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BCE river systems in Middle East, India, China made the first four civilizations -Sumerian Babylonian civilization in Mesopotamia -Sumerian Babylonian lay between Fertile Crescent, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers -Sumerian Babylonian practiced large agriculture and started settling in 8000 BCE -Sumerians were first in Mesopotamia followed by Babylonians that had political dominance -Mesopotamians had many cities and were governed by a small class of priests and kings -Sumerians had first written language, Cuneiform-wedged characters in clay -King Hammurabi had first law code, harsh punishments, but valued rules and regulations to be followed -people of Mesopotamia built ziggurats-temples to honor gods and goddessespolytheistic religion -Mesopotamians developed base-60 number system -great with trading and had economy into the Middle East and Indian Ocean Egypt -civilization was found on the banks of the Nile River -dependency of the water of the Nile River -agriculture settling, 5500 BCE -King Menes in 3100 BCE united Southern and Northern Egypt -Political breakdown in Egypt: Old Kingdom, First Intermediate, Middle Kingdom, Second Intermediate, New Kingdom -900 BCE most of Egypt had no independence -women subordinate to men and had domestic responsibilities of money and teaching children -women owned property, could divorce -Queen Hatshepsut was the pharaoh of Egypt -polytheistic religion -Egyptian book of the dead-talks about Egypt’s afterlife and the tombs -written script hieroglyphics developed 3100 B.C.E. -good metalworking -great knowledge about medicine, math, and astronomy Indus Valley Civilization -Indus river civilization developed on coast of the Arabian sea and is present day Pakistan and Northwestern India -developed around 2600 BCE -little knowledge about their religion, culture, declines -very widespread and urban -thought to be very unified and centralized
-lots of cities –largest: Mohenjo and Harappa -trade extended beyond the civilizations borders -metalworking was strong -thought to have declined due to invasion from Aryans or to environmental factors Early China and the Yellow River (Shang then Zhou) -this river valley civilization came about along the Yellow River -Yellow and Yangtze rivers centered on agriculture, and they held social and political unity -2000 BCE China had bronze working -Shang dynasty-started in Yellow river 1750 BCE, warrior aristocracy -traded jade, ivory, silk -pictograms were the Shang system of writing - worship of ancestors and fortune telling was in religion -King Wu was ruler of longest lasting Zhou Dynasty 806 years-overthrew the Shang -Zhou considered to be “the warring states period” and had internal decline -Zhou had innovation, some conserving of the Shang -600 BCE , Chinese had iron tools -Zhou had Mandate of Heaven-if a ruler governed fairly he would have a divine right to rule -Confucianism and Daoism developed during this time THE CELTS -not civilized and not politically united -first ethnic group in Europe that was large scale -strongest influence was in Spain, France, British Isles -no written language -practice oral tradition -polytheistic and priests were called druids THE ANCIENT MIDDLE EAST -Hitties dominated Mesopotamian region in 1200’s BCE -Assyrians made the world’s first empire had new weapons -Nebuchadnezzar was the ruler of the Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans) who conquered Assyrians -Nebuchadnezzar made hanging gardens of Babylon -Persians made the Persian Empire one of the largest ever before Alexander the Great conquered -Cyrus the great, first Persian ruler -single currency, postal system, network of roads -Zoroastrianism-faith of the Persian people, Persians had religious tolerant -Macedonia and Alex the Great conquer Persia, 331 BCE -Hebrews in Israel under Abraham were first monotheistic religion -Jews were enslaved by Egypt, conquered by Assyrians, taken over by NeoBabylonians (Chaldeans)
-Phoenicians were on the east coast of Mediterranean, had economy based on purple dye and timber -Phoenicians had first alphabet and city of Carthage rivaled Rome -Lydians invented metal coins
GREECE AND ROME Early Greek History -Aegean civilization (island of Crete) and the Mycenaean civilization (Greek mainland) -both civilizations were trading societies -Mycenaean fought in the Trojan War -the two civilizations joined to be called the Greeks, or Hellenes -joining of two were the “Greek dark ages” Greek City States -Greeks were on islands and couldn’t make a single united nation -city states were all independent of each other and were created to compensate for the island locations -Corinth, Thebes, Sparta, Athens all city states -Sparta had strong slaveholding dictatorship, had Greek’s most effective and feared army -Athens was politically and culturally advanced, had trade and power from naval work -most politics in Greek city states were family oligarchies -slavery common in Greek city states -subordinate women -Athens had first democracy and Pericles was the peak of democracy, no women involved The Classical Period (500-338 BCE) and Age of Alex the Great -Two major wars between Persians and Greeks where Persia invaded Greece and Spartan and Athens fought back -Peloponnesian War-civil conflict for power of Greek world between Spartans and Athens -Sparta won the war over Athens -Greek city states were weakened significantly by the outcome of the war -Alexander conquered the Greeks (creating Macedonia-Greek kingdom preserving Greek culture) then crossed Asia to conquer the Persian Empire -Alexandria, city in Egypt became center of learning and trade under Alex the Great Hellenic (Greek) Culture
-Greeks were polytheistic -emphasis on science -celebrating life, humanism -literature -Socrates, Plato, Aristotle -Aristotle-developed parts of current scientific method Early Roman History -City of Rome developed in the Mediterranean -Rome had a long lasting empire that dominated the Mediterranean and its bordering places -Rome had monarchy and foreign rulers, Etruscans -Romans retaliated making Roman Republic Roman Republic -during the period there were issues with the lower and higher classes -Senate was ruled by the upper class -executive power within consuls Expansion into Mediterranean power -Rome v. Carthage-Punic Wars -Rome won Punic wars and was strongest state in the Western Mediterranean -Rome moved into Asia and Egypt and into Europe after victory in Punic wars Collapse of Roman Republic -small farmers went bankrupt because of the fall of grain prices -increased use of slave labor by large landowners caused problems -poverty increased -civil wars 91-30 BCE -Julius Caesar, had dictatorial power in Rome’s 2nd Civil War -Caesar was assassinated in 44 BCE The Roman Empire -Roman Empire developed after Roman republic and remained for almost 5 centuries -Caesar Augustus was Julius Caesar’s grandnephew who ruled first in Roman Empire -Augustus renewed wealth and strength and had long reign (Rome’s Golden age) -300 CE, Eastern Roman empire broke away and was called Byzantine Empire -military was stretched and politics couldn’t sustain the remaining Western half or what was left of the Roman Empire -army gained lots of control over imperial government, economy had troubles -476 CE, Western Roman Empire and the city of Rome were taken over by gothic tribes and had fallen Roman Society -distinction between citizens and non citizens
-subject peoples were still respected as long as they obeyed Roman law, they had no civil rights -overtime divisions between upper and lower class weren’t as strict -wealth determined place in society -heavily relying of slave labor -strictly patriarchal, but became more accepting to women to divorce and have economic rights by the late republican roman period Rome’s Cultural Legacy -Romans admired Greek culture -Romans were builders and engineers -aqueducts: efficient transfers of water -Eastern part of Roman Empire where Christianity was created -Christianity was Roman Empire’s official religion CHINA THROGUH THE HAN AND SUI DYNASTIES -Qin dynasty made dictatorial by leader Huangdi -Qin had Great Wall that did not always keep invaders out of China -strong emperor, legalism, large bureaucracy The Han Dynasty -long lasting in China, efficiently governed empire -Emperor Wu Ti ruled Han -Han armies expanded -Han had tributary system that gained payments from neighbors -monopoly of silk production in China -government corruption, economy slumped, bad agriculture production contributed to fall -Sui reestablished order in 589 CE way after 220 CE when Han fell CENTRAL ASIA -origin of many nomadic groups -Tartars, Seljuks, Ottomans origins -Mongols and Gupta Empire of India originated EARLY JAPAN Origins of Japanese State -unknown not found/proven The Nara State -first imperial state under rule of Yamato family -Shinto religion made the emperors valid under the Sun god -Nara, Japan’s capital
-Chinese had impacts on Japanese art, religion, literature CLASSICAL INDIA Aryan Invasion -Northern India was invaded by the nomadic group of the Aryans -Aryans set up a warrior aristocracy -Aryans and the current Indians were blended in culture making Indian culture -Sanskirt in India for religion and reading -Vedic and Hindu religion -strict and complex caste system
The Mauryan Empire -brought India together as a single state -strong military -extensive trade -cotton was a key good -Ashoka was emperor and converted to Buddhism -trade with India -Ashoka pushed for harmony between Buddhists, Hindus, and other Indian religions The Gupta Empire -collapse of Mauryan empire by outside attacks -Gupta controlled northern and central India -smaller and less centralized than Mauryan but had strong culture and economy -religious toleration amongst rulers - trade with China and S.E.A. -concept of pi and the decimal system -Huns created the fall of the Gupta Empire -India was decentralized when the Gupta fell BYZANTIUM -Eastern Roman Empire when it separated -capital built at Constantinople -provided commercial and cultural connections among Europeans and people of the Middle East and Asia -preserved Christianity in middle east and Eastern Euro -Emperor Justinian had built the church of Hagia Sophia which is now a mosque -Corpus Juris Civils-reiterating Roman law code under Justinian -Byzantine empire captivated most of Western Roman Empire’s holdings before it collapsed -lost some ground to Islam spreading in Africa and Middle East EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE
The Concept of “Middle Ages” -collapse of Western Roman Empire caused the middle Ages or medieval period Barbarian Invasions -Europe was invaded by various barbaric tribes -Germanic invaders and Asiatic (Huns) were prominent invaders -sometimes settled in Europe’s lands
The Bantu -Bantu people came from the Niger River basin of West Central Africa -helped shape sub Saharan Africa’s culture -depended upon cattle for economy Nubia and Ghana -besides Egypt, first major civilization in Africa was in Nubia and Ghana -Nubia helped link trade from north and south -powerful nation of Kush in 1750 BCE -Ghana, on the Atlantic Coast was the land of gold - Ghana was part of the trans-Saharan trade network EARLY CULTURES IN THE AMERICAS Mexico and Central America -Olmecs located on Coast of the Gulf of Mexico -were not near a major river system -Teotihuacan was one of the world’s biggest cities -City of Teo. Was taken over by the Mayans Andean Societies in South America -Andean cultures were skilled with weaving and metalworking -heavily urban -the plains in the lands were ideal for nomads North American Cultures -Anasazi-ancient one -cliff dwellings of North Americans
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