The Nature of the Writing Process

ideas can be examined. rearranged. When thought is written down.‡ Writing is a complex process that allows writers to explore thoughts and ideas. Writing encourages thinking and learning for it motivates communication and makes thought available for reflection. . and changed. and make them visible and concrete. reconsidered. added to.

and edit. and that every writer uses the process in a different way. reacting.(Ploeger) .‡ By recognizing that writing is a recursive process. explore. 2000) ‡ Writing is a recursive process in that the writer can return to a previous stage of the writing process while working on a later stage. you may find yourself thinking of new ideas that could be included in the text. students experience less pressure to "get it right the first time" and are more willing to experiment. revise. and moving on. (Hedge. while you are revising a manuscript. ‡ Recursive process students re-reading their work. assessing it. In other words. So you can also be planning or brainstorming while revising.

get it right the first time ‡ Shaughnessy. . 1977 ± Students tend to think that the point of writing is to get everything right the first time and that the need to change things is the work of the amateur . ± Misconception of writers know the form before they know the content and know exactly what they are going to say before they say it .

diagrams) ‡ Re-reading (chunks vs paragraph) ‡ Revise for changes. 1983) ‡ Individual strategies (notes.‡ Questions that may arise if students were to have the anxiety in writing: ± how do writers write? How do their ideas seem to get generated? What happens to these ideas after they are recorded/ to what extent do these writers attend to the development and clarification of these ideas? To what extent and at what point during the process they deal with more mechanical matters? (Zamel. .

but could be pointless if being repeated many times. ‡ Is allowed to a certain extent where mechanism of writing is concerned has genuine value.Practice Writing Or Exercises That Involve Copying Or Reproduction Of Learned Material ‡ Copy intention of teaching spelling and mechanism of writing. .

± From present tense to past tense ± Teacher controls the grammatical concepts. he suggests that Stage 2 (writing in the language) should result the learning of variations of code usage in writing. (Long and Richards. 1987) ‡ E.Writing in the language ‡ In River s 4 levels of writing. .g. students were to alter a given structure throughout based on the paragraph given.

‡ This enables flexibility and loosens the teacher s control but still offers a series of stimulators.Writing Within A Framework Flexibility Measures ‡ Teacher gives a material whereby students are free to roam about but subjected to the framework within.g. ± E. guided writing .

Stage 1 ‡ Novice Writer (unskilled. teacherdependent writer) . unaware.has undeveloped skills and techniques .has little awareness of writing process . individual style . if any.has little.is reluctant to revise any writing .believes good writing comes easily .seeks approval from teacher .

I think good writing comes easily.I have a hard time coming up with ideas. I need my teacher s help a lot! . It is difficult for me to write a paragraph.

is developing a degree of comfort with the craft . self-involved. interests.is anxious to stand alone.learns from modeled behaviors .Stage 2 ‡ Transitional Writer (transitional. self-delineating writer) .needs support and coaching in order to develop .is developing an awareness of personal needs. and preoccupations . yet is uncomfortable with peer collaboration .

I need my teacher to help me frame my ideas. but I really don t want to share my work with my classmates. I learn best when I look at other peoples work. . It works for me. I m beginning to be comfortable writing on my own. I think writing is okay.

is developing a sensitivity to audience .is developing objectivity concerning work . willing writer) .is able to profit from criticism .Stage 3 ‡ Willing Writer (peer-involved.requires external feedback to shape progress .enjoys practicing craft .is able to collaborate well with others .

I have a pretty good idea of when I ve written a strong piece. I feel good about getting feedback from my classmates or teacher. I don t mind writing! Actually. I need this to feel successful in my writing.I work well with my classmates when it is time to peer edit. I kind of like it! .

autonomous writer) .has developed a sophisticated personal style .has developed a writer's voice .is self-motivating and self-aware as a writer .makes highly objective self-assessments .takes risks and experiments .is a craftsperson .Stage 4 ‡ Independent Writer (independent.

I feel I have a strong writing voice.I would prefer to revise and edit my own work. . I love to write and choose to do it even when it isn t assigned. I easily choose my own topics and dive into the writing process on my own.

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