attention over time Dhyana is the intentional stretching of this focus The lengthening of this control of concentration on a place beyond the moment is called meditation III-3 Samadhi occurs during meditation when the only object remains without mental attachments When the ideal of the object is fully grasped beyond the object’s form, absorption is achieved Samadhi is occurring when awareness has insight into the purpose of the object free of it’s properties As the essential form of the object of meditation is grasped and the substance of that form absent, then samadhi is achieved As the consciousness holds onto that same place of focus, shining forth as it is, empty of mental projections, then the absorption of meditation is at hand III-4 These three together, concentration, sustained concentration and absorption are called “Samyama” These three (Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi can be considered the same The unification of the three can be called Samyama These three disciplines can be considered binded together as if one Concentration, Meditation and Merging are integrated as Samyama III-5 Upon the mastery of samyama, follows true wisdom Illumination comes with the completion of these three control techniques With that success there is insight into the brilliance Achieving samyama brightens the light of intelligence In this achievement flashes the light of transcendental knowledge III-6 The application of samyama progresses through stages This impeccable discipline is mastered in levels Samyama is employed in steps The practice of it (Samyama) proceeds up rungs The process of this achievement unfolds through grades
III-7 These three stages–concentration, meditation and absorption- are more internal than the preceding stages Samyama is a more inner process than the previous rungs This triad is more profound than the than the earlier levels Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are more subjective than yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, and Pratyahara These three practices bring the focus inward towards awareness more than the aforementioned practices III-8 Even these are external compared to samadhi with no seed These three inner stages are objective in relation to absorption with no object That is also less profound correlated to the Nirjiba Samadhi, engrossment on no thing These levels are still focusing outward in the light of successful meditation with no fruits to bear (attachments) All these so far have consciousness outwardly towards a point; Nirjiba Samadhi is the absorption into awareness with no outward focus III-9 In between an entering and leaving impression there is a moment of cessation of the thought waves; With-in this infinitesimal moment, there is Nirodha-parinama, The very tendency to appear and disappear stop within the instant between the two. The effort of suppressing is now remaining Arising out of the mastery of the subtle fluctuating mental habits, comes true mastery and control of the Mind The moment of true suppression of all disturbances occurs between the emerging and retreating of impressions When the lesser samadhi are finally controlled by complete attention, the modifications cease III-10 It too – Nirodha Parinama- is put to rest by inducing the tendency to do so As the control of the mental modifications extend beyond the moment, peace ensues The act of suppression itself is suppressed and this leads the attention beyond In Nirodha parinama, that is --in the stillness between arising and falling thoughts, the conditioned tendencies still flow attention from one peaceful moment to the next This state, Nirodha parinama encourages latent impressions that tend to still the mental operations in the Future The flow of this stabilizing force becomes stable with practice III-11 The state of absorption called samadhi-parinamah, meaning “transition into absorption”, occurs when the mind goes from paying attention to many things to just one The development of peace of mind comes as the concentration turns the focus from the many confusing objects to the one object of intent Samadhi gradually develops through one-pointedness from the many pointedness As consciousness masters this discipline, the attention goes from a state of diversion, to a state of unity The tendency to any objects of attention is brought to one object of attention in the transitional samadhi III-12 “Ekagrata-parinamah”, the mastery of one-pointedness of concentration, is itself a cultivation to have the very urge to concentration also come to peace.
The mind focused entirely on one object means that the object is perceived as it leaves in the same form as it arrived The development of success in complete focus on one thing requires that the object remains as it is, unattached from past and future latent impressions At this point of single mindedness an object leaves the mind just as it arrived In Ekagrata parinamah there arises a mindfulness of a point of focus that falls away in the mind untouched from concerns of the past and future III-13 By these parinamah –transitions- just described, one comes to understand the body and the senses, and any object that takes qualitative form in consciousness with duration, in whatever condition The practice thus explained, helps to understand the evolution of perception of stuff by the senses from the material world or from some abstract idea This developmental process will explain how all things, material or psychological, causally change in form, quality, state. Achieving these skills allow insight into the development of all things, concrete or ideal, at any time and at place and for whatever reason These intermediary samadhi gives insight into the real nature of things macroscopic and microscopic, into their formal, material, and efficient, and final causes III-14 Physical reality is the manifold which contain contains the properties that potentially and actively change Substance is merely substance, coming into form, acting as that form, and dissolving that form The substratum, itself, remains unchanged before, during and after it materializes Beneath the forms coming into existence, in existence or going out of existence, there is an unmanifest Substrate All substance, by its nature, undergoes transformation whether quiescent, active or still to come Matter cannot be created nor destroyed, but merely alters its properties III-15 Succession of the transformations is the cause of the diversity of evolving processing of things The reason for the differences of objects changing is the different causative processes that underlie them The laws of nature allow the changes in matter that appear One moment leading an objective characteristic to another moment ultimately causes the consequence of differentiation Things seem distinct because of the natural way to pressure objects to succeed forward as such Change itself cause the tendency for things to change and become distinct III-16 Samyama on the three types of transformations – qualitative change, time change and conditional change – can give vision into the past and future Mastery of these three types of transitional Samyama—Nirodha, Samadhi, Ekagrata explains past and future knowledge Absorptive concentration on the essential nature, duration and properties of an object can allow one to see the past and future of that object Samyama, concentrating, meditation and remaining fully engrossed on the changing characteristics of objects, allows one to see how objects behaved in the past and will behave in the future By fully focusing on the way objects transform described earlier, one can understand the way the object has and will transform
III-17 The sound of a word, the meaning of that word and the intention behind the word are confusing because they arrive simultaneously; Samyama on these as distinct allows one to understand the words from anybody The meaning of sounds from all creatures become apparent when on does samyama on the word, the object designated by the word and the idea intended by the word The language of living beings can be clearly known when one does concentration, meditation and absorption on the distinction between the sound itself, the denotation and the connotation of the meaning The vibe of the sound, the sign the sound represents, and the circumstances of that sound appear mixed as one; Doing samyama on these separately gives insight into the meaning of any sound from any being. With language, the sound, the meaning and the context of words arrive superimposed. The way to sort out this confusion is to apply strict focus on these aspects of language separately. This can give comprehension to the sounds of all living creatures. III-18 Attention to one’s conditioned tendencies can give insight into past incarnations Directly observing the samskaras, the subconscious habitual reactions, one can understand ones earlier life Examining the latent impressions lends insight into how our life came to be By samyama on the directional impulses of the modifications to be karmically modified, a yogi gains knowledge of past lives Witnessing the underlying tendency to attach meaning or value to objects gives rise to understanding previous experience III-19 Samyama on another’s experience gives insight into that person’s experience Focusing intensely on the cognitive processes can allow the comprehension of the cognitive process of other creatures. Mastery of one’s own thoughts gives the knowledge of other people’s thoughts Seeing clearly how oneself perceives and conceives, can work to see clearly the perceptions and conceptions of others. Understanding of any other mind-field can stem from samyama on the modifications that occur in one’s own mind-field One can perceive other’s perceptions when one does full concentration on the perceptual process One can see what others see when one grasps seeing III-20 The cause, however, of that other person’s thoughts is not available for insight because that object is not actually present in the mind of the meditator One has no access to the reason for those perceptions in the other person, for the latent impressions are absent at the moment the object is perceived But not that which is attached to the object, because that is not actually there The other person’s projections on to the perceptions do not really exist and are thus part of the insight of the contemplator The supporting circumstances for the other’s thought cannot be known, for it is beyond the scope of the samyama III-21 The yogi can dissociate from the body by performing samyama on visible form; this samyama can
empower the eye to dissociate from the brightness and the perception is blocked The power to make the body invisible can come from disciplined focus on the rupa – material form Mastery of the perception of one’s own physical form, achieves the power to preclude the body from being able to be perceived by others Through samyama on the essential nature of the appearance of the body, a yogi gains the ability to disappear Samyama on the perception of the body can attenuate the perception of the physical body III-22 The same invisibility follows achieving samyama on sound and other sensations Similarly this explains how one can disappear from being heard This explains how to be hidden from others hearing your noises Through samyama on the perception of sound, a yogi gains the power to be silent Closely watching how words come and go, allows one to be quiet III-23 Samyama on the immediately manifesting and impending karma, and by studying signs, one can gain knowledge into the moment of death. Every action has a reaction either in that moment or in the future. Absorptive meditation on these can give the sign of the exact timing of separating from the body. Focused insight into the results of our behavior, whether they be manifesting now or later, can give vision of one’s death
By watching carefully our impulsive activities and how they effect us currently and in the future, one can see the timing for the ending of our activity. One can have premonition of one’s death by doing samyama on the two types of karma – that which is here and that which has yet to unfold III-24 By focusing on friendliness, etc, one gains the power over manifesting those characteristics Samyama on benevolence and other virtues brings the skilled ability to enliven those virtues Severe focus onto any quality, for example kindness, leads to control of that quality Goodwill comes from the samyama on goodwill. Absorptive meditation on compassion can create friends III-25 One can achieve the strength of an elephant by doing samyama on elephants Samyama on elephants, etc, can bring enormous power Disciplined absorption on any strong creature like an elephant can make one mighty Samyama can be done on powerful creatures like elephants to manifest their abilities Or on the capacity of an elephant and others, to gain their endowment III-26 This higher faculty of samyama can direct the light of awareness onto tiny, hidden or far away objects The light of consciousness when held steady into very small, esoteric or distant places, it gains knowledge of those places Samyama on the inner senses can illuminate the most inconspicuous, the most obscure and the hardest to reach places.
Watching carefully how the mind is illuminated, can allow one to bring light to the smallest, the most hidden, the most distant. When one masters how awareness brings forth its brilliance, it can shine on the minute, the subtle, the removed III-27 Samyama on the sun can give knowledge on the entire world Insight is gained into all stars, by samyama on the sun Knowledge of the whole solar system can come from careful focus on the sun Samyama on the sun can lead to the understanding of all light in the universe The whole world can be known by disciplined absorption onto a star III-28 Samyama on the moon can yield understanding into the position of the heaven bodies On the moon, comes insight into the arrangement of the stars A disciplined focus onto moon gives knowledge of the place of the objects in the sky By performing a complete absorption holding the moon as the object in focus, awareness of the patterns of the objects in the sky Samyama on the moon brings to the yogi the power to see the fixed distribution of the stars III-29 Focusing on the Pole-star, gives the understanding of the movements of the stars Samyama on the North Star, can yield the insight of the motion of the heavenly bodies On Polaris, the flow of the stars Through meditative absorption on the Fixed-star, knowledge of the migration of the sky-objects is Achieved Samyama on Polaris brings the power to comprehend the star’s progression III-30 Samyama on the naval chakra yields knowledge about the organization of the body The arrangement of the body can be known by focusing on the naval energy center Disciplined absorption onto the center in the naval area gives insight into the anatomy of the body The patterns of the body can be understood by samyama on the naval chakra …On the naval center for insight into the physiology of the body III-31 Samyama on the throat chakra can eradicate thirst and hunger Dehydration and starvation van be appease by disciplined absorption into the center at the cavity of the Throat Focusing on the throat wheeled energy vortex, yields suppresses the desire for food and water Samyama on the energy center at the pit of the throat stops hunger and thirst …On the throat chakra ceases hunger and thirst III-32 Samyama on the tortoise channel can lead to stability Steadiness can be achieved by disciplined absorption on the tortoise nadi below the throat Complete focus on the turtoise passage way in the neck to chest keeps one calm Concentration on the tortoise shaped tube below the throat, keeps one tranquil …on the tortoise channel for nonreactiveness III-33
Samyama on the crown chakra brings vision of the enlightened ones Perfected beings can be seen by disciplined absorption on the energy center on the top of the head Focusing on the light emanating from the energy vortex on the top of the head, gives the insight of a realized one Samyama on the brightness in the crown wheel one achieves the vision of the masters …on the light at the crown chakra to have the perspective of a perfected being III-34 Or, these insights can come in an instant of illumination With intuition all can also revealed Anything can be also be known in the moment of brilliant insight Or, everything is understood by a flash of enlightenment …or, all (can be known) by the light of the higher comprehension III-35 Samyama on the heart chakra yields knowledge of the mind-field Absorptive concentration on the energy center near the heart gives insight in to the mental operations The nature of the intellectual functions are clear when focusing on the vortex at the heart Samyama on the heart, brings awareness psychological processes ….on the heart for knowledge of the mind III-36 The peaceful mind-field, which is mutable, is distinct from pure awareness; samyama on this distinction brings the insight of pure awareness Our mental experience comes from the indistinguishability of the tranquil mind from unadulterated consciousness; Disciplined absorption on unadulterated consciousness as separate from the mind-field leads to this knowledge In experience, there is confusion of the sattvic- luminous - psychological state and the soul. In reality, these are quite different; Successful meditation on these differences can reveal the illumination of the soul. Clarity of the mind is not the same as the light of awareness. Much of experience is due to the mistaking of this; Samyama on this mistake makes the light of awareness obvious The mind even at its brightest and most brilliant, is still an object of the spirit. Samayama on the differing characteristics of the two, brings insight into the seer of the seen. Psychological experiences, even at their best, are a representation and hence not the pure subjectivity. Absolute focusing on the difference between subjectivity and objectivity makes this clear The enjoyment of life arrives from the non-discrimination of the source of bliss with what seems enjoyable. Concentration on this discrimination brings true enjoyment. III-37 Upon this illumination, higher sensations of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and smelling are available From this, comes a spiritual sight, listening, touch, taste and smell Success in this samyama gives an intuitional ability to sense light, sound, feelings, tastes and fragrances One gains special transcendent sensory abilities of clairvoyance, clairaudience, tasting, touching and smelling with this disciplined absorption Divine vision, hearing, tasting, touching and smelling arises from this insight III-38 These attainments arising from samyama seem powerful to the worldly mind, but there are obstacles to samadhi The psychic abilities that come from these samyama appear as perfections to the externally oriented, but
they are hindrances to successful absorption Others (non-yogi’s) may see these siddhis (supranormal) powers as attainments, but the yogi sees them as sidetracks on the path to samadhi These higher sensory attainments may seem like powers, but they are objective and thus an impediment They (the transcendental sensory abilities) are still outwardly oriented and thus are not the way to perfection These are obstacles in spiritual pursuits, but supernormal to the non-spiritually minded III-39 By loosening one’s attachment to the body and perceiving its more subtle energy movements, consciousness can go into another body Relaxing the cause of our bondage and becoming acutely sensitive to movement within the mind, the mind can move into another physical form Directly perceiving the assemblage point of mind within the body and observing closely its emergence at this point, can lead to the skill in entering another body Releasing the mind where it binds with the body can allow the passage of the mind into other bodies Letting go of the cause of the attachment of the mind with the body frees the mind to take on another form III-40 One can levitate over water, mud, and thorns by mastering the ascending energy flow (udana) The ability to rise above and not contact a body of water, marsh, barbs comes from gaining the skill to control the upward flowing subtle energy (prana) Mastery over the energies that rise in the body, one can rise over water, swamp, and prickles Skillful discipline on udana – upward flowing prana – can allow one float over and not be affected by water, mud and thorns Wetness, muk and bramble cannot touch one who has mastered the energy transforming upwards III-41 Mastery over samana – the abdominal energy of assimilation – brings control of warmth A fiery radiance emanates from those who have mastered the metabolic fire from digestion With control of the energies allowing digestion, one has power over fire A yogi develops an effulgence with the mastery of the experiential physiology of metabolism Skillful command of the fire in the belly emanates as heat from the yogi III-42 Samyama on how sound travels through space gives insight (insound) into the transcendental vibration Skillful absorption on the relationship between hearing and air renders supernatural hearing abilities Samyama on the ear and the medium of sound travel, opens the divine ear. A spiritual hearing results from the successful concentration, meditation, and samadhi (samyama) on the association between the power of discriminating noises and the ether that transmits it By using samyama on the ear and space yogi gains supernatural hearing abilities III-43 Samyama on the relationship of the body and the occupation of space, and on airy substances like cotton, one gains the power to be light By a disciplined absorption how the density of the body and on low density cotton fibers, one gains the ability to pass through space Samyama on the spatial extension of the material of the body lets one become light as cotton fibers floating in the air A complete focus on the correspondence between the body and the material that fills it can transform the
body to become light as cotton and fly through the sky Successful concentration, meditation, and samadhi on the physical body’s relationship with space attains to the power to move through space like cotton III-44 Once the awareness becomes fully disembodied, the veil covering the brightness is lifted “Maha-videha” --the glorious one without a body-- is the name for an unimaginable experience of existing beyond the body; This experience destroys the covering of the source of illumination An inconceivable state exists when a yogi is remains conscious without a body. Any darkness that was covering spiritual insight is now enlightened. Samyama on the outward projection of the mind detached from the body leads to a formless disincarnate state that clarifies any fogging of the light of consciousness Mastering samyama on the mind unidentified with the body removes any opacity of the spiritual light Through samyama on formless fluctuating mind-fields projected outside the body, disembodied spirits, one can dispel darkness covering the light III-45 Taken together, concentration, meditation and absorption, (samyama) on the formations of the elements can lead to a control of their formations. These formations are the substance, the essence, the symbolic, the universal, the purpose. Samyama on the transformations of material into the gross form, the ideal form, it’s significance, its relationship with other things, its function, brings mastery of transforming material The yogi achieves the power over all physical matter when samyama is achieved on the manifested form of the object, the reality of the object, the un-manifested form, the networked connections of the form, and the final causal form of the object. Through samyama on the forms of a object, on the concrete form of an element, on the real form of the element, its subtle form, its connection to other forms, and the final good of that object, can leads to mastery over those elements. Mastery over the objective world can be achieved by masterful focus on the forms that objects assume. Material objects assume a substantial form, an essential form, a representational form, a contextual form, and a purposeful form. III-46 Upon this perfection, comes the power to shrink the body to the size of a particle, to become completely healthy, and to become indestructible, and other powers Mastery of physical material can allow the ability to miniaturize the body, to bring the body to excellence, to become irresistible, etc. By that, one can become the size of an atom, or obtain other powers like vitality, hardiness. From these abilities comes many abilities including the ability to become minute, or physically perfect, or to become unable to be injured. Through samyama on the elemental transformations, the yogi can gain the power to become small, to become perfect, transcending the normal laws of physics III-47 A perfected body has beauty, charisma, vigor, a diamond-like hardiness An ultimate yogic body is pleasing to look at, pleasant complexion, strong and impact resistant An ideal physical body is handsome, sweet, mighty, and capable of enduring stress The mastered body is pretty, graceful, strong and tolerant The body of a skilled yogi is beautiful, powerful, and rugged III-48
Samyama on the formations of the cognitive operations can lead to mastery of cognition. These formations include the processes of cognizing objects, the essential awareness of the objects, the conceptions of the “I” with of the objects, the relationships of the objects with other objects, and the purposes behind those objects Mastery over the mind comes by performing disciplined absorption on the mental operations and their essential nature, the ego, the matrix of interconnectedness, and the functions of the mental operations Samyama on the organs of the senses and psychological activities, can bring control over those modifications and their objects, the sense of self, the associations of those modifications, and the utility of them Masterful apprehension comes through disciplined absorption on the powers of apprehension, the apparent transformations of the mind-field, their real form, their ownership by “me”, their value, and their meaning Through samyama on the mind itself one gains control over the intellectual capacities, ones real nature, over self-centerness, over relationships, over purpose in life. III-49 Mastery over the sensory-motor reflexive cognition comes through this samyama and brings the power to perceive without the senses and master over the original cause Upon this, comes the ability for cognition to function independent of the body and thus are not restricted by the physical laws of the body With this mastery comes instantaneous perceptual control and the power see into the ultimate cause of things This (samyama) brings mind-control and keen senses and the ability to see the primordial reason for Things By that, the mind is swift to perceive, and learns to perceive the fundamental cause. This brings the mental capacity to perceive without sense organs, abstracted from conditioned phenomena, with insight into the real matrix. III-50 Through correct discernment of the differentiation between pure awareness and the mere clarified mindfield, one can gain ultimate control all forms of matter and know every thing Upon the insight on the distinction between the pure knower and the purified mental process, one achieves omnipotence and omniscience Knowing the difference between sattvic (tranquil-harmonious) intellectual functions and the pure consciousness, brings insight into all knowledge and supreme control of all forms in existence With the grasp of the contrast of the knower and the illuminating knowing processes, comes comprehension of all that is known, and complete power over all objects Samyama on the dissimilarity between the seeing and that which clearly sees, brings full insight and Power III-51 Non-attachment even to the results of that samyama, destroys the very seed of bondage and true freedom ensues Through letting go of even these powers of omniscience and omnipotence, the cause of dissatisfaction, brings Kaivalya – Final Liberation Releasing the desire for these seeds of future despair, burns the very seed of despair and brings complete release from despair Awareness is completely free from defilement once the craving for knowledge and power is released With non-reactivity to all knowledge and all for controlling objects, brings pure consciousness freed from objects III-52
One should especially avoid the pride that can come from the invitation by supernatural entities to visit their space, for this can entices one back into the suffering If egotism comes upon the admiration from the gods, then one could slip back into the cycle of pain Upon even a glimmer of self-admiration from the association with higher non-corporeal beings can revert the yogi to the undesireable state they have been seeking to avoid Even if invited by the angels one should avoid the pride that comes or else they may revert to the unwanted conditioned habits Do not beam with self-delight if offered an invite by those of high spiritual position or else there is the possibility of getting caught up again in the cycle of discontent III-53 Samyama on the moment and its succession bring insights born from discernment Disciplined absorption on the instant and the moving of that instant forward, brings the knowledge of discrimination Concentration, meditation, samadhi on infinitesimal time and the movement of this creates pure discriminative knowledge Complete focus on time and its sequential properties engenders discerning insight Grasping the distinction between the moment and duration masters the ability to make distinction III-54 This discernment ability can make distinct two similar objects, not distinguishable by characteristics alone The insight from this develops the capacity to tell the difference between two indistinguishable things with similar class identity and place This discernment also allows one to discern objects in the same class and position and seem non-distinct With this is born the discrimination between objects that appear to be the same This insight bears the capacity to see the difference between isomorphic objects (equivalently structured objects with similar properties) III-55 This discriminatory insight transcends all worldly processes and it includes the cognition of all objects now and at all times, in all places and all circumstances. This discernment is the key to understanding the pure non-sequentiable awareness, and includes all objects and processes simultaneously, in the past, present and future, anywhere, anytime By this, comes reveals the knowledge of absolute reality and transcends the world, not affected by any objects or events that occur now, simultaneously, in the past or future This discrimination brings the highest insight that goes beyond time and space and procedure of the world, and pertains to all objects The intuitional knowledge of the spiritual Reality born of this distinction transcends all phenomena now, then, there and in all conditions III-56 The end result is the complete freedom from the enticement of phenomena occurs with the insight of the equivalence between the pure mind-field and the pure consciousness of that mind-field In the last stage of freedom (from reactiveness/attachment) the pure state of mind is the same as the pure awareness that apprehends it. The final liberation from the cause of bondage comes when the intellectual operations function with the clarity of pure insight of the soul As the mind functions in the same light as the witness of the mind, true freedom from suffering is revealed When the peaceful mental operations transmits faithfully the light of the pure awareness, then the final
freedom from distress is at hand IV The Path of Freedom The Way of Liberation Transcendence The Independence from Suffering The Road to Enlightenment IV-1 Siddhis, superhuman abilities, can manifest from birth, drugs, incantations, severe disciplines or samadhi These powers can the be the result of family and genetic opportunities, herbs, repeating mantra, strict ascetism, or by disciplined absorption The attainment of these incredible capacities can be from inherited disposition, concoctions, prayer, severe restrictions, or from samadhi. Siddhis arrives from rank of birth, chemicals, repeating sacred sounds, self-denial, or the effort of complete focus Exceptional powers can find their origin through inheritance, ingestion, vibrational induction, austerity or samadhi IV-2 The change of one species form into another is a result of nature’s natural tendency to do so The transformation of one type of birth to another is due to the material potentials Transition in birth class is generated by the inflowing of genetic impulsions Nature itself creates the urge for a creature to evolve Birth into a new species is a result of the biological force to fill the position IV-3 Personal choice and action are not the instrumental cause of natural law, only can cultivate nature like a farmer does Our deeds do not change the way of physical reality, but they can remove impediments like a gardener One does not choose a species to transition into, rather takes advantage of nature’s opportunities like a farmer Intention is not the cause of things, but can one can use the cause of things to farm opportunities Right effort is not the fundamental reason for the transformations of phenomena, however one can intentionally divert these transformations to bear fruit IV-4 Mind-fields arise from the natural tendency for self-identification This particular mind develops from the sense of egoism The natural tendency to identify individual identity creates the basis for psychological processes Awareness develops a sense of individuality because of a mental process to recognize an I The “I” creates the motivation for the distinctions of cognition The urge to become someone gives birth to the many The multifold mental process originate from the primordial mind The original mind is the origin of the diverse appearances of mental processes IV-5
The one primordial mind is the one who initiate activity over the other mental processes Pure subjectivity is the director of the apparently diverse mind-fields The appearance of the many perceptions seem be a gestalt experience that has a sense of unity, there is a prime mover behind the perceiving It is actually this original mind that motivates the other apparent minds Though the operations of the mind are diverse, the one who directs these operations is the real minder IV-6 Of the many operations of the mind, only those born form meditation are free from inducing further unpleasant conditionings Out of the diverse mental processes, sustained concentration is the only one free from creating potential impulsive reactions that creates further negative consequences Fixed in meditative absorption, no latent impressions are stored Truly focusing bears no future influence of attachments Meditating with that original mind creates no further cause to suffer IV-7 The yogi’s karma is not white, nor black; others have three types of karmic reaction The actions of one who disciplined with pure consciousness are beyond duality. Those undisciplined, are immersed in a triad of consequences from their actions The conditioned latent impressions of yogis are neither negative nor positive; while the repercussions from those not spiritually inclined, can be any three qualities, good, bad, or neither good nor bad The potential cause of suffering for a successful yogi has ceased, and therefore is neither one way or another. For others, the consequences can be either white or black or grey. The impact from a yogi’s activity are neither white or black. For those not merged with their awareness, consequences can be pleasant, painful, or a bit of both. IV -8 Every behavior bears the quality of the consequent self-impact according to the quality of the initiating action The three types of karmic reaction comes to fruition strictly according to those impressions The ripening of karma corresponds to the conditions of the seed that potentiate it From these three qualities of our action’s reactions, come fruits with similar qualities It is through these consequences that conditions further tendencies to be manifested IV -9 There is one connecting essential feature across experience, across the conditions of birth class, place, time, and even with attached memories and habitual tendencies If though it may seem subtle, there is a singular continuity of memory and conditioned tendencies through birth, situation, duration Even if one cannot immediate see the connection, there are karmic reasons for the current autobiographical and procedural memories and traits that are a priori their apparent origin, time, place The imprinted potential habits of distress have a direct connection with the memories and habits hidden in the past beyond this circumstance of birth, era, and location Current desire tendencies are the hidden connections between the past memories and latent impressions and our current position, age, location IV -10 The thirst to continue this cycle has existed forever in our experience and will continue forever This desire is primordial and eternal
That urge to create karma has no beginning and have no end Karmic tendencies have been present since creation and will go on to the end as it is part of the desire to exist The instinct to survive has perpetuated this cycle in the past and will continue to do so IV -11 Because the perpetuation of this cycle is connected by a cause and effect relationship with the object, it ceases once the cause ceases. The impulse to attach to objects becomes non-existent when desire becomes non-existent. Desire is the cause of suffering and without the cause, there is no effect or basis for further suffering. Causation is the reason that allows these tendencies to further propagate; objects are subject to cause and effect; Where objects are non-existent, karmic reaction is also non-existent Latent impression stop accruing when objects cease to exist. Latent impressions require something to cause something to be effected Being obligated by the laws of objective nature, reaction follows from action. But if there is no object to act or be acted upon, then reaction does not follow IV -12 The past and the future are contained within the intrinsic part of the form of an object, varying only in the expression of the characteristics of that form The actual and the potential are inherent in the present reality, differing only in the variations of the qualities of the substances The past and future live within the essential nature of the form, the difference being only in the course of the properties The Reality of the true nature of the form existed in both the past and will exist in the future, differing only in the appearances that the form takes Objects have an imminent nature that has and will be present throughout time, taking on differences because of the particular path that the substance has qualified IV-13 The qualities of these particular expressions, fully expressed or partially, are still part of the potential qualities of nature The properties that objects assume, manifest or latent, are determined by natural properties Manifest or the subtle, these changing characteristics are intermingling of the gunas, natural qualities The Gunas are responsible for all characteristics of objects, hidden or expressed These mutable forms, potential or actual, have their origin in Nature IV-14 The apparent uniqueness of the object is due to the unique mixture of the gunas – natural qualities Though an object appears as having one underlying essence, it is actually a result of the transformations of the gunas The substratum of any object remains the same, but the proportions of the characteristics differ As these gunas mix into a particular proportion, an object appears to actually exist as unique These qualities combine together into a mixture identified as a particular object IV-15 The same object can appear different, when perceived from a different perspective The identical object can appear differently to different mind because they have a different path of perception Identical object appear to be separate to different minds, because their perceiving apparatus are different Because the pathways to awareness are distinct, the same thing can appear to be distinct.
The object remains the same, but cognition is different and thus the object appears different through different minds IV-16 Yet, the object does not need one or the other of the minds, or what would come of these when not being perceived. A material thing is not dependent on a mind to exist, for what would happen if it remained unobserved An object is still in existence when not perceived, therefore is not solely reliant on a perceiving mind for its cause exist Substance must live outside the unobserving mind, for what happens to objects when no one is watching them Cognition is not the cause of the physical world, for what id there was no cognition? IV-17 An object must color the mind for that object to be perceived or not perceived An object is known or unknown based on the reflection of the object through the mental processes An object can be perceived or not perceived if it can be projected on the mind-stuff In order to be cognizable by consciousness, a substance must be able to imprint its color on the cognizer An object can be made conscious only if it can potentially color the seer IV-18 The fluctuating mental processes are known only by the supreme being, the unfluctuating pure seer The patterns of the mind are available directly to the seer of the seen, pure immutable awareness Changing mind-stuff can always be cognized by the true knower, who is the unchanging witness The mental modifications are always knowable by the master of the mind, the unmodified pure consciousness Thought patterns can be known by their lord, the unconditioned soul IV-19 The mental processes are perceived, therefore not the perceiver, who is the source of the inner light (needed for perception) The mind is not illuminated by itself, because it can be watched The though patterns are not self-illuminating, for they are perceivable Because they can be seen, they are not the source or the seeing Even mental objects are not subjective, for they are seen (by the subject) IV-20 It is impossible for the subject and object to be known simultaneously Pure consciousness and cognition cannot be witnessed together The perception and the perceiver are not able to be known at the same moment Both are not possible to be known at once One circumstance cannot allow both the knower and the knowing to be known IV-21 A cognition cannot be just be known by another cognition, or else there would be an endless confusion in memories An infinite regression of one mind perceiving another mind , leaves no one to actually remember the experience Mindfulness would be all mixed up is their was only one perceiving process perceiving another preceiving process perceiving another ad infinitum If a though process illumined another thought process and this regresses forever, there would be no
remembering, and all would be obscured All memories would be all jumbled if the mind could only be cognized by other minds (and no subject to witness them) IV-22 Once the mind does not fluctuate from one place to another, cognition has the opportunity to know its own reflection As the thought stop jumping from here to there, one can experience the knower of the process of thought The mental processes are reflected in a clear mind allowing the reflection of their knowing nature Awareness is able to witness its true nature reflected in the mental process that have quieted The knower is able to witness its true form mirrored in the mind that has ceased to fluctuate Once quiet, the mind is able to mirror pure awareness and thus witness itself as a perceiving process IV-23 The cognitive process that is colored by both the cognizer and cognized accomplishes its final good The mind is most fulfilled when it is influenced by both the knower and the known Only when the thought processes are colored by both pure awareness and the objects of awareness do they achieve their full significance As the knowing is imbued by both the knower and the known, it comes into its full abilities Cognitions colored by both the seer and the seen achieve their purpose IV-24 The mental processes, laced with countless latent impressions, exists because of its activities, for the purpose of the pure awareness The mind and its myriad of activities exists for the soul’s pleasure The purpose of cognition and its countless specks of karmic possibilities, is to serve the pure consciousness This is due to the innumerable traits spotting the mind, whose purpose is to serve the witness The mind compounded with its very variegated unconscious urges, is subservient to awareness IV-25 For the yogi, who realizes this relationship between the mind and the witness, can experience a dissolution of the sense of self projected on the awareness One who sees this distinction is able to discern this relationship (between mind and soul) is able to see through the reflection and be aware of the real Self. False identity with mind’s reflection of self ceases upon making the insight into this difference The projected sense of self stops when one sees this distinction One stops this fasle-identity of mind with soul once the difference between the two is grasped IV-26 Then, the mind is inclined toward this discernment and is attracted to freedom from attaching to the mind-field At that point of discrimination, the mental operations become devoted to the emancipation of the soul Once this discrimination occurs, then the mental processes are directed towards spiritual liberation Upon this distinction, the mind becomes focused on freeing the soul from the bondage (to the desires of the mind) The mental operations, clear on this differentiation, can now work towards Kaivalya – liberation from these burdens IV-27 In the gaps between this discernment, latent impressions seep into form new mental operations
New thoughts arise in the space between this discrimination from the past unconscious urges The tendencies of the past create new cognitions when cognition looses this distinction The subconscious storehouse of tendencies manifests in the moments when the mindfulness of the difference between the seer, seeing and seen is neglected Subconscious impression tend to manifest in the gap between this discrimination IV-28 The removal of these previous colorings, like everything that causes suffering, has been explained The same technique described to remove any painful cause, can be used to eradicate this cause. The stopping of these latent impressions are the same as explained for all latent impressions These subconscious urges to attach can be resolved by the same means as previously defined These tendencies cease in the same way as the other afflictions IV-29 Even the highest states of mind should also be discerned into this distinction with equanimity to allow the most high state of true-samadhi to rain forth As even the most profound knowledge is discerned consistently with no interest, to allow the highest virtue of samadhi to precipitate, like a rain cloud does the rain The proper samadhi will be achieved from the constant discrimination and disinterest in even omniscience When one continues discrimination and remains still in any desire to know anything, the most profound samadhi rains its righteousness Dharma-megha-samadhi, the cloud of the most exalted absorption, arrives to those who maintain a constant disinterested discrimination even to the supreme knowledge that arrives from this path IV-30 Dharma-megha-samadhi brings liberation from all actions that lead to despair Through that comes freedom from karma and afflictions This destroys bondage and the cause of the bondage This supreme state stops the cycle of impulsive and pain-ensuing activity The repercussions from past actions and its distress ceased after this samadhi IV-31 Then, with the lifting of all the imperfect veils obscuring awareness, comes the knowledge of no boundaries and almost no thing no know. Upon this, anything non-clear coverings are removed and the infinite and the infinitesimal are clearly known Liberation remedies the imperfections to allow insight without limits and little else left to know It is this freedom that removes that which blocks the light from being fully luminous, allowing the luminosity to extend forever, with almost nothing left not illuminated by it At this point, all the impurities and veils are purified leaving the infinite knower and little else to know or to be known IV-32 Also through Dharma-megha-samadhi, the gunas - the fundamental qualities of material nature – have fulfilled their purpose and stop transforming, receding to their essence This having been achieved, all qualities have no further needed to evolve and cease The Gunas having accomplished their purpose for awareness, have no further need by awareness and can end their modification Objective nature and its forces of change have fulfilled their role, and can now stop their flow With this, the gunas are done and the succession is over
IV-33 One can now grasps that the seemingly uninterrupted flow of time, as a series of succeeding moments, ceases when the transformation of the gunas are stopped In the end, all transformation of experience is recognizable simply as a succession of moments of gunas transforming At this final stage, one grasps that the instant which flows into the next ceases with the end of the transformation of the gunas Time as commonly experienced as a succession of moments stops with this insight Now it is realized that the succession of the flow of consciousness corresponds to a succession of moments, which is ceased (with the freedom from the effects of the gunas (mutable nature)) IV-34 Once qualia (the qualities of nature – gunas) have receded, fully empowered, awareness remains established in its own nature, true freedom. The end. Once pure consciousness can establish itself in its own essence, free from the effects of the transformations of nature’s objects, true liberation has arrived. Finished. When the gunas have fulfilled their purpose, and awareness has no impulsive influence by them, then the seer is as it really is, totally free from distress. Done. Pure awareness reaches its fulfillment with the quieting of all transformations and can now remain solely established as it is as the witness. That is everything. The ultimate emancipation from the bondage of the modifications come with this grasping of the limitations of the gunas, and now awareness remains in fully empowered conscious. This is completion of the whole exposition.