INTRODUCTION

Fulfilling customer needs are essential for business success. The activities of an automobile manufacturer have to be oriented towards the customer’s expectation and customers delight. Nowadays, needs like functionality, comfort, safety, reliability, as well as high level of quality are taken for granted. Design, material quality and their perception are reflected. Correct material selection is essential in order to guarantee functionality or grace fullness of the multitude components of an automobile. The piston, cylinder liner and valves are the important parts of the internal combustion engine to be given more attention. In baseline engine, the liner undergoes a severe wear at high temperatures of combustion which results in seizure of the liner. Due to heat losses through the cylinder walls, the thermal efficiency of the engine decreases. Reduction of emissions from diesel engine is becoming increasingly important, because of promulgation of stringent emissions legislation. Particulate and NOx emission are the primary concern for diesel engine owing to the nature of the compression ignition process and diesel fuel consumption. The challenging problems occurring are due to the presence of solid particulates in the exhaust, in addition to gas phase pollutants. In order to minimize these pollutants, it is necessary to go for an alternate method to design engine cylinder and its combustion chamber components. The rapid increase in fuel expenses, the decreasing supply of high grade fuels in the market and environmental concerns stimulated research for more efficient engines. To increase wear resistance, thermal efficiency, and minimize pollutants in the exhaust of the engine, a thermal barrier and wear resistant coating is applied to inner walls of the cylinder which replaces conventional liner. Thermal barrier Coating (TBC), a new technique used at present scenario. TBC is a thin layer of ceramic coating applied to combustion chamber components, mainly for piston crown, valves, cylinder cover and cylinder walls. By using this technique, the present problems could be solved to some extent. Thermal barrier coatings becoming increasingly important in providing thermal insulation for heat engine components. Thermal insulation reduces in-cylinder heat

transfer from the engine combustion chamber and also components structural temperature. Containment of heat also contributes to increase in cylinder work and offers higher exact temperature for energy recovery. Lower component structural temperature will result in greater durability.

The problem faced by gas turbine engineers was the failure of components exposed to not combustion gases. This problem was exacerbated by oxidizing components of combustion gas (C02 and O2), high pressure (4 MPa) and the very high loads experienced by gas turbine blades. Common causes of failure in hot end of component even to date are creep, oxidation and thermo-mechanical fatigue. There have been three major engineering advances in dealing with problem: 1. The development of the super alloys( 1950 to 1980) 2. The development of air cooling system( 1960 to present) 3. The development of durable thermal barrier coatings (1980 to present). The gains in gas temperatures obtained were of the order of about 2000 c for the development of super alloys, 5000C for air cooled system and 3000C for thermal barrier coatings. Hence in the hot end of modem gas turbine engines most components are made of super alloys with air cooled system and an increased number of components now have thermal barrier coatings. Modem TBCs are required not only to limit the heat transfer through the coating but also to protect the engine components from oxidation and corrosion. No single coating composition appears to satisfy these multifunctional requirements. As a result, a "coating system" needs to be evolved. Research in the last 20 years have led to a preferred coating system, consisting of three separate layers to achieve long term effectiveness in the high temperature, oxidative and corrosive environment in which they are to function. First, a thermally protective TBC layer with a low thermal conductivity is required to maximize thermal drop across the thickness of coating. This coating is likely to have a thermal expansion co-efficient which differs from that of the component material. This layer should therefore have a high in-plane compliance to accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch between the TBC and the underlying super alloy

component. In addition to this it should be able to retain this property and its low thermal conductivity during prolonged environmental exposure. A porous, columnar, 100-200µm thick, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer is currently preferred for this function. Second, an oxidation and hot corrosion resistant layer is required to protect the underlying component from environmental degradation. This layer is required to remain relatively stress free during long term exposure and remain adherent to the substrate to avoid Thermal mismatch which mainly occurs due to improper adhesion and difference in thermal expansion, coefficients between bond coat and cylinder material. TBC must also withstand wear and tear. There is a need to over come these problems for employing TBC to engine cylinder as a liner. In present work an attempt has been made to develop a TBC which is also a wear resistant coating to be used in IC engine as a liner. For last 100 years, engineers have searched for the best materials for cylinder, pistons and rings. In the early years of automotive engines. the choice of materials was cast iron. Engineers used cast iron in pistons, rings and cylinders. Cast iron worked fine for cylinders and rings, but pistons made of cast iron were heavy, Cast iron pistons were replaced by aluminum pistons due to the lower density of the aluminum alloy. Due to the combination of cast iron cylinders and rings, aluminum pistons are still in use in most automotive engines today. In the present investigations, Aluminium-6061 (AI-606J) and Cast Iron are selected as engine cylinder materials. These are also called as substrates of TBC system developed in the present work. Bond coating is an intermediate layer of the TBC system. It is mainly used to bond a subsequent over coat design for a particular function. The bond materials are specially designed to provide optimal properties for both adherence of the top coating and integrity of the interfacing substrate. Grading the TBC system from the bond coat to top ceramic coat by incorporating one or more intermediate layers into the coating system can minimize ceramic metal thermal expansion coefficient. The bond coat materials are selected considering coincidence of thermal expansion coefficient values of the coating and the relative elastic moduli, good wettability of the coating material at the surface of support during its applications, suitable chemical affinity between the two systems. In

the present work, commercially available three bond coat materials, viz., Al25Fe7Cr5Ni (Metco 446 metal powder), Ni9Cr3Si (Metco 451) and Fe38NilOAl (Metco 452, metal powder) are selected. On AI-6061 substrate, two coating systems are developed. The first coating system consists of two bond layers (A125Fe7Cr5Ni as Bond coat I-BCI and Ni9Cr3Si as Bond Coat 2-BC2) and a top coat. The second coating system consists of one bond coat (BC I) and a top coat. Similarly, two more coating systems are developed on cast iron substrate. In this, the first coating system consists of two bond layers (Fe38Ni10Al as bond coat l and Ni9Cr3Si as bond coat 2) and a top coat. The second coating system consists of one bond coat and a top coat. The performance of a TBC system as a liner in IC engine mainly depends on top coat. Top coat should have characteristics of high wear and erosion resistance, low thermal conductivity and high expansion coefficient. A significant amount of research activities have been carried out on coating systems which utilizes alumina (Al2O3) and Zirconia as top coats. The survey of the published literature shows that alumina is used as a wear and erosion resistant coating where as Zirconia is used as thermal barrier coating to minimize heat loss. The thermal conductivity of alumina is significantly high compared to that of Al-6061. Also alumina has high hardness. Due to this, alumina can be used as thermal barrier as well as wear resistant coating with AI-606 I substrate. The addition of CaO, MgO, Y2O3 to zirconia decreases both the cubic to tetragonal and tetragonal to monoclinic transformation temperatures. Thus, with sufficient additions of various oxides to zirconia, the cubic phase can be stabilized. At concentrations less than this limit, partial stabilization occurs, and all three phases i.e. cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic can be retained on cooling to room temperature. The resulting ceramic is referred as Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ). The thermal shock resistance of PSZ has been found to be superior to that of a fully stabilized and pure zr02. Thus partially stabilized zirconia can be used as thermal barrier coating in both AI-6061 and cast iron engine cylinders. In the present work, commercially available two materials viz., alumina (Metco 105SFP) and ZrO225CeO2 (Metco 205 NS) are selected as top coat materials. The first coating system of AI-606 I and cast iron consists of alumina as a top coat and second systems consists ZrO225CeO2 as top coat. The top coat thickness in all the coating systems is varied as 100 ,200 and 300.

The performance of TBC coating system depends upon top layer morphology as well as the coating technique. A manifest of this is seen when TBC top layers are deposited using Atmospheric Plasma Spray ( APS) or Electron Beam-Physical Vapour Deposition (EBPVD)Techniques. Coatings produced by APS have a thermal conductivity in the range of 0.8-1.0 W/mK at 25°C. This is significantly lower than the 1.5-1.9 W/mK reported for EBPVD coatings at 25°C and as a result, the APS coatings provide superior thermal protection. However the spallation resistance of these layers is less than that of EB-PVD TBC layers (S to 10 time's shorter spallation lifetimes). This arises because of the superior in-plane compliance of EB-PVD coating. As a result, EB-PVD TBC layers are preferred for aerospace gas turbine applications. But thicker TBCs are applied using plasma spraying technique. Plasma spraying can be used to deposit a wide range of ceramics and metals and any combinations of these. It is possible to deposit alloys and mixed ceramics with components of widely differing vapor pressures without significant changes in composition. Very homogenous coatings can be formed that display no significant changes of composition with thickness. High deposition rates are possible without extreme investments in capital equipment. Plasma spraying can be carried out in virtually any environment, air, encoded inter low and high-pressure environment (relative to ambient) or underwater. Thus in the present investigation, atmospheric plasma spraying method is selected for coating the materials on substrate.

LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Coating Techniques
The following block diagram gives the different techniques used for depositing metal, cermet and ceramic non-metallic powders.

Fig: 2.1 Classifications of Coating Techniques

2.1.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
CVD method ensures dense coating deposits on the materials due to the decomposition of relatively high pressure gases. Gaseous compounds of the materials to be deposited are transported to the substrate surface to achieve deposition due to thermal reaction process. Reaction byproducts are then exhausted out of the system. It is a very versatile process to produce varieties of coatings, powders, fibers and monolithic parts. It is possible to produce almost all types of metallic or non-metallic elements, including carbon and silicon, as well as compounds such as carbides, nitrides, borides, oxides, intermetallics and many others using this technique. Specific advantage of this process is attributed to the reactants which are gases with wide type of characteristics. CVD is not a line-of-sight process as is the case with other plating/coating techniques. Coatings can be made on porous bodies, blind holes, large L/D tubes, etc. The various advantages this process are versatility of the process, high levels of purity and density of the coatings, deposition occurring below the melting point of the deposits, economical operation to cite a few.

2.1. 2 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
It is functionally, a vaporization coating technique, involving transfer of material at an atomic level. The process involves the following four stages. Evaporation: The material to be deposited is bombarded by a high-energy source such as beam of electrons or ions dislodging the atoms from the surface of the target before vaporizing them. Transport: The movement of vaporized atoms from the target to the substrate to be coated. Reaction: Coatings of metal oxides, nitrides, carbides new metal targets. The metal atoms react with appropriate gases during the transportation stage. Deposition: Coating build up on the substrate surface.

Fig: 2.2 PVD Process

2.1.3 Flame Spraying Process
Combustion flame is the heat source to melt the coating material, which may either be in rod, wire or powder form. In case of the wire and rod systems, a feed mechanism drives the stock material into the combustion chamber where the flame melts and propels (due to the high flow rates of the gases) the particles as a spray deposit. It is possible that the powder used carried by an additional gas (generally nitrogen) from a hopper unit to the gun for combustion and deposition.

Fig: 2.3 Flame Spraying

2.1.4 Spray and Fuse Process
This process is a modification of the powder flame spraying process explained in the previous section. The process is a combination of two steps, where the coating material is firstly sprayed by a flame spray gun (or a plasma spray gun) and immediately after spraying, fused by an oxy-acetylene torch, induction heating or heat treatment in a furnace (which is generally held under a reducing atmosphere or in a vacuum). The fusion temperature is high, often up to 1300 0C, but can produce thicker coatings up to 2000 μm with a high hardness The advantages of this process is the production of fully dense microstructure and high bond strength between the coating and the substrate. The major disadvantage is due to the high temperatures experienced by the substrate during the fusion step.

2.1.5 HVOF Thermal Spray Process
HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel) thermal spray process is another variant of form of the flame spraying process. The coating material is in the powder form. The process can be categorized as Detonation Gun (pulse) HVOF system and Continuous Combustion HVOF system. The difference between the two systems is related to type of fuel gases and cooling systems employed in the process. Further, in detonation gun

system, combustion is maintained by a timed spark which is used to detonate the particle and gas mixtures. (A) Detonation-Gun Spraying The process consists of a gas mixture, generally a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, which is ignited by a spark plug to ensure a controlled detonation (or explosion) wave (which heats the individual particles to temperatures of 4500 0C) which would accelerate the particles and subjects them at subsonic speeds of 800 mS-1. Fig. 2.4 shows the schematic of a typical detonation-gun system. A uniform, closely packed, laminar type of structure of a coating can be obtained from the process due to the high temperature and kinetic energy of the particles, which would also ensure higher hardness, density and bond strengths of the coatings in comparison with those of plasma spray coatings. Coatings up to 0.5 mm thickness can be produced by multiple detonations, but high sound levels of 150 decibels are also produced. Double walled sound-proofing is essential and the process is controlled from outside this housing.

Fig: 2.4 TAFA TJ-4000 HVOF Detonation Gun-Schematic (B) Diamond Jet HVOF Thermal Spraying is a flame deposition technique wherein powder material is melted by the combustion of oxygen with a fuel gas and it is propelled at a high velocity with the help of compressed air, towards surface to be coated. In the combustion zone, the powder material enters the flame, where it becomes molten or semi-molten, depending upon the melting temperature and the feed rate of the material. The flame temperature for the HVOF process is about 2300 – 3000 0C. The molten or

semi-molten particles are then propelled out of the gun nozzle at supersonic velocities, exceeding 1350 mS-1 towards the substrate or forming die.

Fig: 2.5 Diamond Jet Spray Gun-Schematic In comparison with other thermal spraying techniques such as plasma spraying, this process allows very low thermal residual stress, thus enabling the deposition of higher thicknesses of coatings. The DJ HVOF system exhibits the highest bond strengths and lowest porosity of all the other thermal spraying processes, due to the high kinetic energy experienced by the impinging particles.

2.2 Plasma Spray Coating Technique
2.2.1 Process Characteristics
Plasma, often called as the fourth state of matter, consists of neutral atoms, positive ions and free electrons. Plasma is generated when sufficient energy is transferred to a gas, which is capable of ionizing it, thus making the electrons and ions to act independently of one another. It has been estimated that 98 % of visible universe exists in the form of plasma. Natural plasma occurs in earth as the aurora borealis and lighting. Examples for common man made plasma include neon and fluorescent tubes and bulbs.

Thermal plasma is a state wherein energy levels of electrons, heavy particles and ions are similar. Higher levels of ion transfer significantly enhances the kinetic energy of the gas in comparison with that observed during electron collisions. Higher electron temperature plasma though energetic, is found to be not enabling higher levels of energy transfer which is attributable to their lower mass particles. Energy sources for the creation of thermal plasma used in the thermal screen devices are usually electric arcs, DC or RF discharges. Thermal plasma can also be generated using micro waves, gamma radiation and electric arcs based on alternating current. In plasma arc spraying process also known as plasma spraying process, the thermal energy of an electric arc (40 kW or 80kW) together with a plasma forming gas, which would be either nitrogen or argon, are utilized in melting and propelling of the deposit material at high velocities (600 mS-1) onto a substrate. This process is capable of generating very high temperature, exceeding 16,000 °C, which can be gainfully employed in the deposition of materials with high melting points. The deposited material is generally in a powder form and requires a carrier gas to feed it into the combustion chamber. The process enables discharging high bond strengths of the coatings due to the very high propulsion velocities of the impinging particles. In a DC plasma arc process, gas heating is enough to generate core plasma temperatures exceeding 20000 °C depending upon the properties of gas and its electrical break down characteristics. Enthalpy of the gas is an indicator of its heating potential while it is getting translated to plasma state. The basic components of a DC plasma arc gun is shown in Fig. 2.6 It consists of an axially aligned cathode and an anode. Tungsten is used as the cathode because of its high melting point and good thermionic emittance as well. The thoriated tungsten tip is found to operate around its melting point due to high current densities which locally heats tip of the cathode. The water cooled copper anode constricts and spatially stabilizes the arc and accelerates the expanding heated gases. Cathode relies on conduction and the high melting point of tungsten to survive the high temperature of the arc since they are not directly water cooled. Direct current plasma arc guns are intensely water cooled not only to prevent melting but also to minimize the erosion of cathode and nozzle.

In working, plasma forming gases are introduced through the rear region of the gun. They enter the arc chamber through a gas rim that imparts a spin or vortex to the gas flow. The arc is stabilized at the cathode tip which in the low pressure region of the vortex and rotates the arc attachment or arc route at the anode. Rotation of the anode arc attachment minimizes its erosion. The heated gases expand radially and axially, accelerating as they expand before exiting through the nozzle. Depending upon the pressure ratio between the upstream arc region and the down stream nozzle exit of the gun the gases either expand sub-sonically or super sonically. Many gun designs employ a converging/diverging type of nozzle to achieve super sonic expansion which in turn increases particle velocity.

Fig: 2.6 Plasma Spray Gun

2.2.2 Plasma Spraying Equipments

Plasma arc spray systems are made up of components similar to other thermal spray systems. Direct current plasma arc spray systems are the most complex and the most flexible of all thermal spray processes. Plasma guns are designed for 144 to 720 MJ input power. Water cooling is essential because of high temperature and enthalpies. Pressure of water exceeding 1MPa is needed to suppress the localized film boiling in the gun which would reduce the component life and coating contamination. This necessitates the use of high pressure co-rings seals and passage ways inside the gun. Ceramic gas injectors and high temperature insulators are required to separate the electrodes. The high power density of DC plasma arc can produce relatively high erosion rates of the anode and the cathode. Gun design is a significant factor in determining the component life. Designs that use a closely coupled anode and cathode possess shorter life than those that employ wide spacing and a flow nozzle. Operational procedures particularly start up and shut down sequences shall significantly affect the electrode life. Mono atomic gases are also found to extend the electrode life due to their lower enthalpy. Arc erosion of anode and erosion of powder ports and powder feed tube are the factors to be considered while deciding about the anode replacement. The cathode is generally replaced after effecting nozzle changes about 2-5 times and is governed by its geometry and current density. Powder ports contribute significantly to ensure consistency in coating process. Adjustable and removable powder ports need to be monitored and controlled. Alignment tools should be used to ensure precise and repeatable positioning when powder ports installed replaced or adjusted.

2.2.3 Special Features of Plasma Spraying Technique
The following are some of the unique features of the plasma spraying process. • • The technique can be used to deposit a wide range of ceramics and metals and their combinations as well. It is possible to deposit alloys and mixed ceramics with components of widely differing vapor pressures without significant changes in composition. • Homogenous coatings can be formed for any composition while maintaining uniformity in their thickness.

• Fine microstructures with equiaxed grains and without any type of columnar defects are the characteristics of this process. • High deposition rates are possible without huge investments on capital equipment. • The process can be carried out virtually in any environment such as air, encoded inert low and high-pressure environments, or underwater.\

2.3 Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings
Ceramic coatings can be readily formed employing a wide variety of techniques (e.g. sputtering, electron-beam deposition). The technique being used since the middle of previous century, to form metal alloys, ceramic and cermet coatings on a range of metallic substrates. These types of coatings mostly greater than 50 µm in thickness are used for varieties of engineering applications to realize enhances, wear/erosion and corrosion resistance of thermal barriers; electrical magnetic components and so on. Plasma spraying technique has been playing a significant role in depositing a variety of ceramic materials on conventional metallic substrates. These coatings are generally employed to realize enhances wear resistance of abradable seals as well as thermal barriers, thus permitting hot sections of gas turbine engines to function at increased operating temperatures in aircraft industries. Plasma sprayed refractory ceramic coatings are also used in handling liquid metals and in electrically insulated metal substrates in the automotive electronics industry. A number of inter dependent parameters are found to describe the characteristics of the plasma sprayed ceramic coating process. Some of them are gas type, pressure and flow rate, spray distance to cite a few. The physical features of the feed stock powder appear to influence the quality of the coating. Particle size, shape and its distribution, and the level of chemical uniformity of the constituents in a mixed oxide are the parameters but to be neglected in this analysis. Particle size influences the meltability whereas its shape determines the extent of flowability of the powder into the flame. The microstructure and phase distribution of plasma sprayed coatings are dissimilar in composition with that of the substrate. Material properties of the coating such as thermal diffusivity, mechanical strength in tension and shear and wear characteristics are found to be different in comparison with that of bulk material.

2.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings for Internal Combustion Engines
Chrome plated cylinder liners were used in Internal Combustion (IC) Engines till 70s. Hard chromium was electroplated directly on to the bore of the aluminum cylinder. Honda cars of late 70s exclusively used this process. Kawasaki employs a process referred to as electro-fusion for the said purpose. Leading auto manufacturers such as Yamaha, Honda, and KTM utilize a technique wherein the Nikasil material is applied directly on the aluminum bore. On the liner Suzuki employs a boron composite material for the purpose. These processes are found to enable the designers to reduce the clearance between the piston and cylinder which results in enhanced power from the engine. A Poeton Max Power, Wiscons [1] in is considered to be the leader in the technologies related to engine cylinder plating and coatings. The company has devised a system to coat cylinders, pistons, rings and combustion chambers of IC engines with a Nickel composite loaded with ceramic particles. The process was first developed for its application in aircraft industries but later on made its way into automotive environments. Y.Miyairi [2] has investigated the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a thermally insulated single cylinder diesel engine. The cylinder head and piston crown are thermally insulated with sintered silicon nitride (SSN) whereas the upper part of the cylinder liner with Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ). He has shown that volumetric efficiency of engine with insulated cylinder head and liner is higher in comparison with the engine which has an insulated piston cavity. It is also examined that the gas temperature in the cylinder with insulated piston crown, cylinder head and cylinder liner is much higher than that of other types of engines such as baseline engine, engine insulated with piston crown, engine with insulated cylinder head and cylinder liner which is mainly due to formation of Nitrogen Oxide in large amount. Local insulation of combustion chamber walls with ceramics has resulted in improved engine performance with decreased volumetric efficiency. Insulation of the piston cavity, cylinder head and cylinder liner upper part together is found to reduce the emission of hydrocarbons under natural aspirated conditions at low speeds. On the other, a reduction in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) is reported under both naturally aspirated and turbo charged condition when the cylinder head and liner upper parts were

thermally insulated with ceramics. Further insulation of the piston cavity has contributed the increased in BSFC partly due to the increase in the reciprocating mass. Osawa [3] has conducted tests on coatings made on small aluminium bore of an air cooled diesel engine. He has reported that coatings possessing high thermal insulation and low friction characteristics perform best albeit with a 10% reduction in fuel consumption. Morel [4] has analyzed that a significant part of the retained heat is directly converted to positive work. He has also examined that a typical highway truck engine with a practical zirconia coating able to achieve a 5% performance benefit over that of an engine cooled baseline at rated conditions. Wong [5] has considered different combinations of coatings with different thermal characteristics and coating thicknesses to predict the pattern of fuel consumption in IC engines. The simulation model developed by him considers the influence of transient heat transfer into and out of the combustion chamber surface throughout the entire engine operating cycle. The simulation also included an advanced liner friction model which accounts for the effects of liner surface temperatures and lubricating oil viscosity. Results of the analysis showed that all thermal barrier coating materials provided a performance benefit that is strongly dependent on the coating thickness. Most coatings for the piston and head face surfaces provided a maximum benefit at a coating thickness of 0.1mm. The predicted maximum benefit in thermal performance is found to range from 1 to 2%. It is predicted that a coating thickness of 0.5 mm in the liner would provide an optimum oil viscosity and a reduced friction with a 5% increase in performance. Dennis Assanis and Kevin Wiese [6] have carried out work on zirconia band TBC coated on to the piston of diesel engine with a coating thickness of thickness of 0.5 mm and 1mm. They have compared the performance and exhaust emission of coated piston engine with that of base line piston engine. They have found that 0.5mm thick ceramic coated piston engine has in comparison with that of the metal piston engine. On the other, the thermal efficiency of 1mm thick ceramic coated piston was only 4% higher than that of base line engine piston. Due to more complete combustion in the insulated configuration, exhaust CO levels are found to be 30 to 60% lower than that of base line engines. Similarly unburned hydrocarbon levels were 35 to 40% lower than that of baseline engine. The NOx concentration is also

found to 10 to 30% lower than that of baseline engine due to the changes in the nature of combustion. The variation in thermal efficiency and BSFC as a function of engine speed is shown in Fig. 2.7.

Fig: 2.7 Thermal Efficiency and BSFC as a Function of Speed for Baseline and Ceramic Coated Engines [6]

Hideo Kawamura [7] has worked on Si3N4 monolithic ceramic coatings which are applied to combustion chamber walls. A combustion chamber with thermos structure made of sintered Si3N4 was used for this purpose. He has reported that the precombustion chamber exhibits a good potential for LHR (Low Heat Rejection) engine due to capability of combustion chamber wall temperature resulting in improved fuel consumption and controlling of exhaust emission. The NOx emissions are also found to be low due the presence of rich mixture in the pre-chamber in spite of the prevalent high temperature. It is mainly due to the diffusion of air and fuel mixture near the cylinder wall which reduces the temperature of the combustion gas. The fuel consumption in case of new type of energy recovery system is found to be 180 g/kWh or less for 2 liters cylinder light duty diesel engine with the proposed new combustion chamber. The LHR engine consisting of a thermos structure having good heat insulation layer is found to eliminate the need for cooling system, and found to improve the heat insulation ratio upto 75% or more. Masaki Tanaka [8] has conducted experiments on Cr2O3+Mo coated piston and cylinder liners and found that that the ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner possesses superior wear resistant characteristics. F.Rastegar [9] has worked on High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) cermet coatings employed in high horse power diesel engines. He has used Cr3C2/NiCr as the coating material. He has found that the highly dense chrome carbide based HVOF coatings develop

crack resistance during their service life. The liner wear is found to be almost three times higher in comparison with chrome under severe service conditions. Roy Kamo [10] had carried out work on TBC for improving the engine performance considering three engine configurations such as Metal base line builds, coated cylinder liner builds and fully insulated builds wherein the cylinder liner, piston top and cylinder head faces were coated with thin layers of thermal barrier ceramic composite materials. He has used Zirconia slurry and chrome oxide for piston and head face coatings, Zirconia for cylinder liner post densified with chrome oxide using plasma spraying technique with the thickness of coatings as 0.127 mm and 0.508 mm for piston and liner respectively. He has reported that the coated liner build exhibits about 1% improvement in performance over that of the metal base line while the fully insulated configuration would produce about 2% loss in fuel consumption. Heat rejection results indicate that the coated liner did not produce any significant reductions while the fully insulated configuration produced a full load reduction of 10% at 1400 rpm and no reduction at all with the increase in engine speed. M.Vittal [11] had studied emission characteristics of indirect diesel engines with TBC applied to their combustion chamber. The piston crown, cylinder head and valves were given a thin thermal barrier coating (thickness 300 µ m). The parts were given a bond coat of NiCoCrAly followed by top coat of Yttria stabilized Zirconia. He had reported that the thermal barrier coatings minimize the CO emissions marginally, increase the exhaust temperature, and decrease specific fuel consumption, decreases with the air fuel ratio with reduced particulate emissions. Further, thermal analysis of the particulate matter had demonstrated that the ceramic coated engine shifts the composition of the particulate matter towards more dry soot and less volatile content (Fig. 2.8).

Fig: 2.8 Compositional Differences between Exhaust Particulates from the Baseline and Ceramic Coated
Engine Configurations

Hejwowski [12] has suggested that TBC with NiCrAl bond coat and Alumina – Titania or yttria partially stabilized ZrO2 can be used to constitute a durable and efficient thermal barrier coating on gasoline and diesel engine piston crowns. An optimum thickness for TBC is slightly below 0.5 mm according to him. Further, he has also found that, that the Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is lowered by 15 to 20 % with the use of coated piston crown with 8% increase in power (Fig. 2.9). TBC with alumina –titania shows good resistance to conditions prevailing in a gasoline engine combustion chamber. The fuel consumption of a modified engine is found to reduce by 4.2 % at a speed of 1100 rpm, 11.7

% at 4000 rpm and 20.7% at 2500 rpm. Temperatures of cooling water and oil are slightly higher in a modified engine.

Fig: 2.9 Variation of Brake Power and BSFC with Speed (1) Baseline Engine (2) Ceramic Coated Engine

Computer aided modeling and analysis carried out by Melvin Woods [13] has shown that the conventional thermal spray coatings (slurry densified Zirconia) experience thermal fatigue and does not provide the desired durability. He has also reported that a coating thickness of 1.25 mm of zirconia can produce same insulation level that of 2.5 mm thick coating by changing the piston material to titanium alloy. Prasad and Ravindra [14] have carried out an investigation on heat transfer in an oil cooled piston with and without ceramic insulation on crown face. A 2 mm thick oxide based ceramic insulation material is coated on the piston crown of diesel engine. They have predicted the isothermal distribution in the piston body and the heat flow rate through the different cooling media at different engine loads for both the cases with and without insulation coating and found that there is a reduction in heat loss of 12 to 30% for the piston with insulation coating, assuming that both the heat transfer and temperature of the combustion products remain unchanged. Kulkarni and Jagdish. R [15] has indicated that ceramics, a family of heat resistant super tough materials, contribute to energy savings. Cylinder head liners, valve train components and exhaust ports with ceramic coatings are form to retain heat and eliminate the need for cooling systems. Poola and Ramesh. B [16] have characterized the TBCs that are applicable to SI engines. Improving the fuel economy while reducing the exhaust emissions of a conventional carbureted two stroke spark ignition engine was the main thrust of their investigations. An in

cylinder catalyst in the form of coating is found to provide a moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber by deposition of thin ceramic material. Ashok Kumar [17] has evaluated the performance of aluminum-titanate coated piston crown of a CI engine. The insulating piston crown is found to increase the temperature of cylinder wall which in turn contributes to reduction in volumetric efficiency which has a significant impact on the power developed. The aluminum-titanate coating is found to increase the temperature of combustion chamber, reducing the amount of lubrication and an increase in friction. He has also proposed that the increase in the energy content of the exhaust gases can be effectively utilized for turbo compounding.

2.5 Surface Texture of Plasma Sprayed Coatings
Earlier research activities on TBCs are most related to surface topography charactertion at micrometric and nanometric scales to address the issues related to the evaluation of quantitative parameters over profile and surface data points, which can be acquired by means of roughness measurement instruments and/or atomic force microscopes [18]. Quantitative parameters are typically designed to be representative of mean properties of a surface topography; Ra, the arithmetic mean roughness of a profile, or its 3D equivalent, Sa, one .he well known examples of such an approach. The wear and friction performance of ceramics haw been studied by earlier investigators [23, 24]. It has been found that low wear rates can sometimes be obtained at low surface roughness of materials, but with high friction coefficients which is in contrary with the general view that the friction coefficients are low because of their high hardness.

2.6 Effect of Surface Roughness and Chemistry of Bond Coat on Surface Roughness of Coatings
Effect of bond coat roughness by subjecting it to different treatments before spraying of the top coat has been investigated [19]. It has been found that roughening of the bond coat raises the fracture energy of the bond coat/top coat interface up to a certain level of roughness beyond which a plateau is reached. Study of the crack paths followed in different cases indicated that, while cracking occurs largely within the interface when

it is relatively smooth, it tends to occur within the top coat, close to the interface, at higher roughness levels of the interface. The effect of creep in the bond coat has also been studied . It is anticipated that some systematic work on the role of bond coat creep could be undertaken using proprietary Sulzer powders with high creep resistance, but no decision has yet been taken on the provision of powder for this purpose. The roughness [20] on the surface of work pieces increases with the thickness of the inial oxide layer. It is maximum at the final removal of oxide layer. The bonding or adhesive strentgth of the sprayed surface also is maximum in such a condition. Bonding strength increases with the arithmetical mean height of the surface roughness due to the thickness of the initial oxide layer. Further, when the arithmetical mean height of the surface which is pre-treated by the cathode spots is the same, bonding strength is also increases which are due to the narrow mean spacing of profile irregularities. O. Sarikaya [21] has reported that the increase in the roughness of substrate surface also increases the porosity and roughness of coatings. Higher hardness, lowest porosity and the lowest coating roughness has been obtained by him at a substrate roughness of 3.28IJm. Roughness of the coating also increases with enhanced thickness of the coating. He has examined the coatings prepared at 500°C substrate temperature and found that their microhardness increased at 28% level, where as porosity and coating roughness decreased at 86 and 36% levels respectively. It has also been reported that the thicker top coat is mechanically weakened with the increase in volume of pores and magnitude of residual stresses.

Z. Liu [22] has reported that plasma sprayed Zr02 8%Y203 coatings on mild steel substrate possess surface roughness of 4.51Jm in as-sprayed condition. The surface quality is found to improve upon laser treatment. He has shown the roughness of the coating increases with the increase in traverse speed of the laser beam, where as the roughness decreases with the increase in the pulsing frequency. Further there is a

marginal increase in the roughness levels with the increase in the fluence. This is attributed to simultaneous occurrence of ablation and thermal effects during the sealing process of an excimer laser C. Batista [23] has carried out an investigation on surface topography of plasma sprayed and laser assisted zr02 thermal barrier coatings using triangulation technique. He has found that there is a significant decrease in surface roughness of the coatings upon laser treatment which is due to the increase in crack density which is a function of both scanning speed and over lap of the beam. R. Krishnan et.al. [24] Have examined the surface texture of as-sprayed and CO2 infra red laser treated alumina air plasma sprayed coatings on copper substrate. They have reported that the surface roughness of as-sprayed coatings is about 5µm The surface roughness is found to 2.5 µm at 50 W powers and minimum at l.0 µm at 100 Wand increases to 1.3 µm at 150W power. The reduction in surface roughness of laser treated coatings is mainly due to the transformation of γ-AL 2O3 to α-Al 2O3 and densification through elimination of pores.

2.7 Porosity of Plasma Sprayed Coatings
Porosity is one of the disadvantages of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings. It occurs in ceramic coatings due to i. Retrained gases with in the splats which introduce spherical porosity ii. Early solidification or incomplete melting resulting n irregular pores iii. Incomplete filling of interstices between previously deposited particles resulting in fine planar pores which are observable between individual splats and at locations of incomplete contact between lamellae. Porosity can be classified into three distinctive groups such as; oblate, oriented with high aspect ratios and volumetric pores. The oblate pores originate from incomplete contact locations of adjacent splats due to insufficient wetting. These voids are generally flat with high aspect ratios and their dominant orientation is parallel to the substrate. Vertically oriented voids are present between horizontally (i.e. parallel to the substrate surface) adjacent splats. The oblate pores mainly contribute to the inner surface area

porosity but they are only a small fraction of the total porosity . Due to their high aspect ratios, these voids have a major effect on the elastic constants of the coatings since they effectively decrease the crosssectional area of the coatings . Volumetric or globular pores are fonned not only because of trapped gases but also due to incomplete filling of surface pits and gaps left by solidified splats. It has been found that their contribution to the inner surface area is small but they contribute up to 30% of the total porosity . The aspect ratio of the pores is small and there is no preferred orientation for them. Globular pores are found to decrease the Young's modulus of the coatings in small volume fraction . Depending upon the spray conditions, some fraction of the pores can be surfaceconnected. Network pore structure is found to reduce the elastic modulus. Factors such as speed and temperature of the particles have a strong influence on all aspects of the porosity . Residual stress in coatings is an important issue since it enables the coating to get debonded from the substrate . Residual stresses are introduced in the coatings during the impact quenching of the molten particles causing a difference in the magnitudes of coefficients of thermal expansion between the coating and the substrate. Pore structure also contributes to the residual stresses since they are influenced by elastic modulus and . The strains mainly determined by the thermal conditions during the deposition process. Portinha [25] has carried out the characterization of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings possessing porosity gradients while using Zr02+8%Y203 as top coat and NiCoCrAlY bond coat on Nickel super alloy inconel 738 LC substrate. Samples are initially annealed at 11000 C for 100hurs in air and are subjected to a thermal shock heating at 10000 C and cooling in water, for 100 cycles. The as-sprayed coatings are found to exhibit a porous and lamellar structure with porosity in the range of 12 to 15%. Upon annealing in air, all coatings present a sintered structure with reduction in their porosity levels. The porosity of sintered coatings is found to be in the range of 7 to 8%. The sintering effects are found to increase the thermal conductivity, elastic modulus with a loss in their strain tolerant behavior. Thermally shocked coated samples showed no spallation and only exhibited some densification at the surface with the appearance of small cracks which are perpendicular to the coating plane found to enhance the strain accommodation. The porosity is found to increase from the bond coat interface towards

the surface of the top coat. In as-sprayed condition, the absolute porosity is found to vary from 3 to 5% from interface to top coat surface and in annealed condition is from 1 to 2%. The reduction is due to the sintering effects at high temperature. Porosity is also found to depend on deposition parameter. It increases with increase in the working distance and decreases significantly at higher powers of the plasma gun. It is mainly due to the reduced velocity of the melted particles in the first case when they reach to the coating in growth and in the second case the particles have more velocity at higher temperatures.

2.8 Bond strength of sprayed coatings
Bond strength (adhesive bonding) is one of the important properties of plasma sprayed coatings. The main mechanism of adhesion can be described as mechanical keying, physical, diffusive and chemical in natur. According to sobolav et al. [26] Mechanical interlocking, due to rughness of the substrete surface, high pressures developed on the droplet impact and soldification of the lower part of the splat is found to be prominent mechanism for introducing the bond strength. Compostion of the substrate and that of the bond coat as well are found to affect the adhesion of alumina formed during the oxidation of bond. With the spalling of alumina, zirconia layer is found to disintegrate contributing the failure of TECs. Migration, segregation and stress generation are key issues of concern in the thermally grown oxide regions. Migration of aluminum ions from bond coat to metal alloy substrate occurs due to a concentration gradient. Similarly, migration from both the substrate and bond coat into the thermally grown oxide region also happens. It appears that limited yttrium ion migration to the alumina improves adhesion; however, contaminants in the alumina generally lead to additional stresses, which decrease the adhesion during thermal expansion process. High temperature diffusion of bulk yttria ions to the YSZ surface is found to destabilize the top coat enabling the transformation of zirconia phase to monoclinic resulting in an undesirable volume expansion which may contribute to spallation. It has also been suggested by earlier researchers that both neutral and ionic aluminum diffusion into the YSZ layer induces spallation . Diffusion controlled migration in the TEC is found to promote h harmful phase transitions besides enhancing

the thermal stresses. Though a concentration gradient is found to enable the migration via diffusion, the oxygen chemical potential gradient, occurring during oxidation is found to supply another driving force. Studies have also shown that, this chemical potential gradient is found to penetrate the top coat, bond coat and the metal substrate. It also affects the oxygen reactive species in all these layers, including those which were initially in the form of stable oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulphides . For example, sulfur is found to segregate the interface, which can prove to be detrimental to the life of TBC. The interfacial sulfur is found to increase the thickness of the oxidation layer, decrease the adhesion of the oxide layer to the metal, besides enhancing the transformation of metastable alumina to the alpha phase and hence pore formation at the interface and also within the oxide layer. It also increases interfacial roughening and formation of voids. The formation of voids is found to be problematic since they act as stress concentration sites within the oxidation layer .

2.9 Parameters Affecting the Wear Rate of Plasma Spray Coatings
a) Effect of Intra-Lamellar Microcracking The vertical cracks present in the plasma sprayed ceramic coatings playa significant role in the formation of wear debris . The presence of pre-existing cracks within the individual splats provides low energy pathways for the crack growth during the abrasive processes including scratching and erosion. b) Effect of Material Hardness It is established that the wear resistance of a material is closely related to its micro hardness, toughness, microstructure, defect content and the ratio of its hardness to the hardness of the abrasive. Hardness has a large effect on the wear of materials through the mechanisms of plastic deformation, while fracture toughness is a dominant factor in wear involving brittle fracture. In case of plasma sprayed coatings, better correlations are found between the hardness of the worn material and the modes of wear where plastic deformation is a major mechanism. the relationship between hardness and wear is in the form of W=k/Hn where W is the wear rate, k and n are constants and H is the hardness of the surface. Exponent n is varied form 2.8 for adrasion and 1.6 foe small particle and low

angle erosion. Many studies have suggested that a high hardness is desirable for both brittle and ductile materials, while a brittle material benefits father from a high toughness there is no simple relationship between the abrasive wear resistance and hardness of the coating. The abrasive wear mechanism of the coating IS found to be not only .dependent on coating hardness and density, but also on particle size, type of powder used, coating microstructure, as well as micro structural changes occurring during the process of wear. The wear resistance of alumina coatings can be changed significantly by selecting different powder process methods or by adding different additives, even if the hardness is almost similar. c) Effect of Fracture Toughness Fracture mechanics concepts have been used to explain and predict the wear of brittle materials[27]. The models are based on ideal brittle materials such as glasses, single crystals such as sapphire with an assumption about the formation of lateral and radial crack systems. However, when these models are applied to more typical polycrystalline materials such as coarser grained alumina, where lateral cracking does not always occur, the model predictions are found to be inaccurate. These models suffer from the simplifying assumptions and are applicable to either ideal or brittle materials and only one type of wear mechanism operates at a time viz. plastic deformation or brittle fraction. However engineering materials are rarely ideal and it has been demonstrated clearly that the wear of ceramic plasma sprayed coatings by hard particles usually involves both plastic flow and brittle fracture occurring at the same time. The effect of fracture toughness on the wear resistance of brittle materials is usually related to hardness. d) Effect of Load Load or the contact stress is the most obvious and easily monitored parameter that can affect wear. The magnitude of the normal load or the contact stress is important since it increases both the area of contact and the depth below the surface at which the maximum shear stress occur as well as the elastic or plastic deformation states.

e) Effect of Residual Stress Wear behavior of APS and VPS coatings have been found to be dependent on the levels of residual stress in the coatings. The resistance of materials to abrasive wear has often been correlated with hardness and the levels of residual stress in thin films have also been correlated with hardness, clearly indicating that the resistance of the coating to deformation process must play an important role in the wear tests. The wear resistance of plasma sprayed alumina increases with the increase in levels of compressive residual stress in the coatings. To obtain the best wear performance it is therefore necessary to maximize these stresses without compromising on the coating-substrate adhesion. f) Effect of Microstructure and Grain Size Wear is acomplex process and many factors are found to influence it. In certain situations one or more factors will dominate the vwear process of the materials. In addition to hardness and toughness, the microstruture of cermics especially grain size has an ammense infuluence on its wear resistance the changes in microstruture are more vsignificant in the nanostructure coatings than in the conventional coating. It is belived that the phase transformation has an important effect on the process of wear. I P.Psyllaki [28] has carried out investigations to examine the wear behavior of APS and Detonation Gun (DG) sprayed alumina coatings on cast iron and Haste alloy X substrates having a bond coat of 60Ilm thickness. He has conducted the wear test on both APS and DG coatings (1ON load and sliding speed 0.1 m/s, 6mm dia. Ab03 ball, 1900HV) in which the friction coefficient at the contact of Al203 coating/sintered Ab03 ball is 0.78 and had remained constant until the coating was totally worn out. He has reported that the wear has taken place mainly by adhesion mechanism and is enhanced by the exfoliation of the surface splats. According to exfoliation mechanism, friction can result in the imitation of crack between two splats of the same lamella. During cyclic loading of the surface, the crack is propagating along the splat boundary, leading to its final exfoliation from the worn surface. In the case of APS Al2O3 coatings, the weak interfaces between the successive lamellae are found to have failed, leading to the delamination of the coating which is extended for long distance from the axis of loading. This degradation mechanism is

found to induce the rapid wear of the ceramic coating and hence increased wear rate. In the DG Al2O3 coating, the stress field developed during sliding led to theinitiation of cracks perpendicular to the coatings/substrate interface and their propagation through the coating’s thickness.

Fig : 2.10 Exfoliation Mechanisms during Sliding Friction Testing

3. OBJECTIVES
Thermal barrier coatings(TBC) in internal combustion engine have advantages such as improved thermal efficiency and combustion, reduction in weight by eliminating cooling systems, etc. however, practical problems are faced in implementing these coatings in internal combustion engines, A significant amount of research activities shows the implementation of TBC to different parts of IC engine. At present TBCs are applied to combustion components of IC engines, mainly for pistons crow, valves, cylinder cover, and cylinder liner. However, the extended application of TBC to cylinder liner has not been explored practically. Cylinder liner is one of the important components of IC engine which severely under goes wear and tear due to reciprocating motion of piston. At the same time, linear as subjected to thermal stresses caused by hot gasses of combustion. TBC in the place of linear has to play very important role in minimizing wear and tear, heat transfer from cylinder to surroundings. The problem presently faced in implementing of TBC as engine cylinder is thermal mismatch which mainly occurs due to improper adhesion and difference in thermal expansion coefficient between bond coat and cylinder materials. TBC must also withstand wear and tear. There is a need to overcome these problems for employing TBC to engine cylinder as a liner the present work is undertaken with the following main objects. 1. To search a proper bond coatings and top coat materials based on composition of substrates. 2. Selection of proper coatings techniques. 3. Preparation of plasma sprayed coated samples for various tests. 4. To check the microstructure and Topology of coating. 5. To check the surface texture parameter of coating. 6. To determine the bond strength of coating. 7. To determine micro hardness of coating. 8. To determine abrasive wear of coating . 9. To determine erosion wear of coating. 10. To establish the suitability of coatings for its application in internal combustion Engine as a linear.

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