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CHAPTER: 1
INTRODUCTION


















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Introduction

1.1 WHAT IS JATROPHA?

y Scientifically known as Jatropha curcas L.
y Locally known as ³tuba-tuba´, ³tubing´, ³bakod´, ³kasla´.
y A non-edible plant that grows mostly in tropical countries like the Philippines.
y Drought resistant.
y Easily be planted and propagated.
y One of the higher yielding oil crop.





FIG: 1 JATROPHA SEEDS

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Jatropha curcas or psychic nut has become a new source of biodiesel. It is native to central
America but is now found in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. Various banks and government
agencies offer several incentives for Jatropha cultivation.

Compared to other vegetable oils like palm oil and sunflower oil, which are expensive, non-
edible oil from Jatropha curcas is cheaper. The plant can be grown on arid waste lands. It was
earlier used for fencing as the seeds are poisonous (contain toxalbumin curcin) to human beings,
most animals and birds. The plants can grow on any type of oil.

The Jatropha seeds are black in color ad two centimeters long. If you purchase Jatropha
seeds, not all seeds will germinate. Jatropha plants can also grow from cuttings. The Jatropha
curcas plant is a small tree or a large shrub which can grow to up to 6 m in height. The rate of
growth and yield of seeds depends to a large extent on the rainfall and temperature variations. If
the rainfall is plentiful, the plant will start yielding seeds within a year. On an average a plant has
a life of about 50 years. The flowers are usually pollinated by moths at night which are attracted
by the scent of the plant.

Jatropha curcas is mainly cultivated for extraction of biodiesel and is one of the best sources
of biofuels. In studies of various biofuels, one hectare of Jatropha Curcas yields 6-8 MT
of seeds . One ton of Jatropha Curcas seeds yields 300kg oil products and 700 kg oil cake .
Before Jatropha oil is mixed with diesel, it has transesterified. This results in production of
glycerin, and disposal of this glycerin is a problem. In India, Jatropha oil is used for powering
farm equipment and diesel generator. Southern Railway also uses the biofuels Jatropha oil.

Jatropha oil is also used for making candles and soap. The seed fruit shell is used as a fuel for
burning. The seed cake that remains after extraction of Jatropha can be used as organic fertilizer
or for animal feed. The government plans to reduce the import of petro products by selling a
mixture of diesel with 5% biodiesel. Jatropha seeds which cost Rs 6 a kg a few years ago cost Rs
26 per kg due to increased demand. (as of September 2006)
















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CHAPTER: 2
LITERATURE SURVEY







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HISTORY OF JATROPHA

2.1 WHY JATROPHA?

Jatropha Curcas is resistant to drought and can be planted even in the desert climates, and it
thrives on any type of soil, grows almost anywhere; in sandy, gravelly and saline soils.

Jatropha needs minimal input or management.
Jatropha has no inspect pests it is not browsed by cattle or sheep.
Jatropha Curcas can survive long periods of drought.
Jatropha Propagation is easy.
Jatropha Curcas growth is rapid; forms a thick live hedge after only a month's planting.
Jatropha Curcas starts yielding from the second year onwards and continues for 40 years.
Jatropha Curcas quickly establishes itself and will produce seeds round the year if
irrigated. Other than extracting Bio diesel from Jatropha Curcas plant, the leaf and the bark are
used for various other industrial and pharmaceutical uses.

Localized production and availability of quality fuel restoration of degraded land over a
period of time.

Approximately 31 to 37 % of oil extracted from the Jatropha Curcas seed. It can be used
for any diesel engine without modification.




















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2.2 JATROPHA CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIAL IDENTIFICATION FEATURES

Jatropha curcas is a large coarse annual shrub or small short lived tree which can grow
3.5 to 4.5 meters (8-15 feet) tall. It has thin, often greenish bark which exudes copious amounts
of watery sap when cut.

HABITAT

The natural environment of animal and plan.

DESCRIPTION, CHEMICAL STRUCTURE, STABILITY CURCIN

Phytotoxins or toxalbumins are large, complex protein molecules of high toxicity. They
resemble bacterial toxins in structure and physiological effects. Phytotoxins are heat labile, and
can be positively identified by precipitin reactions with sera containing known antibodies
(Kingsbury 1964). Curcin is said to be highly irritant and remains in the seed after the oil has
been expressed.

OTHER PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Curcin is unable to penetrate cell walls; this has been indicated by the fact that these
proteins do not affect protein synthesis by Ehrlich as cites cells. This is thought to be because
they lack a carrier moiety or at least the galactose-binding groups by which racin binds to cell
membranes. This was discovered when it was found that the activity of Curcin in cell-free
systems is not increased by treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol, which greatly enhances the
inhibitory effect of racin and abrin by splitting their molecules into an effecter and a carrier
moiety.

TOXICITY

In some instances as few as three seeds have produced toxic symptoms. In others,
consumption of as many as 50 seeds has resulted in relatively mild symptoms. There is one
report where the ingestion of only one seed in an adult has produced toxic symptoms. It has
been suggested that there may be two strains one with toxic seeds and one without (Kingsbury,
1964). Curcin, the Phytotoxins or toxalbumin found in Jatropha curcas is similar to ricin the
Phytotoxins found in the castor bean (Ricinis). The minimum lethal dose of ricin,
when administered by injection, may be as small as 0.00000001% of body weight, although oral
toxicity is probably several hundred times less.

Poisoning from ingestion of the seeds of the Jatropha plant is well known in veterinary
practice and autopsy findings include, severe gastro-enteritis, nephritis, myocardial
degeneration, haemagglutination, and subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages as well as
renal subcritical and sub pleural bleeding.
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One study found a high mortality rate in mice fed 50% and 40% J. curcas. The important
symptoms of poisoning included diarrhea, inability to keep normal posture, depression and
lateral recumbence. The degree of the pathological changes observed in the small intestines,
liver, heart, kidneys, and lungs was related to the level of Jatropha in the diet. The most marked
pathological changes were catarrhal enteritis, erosions of the intestinal mucosa, congestion and
hemorrhages in small intestines, heart and lungs and fatty changes in the liver and kidneys.







































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2.3 JATROPHA SEEDS CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES



PROPERTIES

TYPICAL VALUES

Flash point

240/110 °C
Carbon residue 0.64
Cetane value 51.0
Distillation point (°C) 295 °C
Kinematics Viscosity 50.73 CS
Sulphur % 0.13 %
Calorific value 9 470 kcal/kg
Pour point 8 °C
Color 4.0
Viscosity (cp) (30 °C) 52.6 (5.51)2
Specific gravity (15 °C/4
°C)
0.917/
0.923(0.881)
Solidifying Point (°C) 2.0
Saponification Value 188.198
Iodine Value3 90.8 -112.5
Refractive Index (30°C) 1.47
Acid value 1.0 - 38.2
TABLE: 1: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA SEED

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2.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HEXANE

Physical state and appearance: Liquid.

Odor:

Gasoline-like or petroleum-like (Slight.)

Molecular Weight:


86.18g/mole

Color:

Clear Colorless.

Boiling Point:


68°C (154.4°F)


Melting Point:

-95°C (-139°F)


Specific Gravity:


0.66 (Water = 1)


Vapor Pressure:


17.3 kPa (@ 20°C)


Vapor Density:


2.97 (Air = 1)


Odor Threshold:


130 ppm


Water/Oil Dist. Coefficient:



The product is more soluble in oil; Log (oil/water)
= 3.9


Dispersion Properties:



See solubility in water, diethyl ether, and
Acetone.


Solubility:


Soluble in diethyl ether, acetone.
Insoluble in cold water, hot water.


TABLE: 2: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEXANE
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2.5 JATROPHA PARTS AND USES
BOTANICAL FEATURES AND POTENTIAL USES

This paper describes the botanical features and potential uses of Jatropha curcas for the
future. Uses of Jatropha Curcus:

1. Non-edible vegetable oil of Jatropha curcas has the requisite potential of providing a
promising and commercially viable alternative to diesel oil since it has desirable
physicochemical and performance characteristics comparable to diesel. Cars could be run
with Jatropha curcas without requiring much change in design.
2. The oil is used as an illuminant without being refined and it burns with clear smoke-free
flame.
3. Oil has a very high saponification value and is being extensively used for making soap in
some countries.
4. The latex of Jatropha contains an alkaloid known as "jatrophine" which is believed to
have anti-cancerous properties.
5. It is also used as an external application for skin diseases and rheumatism and for sores
on domestic livestock. In addition, the tender twigs of the plant are used for cleaning
teeth, while the juice of the leaf is used as an external application for piles. Finally, the
roots are reported to be used as an antidote for snake-bites.
6. The bark of Jatropha curcas yields a dark blue dye which is used for coloring cloth,
fishing nets and lines.
7. Jatropha oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as
organic manure.
8. Jatropha leaves are used as food for the tusser silkworm.

Jatropha curcus or ³Ratanjyot´ can prove itself a miracle plant by turning waste land into a
moneymaking land. It can help to increase rural incomes, self-sustainability and alleviate poverty
for women, elderly, children and men, tribal communities, small farmers.

PRODUCTS OF THE EXPLOITATION OF THE JATROPHA PLANT

The uses of Jatropha plant is provided in detail.
SOAP PRODUCTION
The glycerin that is a by-product of biodiesel can be used to make soap, and soap can be
produced from Jatropha oil itself. It will produce a soft, durable soap, and the rather simple soap
making process is well adapted to household or small-scale industrial activity.
OTHER USES
Jatropha oil is also used to soften leather and lubricate machinery.


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2.6 OIL YIELD FROM JATROPHA

Jatropha is being heralded as a tree crop for biodiesel production and increasing incomes
of small farmers on marginal lands; however, when you plant crops on marginal lands/soils, you
can expect to get marginal yields. Plants mine nutrients from the soil, and to maintain yields,
these nutrients need to be replaced. This often means applying chemical fertilizers that even if
available, are not affordable to many small farmers. When doing realistic planning on the ³real´
economics of a Jatropha project, one must also calculate that fact that optimal seed yield of
Jatropha won¶t be obtainable for several years. Furthermore, marginal farmers most often have
access to only a minimal amount to land for food crop production; therefore, what will they have
to eat until a sound market for Jatropha oil is developed?



FIG: 2 JATROPHA OIL



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The jury is still out on the actual seed and oil yields one can count on from Jatropha
plantings. IPGRI concludes that ³The low yields revealed in several projects may have been
caused by the fact that unadapted provenances had been used. If investigation of its genetic
diversity and its yield potential had been covered by adequate scientific research, this problem
could have been overcome.´

In the literature reviewed, it could not be determined if adequate research on germplasm
improvement is taking place to optimize the per plant yield of nuts and oil content. Since j clones
are readily propagated through cuttings, germplasm improvement to optimize yields should be
easier than with many other plants/trees. One must be very careful in selecting a good source of
Jatropha germplasm for projects since there is little truth in advertising, and presently the best
profitability is in selling seed, cuttings or seedlings produced from plants that are probably not
genetically improved and may vary widely in yield. .

Furthermore from the literature it is extremely difficult to determine what actual per
hectare yield of nuts one can rely upon when growing Jatropha. Most figures cited were
projections that often are inflated and over optimistic in order to procure funding for
projects. Also, the estimated oil content of the nuts cited in the literature varies considerably,
which adds to the difficulty of calculating the profitability of growing Jatropha. Furthermore,
optimizing oil extraction from the seeds requires expensive machinery. One can find on page 36
of the IPGRI study a list of yields cited by a number of sources.

In the literature, the reports of yields vary greatly and are confusing. This can be
attributed to one or a combination of the following factors including: yields are sometimes given
in terms of fruits, seeds, nuts, or kernels; confusing terminology used in making yield estimates,
e.g., some are made in tons (t) while others are in metric tons (MT); variance in germplasm;
unstipulated spacing between plants; no specific data on soils (ranging from marginal to fertile,
and if fertilizer was applied); no information on rainfall and other climatic conditions, and if
irrigation is being used

Reports on yields include that from plantations (mostly projected yields), but it is not
mentioned if they were established by vegetative propagation or by direct seeding, on fertile or
marginal soils, and if the plantations were irrigated or not. When irrigated, Jatropha trees are said
to produce seeds throughout the entire year. Often, there is no mention of the age of the
trees/shrubs, nor is the variety/cultivar given. Jatropha trees are said to begin producing a
measurable amount of nuts at 18 months, but are not expected to reach maturity and optimal
yields until after 6 years.

The IPGRI report gives a conversion factor of 30 kg of fruits yielding approximately 18
kg of seed. One might assume that the fruit to seed ratio may be higher in areas of higher
rainfall. In one reference, IPGRI estimates that a yield of at least 2-3t (not MT) of seeds/ha can
be achieved in semi-arid areas; however, in another citation, IPGRI reports that in
Hisar, Bangalore, India, a ³quite high seed yield´ (1,733 kg/ha or 1.733 MT) was observed in
one cultivar. IPGRI confuses the issue by reporting the yield in tons and not MT (this could have
been an editing mistake, ed.), while giving the area in hectares.
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2.7 METHODS FOR OIL EXTRACTION:

Oil Extraction may be done:

y Mechanical Extraction (by pressing the kernels)
y Chemically Extraction
y Enzymatically Extraction

MECHANICAL PROCESS
Besides the time needed to collect the seeds needed for the production of the oil, the oil
extraction process is a key element in the economic calculation of the production process of
Jatropha oil.
TRADITIONAL WAYS
In the north of Madagascar, in the village of Ankiaka Be near Andapa in the SAVA
region, needed 3 hours of time to produce a bit less than 0.25 liters of oil, i. e. about 12 hours of
manual work for 1 liter of Jatropha oil.
To produce Jatropha oil the traditional way, the seeds have to be shelled. Than the pure
white kernels are roasted and then ponded to get a paste. This paste is mixed with water and
boiled for about 20 minutes. The oil is floating up and is scimmed with a spoon. This oil is
boiled again to get rid of the surplus water. This oil is then filtered to get rid of the particles.

FIG.:3 SHELLING OF THE SEEDS FIG.:4 ROASTING OF KERNELS
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PONDING (a) BOILING (b)

SCRIMMING THE FLOATING OIL(C) PURIFICATION OF THE SCRIMMED OIL(D)

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FIG.:5 OIL SAMPLE (e)
Three hours time of hand work for less than a quarter of a liter of Jatropha oil.

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ADVANCE EXTRACTION PROCESS RECOMMENDED PRESSES
Manual presses for oil extraction are available in many countries. One of the most
available presses is the Bielenberg Ram press, because in was and still is disseminated by
Enterprise Works, former ATI (Appropriate Technology International), an American
organization working in close relationship with USAID, the American organization for co-
operation. Looking into economical aspects, it is important to note, that the oil extraction by
hand is mostly more expensive than by a motor driven expeller, just because the yield of oil by
working hour is very limited.
RAM PRESS














FIG.:6 RAM PRESS
The ³Bielenberg Ram Press´ was developed by Carl Bielenberg in Tanzania to facilitate
the extraction of edible oil from seeds like sesame, sunflower and/or peanuts. The design is very
simple, drawings are available, and the press can be produced in small workshops for a
reasonable price (around 150 USD).
The press has a capacity of 1 to 2 liters of Jatropha oil per hour (depending on the skill of
the extraction worker). Therefore it is useful only for small scale oil production for subsistence
production of farmers or for demonstrations
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SCREW PRESSES
















FIG.:7 SCREW PRESSES

In the screw press, a round plate is forced upon a oil containing biomass in a metal
cylinder with holes by turning the screw by long levers. The oil runs out of the holes.
From its design and the experiences so far screw presses are working well for the
extraction of oil from soft seeds, like from oil palms.
The screw presses are relatively easy to produce, but they are difficult to manipulate (see
the photos below) and the spare parts, like the screw, are difficult to be produced in small
workshops in developing countries. For the Bielenberg Ram Press this is different: It doesn¶t
have parts which are difficult to produce.


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HYDRAULIC PRESSES
In the hydraulic presses, the pressure on the cage is effectively produced by a hydraulic
crick, which is usually used to change wheels of Lorries.
This system works perfectly, because it is very easy to produce the necessary pressure.
But the crick is not designed for this work, and soon the technology shows problems: The seals
of the hydraulic pump have to be placed soon, and the crick itself gets fine cracks, where the
hydraulic oil sorts.
This can be explained by the fact, that for a lorry, the crick hasto work perhaps 3 or 4
times a year, whereas for oil extraction, the crick was used about 10 to 15 times a day. The
material just could not stand the heavy work.

ENGINE DRIVEN EXPELLERS
TINYTECH EXPELLER

FIG.:8 TINTECH EXPELLER
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The interest of Tinytech was to improve their design of the press for their main market,
which has a strong focus on expelling peanuts. Thus it is important to know that the Tinytech
press is designed to suit particular this seed. Peanuts have a low fiber content thus it is required
that the nuts are steamed prior to expelling and this is the reason the Tinytech expeller has a
boiler and cooker. This preprocessing is not necessary for Jatropha provided the expeller has the
appropriate screw.
The type of screw/cage design the Tinytech expeller is using is not the best for Jatropha
in fact it requires the preprocessing to perform properly. Actually Tinytech had concentrated on
mass production to keep the cost low and has this approach up to date. The disadvantage of this
otherwise very positive approach is that the machine design needs to be kept constant as much as
possible and modifications necessary to process other seeds than peanut are avoided.
THE SUNDHARA EXPELLER












FIG.: 9 THE SUNDHARA EXPELLER
The Sundhara expeller is a motor driven oil extraction device with a worm as a central
part. This expeller was designed by German engineers by order of the German co-operation
(GTZ) to be implemented in villages in Nepal and to be produced within the country.




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THE SAYARI EXPELLER




















FIG.:10 THE SAYARI EXPELLER

The Sayari expeller is the same design as the Sundhara expeller, but it is produced in
Tanzania to extract sunflower seed. 2 private workshops produced the press in Morogoro for a
price of about 3 000 USD per unit. The engine (electric motor or Indian diesel engine) was
included in this price. About 40 units of this expeller were produced. To introduce the production
of this expeller in Tanzania, a project of ³Bread for the World´ sent 2 of the engineers to
Tanzania to train the people in the workshops. An important part is the maintenance of the
expeller, because the worm has to be reestablished regularly (after a defined amount of seeds
extracted, usually two times per year.

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MODERN CONCEPTS:
Methods like ultrasonication have been discovered to be effective in increasing the
percentage of Jatropha oil that can be extracted using chemical methods like aqueous enzymatic
treatment. The optimum yield for such methods has been discovered to be around 74%. Jatropha
oil extraction methods are still being researched. The goal of such researches is to discover
methods to extract a greater percentage of Jatropha oil from the seeds than the current procedures
allow.
TRANSESTERIFICATION

y Is the process of chemically reacting a fat or oil with an alcohol in a presence of a catalyst
y Alcohol used is usually methanol or ethanol
y Catalyst is usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide
y The main product of transesterification is biodiesel and the co-product is glycerin

SEPARATION

After transesterification, the biodiesel phase is separated from the glycerin phase, both
undergoes purification.

JATROPHA FOR BIODIESEL
Look at the financial costs of commercial Jatropha growing for Biodiesel Look at the
financial costs of commercial Jatropha growing for Biodiesel.

Jatropha is seen by many to be the perfect biodiesel crop. It can be grown in very poor
soils actually generating top soil as it goes, is drought and pest resilient, and it has seeds with up
to 40% oil content. Here are some facts and figures about Jatropha relating to its growth as an oil
product.
















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2.8 JATROPHA COMPANIES

PRIVATE COMPANY GETS 5,000 ACRE FOR JATROPHA CULTIVATION:

1. Vitale Nandan Bio-pharma Sciences Pvt. Ltd, a joint venture company floated by
Hyderabad-based Nandan Biometrix Ltd and Ahmedabad-based V Worldwide, has been
allotted 5,000 acres of wasteland in Patan and Surendranagar districts for the cultivation
of Jatropha to produce bio-diesel.

2. SRIPHL, a Rajasthan, India-based biodiesel company, is planning to cultivate
approximately 100,000 hectares of Jatropha throughout India to increase their production
of biodiesel. According to the news release, their goal is to cultivate the land and produce
up to 1 million metric tons of oil. There are few details about when they plan to begin
refining biodiesel.

3. SBI, Chennai signs MOU with D1 Mohan Bio for Jatropha cultivation: The State Bank of
India has signed a memorandum of understanding with D1 Mohan Bio, to finance an
estimated Rs 130 Crore for Jatropha cultivation in Tamil Nadu (excluding Nilgiris) by
farmers through contract farming of nearly 1 lakh acres in the first year. The MOU was
signed last Saturday in the city by the two organizations.

4. Madhya Pradesh proposes Jatropha cultivation: The rugged Chambal Valley in Madhya
Pradesh is being seen as a future energy hub. If the Madhya Pradesh government¶s plan
to lease out wasteland to corporate India for cultivation of Jatropha gets a positive
response, Chambal is all set to turn into an alternative energy hotspot.

5. Bionor to invest $200 million in Jatropha cultivation: Bionor Transformations plans to
invest $200 million in a 247,000-acre Jatropha plantation in the Philippines. AME
Bioenergy will conduct feasibility studies, pick sites, install infrastructure, and organize
labor on behalf of Bionor.

6. PNOC Alternative Fuels Corporation chairman Renato S. Velasco said that he expected
that at least 700,000 hectares of Jatropha would be planted in the country, noting that it
had been identified as an ideal cultivation locale by the FAO. He said the bulk of
cultivation would be in Mindanao. The Chairman stressed that Jatropha would be grown
only in currently unused land and that no food production land would be switched to fuel.

7. Eight Philippine companies have pledged more than $350 million towards biofuels
production investment. The companies include:

a) Bio-Energy NL, Inc.
b) E-Cane/Pampanga Industrial Park Corp.
c) Philippine Agricultural Land Development and Mill, Inc
(PALM, Inc.)
d) Zambo Norte Bioenergy.
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e) Philippine National Oil Company-Alternative Fuels Corp.
f) Guidance Management Corp.
g) Fuel, Inc. and Eastern Petroleum.

8. Jatoil urges Australia to allow Jatropha production: Australia-based Jatoil Ltd. is urging
the Australian government to allow cultivation of the Jatropha plant, which is currently
banned as a weed in the country¶s northern regions. Jatoil is a green energy company that
is focusing on using Jatropha oil in biodiesel production.

Some Companies Investing in Jatropha Plantations for Agro fuels: Here are the list of
Companies that are investing in Jatropha Plantations

1. Van Der Horst also agrees to join forces in the development of a 6,000 hectare Jatropha
plantation in India, enabling the rapid ramp up of large scale Jatropha production.

2. England: In England, De-Ord Fuel opened a new 100,000 GPY biodiesel facility
in Mansfield that will use Jatropha and waste vegetable oil as feedstock¶s. The company
will distribute fuel to bus and truck fleets. The $550,000 project is one of the first of a
wave of micro-facilities that will utilize sustainable feed stocks in Europe.

3. Energy Agriculture Uganda Ltd: Energy Agriculture Uganda (EAU) was registered as a
limited company in November 2007. EAU Ltd. has 3 shareholders. Test growing
Jatropha Curcas started in Mukono district on company land February 2007. The
company is also engaged in Jatropha test production on two farms in Moyo district (West
Nile province). The company is closely associated with its sister company in
Kenya, Energy Africa Ltd (Located in Shimba Hills, south of Mombasa ) and draws from
its sister company's experience. The two companies share vision, strategy, logo and most
of the share holders. The sister company Energy Africa Ltd has three years of Jatropha
growing experience and 200 out growers, with over 200 000 Jatropha trees in Shimba
Hills, Kenya.















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2.9 CURRENT RESEARCH WORK DONE ON JATROPHA OIL

A Review of Jatropha Curcas: An Oil Plant of Unfulfilled Promise

Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose plant with many attributes and considerable potential. It
is a tropical plant that can be grown in low to high rainfall areas and can be used to reclaim land,
as a hedge and/or as a commercial crop. Thus, growing it could provide employment, improve
the environment and enhance the quality of rural life. The establishment, management and
productivity of Jatropha under various climatic conditions are not fully documented. This is
discussed and the gaps in the knowledge elucidated, especially its fertilizer requirements. The
plant produces many useful products, especially the seed, from which oil can be extracted; this
oil has similar properties to palm oil.

The costs and returns of growing the plant and producing the plant oil are discussed and
tabulated. Because it can be used in place of kerosene and diesel and as a substitute for fuel
wood, it has been promoted to make rural areas self sufficient in fuels for cooking, lighting and
motive power. This strategy is examined and found not viable. Oil for soap making is the most
profitable use. It is concluded that all markets for Jatropha products should be investigated. If the
full potential of the plant is to be realized, much more research is required into the growing and
management of Jatropha curcas and more information is needed on the actual and potential
markets for all its products.

Performance of Jatropha Oil Blends In a Diesel Engine

Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on
diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and Jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%;
80%/20%; and 50%/50% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the
engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake
specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the
concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon
dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% Jatropha fuel blend was
observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide
emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the
atmosphere.

The test showed that Jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a
diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and
reduction of specific fuel consumption for Jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but
the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% Jatropha fuel blend
produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum
values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%/2.6% fuel blend Oil yielded the highest
Cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that
Jatropha oil can be used as an ignition-accelerator additive for diesel fuel.



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Lipase Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil in a Solvent Free System

The monoethyl esters of the long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were prepared by
alcoholysis of Jatropha oil, a non-edible oil, by a lipase. The process optimization consisted of
(a) screening of various commercial lipase preparations, (b) pH tuning, (c) immobilization, (d)
varying water content in the reaction media, (e) varying amount of enzyme used, and (f) varying
temperature of the reaction. The best yield 98% (w/w) was obtained by using Pseudomonas
cepacia lipase immobilized on celite at 50 °C in the presence of 4±5% (w/w) water in 8 h. It was
found that yields were not affected if analytical grade alcohol was replaced by commercial grade
alcohol. This biocatalyst could be used four times without loss of any activity.


Studies on Anti-Di-Arrhoeal Activity of Jatropha Curcus Root Extract in Albino Mice

Use of Jatropha curcus L. roots in the treatment of diarrheal is a common ethno botanical
practice in Konkan, a part of the Western coastal area of India. Roots of this species were
undertaken for pharmacognostic studies and evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity in albino mice.
Successive solvent extraction was carried out using petroleum ether (60±80°C) and methanol.
The methanol extract showed activity against castor oil induced diarrheal and intraluminal
accumulation of fluid. It also reduced gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration
in albino mice. The results indicate that action of J. curcus root methanol extract could be
through a combination of inhibition of elevated prostaglandin biosynthesis and reduced
propulsive movement of the small intestine.


Evaluation and Bio-Production of Energy Components of Jatropha Curcas

Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose species with many attributes and considerable
potential. The oil from the seeds is potentially the most valuable end product. Nearly 40% of the
land area in India is wasteland. However, a large number of latex bearing and oil yielding plants
can grow under such unfavorable agro climatic conditions. J. curcas, a Euphorbiaceous grows
well under such adverse climatic conditions because of its low moisture demands, fertility
requirements, and tolerance to high temperatures. The seed contains 19.0% oil, 4.7% polyphone,
and 3.9% hydrocarbon. This semi-drying oil could be an efficient substitute for diesel fuel. The
gross heat value for the seed (0% moisture content) was 4980.3 cal/g (20.85 MJ/kg), oil was
9036.1 cal/g (37.83 MJ/kg), and hydrocarbon was 9704.4 cal/g (40.63 MJ/kg). The oil fraction
consists of saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (14.1%), stearic acid (6.7%) and unsaturated fatty
acids, oleic acid (47.0%), and linoleic acid (31.6%). Treatment of plants with growth regulators
significantly influenced the production of hydrocarbons. Among the treatments, ethephon and
morphactin induced the maximum production of hydrocarbon with 5.0% and 5.4%, respectively.





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2.10 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF JATROPHA SEEDS

ADVANTAGES:

y It starts producing seeds within 12 months
y Maximum productivity level is 4-5 years
y Plant remains useful for around 35-50 years
y Seeds can produce around 37% oil content
y Kernels can produce up to 60% oil content
y Its seeds yield an annual equivalent of 0.75 to 2 tons of biodiesel per hectare
y It is a NON-FOOD CROP


DISADVANTAGES:

y The Jatropha Curcas nut and oil are inedible, but its price is not distorted by competing
food uses.
y Potential gender conflicts.
y Second income to make soap
y If there is too little water, the plant will not produce the nut.
y Jatropha needs at least 600mm (23in) of rain a year to thrive. However, it can survive
three consecutive years of drought by dropping its leaves.
y It is excellent at preventing soil erosion, and the leaves that it drops act as soil-enriching
mulch.
y The plant prefers alkaline soils.
y The cost of 1,000 Jatropha saplings (enough for one acre) in Pakistan is about £50, or 5p
each.
y The cost of 1kg of Jatropha seeds in India is the equivalent of about 7p.
Eachjatropha seedling should be given an area two meters square.
y 20% of seedlings planted will not survive.
y Jatropha seedlings yield seeds in the first year after plantation.













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CHAPTER: 3
PROCESS SELECTION







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3.1 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTAL PROCESS

EXPERIMENTAL SET±UP:

STAGE: 1 (STEAMING)

Figure-1 illustrates, steaming of crushed Jatropha seeds.

Take 100gm of Jatropha seeds and crushed it by using hand crusher. After crushed; we do
steaming for removing moisture contain in seeds.

This process takes 25 mints for removing moisture.
































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FIG (11):-STEAMING OF JETROPHA SEEDS
FUNNEL
TUBE
CRUSH SEEDS
ROUND FLASHK
HOT WATER
STEAM
STAND
BURNER
RUBER COCK
STAND
STEAM OUT
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STAGE: 2 (EXTRACTION)

Figure (2) illustrates a schematic diagram of a bench scale extraction set±up which consists
mainly of a double necked flask (500 ml) with a round bottom.

The large neck in the middle of the flask was connected to a reflux condenser; a thermometer
was placed in one side necks.

Now, dry crushed seeds and 150ml Hexane are added in two necked flask. Properly immerge dry
crushed seeds in hexane.

Before starting heating start flow of water in reflux condenser, now start the heating for 25 mints
and maintain it at 59C.
































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FIG (12):-EXTRACTION OF JETROPHA SEEDS WITH HEXANE
COLD WATER IN
COLD WATER
OUT
STAND
CONDENSER
THERMOMET
ER
THERMOCOUPEL
HEXANE & CRUSH SEEDS
STAND
BURNER
RUBER COCK
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STAGE: 3 (FILTRATION)

Figure-3

As above, first prepared closed filtration system for filtration of mixture of seeds and hexane.

After the extraction, the mixtures pour in closed filtration system to filtration.

After the filtration at the top remaining cake and bottom is mixture of oil and hexane.

For the separating oil and hexane to carry out distillation step.
































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FIG (13):- FILTRATION AFTER EXTRACTION OF JETROPHA SEEDS WITH
HEXANE






CRUSH SEEDS
AFTER EXTRACTION
RUBER COCK
FUNNEL
CONICAL FLASK
RECOVER HEXANE + OIL
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STAGE: 4 (DISTILLATION)


Figure 4 illustrates distillation of mixture of oil and hexane.

Mixture takes in double necked flask (500 ml) with a round bottom. The large neck in the
middle of the flask was connected to a reflux condenser; a thermometer was placed in one side
necks.

Now, start to heat the mixture up to 65 C. Sometimes after completely distilled in hexane
in other side of bottle and oil remaining in flask

Now, oil takes out and measured it.































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FIG.: (14) DISTILLATION OF HEXANE FROME OIL

COLD WATER OUT
COLD WATER IN
RUBER COCK
THERMOCOUPEL
BURNER
STAND
HEXANE & OIL
RECOVER HEXANE
CONICAL FLASHK
CONDENSER
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OVERALL LABORATORY SETUP




Fig.: (15) OVERALL LABORATORY SETUP

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3.2 PLANT PROCESS

RAW MATERIALS:-
1. JATROPHA SEEDS
2. HEXANE

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
(1)
:

Solvent Extraction is basically a process of diffusion of a solvent into oil-bearing cells of
the raw material, resulting in a solution of the oil in solvent. Various solvents can be used for
extraction. However, after extensive research and consideration of various factors, such as
commercial economics, edibility of the various products obtained from extraction, physical
properties of the solvent especially its low boiling point etc. Hexane is considered to be the best
and it is exclusively used for the purpose.

In a nutshell, the extraction process consists of treating the raw material with hexane and
recovering the oil by distillation of the resulting solution of oil in hexane called miscella.
Evaporation and condensation as also from the distillation of miscella recover the hexane
absorbed in the material. The hexane thus recovered is reused for extraction. The low boiling
point of hexane (67°C) and the high solubility of oils and fats in it are the properties exploited in
the solvent extraction process.
The entire extraction process can be divided into the following stages.

1. Preparation of raw material.
2. Process of extraction.
3. De-solventisation of extracted material.
4. Distillation of miscella.
5. Solvent recovery by absorption.
6. Meal finishing and bagging.

Because of the highly inflammable character of the normal hexane, those stages of
process which involve high speed machineries, such as material preparation, finishing and
bagging are carried out at least 50 feet away from the main extraction plant wherein the
remaining processing stages involving handling of the solvent are carried out. The typical flow-
chart illustrates the various processing steps.

PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIAL

For thorough and efficient extraction, it is necessary that each and every oil-bearing cell of
the material be brought in contact with the solvent. Therefore, proper preparation of materials
prior to extraction is very important to ensure this contact. The smaller the material size, the
better is the penetration of the solvent into the oil-bearing cells; but too fine a size will prevent
the solvent form percolating through the mass. Therefore an optimum size is to be maintained for
best extraction. Hence material preparation methods vary from material to material depending on
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its oil content, size and physical properties. For high oil content materials (oil content 15% or
more), the following steps of preparation are recommended to make the material suitable for
penetration of the solvent into the oil cells as well as for best percolation.

(a) Passage of the seed through corrugated roller mills with 3 mm flutes to reduce the Size to
about 3mm.

(b) Heating the broken material to about 80°C with open steam in temperor & humidifying the
material to raise the moisture content to about 11 to 12%.

(c) Flaking of the humidified material between a pair of plain rolls to 0.25 mm thickness or
below.

(d) Conveying the flakes to the extraction system after crisping them firm.

Rice bran is a fine floury material and therefore is bound to obstruct the percolation. The best
preparation of rice bran for extraction is found to be pelletizing the same after tempering with
open steam. The pelletized bran is then crisped in a current of air while conveying to the
extractor. Some oilseeds can be directly extracted e.g. cottonseed, soybean, etc. But they are to
be decorticated by special equipment to separate the oil-bearing meats from the hulls. The
decorticating equipment varies from seed to seed (see our pamphlets on cottonseed & soya bean
processing). The decorticated meats are tempered, flaked and the flakes are sent to extractor after
crisping.

PROCESS OF EXTRACTION

The prepared material enters the extractor through the rotary air seal. The extractor
consists mainly of a very slow moving articulated band conveyor inside a totally enclosed
chamber. The band is lined with perforated sheets and porous stainless steel cloth. The mass of
the material moving on this band forms a slow moving bed. During the movement of the bed
through the extractor it is washed continuously at various points with miscella of decreasing
concentrations and finally with a fresh solvent in a counter current manner by means of sprayers
kept in a line over the meal bed. The miscella percolates through the perforated bottom and
collects in various hoppers kept below the bed. The miscella from the last hopper, which is
concentrated, is taken off for distillation.


DE-SOLVENTISATION OF EXTRACTED MATERIAL

After the fresh solvent wash the material is discharged from the band conveyor into an
airtight chain conveyor, which conveys it to the Desolventiser. In the Desolventiser the material
is heated to about 100°C by jacketed steam, and thus the absorbed solvent is evaporated into
vapors (B.Point. of hexane 67-70°C). Finally, the material, which is now completely
desolventised, is continuously discharged through airtight seal into a pneumatic conveyor, which
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carries into the bagging section. The vapors evolved in the Desolventiser are led through a dust
catcher wherein they are washed with hot water, to a condenser.

Some materials, such as cottonseed and soya bean extractions, are toasted after de-
solventisation. In these cases both the steps of de-solventisation and toasting can be combined
into one operation by the use of Desolventiser - Toaster (D. T.) Instead of the tubular jacketed
Desolventiser.

The D.T. consists of a vertical cylindrical vessel with horizontal jacketed compartments
and a central rotating vertical shaft on which are mounted sweeps in each compartment. The
Material to be desolventised and toasted is fed in to the top compartment of D.T and heated with
open steam. Open steam condenses a lot of moisture in the material at the same time evaporating
the solvent. The moisture up to 14 to 15% is condensed. The material then flows to lower
compartment. In lower compartments the material is gradually heated to 115 to 120° C thus
evaporating all the solvent, cooking the material and driving away extra moisture. The cooking
in presence of moisture destroys undesirable enzymes.

High temperature attained toasts the material. The solvent and water vapors from various
compartments are led first to a dust catcher wherein they are scrubbed with hot water spray to
remove fine dust and then led to a condenser to condense the vapors. The de-seventies and
toasted meal from bottom-most compartment discharges into a redler conveyor.

DISTILLATION OF MISCELLA

The final miscella (solution of oil in hexane) obtained from the extractor is collected in a
tank form where it is pumped to the distillation column kept under vacuum by means of a series
of steam ejectors. The miscella is heated by jacket steam in the distillation column and thus the
hexane is turned into vapor immediately. The vapors are led to another condenser through an
entrainment separator.

The concentrated miscella from the evaporator is pumped into a similar secondary
distillation unit to raise the temperature to about 100 - 110° C and then into the final stripper kept
under high vacuum. Open steam is injected in the latter to strip the last traces of hexane from the
oil. The vapor both from the secondary still and the stripper are condensed in a third condenser.
The oil freed from solvent is pumped from the stripper to the storage.

SOLVENT RECOVERY BY CONDENSATION

All the condensers are of floating head type with tube-bundles to carry the cooling water.
The cooled water at 30°C or below is circulated inside the tubes in all the condensers and the
vapors are passed outside the tubes. Thus the vapors are cooled and condensed into liquid. The
uncondensed vapors from each condenser are sucked by a series of ejectors and pushed through
the last condenser to a contact cooler where they are washed with cold-water spray. All the
condensate liquid hexane water from these condensers and contact cooler is led to a solvent
water separator wherein the pure solvent is separated from water by settling the difference in
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densities of water and the solvent and their immiscibility accomplishes complete separation. The
fresh pure solvent from this tank is pumped to the extractor continuously for the final washing of
the meal bed.

FINAL SOLVENT RECOVERY BY ABSORPTION

The vapor and gases from the contact cooler are led to absorber where they come into
intimate contact with absorbing oil (vegetable oil or mineral oil). The solvent vapors if any, are
absorbed in this oil and non-condensable gases are let out into the atmosphere. While
theoretically these gases leaving the plant are expected to be free from hexane, in practice, a
small amount of the solvent is lost with these gases.

The oil containing the absorbed solvent is led into an evaporator kept under vacuum and
heated to 100°C. The solvent is vaporized and these vapors are led into one of condensers and
recovered.

The hot oil from the evaporator is passed through a cooler to cool to room temperature,
and having been freed from hexane it is sprayed back into the absorber.

MEAL FINISHING AND BAGGING: (OPTIONAL)

The redler conveyor carries the desolventised meal form the DT to bagging section. The
meal is not only conveyed but also cooled to about 45-50°C by means of cold air draft induced in
the conveyor by a blower. The meal drops to a humidifier from the redler. In the humidifier the
meal is mixed with enough moisture to bring up the moisture content, thus replacing the amount
of water lost during the extraction and de-solventisation steps. The humidified meal is then
bagged at the discharge of the humidifier.











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CHAPTER: 4
MATERIAL BALANCE














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4.1 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTAL DATA.
1
st
STAGE EXTRACTION
{1} CRUSHING STEP
Wt of seeds= 50gm
Wt of crushed seed=49.72gm
Time for crushing=3 minute
{2} STEAMING
Water quantity for steaming=250ml
Steaming time= 30min.
Wt of crushed seeds after steaming=53.9gm
Therefore, moisture in seeds=53.9 ± 49.72 =4.18gm
{3} EXTRACTION STEP
Volume of fresh Hexane=150ml
Heating time of (seeds + hexane)=20min at 58 to 59 ÛC
{4} FILTRATION
Wt of seeds after filtration=60.68gm
Volume of (oil + hexane) =115ml
{5} (A) HEXANE RECOVERY FROM SEEDS
Wt of seeds after filtration=60.68gm
Wt of seeds =92.78gm
Steaming time for seeds=26min
Volume of (Hexane + water) recovery from seed=7.5ml
Volume of water in recovered Hexane=1ml
Therefore, volume of hexane=6.5ml
{5} (B) VOLUME OF HEXANE RECOVERED FROM (OIL + HEXANE) MIXTURE
Volume of Hexane recovered from (oil + Hexane) mixture=100ml
Volume of oil recovered =18ml
Temperature for distillation= 62 to 65ÛC

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Therefore,
Total Hexane recovered=100 + 6.5 =106.5ml
{6} DRYING
Initial wt = 163.39gm
Final wt = 157.43gm
Therefore Hexane evaporated=5.87gm



















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2
nd
STAGE EXTRACTION
When we kept seeds in air tight bottle then we saw that on the surface of the seeds, it is
all covered by fungus or it is affected by the fungus. Its colour is light green. So, the colour of
mixture of hexane with seeds is also change. It required quite more heat.
{2} STEAMING
Wt of seeds or feed for stage-2=37.56gm
Water quantity for steaming=250ml
Steaming time= 30min.
Wt of seeds after steaming=38.85gm
Therefore moisture in seeds=38.85 ± 37.56 =1.29gm
{3} EXTRACTION STEP
Total volume of Hexane=150ml
Volume of fresh Hexane=100ml
Volume of recovered Hexane = 50ml
Heating time of (seeds + hexane)=30min at 58 to 59 ÛC
Wt of (Hexane + Seeds)=138.85gm
{4} FILTRATION
Filtration time=17min
Wt of M.L =263.60gm
{5}(A) HEXANE RECOVERY FROM SEEDS
Steaming time for seeds=36min
Volume of (Hexane + water) recovery from seed=0.6ml
Volume of water in recovered Hexane=0.1ml
Therefore, volume of hexane=0.5ml
{5} (B) VOLUME OF HEXANE RECOVERED FROM (OIL + HEXANE) MIXTURE
Volume of Hexane recovered from (oil + Hexane) mixture=100ml
Volume of oil recovered =6.4ml
Temperature for distillation=58 to 59ÛC for 28minute
Therefore total Hexane recovered=100 + 6.5 =100.5ml


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{6} DRYING
Initial wt of seed =48.12gm
Dry seeds after 15min =44.42gm
After 26min =42.38gm
After 35min =41.42gm
After 45min =40.13gm
After 55min =39.48gm
After 70min = 39.13gm
After 80min =39.05gm
Therefore
Moisture in a seeds = 48.18 ± 44.42 =3.76gm
















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3
rd
STAGE EXTRACTION
{2} STEAMING
Wt of seeds or feed for stage-3=39.05gm
Water quantity for steaming=250ml
Steaming time= 35min.
Wt of seeds after steaming=38.77gm
{3} EXTRACTION STEP
Wt of seeds =38.77gm
Total volume of Hexane=150ml
Volume of fresh Hexane=100ml
Volume of recovered Hexane = 50ml
Heating time of (seeds + hexane)=25min at 58 to 59 ÛC
{4} FILTRATION
Filtration time=10min
Wt of seeds=37.08gm
Wt of M.L =264.94gm
Volume of M.L=116ml
{5} (A) HEXANE RECOVERY FROM SEEDS
Further steaming is not required because hexane recovered is low compare to given
energy. so, energy cost increase.
{5} (B) VOLUME OF HEXANE RECOVERED FROM (OIL + HEXANE) MIXTURE
Volume of Hexane recovered from (oil + Hexane) mixture=108ml
Volume of oil recovered =2.8ml
Temperature for distillation=62 to 65ÛC for 15minute





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STAGE


STAGE-1

STAGE-2

STAGE-3


TEMP.
(°C)


EXTRACTION


58 TO 59°C

58 TO 59°C

58 TO 59°C

DISTILLATION

62 TO 65 °C

59°C

62 TO 65°C





TIME
(minute) S
T
E
A
M
I
N
G

FOR STEP
(2)


30

30

35

5(A)


28

36

Not Required

EXTRACTION

20

30

25

DISTILLATION

15


17

10

FEED


25


28

20

VOL. OF HEXANE TAKEN
(ml)

150(F)


150(100R + 50 F)

150(100R + 50F)


VOL. OF HEXANE
RECOVERED(ml)

5(A)


6.5

0.6

Not Available

5(B)


100


100

108


OIL RECOVERED

18

6.4

2.8

TABLE: 2 OVERALL DETAILS FOR EXPERIMENTAL READINGS
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Partial pressure graph between water and hexane
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N-x,y for Jatropha oil and hexane

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Where,
³5(A)´ for Hexane recovery from seeds
³5(B)´ for Volume of Hexane recovered from (oil + Hexane) mixture
³F´ for fresh Hexane
³R´ for Recycle Hexane
³E´ for Extraction
³D´ for Distillation
Therefore,
Total time for stage-1 completion = 1 hr and 58min
Time for stage-2 completion = 2 hr and 21min
Time for stage-1 completion = 1 hr and 30min
Total Hexane used =150+ 150+ 150 = 450ml
Hexane required in process=315ml
Hexane loss in process = 135ml
Total oil recovered = 27.2ml from 50gm of Jatropha seeds.












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4.2 NOTATIONS:

A=Mass of solvent;

B= Mass of Insoluble¶s (seeds + moisture)

C= Mass of oil

F= Mass (A+C) in the solids to be leached

R
0
=Mass (A+C) in the leaching solvent

E
1
= Mass (A+C) in the leached solids

R
1
= Mass (A+C) in the strong leach solution

y
F
= Mass of C / Mass (A+C) of solid to be leached

x
0
= Mass of C / Mass (A+C) of solid to be leaching solvent

y
1
= Mass of C / Mass (A+C) of the leached solids

x
1
= Mass of C / Mass (A+C) of strong leach solution

N
F
= Mass of B / Mass (A+C) of solid to be leached

N
1
= Mass of B / Mass (A+C) of leached solids


















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BASIS: 1000 KG/ DAY OF SEEDS

Seeds contain 36% oil.

Therefore,
Actual wt. of oil in seeds (C) = 0.36×1000
C = 360 Kg/day

We assume 96% oil will be recovered from entire process
Therefore,
Recovery of oil (C) = 0.96×360
C = 345.60 Kg/ day

Now, 50 gm of seeds required ĺ 150 ml hexane
@ 1000Kg of seeds required ĺ (?) ml hexane
= (1000 × 150)/ (50)
= 3000 ml hexane required

Therefore,
Mass of solvent in Kg (A) = 3000× Density
= 3000 × 0.672
A = 2016 Kg/day

F= feed (A+C) in the soiled to be leached.

In fresh feed there is solvent will be zero

Therefore; A(solvent) = 0 Kg/day

Therefore; F=C=360 Kg/day (on the basis of oil)


Feed also contain moisture (insoluble).
50 gm seeds contain ĺ 3.9 gm moisture
@1000 kg seeds contain ĺ (?) Kg moisture
= (1000 ×3.9)/ 50
= 78 Kg/day moisture

Total insoluble¶s, oil free basis, (B) = (oil+ hexane) free seeds + moisture
= 1000 ± oil
= 1000 ± 360
@B = 640 Kg/ day



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B= moisture+ (oil+ hexane) free seeds

@ (oil+ hexane) free seeds = 640 ± 78
= 562 Kg/day

Now R
NP+1
= Mass of (A+C) in the strong leach solution

R
NP+1
= (2016 + 0)
= 2016 Kg/day

Now mixture M = F + R
NP+1
Kg/ day «««.. (I)

Therefore,
M = 1000+ 2016
M = 3016 Kg/day

But we assume we recover 96% oil therefore remaining 4% goes with solvent

Therefore, X
NP+1
=0.04 Kg/ day

y
F
= x
F
= Mass of C/(A+C) of soiled to be leached
= 360/ (0+360)

y
F
= x
F
= 1

We have,
M = F + R
NP+1
Kg/ day

As per oil fraction,
(F× X
f
) + (R
NP+1
× X
NP+1
) = (X
M
× M)««. (II)

Where, X
f
=

Mole fraction of oil in feed
X
NP+1
= Mole fraction of oil at NP+1 stage
X
M
= Mole fraction of oil in mixture

Put value of equation (i) in equation in (ii) we get,
X
M
= Y
M
= [(X
F
× F) + (X
NP+1
× R
NP+1
)] / (F + R
NP+1
) ««« (III)
= [(1× 1000) + (0.04× 2016)] / (3016)

X
M
= Y
M
= 0.358

Now , N
M
= B / A+C)
= (640)/ (2016 +360)
= 0.269 § 0.27

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2011

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54

N
F
= B / A+C)
= (640)/ (2016 +360)
= 0.269 § 0.27

@ N
F
= N
M =
0.27








































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2011

VGEC, CHANDKHEDA

55

4.3 N-XY DIAGRAM DATA FOR EXTRACTION

N

Wt. of insoluble/
( Wt of oil + Wt. of hexane)
X

Wt. of oil /
(Wt of oil + Wt. of hexane)
Y

Wt. of insoluble /
( Wt of oil + Wt. of hexane)

4.5


0

0

2.35


0.02

0.02

1.97


0.025

0.07

1.6


0.055

0.09

1.325


0.095

0.125

1.05


0.135

0.173

0.95


0.19

0.235

0.75


0.2075

0.275

0.60


0.375

0.415
Table: 3: N-XY DATA

Where,
N-X data refer for raffinate layer in which N = 0.
N-Y data refer for extract layer.
X-Y data refer as a tie line data.
EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

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56

4.4 OVERALL BALANCE DATA


X


Y

0.40


0.34

0.35


0.32

0.295


0.28

0.25


0.235

0.21


0.17

TABLE: 4 (X, Y DATA FROM GRAPH NUMBER-2)

Overall balance:

F=1000kg E
4
=99.77kg

R
1
=2916.23kg R
5
=2016kg



INPUT = OUTPUT

Therefore, F + R5 = E4 + R1
1000+2016 = E4 +R1
@E4 +R1 = 3016 ««««. {1}

As per oil balance,
(F × y
F
) + (R
5
× x
5
) = (E
4
×y
4
) + (R
1
× x
1
)



Overall balance
EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

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57

By using above table value of x and y, put it on in this equation, we get,

(1000 ×1) + (2016 × 0) = (E
4
× 0.25) + (R
1
× 0.34)
@ (0.25 × E
4
) + (0.34 × R
1
) = 1000 «««. {2}

Solve equation {1} and {2} we get,

E
4
= 99.77 Kg/ day
R
1
= 2916.23 Kg/ day




































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2011

VGEC, CHANDKHEDA

58

4.5 STAGE WISE MATERIAL BALANCE

STAGE ± 1



F=1000kg E
1
=7770.92kg

R
1
=2916.23kg R
2
=9687.15kg




INPUT = OUTPUT

F + R
2
= E
1
+ R
1

1000 + R
2
= E
1
+ 2916.23
@ E
1
- R
2
= 1916.23«.. {3}

As per oil balance,

(F × y
F
) + (R
2
× x
2
) = (E
1
× y
1
) + (R
1
× x
1
)
1000 + (0.32 ×R
2
) = (0.40 × E
1
) + (0.34 × R
1
)
@ (0.40 × E
1
) ± (0.32 × R
2
) = 8.48 «««.. {4}

Solved equation number {3} and {4} we get,

E
1
= 7770.92 Kg/ day
R
2
= 9687.15 Kg/ day













STAGE - 1

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2011

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STAGE -2:


E
1
=7770.92kg E
2
= 7543.57kg

R
2
=9687.15kg R
3
= 9459.8kg


INPUT = OUTPUT

E
1
+ R
3
= E
2
+ R
2

1000 + R
3
= E
2
+ 9687.15
R
3
- E
2
= 1916.23 ««.. {5}

As per oil balance,

(E
1
× y
1
) + (R
3
× x
3
) = (E
2
×y
2
) + (R
2
× x
2
)
(7770.92 × 0.40) + (0.28 ×R
3
) = (0.35 ×E
1
) + (0.32 × 9687.15)
@ (0.28 × E
1
) ± (0.35 × R
2
) = 8.49 «««.. {6}

Solved equation number (5) and (6) we get

E
2
= 7543.57 Kg/day

R
3
= 9459.8 Kg/ day

















STAGE - 2
EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

VGEC, CHANDKHEDA

60

STAGE ± 3:




E
2
= 7543.57kg E
3
= 7363.43kg

R
3
= 9459.8kg R
4
= 9279.66kg



INPUT = OUTPUT

E
2
+ R
4
= E
3
+ R
3

7543.57 +R
4
= 9459.80 + E
3

@1916.23 = R
4
± E
3
«««. {7}

As per oil balance

(E
2
× y
2
) + (R
4
× x
4
) = (E= × y
3
) + (R
3
× x=)
(7543.57 ×0.35) + (R
4
× 0.235) = (E
3
× 0.295) + (9459.2 ×0.28)
@8.50 = (0.235× R
4
) ± (0.295 × E
3
)««.. {8}

Solved equation {7} and {8} we get,

E
3
= 7363.43 Kg/ day

R
4
= 9279.66 Kg/ day













STAGE - 3
EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

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61

STAGE ± 4:


E
3
= 7363.43kg E
4
= 99.77kg

R
4
= 9279.66kg R
5
= 2016kg


E
3
+ R
5
= R
4
+ E
4

R
5
= R
4
+ E
4
± E
3
= 9279.66 + 99.77 ± 7363.43

@R
5
= 2016 Kg/ day

Therefore,

E
3
+ R
5
= R
4
+ E
4

7363.43 + 2016 = 9779.66 + 99.77
9379.43 = 9379.43

INPUT = OUTPUT





















STAGE - 4
EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

VGEC, CHANDKHEDA

62

4.6 PLANT SCALE MATERIAL BALANCE

y Initial wt. of seeds = 5000 Kg /day
y Wt. of seeds coming out of the cleaner = 4102.56 Kg/day
y Initial wt. of cleaned seeds into the polisher = 4102.56 Kg/day (2%)
y Wt. of seeds coming out the polisher = 4020.50 Kg/day
y Initial wt. of polished seeds into the screening chamber = 4020.50 Kg/day(3%)
y Wt. of polished seeds out the screening chamber = 3900 Kg/day
y Initial wt. of seeds for wetting and heating = 3900 Kg/day
y Wt. of seeds coming out after wetting and heating = 3900 + 390 (moisture)
= 4290 Kg/day
y Initial wt of seeds fed into the extractor = 4290 Kg/day
y Initial wt of hexane fed into the extractor = 10080 Kg/day
y Theoretically seeds contain 36% oil
@ 4290 Kg/day seeds contains = 4290 × 0.36
= 1544.40 Kg/day
We assume, recovery of oil is 96%
@ Recovered oil = 1544.40 × 0.96
= 1482.62 Kg/day
Also we assume we recover hexane from extractor is 92%
@Recovered hexane from extractor is = 10080 × 0.92
= 9273.60 Kg/day
So, total (oil + hexane) miscella coming out from the extractor = 9273.60 + 1482062
= 10756.22 Kg/day

The insoluble¶s (seeds + oil + hexane) miscella are then fed to the desolventizer unit from where
pure hexane is recovered along with the solid cake from reuse.

Therefore,
Oil loss (left in seed) = 1544040 ± 1482062 = 61.78 Kg/day
Hexane loss =10080 ± 9273.66 = 806.4 Kg/day
Now, 40% hexane is recovered from Desolventiser (DT) unit
Hexane recovered from DT unit = 0.40 × 804.40
= 332.56 Kg/day
This hexane obtained at 65°C from DT unit is then fed to the economizer (shell side) to increase
the temperature of (oil + hexane) miscella at tube side from 55°C to 65°C.








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63

4.7 EQUIPMENT WISE MATERIAL BALANCE

1) ECONOMIZER :-

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella fed to economizer = 9273.60 + 1482.62
= 10756.22 Kg/day

The hexane from DT to economizer used for heating then goes to jet condenser as pure
hexane which is then recycled back to the extractor.

Amount of hexane going to jet condenser from economizer = 332.56 Kg/day

2) FLASHER -1 :-

Flasher is used for the recovery of hexane from the (oil + hexane) miscella.

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella fed to flasher-1 = 10756.22 Kg/day
Therefore, amount of oil coming out from flasher -1 = 1482.62 Kg/day

Amount of hexane recovered from (oil + hexane) miscella = 85% of 9273.60 Kg/day
= 0.85 × 9273.60 Kg/day
= 7882.56 Kg/day

So, amount of (oil + hexane) miscella left = 10756.22 - 7882.56
= 2873.66 Kg/day

3) HEATER-1 :-

Heater is used to increase the temperature of hexane because hexane recovery increases with
increasing temperature. Steam is used as a heating media at 100°C. The temperature of
(Oil + hexane) increase to 75°C.

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella fed to heater-1 = 2873.66 Kg/day

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella coming out from heater-1 = 2873.66 Kg/day
(At increase temperature)

4) FLASHER- 2:-

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella fed to Flasher-2 = 2873.66 Kg/day

Oil in miscella = 1482.56 Kg/day

Amount of hexane left in miscella = 2873.60 ± 1482.56
= 1391.04 Kg/day
EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

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64


Amount of hexane to be recovered from this flasher-2 = 75% of 1391.04 Kg/day
= 0.75 × 1391.04
= 1043.28 Kg/day

All the hexane recovered from Flasher-1 and Flasher-2 is then sand to a common condenser.
The hexane from jet condenser is also sand to this common condenser which is the total amount
of hexane recovered. This recovered hexane is reused as solvent in the extractor.

5) HEATER- 2:-

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella fed into Heater-2 = 1482.56+ (1391.04 ± 1043.28)
= 1830.32 Kg/day

The temperature of (oil + hexane) miscella is increased to 85°C using steam heating
media at 100°C.

Amount of (oil + hexane) miscella coming out from Heater-2 = 1830.32 Kg/day

6) STRIPPER:-

Stripper is used to recover hexane completely and obtained pure oil.
Amount of miscella into Stripper = 1830.32 Kg/day

Amount of pure oil recovered =1482.56 Kg/day

@ Amount of hexane is = 1830.32 ± 1482.56 = 347.76 Kg/day

Amount of hexane recovered from Stripper = 100% of 347.76 Kg/day
= 1 × 347.76
= 347.76 Kg/day

@ Total amount of hexane recovered (DT + Flasher-1 + Flasher-2 + Stripper) Kg/day

= 332.56 + 788.56 + 1043.28 + 347.76
= 9606.16 Kg/day
Hexane losses = 10080 ± 9606.16
= 473.84 Kg/day

Oil obtained = 1482.56 Kg/day

Hexane recovered = 9606.16 Kg/day



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2011

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65

4.8 CALCULATE THE HEXANE EVAPORATING DURING THE
EXTRACTION PROCESS
Weight of dehuling Jatropha seeds = 20gm
Weight of Jatropha seeds after crushing = 19.31gm
Weight of Jatropha seeds after steaming =23.1gm

Sr.
No
wt of
seeds for
extracti
on
(gm)
hexane
for
extracti
on
(ml)
Time for
extracti
on
Time for
extracti
on
wt of
(seeds+
hexane)
after
extracti
on
recovere
d
(hexane
+
oil) after
filtratio
n
wt of
cake
after
filtrati
on
wt of
cake
after
filtrat
ion
wt of
cake
after
10
mint
s

Wt
of
cake
after
2
days
1


4.3 8 1 1 8.76 3 3.74 3.74 3.05


2.89
2

4.36 7 3 3 7.38 1.6 2.45 2.45 1.96

1.79
3

4.44 6 5 5 7.63 2.1 3.62 3.62 3.22

2.90
4

4.98 7 10 10 8.56 2.4 3.17 3.17 2.69

2.36
5

4.44 8 15 15 8.79 2.3 4.57 4.57 3.93

3.59


TABLE: 5 (HEXANE EVAPORATING READINGS)













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2011

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66







CHAPTER: 5
PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN






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5.1 MAIN EQUIPMENT LIST:
1. Crusher
2. Pelletizes
3. Solid Liquid Extractor ( 11 Stages)
4. Desolventiser
5. Ecominizer
6. Tipple Effect Evaporator
I. Two Flashers
II. Two Heater
III. Stripper





























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2011

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5.2 EQUIPMENT DESIGNING OF TRIPPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR
DESIGN


HOT STEAM


°C

°K

ts
1



115

388

ts
2



65

338

ts
3



50

323

Temp. of hexane evaporated in 3
rd
effect


35

308

Table: 6(Design temperature detail)



VACUUM PRESSURE


mmHg

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE

Pr
1



620

140

Pr
2



385

375

Pr
3



230

530

Table: 7(Design pressure detail)


EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
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Amount of oil =61.77333 Kg/hr
Amount hexane =406.1433 Kg/hr
(Oil +Hexane) in feed = (61.77333 +406.1433)
=467.9167 Kg/hr
Feed rate (W
f
) =
૝૟ૠǤૢ૚૟ૠ
૜૟૙૙

=0.129977 Kg/sec
Initial concentration of oil =
૟૚Ǥૠૠ૜૜૜
૝૟ૠǤૢ૚૟ૠ

=0.132018%
Initial concentration of hexane=
૝૙૟Ǥ૚૝૜૜
૝૟ૠǤૢ૚૟ૠ

=0.867982%

























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70

FIRST EFFECT EVAPORATOR

Steam At 115°C At 1.5 Kg Pressure
Latent Heat =605 KJ
¨t
1
= ts
1
-ts
2

=115-65
=50
o
C
We assume, Hexane will be evaporated at 1st effect evaporator=85% =085
Hexane evaporated in 1st effect=0.85*406.1433
=345.2218Kg/hr
At Bottom evaporated=ሺͶ͸͹Ǥͻͳ͸͹ െ ͵ͶͷǤʹʹͳͺሻ
=122.6948Kg/hr

























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2011

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71

SECOND EFFECT EVAPORATOR

Due to the equilibrium the vapor of hexane is fed in to the tube side of the evaporator at same
temp (65
0
C)

Feed for 2nd Effect=122.6948 Kg/hr
Oil in feed=61.77333Kg/hr
Hexane in feed=122.6948-61.77333
=60.9215Kg/hr
Oil in feed in 2nd evaporator=ቀ
૟૚Ǥૠૠ૜૜૜כ૚૙૙
૚૛૛Ǥ૟ૢ૝ૡ

=50.34713%
Hexane in feed in second evaporator =ቀ
଺଴Ǥଽଶଵହ
ଵଶଶǤ଺ଽସ଼

=49.65287%
Now, we assume 75% of Hexane evaporated from second effect evaporator at 50
0
C and
385mmHg.
Hexane evaporated in 2
nd
effect =ሺͲǤ͹ͷ כ ͸ͲǤͻʹͳͷ ሻ
=45.69113 Kg/hr
Outlet of 2
nd
effect evaporator = ሺͳʹʹǤ͸ͻͶͺ െͶͷǤ͸ͻͳͳ͵ሻ
=77.00371Kg/hr













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2011

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72

THIRD EFFECT EVAPORATOR:

Due to the equilibrium the vapors of hexane is fed in to the tube side of the evaporator at 35
0
C
temperature.
Feed for third effect evaporator=77.00371Kg/hr
Oil in feed =61.77333Kg/hr
Hexane in feed =ሺ͹͹ǤͲͲ͵͹ͳ െ ͸ͳǤ͹͹͵͵͵ሻ
=15.23038Kg/hr
Wt of oil in feed =ቀ
଺ଵǤ଻଻ଷଷଷכଵ଴଴
଻଻Ǥ଴଴ଷ଻ଵ

=80.22124%
Wt of Hexane in feed=ቀ
ଵହǤଶଷ଴ଷ଼כଵ଴଴
଻଻Ǥ଴଴ଷ଻ଵ

=19.77876%
Now, we assume 100% of Hexane evaporated from third effect evaporator at 35
0
C and
230mmHg.
Hexane evaporated in 3
rd
effect =ሺͳ כ ͳͷǤʹ͵Ͳ͵ͺ ሻ
=15.23038Kg/hr
Outlet of 2
nd
effect evaporator = ሺ͹͹ǤͲͲ͵͹ͳ െͳͷǤʹ͵Ͳ͵ͺሻ
ൌ ͸ͳǤ͹͹͵͵͵ Kg Ȁhi







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TOTAL HEXANE RECOVERED BY EVAPORATION (1
st
+ 2
nd
+3
rd
)
= ሺ͵ͶͷǤʹʹͳͺ ൅ ͶͷǤ͸ͻͳͳ͵ ൅ ͳͷǤʹ͵Ͳ͵ͺሻ
= 406.1433Kg/hr
Temperature difference in 1
st
effect ሺοtͳሻ=ሺͳͳͷ െ ͸ͷሻ
=50°C
Temperature difference in 1
st
effect ሺοtʹሻ=ሺ͸ͷ െͷͲሻ
=15°C
Temperature difference in 1
st
effect ሺοt͵ሻ=ሺͷͲ െ͵ͷሻ
=15°C















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5.3 ENERGY BALANCE:
OVEARLL HEAT TRANSFER CO-EFFICIENT (ASSUME) FOR SHELL SIDE LIGHT
ORAGANICS AND TUBE SIDE STEAM ARE U1, U2 AND U3.
U1=1100 W/m²*°C
U2=900 W/m²*°C
U3=800 W/m²*°C
Now we have assumed heat transfer rate¶s to be equal, Q1=Q=2=Q3
So, ሺ0ͳ כ Aͳ כ οtͳሻ=ሺ0ʹ כ Aʹ כ οtʹሻ ൌ ሺ0͵ כ A͵ כ οt͵ሻ
We design the triple effect evaporator such that the heating area in all three is the same,
A1=A2=A3
So, ሺ0ͳ כ οtͳሻ=ሺ0ʹ כ οtʹሻ ൌ ሺ0͵ כ οt͵ሻ

ο୲ଶ
ο୲ଵ
ቁ=ቀ
୙ଵ
୙ଶ
ቁ=ቀ
ଵଵ଴଴
ଽ଴଴
ቁ=1.22222
ሺοtͳሻ=ቀοtʹ כ
୙ଵ
୙ଶ
ቁ=ቀ
ଽ଴଴
ଵଵ଴଴
ቁ=0.818182

ο୲ଷ
ο୲ଶ
ቁ=ቀ
୙ଶ
୙ଷ
ቁ=ቀ
ଽ଴଴
଼଴଴
ቁ=1.125
ሺοt͵ሻ=ቀοtʹ כ
୙ଶ
୙ଷ
ቁ=1.125
¨t1+¨t2+¨t3 =50 + 15 + 15 =80°C
ቀοtʹ כ
୙ଵ
୙ଶ
ቁ+ οtʹ ൅ቀοtʹ כ
୙ଶ
୙ଷ
ቁ=80
οtʹ כ ൬ቀ
୙ଵ
୙ଶ
ቁ ൅ ͳ ൅ ቀ
୙ଶ
୙ଷ
ቁ൰=80
οtʹ*ሺͲǤͺͳͺͳͺʹ ൅ ͳ ൅ͳǤͳʹͷሻ ൌ ͺͲ
οtʹ כ ʹǤͻͶ͵ͳͺͶ ൌ ͺͲ
οtʹ=ቀ
଼଴
ଶǤଽସଷଵ଼ସ
ቁ ൌ ʹ͹ǤͳͺͳͶ͹°C

EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM JETROPHA SEEDS
2011

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75

So, οtͳ ൌ22.23938°C
¨t2= 27.18147°C
οt͵ ൌ30.57915°C


¨t1


22.23938°C

¨t2


27.18147°C

¨t3


30.57915°C

Table: 8( Temperature difference for designing)
ACTUAL BOILING POINTS IN EACH EFFECT:
1
st
EFFECT:-
T
1
ൌ ሺTs െ οtͳሻ
ൌ ሺͳͳͷ െ ʹʹǤʹ͵ͻ͵ͺሻ
ൌ ͻʹǤ͹͸Ͳ͸ʹ°C
2
nd
EFFECT
T
2
ൌ ሺTͳ െሺBPRሻͳ െ οtʹሻ
ൌ ሺͻʹǤ͹͸Ͳ͸ʹ െ Ͳ െ ʹ͹ǤͳͺͳͶ͹ሻ
ൌ ͸ͷǤͷ͹ͻͳͷ°C
3
rd
EFFECT
T
3
ൌ ሺTʹ െሺBPRሻʹ െ οt͵ሻ
ൌ ሺ͸ͷǤͷ͹ͻͳͷ െ Ͳ െ ͵ͲǤͷ͹ͻͳͷሻ
ൌ ͵ͷ°C
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5.4 HEAT BALABNCE:
1
ST
EFFECT
Ws*Ls + W
f
*H
f
=W1*H1+ (Wf-W1)*h1
Latent heat of steam at 115 C (saturated steam) Ls = 2699.36 KJ/Kg

Mass fraction of oilൌ
଺ଵǤ଻଻ଷଷଷ
ସ଺଻Ǥଽଵ଺଻
ൌ ͲǤͳ͵ʹͲͳͺ

Mass fraction of hexaneൌ
ସ଴଺Ǥଵସଷଷ
ସ଺଻Ǥଽଵ଺଻
ൌ ͲǤͺ͸͹ͻͺʹ

Cp of oil ൌ ͲǤͷ

Cp of Hexaneൌ ͲǤͷͶ

C
pf
ൌ ሺNass fiaction of oil כ Cp of oil ሻ ൅ሺNass fiaction of hexane כ Cp of Bexaneሻ

ൌ ሺͲǤͳ͵ʹͲͳͺ כ ͲǤͷ ൅ ͲǤͺ͸͹ͻͺʹ כ ͲǤͷͶሻ

ൌ ͲǤͷ͵Ͷ͹ͳͻ

Enthalpy of feed at inlet temperature (T
f
=28
o
C) H
f
ൌ Cpf כ ሺTf െͲሻ
ൌ ͲǤͷ͵Ͷ͹ͳͻ כ ͶǤͳͺ כ ሺʹͺ െ Ͳሻ
ൌ ͸ʹǤͷͺ͵ͷͷ
୏୎
୏୥


H2s=Enthalpy of steam at 100 Cൌ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸
୏୎
୏୥

ሺCpሻsteam ൌ ʹʹͷ͹
୏୎
୏୥

H1-enthalpy of vapor leaving the first effect evaporator
ൌ Bʹs ൅ ሺCpሻsteamכ ሺBPRͳሻsupeiheateu
ൌ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸ ൅ ʹʹͷ͹ כ Ͳ
ൌ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸
୏୎
୏୥


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ሺCpͳሻ ൌ ቀ
଺ଶǤହ଼ଷହହ
ଵ଴଴
ቁ ൌ ͲǤ͸ʹͷͺ͵ͷͷ
୏୎
୏୥

ሺtͳሻ ൌ ͻʹǤ͹͸Ͳ͸ʹ C
h1- Enthalpy of outlet from 1
st
effect evaporator at 92.76062C
ൌ Cpͳ כ ͶǤͳͺ כ ሺtͳ െͲሻ
ൌ ʹͶʹǤ͸͸ͳͳ
Ws כ Ls ൅Wf כ Bf ൌ Wͳ כ Bͳ ൅ሺWf െWͳሻ כ hͳ
Ws כ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸ ൅ͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ כ ͸ʹǤͷͺ͵ͷͷ ൌ Wͳ כ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸ ൅ ሺͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ െWͳሻ כ ʹͶʹǤ͸͸ͳͳ
Ws כ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸ െʹ͵ǤͶͲͷͻͳ ൌ Wͳ כ ʹͶͷ͸Ǥ͸ͻͻ
Ws ൌ
୛ଵכଶସହ଺Ǥ଺ଽଽାଶଷǤସ଴ହଽଵ
ଶ଺ଽଽǤଷ଺

Ws ൌ ͲǤͻͳͲͳͲ כ Wͳ ൅ͲǤͲͲͺ͸͹ͳ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ሺͳሻ














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2
nd
EFFECT
W1*L1 + (Wf-W1)*h1=W2*H2+(Wf-W1-W2)*h2
h2s ൌ ͶͻͲ
୏୎
୏୥

Latent heat of steam at 115 C (saturated steam) L1 = H1-h2s
ൌ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸ െͶͻͲ
ൌ ʹʹͲͻǤ͵͸
୏୎
୏୥


H3s=Enthalpy of steam at 65 Cൌ ʹ͸͵ͺǤ͵͸
୏୎
୏୥

ሺCpሻsteam ൌ ʹʹͷ͹
୏୎
୏୥

H2-enthalpy of vapor leaving the first effect evaporator
ൌ B͵s ൅ ሺCpሻsteamכ ሺBPRʹሻsupeiheateu
ൌ ʹ͸͵ͺǤ͵͸ ൅ ʹʹͷ͹ כ Ͳ
ൌ ʹ͸͵ͺǤ͵͸
୏୎
୏୥


ሺCpʹሻ ൌ ͲǤͷ͵Ͷͷ
୏୎
୏୥

ሺtʹሻ ൌ ͸ͷǤͷ͹ͻͳͷ C
h2- Enthalpy of outlet from 2
nd
effect evaporator at 65.57915C
ൌ Cpʹ כ ͶǤͳͺ כ ሺtʹ െͲሻ
ൌ ͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸
୏୎
୏୥


Wͳ כ Lͳ ൅ ሺWf െ Wͳሻ כ hͳ ൌ Wʹ כ Bʹ ൅ ሺWf െWͳ െ Wʹሻ כ hʹ

Wͳ כ ʹʹͲͻǤ͵͸ ൅ሺͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ െWͳሻ כ ʹͶʹǤ͸͸ͳͳ
ൌ Wʹ כ ʹ͸͵ͺǤ͵͸ ൅ሺͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ െ Wͳ െWʹሻ כ ͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸


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Wͳ כ ሺʹʹͲͻǤ͵͸ െ ʹͶʹǤ͸͸ͳͳ ൅ͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸ሻ
൅ ሺͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ כ ʹͶʹǤ͸͸ͳͳ െͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ כ ͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸ሻ
ൌ Wʹ כ ሺʹ͸͵ͺǤ͵͸ െͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸ሻ
Wͳ כ ʹͳͳ͵Ǥʹͳ͸ͷ ൅ ͳʹǤͶͻ͸Ͷͷ ൌ Wʹ כ ʹͶͻͳǤͺͶʹͶ
So Wʹ ൌ
୛ଵכଶଵଵଷǤଶଵ଺ହ ା ଵଶǤସଽ଺ସହ
ଶସଽଵǤ଼ସଶସ

Wʹ ൌ Wͳ כ ͲǤͺͶͺͲͷͶ ൅ͲǤͲͲͷͲͳͷ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ሺʹሻ



















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3
rd
EFFECT
W2*L2 + (Wf-W1-W2)*h2=W3*H3+(Wf-W1-W2-W3)*h3
h2s ൌ ͵ͲͳǤ͹͸
୏୎
୏୥

Latent heat of steam at 65.57915C (saturated steam) L2 = H2-h3s
ൌ ʹ͸͵ͺǤ͵͸ െͳ͵Ͳ.76
ൌ ʹ͵͵͸Ǥ͸
୏୎
୏୥


Hs=Enthalpy of steam at 35 Cൌ ʹͷͺͲ
୏୎
୏୥

ሺCpሻsteam ൌ ʹʹͷ͹
୏୎
୏୥

H3-enthalpy of vapor leaving the first effect evaporator
ൌ BͶs ൅ ሺCpሻsteamכ ሺBPR͵ሻsupeiheateu
ൌ ʹͷͺͲ ൅ ʹʹͷ͹ כ Ͳ
ൌ ʹͷͺͲ
୏୎
୏୥


ሺCp͵ሻ ൌ ͲǤͷ͵Ͷͷ
୏୎
୏୥

ሺt͵ሻ ൌ ͵ͷ C
h3- Enthalpy of outlet from 3
rd
effect evaporator at 35C
ൌ Cp͵ כ ͶǤͳͺ כ ሺt͵ െͲሻ
ൌ ͹ͺǤͳͻ͹Ͷ
୏୎
୏୥


Wʹ כ Lʹ ൅ ሺWf െ Wͳ െ Wʹሻ כ hʹ ൌ W͵ כ B͵ ൅ ሺWf െ Wͳ െWʹ െW͵ሻ כ h͵

Wʹ כ ʹ͵͵͸Ǥ͸ ൅ሺͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ െ Wͳ െWʹሻ כ ͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸
ൌ W͵ כ ʹͷͺͲ ൅ ሺͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ െWͳ െWʹ െ W͵ሻ כ ͹ͺǤͳͻͷͶ

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Wʹ כ ሺʹ͵͵͸Ǥ͸ െͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸ ൅ ͹ͺǤͳͻͷͶሻ ൅ͲǤͳʹͻͻ͹͹ כ ሺͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸ െ͹ͺǤͳͻͷͶሻ
ൌ W͵ כ ሺʹͷͺͲ െ͹ͺǤͳͻͷͶሻ ൅WͳሺͳͶ͸Ǥͷͳ͹͸ െ͹ͺǤͳͻͷͶሻ

Wͳ כ ͸ͺǤ͵ʹʹʹ െWʹ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺ ൅ W͵ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ ൌ ͺǤͺͺͲ͵̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ሺ͵ሻ


W2 value putting in equation (3)...

Wͳ כ ͸ͺǤ͵ʹʹʹ െ ሺWͳ כ ͲǤͺͶͺͲͷͶ ൅ͲǤͲͲͷͲͳͷሻ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺ ൅ W͵ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ ൌ ͺǤͺͺͲ͵

Wͳ כ ሺ͸ͺǤ͵ʹʹʹ െ ͲǤͺͶͺͲͷͶ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺሻ ൅W͵ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸
ൌ ͺǤͺͺͲ͵ ൅ ͲǤͲͲͷͲͳͷ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺ

െWͳ כ ͳͺͷͷǤʹͻͻͻ ൅W͵ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ ൌ ʹͲǤʹͷͷ͹
W͵ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ ൌ ʹͲǤʹͷͷ͹ ൅Wͳ כ ͳͺͷͷǤʹͻͻͻ
W͵ ൌ
ଶ଴Ǥଶହହ଻ା୛ଵכଵ଼ହହǤଶଽଽଽ
ଶହ଴ଵǤ଼଴ସ଺

W͵ ൌ ͲǤͲͲͺͲͻ͸Ͷ ൅ Wͳ כ ͲǤ͹Ͷͳ͸ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ሺͶሻ
W2, W3 values putting in equation (3)
Wͳ כ ͸ͺǤ͵ʹʹʹ െሺWͳ כ ͲǤͺͶͺͲͷͶ ൅ ͲǤͲͲͷͲͳͷሻ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺ ൅ሺͲǤͲͲͺͲͻ͸Ͷ ൅Wͳ כ ͲǤ͹Ͷͳ͸ሻ
כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ ൌ ͺǤͺͺͲ͵
Wͳ כ ሺ͸ͺǤ͵ʹʹʹ െ ͲǤͺͶͺͲͷͶ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺ ൅ ͲǤ͹Ͷͳ͸ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ሻ
ൌ ͺǤͺͺͲ͵ ൅ሺͲǤͲͲͷͲͳͷ כ ʹʹ͸ͺǤʹ͹͹ͺሻ െ ሺͲǤͲͲͺͲͻ͸Ͷ כ ʹͷͲͳǤͺͲͶ͸ሻ
Wͳ כ ͲǤͲ͵ͺͶ͵ ൌ ͲǤͲͲ͸Ͳ͵Ͷ
Wͳ ൌ
଴Ǥ଴଴଺଴ଷସ
଴Ǥ଴ଷ଼ସଷ
୏୥
ୱୣୡ

܅૚ ൌ ૙Ǥ ૚૞ૠ
۹܏
ܛ܍܋





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Similarly:
܅ܛ ൌ ૙Ǥ ૚૞૛
۹܏
ܛ܍܋

܅૛ ൌ ૙Ǥ ૚૜ૡ
۹܏
ܛ܍܋

܅૜ ൌ ૙Ǥ ૚૚ૢ
۹܏
ܛ܍܋


Now, Q1=Ws*Ls
ͳ ൌ ͲǤͳͷʹ כ ʹ͸ͻͻǤ͵͸
ൌ ͶͳͲǤ͵Ͳʹ͹
୏୎
ୱୣୡ

But, Q1=U1*A1*¨t1
A1ൌ
ͳ
0ͳכοtͳ


ͶͳͲǤ͵Ͳʹ͹
ͳͳͲͲכʹʹ Ǥʹ͵ͻͶ

ۯ૚ ൌ ૚૟Ǥ ૠૠܕ²

Q2=W1*L1
ʹ ൌ ͲǤͳͷ͹ כ ʹʹͲͻǤ͵͸
ൌ ͵Ͷ͸Ǥͺ͹
୏୎
ୱୣୡ

But, Q2=U1*A2*¨t2
A2ൌ
ʹ
0ʹכοtʹ


͵Ͷ͸Ǥͺ͹
ͻͲͲכʹ͹ǤͳͺͳͶ͹

ۯ૛ ൌ ૚૝Ǥ ૚ૡܕ²


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Q3=W2*L2
͵ ൌ ͲǤͳ͵ͺ כ ʹ͵͵͸Ǥ͸
ൌ ͵ʹʹǤͶͷͲͺ
୏୎
ୱୣୡ

But, Q3=U3*A3*¨t3
A3ൌ
͵
0͵כοt͵


͵ʹʹǤͶͷͲͺ
ͺͲͲכ͵ͲǤͷ͹ͳͷ

ۯ૜ ൌ ૚૜Ǥ ૚ૡܕ²
Average Area (A) =14.71m²








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345.2218Kg/hr 45.69113 Kg/hr 15.23038Kg/hr








To condenser To hexane cooler- 1 To hexane cooler-2


122.6948Kg/hr 77.00371Kg/hr 61.77333Kg/hr



FIG: (16) TRIPPEL EFFECT EVAPORATOR

65°C
50°C

35°C
115 °C
50°C
65°C
FEED
467.9167
Kg/hr
115 °C
STEAM
620 mmHg 330 mmHg
180 mmHg
Total Oil
Collected
61.77Kg/Hr
Total Hexane
evaporate
406.1433Kg/hr
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CHAPTER: 6
COST ESTIMATION





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Acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable of operating under
conditions, which will yield profit. Since net profit equals total value minus all expenses, it is
essential that the chemical engineer be aware of the many different types of cost involved in the
manufacturing processes. Capital must allocate for the direct, plant expenses, such as those for
raw material, labor and equipment. Besides direct expenses many others indirect expenses are
incurred, and these must be included if a complete analysis of the total cost is to be obtained.
Some examples of these indirect expenses are administrative salary, product distribution cost and
cost for interplant communication.

A capital investment is required for every industrial process and determination of
necessary investment is an important part of a plant design process. The total investment for any
process consist fixed capital investment for practical equipment and facilities in the plant plus
working capital, which must be available to pay salaries, keep raw material and products on
hand, and handle other special items requiring the direct cost outline.

When the cost for any type of commercial process is to be determined, sufficient
accuracy has to be provided for reliable decision. There are many factors affecting investment
and production cost. These are;

1. Source of equipment
2. Price fluctuation
3. Company policies
4. Operating and rate of production
5. Governmental policies

Before an industrial plant can be put into operation, a large sum of money must be
supplied to purchase and install the necessary machinery and equipment. Land and service
facilities must be obtained, and the plant must be erected completely with all piping, controls and
services. The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant facilities is called
the fixed-capital investment, while that necessary for the operation of plant is termed the
working capital.

The sum of the fixed capital investment and the working is known as the total capital
investment. Generally, the working capital amounts 10-20% of the total capital investment.
Following is the breakdown of the fixed capital investment for a chemical process.





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6.1 DIRECT COST:

1. Purchased equipments
2. Purchased equipment installation
3. Instrumentation and control
4. Piping
5. Electrical equipment and material
6. Building (including services)
7. Yard improvement
8. Land

6. 2 INDIRECT COST:

1. Engineering supervision
2. Construction expenses
3. Contractor¶s fee
4. Contingency

6.3 TYPES OF CAPITAL COST ESTIMATE

Order of magnitude estimate (ratio estimate) based on similar cost data; probable
accuracy of this estimate over 30%.

Study estimate based on knowledge of major items of equipment, probable accuracy of
this estimate up to 30%.

Preliminary estimate (budget authorization estimate scope method): based on sufficient
data to permit the estimate to the budget, probable accuracy of this estimate is within
20%.

Detailed estimate based on complete engineering drawing, specifications and site survey,
probable accuracy of this estimate within 10%.





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6.4 COST ESTIMATION
Basic: - 5,000 Kg/day
(a) Dehuling, Grinder ,palletizer cost Approximately =35000 Rs
(b) Extraction unit 10 stage:
Cost of single stage:
Total volume for single stage ൌ ʹሺͳǤͷ כ ͲǤͳͷ כ ͲǤͲʹͷͶሻ ൅ ʹሺͳ כ ͲǤʹͳʹ כ ͲǤͲʹͷͶሻ
ൌ ͲǤͲʹʹͳͻm


Weightൌ volume כ Bensity
ൌ ͲǤͲʹʹͳͻ כ ͺͲͲͲ
ൌ ͳ͹͹ǤͷʹKg
Price of one stage with fabrication ൌ ʹͷͲKg
ൌ ሺͳ͹͹Ǥͷʹ כ ʹͷͲሻ
ൌ ͶͶǡ͵ͺͲ Rs
Cost of ͳͲ stage ൌ ͶͶǡ͵ͺͲ כ ͳͲ
ൌ ͶǡͶ͵ǡͺͲͲ Rs
Cost of Belt ൌ ͳ͵ǡͲͲͲ Rs

Cost of Roller, Bearing and Motor ൌ ʹͲͲͲͲ Rs
So, Total Cost for Extraction Unit ൌ Ͷǡ͹͸ǡͺͲͲ Rs

(c) Condenser :- Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Inner Pipe Di ൌ


̶ ൌ ͵ǤͺͲ cm and Lൌ ͵ǤͷͶm
Outer Pipe Doൌ ͷǤͶcm and Lൌ ͵ǤͷͶm
Cost Approximately ൌ ͶͷǡͲͲͲ Rs

(d) Storage Tank:-
Miscellaൌ ͳͲǤ͵͵m³ ൌ ͳʹKLሺSS ͵ͲͶሻ
Oil ൌ ͳǤ͵͵Ͷm³ ൌ ʹKLሺSS ͵ͲͶሻ
Hexaneൌ ͳʹKLሺSS ͵ͲͶሻ
Water ൌ ͵KL(SS 304)
Total Cost Approximately ൌ ʹͻ Lac

(e) Piping, pump miscellaneous (approximately) ൌ ͳʹǡͲͲǡͲͲͲ Rs
Total Fixed Capital Investment Costൌ Ͷͳǡͷ͸ǡͺͲͲ Rs


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(1) DIRECT COST (D.C)

1) Total Purchased Equipment Cost ሺʹͷΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כଶହ
ଶହ

ൌ Ͷͳǡͷ͸ǡͺͲͲ Rs

2) Installation Cost ሺʹͷΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כଵ଴
ଶହ

ൌ16, 62,720 Rs

3) Instrument & Control Installed ሺͺΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כ଼
ଶହ

ൌ ͳ͵ǡ͵Ͳǡͳ͹͸ Rs

4) Piping Installation Cost ሺͳͺΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כଵ଼
ଶହ

ൌ ʹͻǡͻʹǡͺͻ͸ Rs

5) Electrical Installation Cost ሺ͸Ψ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כ଺
ଶହ

ൌ ͻǡͻ͹ǡ͸͵ʹ Rs

6) Building Process & Auxiliary ሺͷΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כହ
ଶହ

ൌ ͺǡ͵ͳǡ͵͸Ͳ Rs

7) Service Facilities ሺͳΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כଵ
ଶହ

ൌ ͳǡ͸͸ǡʹ͹ʹ Rs

8) Yard ImprovementሺͳǤͷΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כଵǤହ
ଶହ

ൌ ʹǡͶͻǡͶͲͺ Rs

9) LandሺͳǤͷΨ of FCIሻ ൌ
ସଵǡହ଺ǡ଼଴଴כଵǤହ
ଶହ

ൌ ʹǡͶͻǡͶͲͺ Rs

TOTAL DIRECT COST ሺૠ૟Ψ ܗ܎ ۴۱۷ሻ ൌ
૝૚ǡ૞૟ǡૡ૙૙כૠ૟
૛૞

ൌ ૚ǡ ૛૟ǡ ૜૟ǡ ૟ૠ૛ ܀ܛ
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(2) INDIRECT COST (I.C)
Expenses which are not directly involved with material and labour of actual installation or
complete facility.
1) Engineering & Supervision Cost ሺ͹Ψ of BǤ Cሻ ൌ ͳǡʹ͸ǡ͵͸ǡ͸͹ʹ כ ͲǤͲ͹
ൌ ͺǡͺͶǡ͵ͷ͹ǤͲͶRs

2) Construction Expenses Cost ሺͺΨ of BǤ Cሻ ൌ ͳǡʹ͸ǡ͵͸ǡ͸͹ʹ כ ͲǤͲͺ
ൌ ͳͲǡͳͲǡͻ͵͵Ǥ͹͸ Rs

3) Contractor Fees ሺʹΨ of BǤ Cሻ ൌ ͳǡʹ͸ǡ͵͸ǡ͸͹ʹ כ ͲǤͲʹ
ൌ ʹǡͷʹǡ͹͵͵ǤͶͶ Rs

4) Contingency: ሺ͹Ψ of BǤ Cሻ ൌ ͳǡʹ͸ǡ͵͸ǡ͸͹ʹ כ ͲǤͲ͹
ൌ ͺǡͺͶǡ͵ͷ͹ǤͲͶ Rs
TOTAL DIRECT COST ሺ૛૝Ψ ܗ܎ ۲Ǥ ۱ሻ ൌ ૚ǡ ૛૟ǡ ૜૟ǡ ૟ૠ૛ כ ૙Ǥ ૛૝
ൌ ૜૙ǡ ૜૛ǡ ૡ૙૚Ǥ ૛ૡ ܀ܛ

3) FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT (F.C.I):
۴۱۷ ൌ ۲۱ ൅۷۱
ൌ ૚ǡ ૛૟ǡ ૜૟ǡ ૟ૠ૛ ൅ ૜૙ǡ ૜૛ǡ ૡ૙૚Ǥ ૛ૡ
ൌ ૚ǡ ૞૟ǡ ૟ૢǡ ૝ૠ૜Ǥ ૛ૡ ܀ܛ

4) WORKING CAPITALA INVESTMENT (WCI):
ሺͳͷΨ of FCIሻ ൌ ͳǡͷ͸ǡ͸ͻǡͶ͹͵Ǥʹͺ כ Ǥͳͷ
ൌ ʹ͵ǡͷͲǡͶʹͲǤͻͻʹ Rs

5) TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT (TCI):
܂۱۷ ൌ ۴۱۷ ൅ ܅۱۷
ൌ ͳǡͷ͸ǡ͸ͻǡͶ͹͵Ǥʹͺ ൅ ʹ͵ǡͷͲǡͶʹͲǤͻͻʹ
ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻǡͺͻͶǤʹ͹ Rs

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ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PRODUCT COST (TPC):
FIXED CHARGES:
A) Depreciation :( 10 % of TCI for machinery )
ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻǡͺͻͶǤʹ͹ כ ͲǤͳͲ
ൌ ͳͺǡͲͳǡͻͺͻǤͶʹ͹ Rs

B) Local taxes :( 3 % of TCI )
ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻǡͺͻͶǤʹ͹ כ ͲǤͲ͵
ൌ ͷǡͶͲǡͷͻ͸Ǥͺ͵ Rs

C) Insurance:( 1 % of TCI )
ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻǡͺͻͶǤʹ͹ כ ͲǤͲͳ
ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻͺǤͻ Rs

D) Rent:( 9 % of TCI)ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻǡͺͻͶǤʹ͹ כ ͲǤͲͻ
ൌ ͳ͸ǡʹͳǡ͹ͻͲǤͷ Rs
TOTAL FIXED CHARGES:ሺ ʹ͵ Ψ of TCIሻ ൌ ͳǡͺͲǡͳͻǡͺͻͶǤʹ͹ כ ͲǤʹ͵
ൌ ͶͳǡͶͶǡͷ͹ͷǤ͸ͺʹ Rs
But, Fixed Charges ൌ ͳͲ Ψ of TFC
ൌ ͶͳǡͶͶǡͷ͹ͷǤ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͳ
ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ Rs

TOTAL PRODUCTION COSTൌ ૝ǡ ૚૝ǡ ૝૞ૠǤ ૞૟ૡ૛ Rs
DIRECT PRODUCTION:
a) Raw material: ሺ͵Ͳ Ψ of TPCሻ ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤ͵Ͳ
ൌ ͳʹǡͶ͵ǡ͵͵͹Ǥʹ͹ Rs

b) Operating labour cost: ሺͳͷ Ψ of TPCሻ ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͳͷ
ൌ ͸ǡʹͳǡ͸͸ͺǤ͸Ͷ Rs

c) Direct Supervision and Electric labour: ሺͳͷ Ψ of TPCሻ ൌ ͸ǡʹͳǡ͸͸ͺǤ͸Ͷ כ ͲǤͳͷ
ൌ ͻ͵ǡʹͷͲǤ͵ Rs
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d) Utilities: ሺͳͷ Ψ of TPCሻ ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͳͷ
ൌ ͸ǡʹͳǡ͸͸ͺǤ͸Ͷ Rs
e) Maintenance : ሺ͸ Ψ of TPCሻ ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͲ͸
ൌ ʹͶǡͺ͸͹ǤͶͷ Rs
f) Operating supplies (OS)׷ ሺͳͷ Ψ of maintenanceሻ ൌ ʹͶǡͺ͸͹ǤͶͷ כ ͲǤͳͷ
ൌ ͵ǡ͹͵ͲǤͳͻ Rs
g) Laboratory charges: ሺͳͷΨ of 0Lሻ ൌ ͸ǡʹͳǡ͸͸ͺǤ͸Ͷ כ ͲǤͳͷ
ൌ ͻ͵ǡʹͷͲǤ͵ Rs
h) Patent and royalties: ሺͶ Ψ of TPCሻ ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͲͶ
ൌ ͳ͸ͷ͹ͺǤ͵ Rs

PLANT OVERHEAD COST: ሺͷ Ψ of TPCሻ
ൌ ͶͳͶͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͲͷ
ൌ ૛૙ǡ ૠ૛૛Ǥ ૡૡ Rs
MANUFACTURING COST (MC): ൌ ሺTPC ൅ Fixes chaiges ൅Plant 0veiheau Costሻ
ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ ൅ͶͳǡͶͶǡͷ͹ͷǤ͸ͺʹ ൅ ʹͲǡ͹ʹʹǤͺͺ
ൌ ૝૞ǡ ૠૢǡ ૠ૞૟Ǥ ૚૜ Rs
GENERAL EXPENSES:
a) Administration Cost: ሺͶͲ െ͸ͲΨ of 0Lሻ
Assume 55%
ൌ ͻ͵ǡʹͷͲǤ͵ כ ͲǤͷͷ
ൌ ͷͳʹͺ͹Ǥ͸͹ Rs
b) Distribution & selling Cost ǣ ሺʹ െ ͵ͲΨ of TPCሻ
Assume
ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͳͷ
ൌ ͸ʹǡͳ͸ͺǤ͸Ͷ Rs

c) Research & Development Cost ǣ ሺ͵Ψ of TPCሻ
ൌ ͶǡͳͶǡͶͷ͹Ǥͷ͸ͺʹ כ ͲǤͲ͵
ൌ ͳʹǡͶ͵͵Ǥ͹͵ Rs
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GENERAL EXPENSES ൌ ͷͳǡʹͺ͹Ǥ͸͹ ൅͸ʹǡͳ͸ͺǤ͸Ͷ ൅ͳʹǡͶ͵͵Ǥ͹͵
ൌ ૚ǡ ૛૞ǡ ૡૢ૙Ǥ ૙૝ Rs
TOTAL PRODUCTION COST: ൌ NAN0FACT0RINu C0ST ሺNCሻ ൅uENERAL EXPENSES
ൌ Ͷͷǡ͹ͻǡ͹ͷ͸Ǥͳ͵ ൅ ͳǡʹͷǡͺͻͲǤͲͶ
ൌ ૝ૠǡ ૙૞ǡ ૟૝૟Ǥ ૚ૠ ܀ܛ
GROSS EARNING & RATE OF RETURN:
The plant is working for say 300days a year.
Selling Price: ൌ ͵͸ RsȀKg
Total Income ൌ ቀͷͲͲͲ
୏୥
ୈୟ୷ୱ
ቁ כ ቀ͵ͲͲ
ୈୟ୷ୱ
ଢ଼ୣୟ୰
ቁ כ ሺ͵͸
ୖୱ
୏୥

ൌ ͷǡͶͲǡͲͲǡͲͲͲ Rs

GROSS INCOMEൌ ܂۽܂ۯۺ ۷ۼ۱۽ۻ۳ ൅܂۽܂ۯۺ ۾܀۽۲܃۱܂۷۽ۼ ۱۽܁܂
ൌ ͷǡͶͲǡͲͲǡͲͲͲ ൅ Ͷ͹ǡͲͷǡ͸Ͷ͸Ǥͳ͹
ൌ ૝ǡ ૢ૛ǡ ૢ૝ǡ ૜૞૜Ǥ ૡ૜ ܀ܛ
܂ۯ܆ ൌ ͷͲΨ
ۼ۳܂ ۾܀۽۴۷܂ ൌ ͶǡͻʹǡͻͶǡ͵ͷ͵Ǥͺ͵ כ ͲǤͷͲ
ൌ ૛ǡ ૝૟ǡ ૝ૠǡ ૚ૠૠ
܀ܛ
܇܍܉ܚ

RATE OF RETURNൌ
୒୉୘ ୔ୖ୓୊୍୘
୘୓୘୅୐ େ୅୔୍୘୅୐ େ୓ୗ୘



ଶǡସ଺ǡସ଻ǡଵ଻଻
ଵǡ଼଴ǡଵଽǡ଼ଽସ

ൌ ૚Ǥ ૜ૠ Ψ




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BREAK EVEN POINT CALCULATION (BEP):
The breakeven point occurs when the total annual production cost equals the total annual sales.
The total annual product cost is the sum of fixed costs (including fixed charges, overhead, and
general expenses) and the direct production of units and the selling price per unit.
Production cost per Kgൌ
୘୭୲ୟ୪ ୈ୧୰ୣ୲ ୔୰୭ୢ୳ୡ୲୧୭୬ େ୭ୱ୲
୅୬୬୳ୟ୪ ୖୟ୲ୣ

Annual Rate ൌ ቀͷͲͲͲ
୏୥
ୈୟ୷ୱ
ቁ כ ሺ͵ͲͲ Baysሻ
ൌ ૚૞ǡ ૙૙ǡ ૙૙૙ ۹܏
Product costൌ
ହଵǡଶ଼଻Ǥ଺଻
ଵହ଴଴

ൌ ૜૞
܀ܛ
۹܏

Total Fixed Charges:
ൌ ሺ uENERAL EXPENSES ൅Fixeu Chaiges ൅ PLANT 0vERBEAB C0STሻ
ൌ ͳǡʹͷǡͺͻͲǤͲͶ ൅ ͶͳǡͶͶǡͷ͹ͷǤ͸ͺʹ ൅ ʹͲǡ͹ʹʹǤͺͺ
ൌ ૝૛ǡ ૢ૚ǡ ૚ૡૡǤ ૟૙૛ ܀ܛ
Now, cost of Jatropha oil per Kg= 36 Rs/Kg
So, Kg of oil at breakeven point ͶʹǡͻͳǡͳͺͺǤ͸Ͳʹ ൅35n =36n
ܖ ൌ ૝૛ǡ ૢ૚ǡ ૚ૡૡǤ ૟૙૛
۹܏
܇܍܉ܚ

Thus, Break-even point is ૝૛ǡ ૢ૚ǡ ૚ૡૡǤ ૟૙૛
۹܏
܇܍܉ܚ




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CHAPTER: 7
INSTRUMENT AND CONTROL






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The primary objective of the designer when specifying instrumentation and control schemes are:
7.1 SAFE PLANT OPERATION:
To keep the process variable within safe operating limits.
To dictate dangerous situation as they develop and provide alarms automatic shut down system
To provide interlock and alarms to prevent dangerous operating system.

(a) Production Rate: To achieve the desired product output.

(b) Product Quality: To maintain the product composition within the specified quality
standards.

(c) Cost: To operate at the lowest production cost commensurate with the objective but
sometimes it may be better strategy to produce a better quality at a higher cost.
In a typical chemical plant, these objectives are achieved by combination of automatic control,
manual monitoring and laboratory analysis.
















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7.2 TYPICAL CONTROL SYSTEM:

(A) Level Control
In many equipment, where an interface exists between two phases some means of
maintaining the interface the required level must be provided. This may be incorporated
in the design of the equipment as is usually done for the decanters or by automatic control
of the flow to the equipment.
(B) Pressure Control
Pressure control will be necessary for most system handling vapor or gas, the
method of control will depend on the nature of the process.
(C) Flow control
Flow control is usually associated with inventory control in a storage tank or other
equipment; there must be a reservoir to tank up the change in flow rate. To provide flow
control as a compressor pump running at a fixed speed and supplying near constant volume
output by a bypass control is used.
(D) Heat Exchanger
In heat exchanger the temp, being controlled by varying the flow of the cooling or
heating medium.
(E) Condenser Control
Temperature control is unlike to e effective for condenser unless the liquid steam
is sub- cooled.









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7.3 ALARM AND SAFETY TRIPS AND INTERLOCK

Alarms are used to alert operations of serious and potentially hazardous deviations in
process conditions. Key instruments are fitted with switches and relays to operate audible and
visual alarm on the control panels lack of response by the operator is likely to land on the rapid
development of a hazardous situation, the instrument would be fitted with a trip system to take
action automatically to prevent the hazard, such as shutting down pumps, closing valves,
operating energy.
The basic components of an automatic trip system are:
y A sensor to monitor the control variable and provide an output signal when a present value is
exceeded instrument.
y A link to transfer the signal to the actuator usually consisting of a system of pneumatic or electric
relays.
y An actuator to carry out required action: Close or open value, switch off monitor.












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7.4 PROCESS AND INSTUMENT DIAGRAM:



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CHAPTER: 8
UTILITY





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The word utilities are not generally used for the ancillary service needed in the operation of
the any production process. These services will normally be supplied from a central site facility,
and will include:
(1) Electricity
(2) Steam for process heating
(3) Cooling water
(4) Water for general use
(5) Deminerlised water
(6) Refrigeration
(7) Effluent disposal facilities

8.1 ELECTRICITY
The power required for electro chemical processes , motor drives lighting and general use
may be generated on sight, but will more usually by purchased from the local supply company.
The voltage at which the supply is taken or generated will depend on the demand. For a large site
the supply will be taken at a very high voltage. Transformer will be used to step down the supply
voltage to the voltages used on site.
8.2 STEAM
The steam for heating is usually generated in water boiler using the most economical fuel
level available. The process temperature required can usually be obtained with low temperature
steam and steam distributed at relatively low pressure. High pressure or proprietary heat transfer
fluids, such as down therm will be needed for high process temperature.
8.3 COOLING WATER

Natural and forced draft cooling towers are generally used to provide the cooling water
required in a site; unless water can be drawn from a convenient river or lake in sufficient
quantity.

8.4 WATER FOR GENERAL USE

The water required for general purposes on a site will usually be taken from the local
mains supply, unless a cheaper source of suitable quantity water is available from a river, lake or
well.




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8.5 DEMINERLISED WATER

Deminerlised water from which all the minerals have been removed by ion exchange, is
used where pure water is needed for process use, and as boiler feed water. Mixed and multiple
bed ion exchange units are used, one resin converting the cations to hydrogen and the other
removing the acid radicals. Water with less than one ppm of dissolved solids can be produced.



8.6 REFRIGERATION

It will be needed for processes that require temperatures below those that can be
economically obtained with cooling water. For temperatures down to around 10
0
C chilled water
can be used. For lower temperatures, down to -30
0
C, salt brines are used to distribute the
³refrigeration´ round the site from a central refrigeration machine.


8.7 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL

Facilities will be required at all sites for the disposal of waste materials without creating a
public nuisance.








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CHAPTER: 9
PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT






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9.1 PLANT LOCATION AND SITE SELECTION:

The location of the plant can have a crucial effect on the profitability of a project and the scope
for future expansion. Many factors must be considered when selecting a suitable site. The factors
to be considered are:

1. Location with respect to the marketing area
2. Raw material supply.
3. Transport facilities.
4. Availability of labor.
5. Availability of utilities: water, fuel, power.
6. Availability of suitable land.
7. Environmental impact and effluent disposal.
8. Local community considerations.
9. Climate.
10. Political and strategic considerations.

Marketing Area:

For materials that are produced in bulk quantities such as cement, mineral acids and
fertilizers where the cost of the product per ton is relatively low and the cost of transport a
significant fraction of the sales price, the plant should be located close to the primary market.
This consideration will be less important for low volume production, high-priced products, such
as pharmaceuticals.


Raw Materials:

The availability and price of suitable raw materials will often determine the location.
Plant producing bulk chemicals are best located close to the source of the major raw material:
where this is also close to the marketing area.


Transport:

The transport of materials & products to & from the plant will be an overriding
consideration in site selection. If practicable, site should be selected that is close to at least two
major forms of transport: road, rail, waterway (canal or river) or a sea port.

Road transport is being increasingly used, and is suitable for long-distance transport of
bulk chemicals. Air transport is convenient & efficient for the movement of personnel &essential
equipment & supplies & the proximity of the site airport should be considered.



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Availability of labor:

Labor will be needed for construction of the plant & its operation. Skilled construction
workers will usually be brought in from outside the site area, but there should be an adequate
pool of unskilled labor available locally; & labor suitable for training to operate the plant. Skilled
tradesmen will be needed for plant maintenance.

Local trade union customs & restrictive practices will have to be considered when
assessing the availability & suitability of the local labor for recruitment & training.



Utilities (Services)

Chemical processes invariably require large quantities of water for cooling & general
process use & the plant must be located near a source of water of suitable quantity. Process water
may be drawn from a river, from wells, or purchased from a local authority. At some sites the
cooling water required can be taken from a river or lake, or from the sea; at other locations
cooling tower will be needed.

Electrical power will be needed at all sites. Electrochemical processes that require large
quantities of power; for example, aluminum smelters need to be located close to a cheap source
of power. A competitive priced fuel must be available on site for steam & power generation.


Environment impact & disposal:

All industrial processes produce waste products & full consideration must be given to the
difficulties & cost of their disposal. The disposal of toxic & harmful effluents will be covered by
local regulations & the appropriate authorities must be consulted during the initial site survey to
determine the standards that must be met. An environmental impact assessment should be made
for each new project or major modification or addition to an existing process.


Local community considerations:

The proposed plant must fit in with & be acceptable to the local community. Full
consideration must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it does not impose a
significant additional risk to the community. On a new site, the local community must be able to
provide adequate facilities for the plant personnel: school, banks, housing & recreational &
cultural facilities.






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Land (site selection):

Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed plant & for future expansion.
The land should ideally be flat, well drained & have suitable load bearing characteristics. A full
site evaluation should be made to determine the need of piling or other special formations.


Climate:

Adverse climate conditions at a site will increase cost. Abnormally low temperatures will
require the prohibition of additional insulation & special heating for equipment & pipe runs.
Stronger structures will be needed at locations subject to high winds (cyclone hurricane areas) or
earthquakes.


Political & Strategic Considerations:

Capital grants tax concessions & other inducements are often given by the government to
direct renew investments to preferred locations, such as areas of high unemployment. The
availability of such grants can be the overriding consideration in site selection.


























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9.2 SITE LAYOUT:


The process units & ancillary buildings should be laid out to give the most economical
flow of materials & personnel around the site. Hazardous processes must be located at a safe
distance from other buildings. Consideration must also be given to the future expansion of the
site. The ancillary buildings & services required on a site, in addition to the main processing
units will include:

1. Storages for raw materials & products: tank farms & warehouses.
2. Maintenance workshops.
3. Stores for maintenance & operating supplies.
4. Laboratories for process control
5. Fire stations & other emergency services.
6. Utilities: steam boilers, compressed air, power generation, refrigeration, transformer
Stations
7. Effluent disposal plant.
8. Offices for general administration.
9. Canteens & other amenity buildings, such as medical centers.
10. Car parks

When roughing out the preliminary site layout, the process units will normally be sited
first & arranged to give a smooth flow of materials through the various processing steps, from
raw material to final product storage.

Process units are normally spaced at least 30m apart; greater spacing may be needed for
hazardous processes. The location of the principal ancillary buildings should then be decided.
They should be arranged so as to minimize the time spent by personnel in travelling between
buildings. Administration offices & laboratories, in which a relatively large number of people
will be working, should be located well away from potentially hazardous processes.

Control rooms will normally be located be located adjacent to the processing units, but
with potentially hazardous processes may have to be sited at a safer distance. The sitting of the
main process units will determine the layout of the plant roads, pipe alleys & drains. Access
roads will be needed to each building for construction, & for operation & maintenance.

Utility buildings should be sited to give the most economical run of pipes to & from the
process units. Cooling towers should be sited so that under the prevailing wind the plume of
condensate spray drifts away from the plant area & adjacent properties.

The main storage area should be placed between the loading & unloading facilities & the
process units they serve. Storage tanks containing hazardous materials should be sited at least
70m from the site boundary.


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9.3 PLANT LAYOUT:

The economic construction & efficient operation of a process unit will depend on how
well he plant & equipment specified on the process flow-sheet is laid out. The principal factors
to be considered are:

1. Economic consideration: construction & operating cost
2. The process requirements
3. Convenience of operation
4. Convenience of maintenance
5. Safety
6. Future expansion
7. Modular construction


Costs
The cost of construction can be minimized by adopting a layout that gives the shortest
run of connecting pipe between equipment & the least amount of structural steel work. However
this will not necessarily be the best arrangement for operation & maintenance.

Process Requirements

An example of the need to take into account process considerations is the need to elevate
the base of columns to provide the necessary net positive suction head to a pump or the operating
head for a thermosyphon reboiler.


Operator

Equipment that needs to have frequent operator attention should be located convenient to
the control room. Valves, sample points, and instruments should be located at convenient
positions and heights. Sufficient working space and head room must be provided to allow easy
access to equipments.




Maintenance

Heat exchangers need to be cited so that the tube bundles can be easily withdrawn for
cleaning and tube replacement. Vessels that require frequent replacement of catalyst or packing
should be located on the outside of buildings. Equipment that requires dismantling for
maintenance, such as compressors and large pumps, should be placed under cover.



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Safety

Blast walls maybe needed to isolate potentially hazardous equipment, and confine the
effects of an explosion. At least two escape routes for operators must be provided from each
level in the process buildings.


Plant Expansion

Equipments should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any future
expansion of the process. Space should be left on pipe alleys for future needs, and services pipes
over-sized to allow for future requirements.


































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9.4 MODULAR CONSTRUCTIONS

In recent years there has been a move to assemble sections of plant at the plant
manufacturer¶s site. These modules will include the equipment, structural steel, piping and
instrumentation. The modules are then transported to the plant site, by road or sea.

The advantage of modular construction is:

(1) Improved quality control

(2) Reduced construction cost

(3) Less need for skilled labor on site.

(4) Less need for a skilled personal on overseas sites.


Some of the disadvantages are:

(1) Higher design costs.

(2) More structural steel work.

(3) More flanged connections.

(4) Possible problems with assembly on site.



















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9.5 PLANT LAYOUT FLOWSHEET





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CHAPTER: 10
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET


















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10.1 JATROPHA OIL
SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION:
Product name: Jatropha seed oil
Taxonomy Current name: Jatropha curcas
Common local names:
Afrikaans Purgeerboontjie
Arabic Dand barri, habel meluk
Bengali Bagbherenda, erandagachh.
Chinese Yu-Lu-Tzu.
Dutch Purgeernoot
English Barbados Nut, Castor Oil, Chinese Castor Oil, Curcas, Fig Nut,
Physic Nut, Pig Nut, Purging Nut, Wild Oil Nut
Filipino Tubang-Bakod
French Feuilles Médecin, Grand Médecinier, Médecinier, Médicinier
Hindi Bagbherenda, jangliarandi, safedarand
Italian: Fagiola d¶India
Luganda Kiryowa
Indonesian Jarak Budge
Nepali Kadam
Portuguese Mundubi-Assu, Purgueira
Sanskrit Kananaeranda, Kananaerend, Parvataranda
Spanish Pinol, Pinon,
Tamil Kadalamanakku, Kattamanakku
Thai Sabudam

Table 9: Common local names of Jatropha seed oil
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Family: Euphorbiaceous
Synonym(s): Curcas purgans Medic; Castiglionia lobata Ruiz and Pav.;
Curcas adansonii Endl. ex Heynh.; Curcas curcas (L.)
Britton and Millsp.; Curcas indica A. Rich.; Curcas purgans
Medic.; Jatropha acerifolia Salisb.; Jatropha edulis Cerv.;
Ricinus americanus Miller.; Ricinus jarak Thunb.
Trade name: Jatropha oil, Fig nut oil, Physic nut oil, Hell oil

SECTION 2. INGREDIENTS:
Product is supplied as a whole seed / kernel oil. It is a non-food grade material for
industrial use only.
Free fatty acid composition:
Myristic acid (14:0) 0-0.1 %
Palmitic acid (16:0) 14.1-15.3 %
Stearic acid (18:0) 3.7-9.8 %
Arachidic acid (20:0) 0-0.3 %
Behenic acid (22:0) 0-0.2 %
Palmitoleic acid (16:1) 0-1.3 %
Oleic acid (18:1) 34.3-45.8 %
Linoleic acid (18:2) 29.0-44.2 %
Linoleic acid (18:3) 0-0.3 %
Chemical parameters:
Diglycerides (% m/m): 2.7
Triglycerides (% m/m): 97.3
Water (% m/m): 0.07
Phosphorus (mg kg-1): 290
Calcium (mg kg-1): 56
Magnesium (mg kg-1): 103
Iron (mg kg-1): 2.4
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Toxic ingredients:
1. Phorbol esters:
Concentration (2-4 mg/g oil), co-carcinogenic to animals, mutagenic to
mammalian somatic cells, bacteria and yeast. Produce cathartic and degenerative changes
in gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, brain. Ingestion causes bloody diahorrea, collapse,
fall of blood pressure, trachycardia, coma and death (in rats). Repeated application on
skin leads to hyperplasia (in mice).
2. Jatropherol:
Is a phorbol type diterpenes (0.12-0.14 mg/g oil) found highly toxic to silk worm larvae
after ingestion with LC50 values 0.58, 0.22, 0.157 mg/ml at 48, 72, 120 h respectively. The oral
toxicity of jatropherol to mi e was found to be 82.198 mg/kg body weight.

SECTION 3. PHYSICAL DATA:
Density at 15°C (gcm-3): 0.92
Viscosity at 30°C (C St): 52
Flash point (°C): 240
State: Liquid at room temperature
Solubility: Organic solvents. Insoluble in water
Appearance: Similar to Castor oil
Odor: Similar to raw castor oil
Color: Golden yellow
Refractive index: 1.4735
Free fatty acids (% as C18:1) 4.54 6.7
Acid value (mg KOH. g-1) 1.24 4.24
Total saturated (%) 22.3
Total mono unsaturated (%) 42 ± 43.1
Total PUFA (%) 34 ± 36
Iodine value (mg.I2.g-1) 97.1 111.6
Saponification value (mg KOH.g-1) 169.9 197
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Calorific value 37.8 MJ/kg
Note: Since it is a natural product, the exact physical and chemical data may vary
from that mentioned in this sheet.

SECTION 4. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
Extinguishing media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical/powder or foam spray.
Special fire fighting procedures:
If involved in fire, don NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus and
flame/chemical resistant.

SECTION 5. HEALTH HAZARD DATA
Signs and symptoms of exposure:
Ingestion
Human:
Data not available but available for seed, Expected to be similar for seeds causing
vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and burning sensation in the throat.
Ruminants:
Data not available. The symptoms are expected to be similar for seeds causing diarrhea,
dyspnea, dehydration, paresis of the hind limbs and recumbency before death. Lack of appetite,
reduced water consumption, sunken eyes and reduction in glycogen content were important
signs. Histopathology showed hemorrhage in rumen, reticulum, kidney, spleen and heart,
emphysema and cyanosis, tracheal froths, as cites and hydro pericardium, congestion of lung.
Rats:
Haemolysis of blood, destruction of mucous layer, intense inflammation in the intestine
in the rats.
Skin contact:
Generally no effect, may cause irritation in some individuals

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Eye contact:
Data not available, contact may cause irritation and conjunctivitis.
Acute effects of exposure:
May cause skin, eye and upper respiratory irritation.
Chronic effects of overexposure:
Harmful to the skin and eyes, may cause tumor promotion. Emergency and First Aid
Procedures:
Swallowing:
If swallowed, wash mouth out with water and immediately call a physician.
Skin:
If skin contact occurs, immediately wash skin with soap and water.
Inhalation:
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR) and call a physician.
Eyes:
If eye contact occurs, flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Assure adequate
flushing by separating eyelids with fingers. Consult a physician if irritation persists.

SECTION 6. REACTIVITY DATA
Stability
Stable when kept away from light, exposure to atmosphere and other oxidizing agents.
Like any other oil turns rancid on exposure to air
.
SECTION 7. SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES:
Waste disposal:
Discharge, treatment or disposal may be subject to local laws.

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Steps to be taken if material is spilled or released:
Wear protective gloves, lab coat and safety glasses. Use vermiculite or another suitable
absorbent to clean up the spill. After cleanup, wash down the spill site with water containing
detergent and wash with water, ventilate the area. Prevent from entering drains, surface and
ground water. Place all contaminated materials in an appropriate waste container and dispose of
in accordance with federal, state and local regulations. III. Handling and Storage

SECTION 8. HANDLING AND STORAGE
Handling:
Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Protective gloves, lab coat and safety glasses
should be worn when handling this product.
Storage:
Store in a cool area. The oil should be stored in airtight, dark colored container to avoid
direct contact with sunlight. Keep away from oxidizing agents, alkalies, acids and flammable
materials.
Transport:
May be transported in a manner similar to other vegetable oils. The containers used after
transporting Jatropha oil should be thoroughly cleaned and made free of toxins before
transporting other oil, liquid or material

SECTION 9. EXPOSURE CONTROL/PERSONAL
Protection Information:
Wear protective gloves, safety glasses and lab coat when working with this product. An
eyewash station and safety shower should be in proximity to the work area. The working area
should be good ventilated, preferably with an air exhaust. Ensure that all ignition sources are
removed from the area before working with this product. Dispose of all waste in accordance with
federal, state and local regulations.
To the best of our knowledge the above information is true and accurate but does not
purport to be all-inclusive and shall be used only as a guide.
This information relates only to the specific material designated (here Jatropha curcas
oil), and may not be valid for such materials used in combination with any other materials or in
any other process.

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10.2 SAFETY SHEET HEXANE

SECTION 1: CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION:

Product Name: Hexanes

Chemical Name: Hexane

Chemical Formula: C6-H14



SECTION 2: COMPOSITION AND INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Toxicological Data on Ingredients:

Hexane: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 25000 mg/kg [Rat].


SECTION 3: HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Potential Acute Health Effects:

Hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator) of ingestion, of inhalation.

Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant).

Potential Chronic Health Effects:

The substance may be toxic to peripheral nervous system, skin, central nervous system
(CNS).Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.


SECTION 4: FIRST AID MEASURES
Eye Contact:

Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with running water for
at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Get medical attention if irritation occurs.

Skin Contact:

Wash with soap and water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Get medical
attention if irritation develops.
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Serious Skin Contact:

Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial
cream. Seek medical attention.

Inhalation:

If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is
difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.

Serious Inhalation:

Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as
collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not
breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Seek medical attention.

Ingestion:

Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or
waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.



SECTION 5: FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA

Flammability of the Product: Flammable.

Auto-Ignition Temperature: 225°C (437°F)

Flash Points: CLOSED CUP: -22.5°C (-8.5°F). (TAG)

Flammable Limits: LOWER: 1.15% UPPER: 7.5%

Products of Combustion: These products are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).



Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:

Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat.

Non-flammable in presence of shocks.


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Fire Fighting Media and Instructions:

Flammable liquid, insoluble in water.

SMALL FIRE: Use DRY chemical powder.

LARGE FIRE: Use water spray or fog.


Special Remarks on Fire Hazards:

Extremely flammable liquid and vapor. Vapor may cause flash fire.


SECTION 6: ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Small Spill:

Absorb with an inert material and put the spilled material in an appropriate waste
disposal.


Large Spill:

Flammable liquid, insoluble in water. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of
ignition. Stop leak if without risk. Absorb with DRY earth, sand or other non-combustible
material. Do not get water inside container. Do not touch spilled material. Prevent entry into
sewers, basements or confined areas; dike if needed. Call for assistance on disposal. Be careful
that the product is not present at a concentration level above TLV. Check TLV on the MSDS and
with local authorities.




SECTION 7: HANDLING AND STORAGE

Precautions:

Keep locked up.. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Ground all
equipment containing material. Do not ingest. Do not breathe gas/fumes/ vapor/spray. Avoid
contact with skin. Wear suitable protective clothing. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear
suitable respiratory equipment. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the
container or the label. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidizing agents.

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Storage:

Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area.
Keep container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of
ignition (spark or flame).



SECTION 8: EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Engineering Controls:

Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne
concentrations of vapors below their respective threshold limit value. Ensure that eyewash
stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location.

Personal Protection:

Safety glasses, Lab coat. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator
or equivalent, Gloves.

Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill

Splash goggles, Full suit, Vapor respirator, Boots, Gloves. A self contained breathing
apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might
not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this product.


SECTION 9: STABILITY AND REACTIVITY DATA

Stability: The product is stable.

Conditions of Instability: Heat, ignition sources, incompatibles.

Incompatibility with various substances: Reactive with oxidizing agents.

Special Remarks on Reactivity: Hexane can react vigorously with strong oxidizers (e.g.
chlorine, bromine, fluorine)

Polymerization: Will not occur.





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SECTION 10: TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Routes of Entry:

Absorbed through skin, dermal contact, Inhalation, Ingestion.

Toxicity to Animals:

WARNING: THE LC50 VALUES HEREUNDER ARE ESTIMATED ON THE BASIS OF A
4-HOUR EXPOSURE.

Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 25000 mg/kg [Rat].

Acute toxicity of the gas (LC50): 48000 ppm 4 hours [Rat].

Chronic Effects on Humans:

Mutagenic Effects: Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast.

May cause damage to the following organs: peripheral nervous system, skin, central
nervous system (CNS).

Other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Very hazardous in case of ingestion, of inhalation.

Hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator).

Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant).

Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:

May cause adverse reproductive effects based on animal data.

May be tumorigenic based on animal data.

May affect genetic material.

Passes through the placental barrier in animal.







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Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans
Acute Potential Health Effects:

Skin:
May cause mild skin irritation. It can be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.

Eyes:
May cause mild eye irritation.

Inhalation:

May be harmful if inhaled. Inhalation of vapors may cause respiratory tract irritation.
Overexposure may affect, brain, spinal cord, behavior/central and peripheral nervous systems
(lightheadness, dizziness, hallucinations, paralysis, blurred vision, memory loss, headache,
euphoria, general anesthetic, muscle weakness, numbness of the extremities, asphyxia,
unconsciousness and possible death), metabolism, respiration, blood, cardiovascular system,
gastrointestinal system (nausea)

Ingestion:

May be harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal tract irritation with abdominal
pain and nausea. May also affect the liver, blood, brain, peripheral and central nervous systems.
Symptoms of overexposure by ingestion are similar to that of overexposure by inhalation.



SECTION 11: ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Products of Biodegradation:

Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely. However, long term
degradation products may arise.


Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation:

The product itself and its products of degradation are not toxic.


SECTION 12: DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Waste Disposal:

Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental
control regulations.
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SECTION 13: TRANSPORT INFORMATION


DOT Classification: CLASS 3: Flammable liquid.

Identification: Hexane UNNA: 1208 PG: II





















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CHAPTER: 11
REFRENCES









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1. Perry, R.H. And Green D, ³Perry Chemical Engineering Hand Book´ By
Tata McGraw Hill, 6
th
Addition,1984
2. Robert E. Treybal For ³Mass Transfer Operation´, 5
th
Addition
3. Dr.G.K.Roy, ³Solved Example Of Chemical Engineering Mass Transfer
Operation´
4. Dr.G.K.Roy ³Fundamental Of Heat And Mass Transfer For Chemical
Engineering.´
5. S.B.Thakore And B.I.Bhatt ³Process Equipment Design-I´ ,McGraw
Hill,2007
6. Richardson And Coulsion ³Process Equipment Design´, 3
rd
Addition
7. Troika Group Of Industries, Mumbai
8. Bhatt.B.I And S.M.Vora, ³Stoichiometri´c,4
th
Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Co.Ltd.,New Delhi, 2004
9. Kern, D.Q., ³Process Heat Transfer´, McGraw-Hill, USA,1950.
10. Smith, R.A.,Vaporiser: ³Selection, Design and Operation´, Longmans,
UK,1986
11. ³Process design of equipment ³by Dr. Dawande S.D., 2
nd
Ed.,2000,p-425
12. M.S.PETERS,K.D.TIMMERHAUS,R.E.WEST; ³Plant Design And
Economics For Chemical Engineering´, 5
TH
Ed.,McGraw-Hill, New
YorK,2003
13. Old Project report,2010.
14. http://www.troikaindia.com
15. WWW.journeytoforever.com
16. http://www.jetrophaoilextraction.com


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CHAPTER: 12
APPENDIX







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Appendix-1

VAPOR PRESSURE DATA

Vapor Pressure Data for Hexane (P
A
)







Vapor Pressure Data For Water (P
B
)
Temperature (°C) Pressure (mmHg)
-10 2.1
-5 3.2
0 4.6
+5 6.5
+10 7.0
+15 9.2
+20 17.5
+22 19.8
+25 23.8
+30 31.8
+35 42.2
+40 55.3
+50 92.5
+60 149.4
+70 233.7
+80 355.1
+90 525.8
+91 633.9
+100 760

Temperature (°C) Pressure( mmHg)
-53.9 1
-34.5 5
-25.0 10
-14.1 20
+2.3 40
+5.4 60
+15.8 100
+31.6 200
+49.6 400
+68.7 760
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APPENDIX-2

CONVERSION FACTOR

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