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Format: XXXX is an important cause of conflict between Iraq and Kuwait. Economic problems: Iraq had previously fought a war with Iran, which drained its reserves. As a result, Iraq s economy was severely weakened. Iraq also had debts to other countries such as the US and France. For example, Iraq owed about US$80 million in debts. Iraq thus had to find ways to pay off its debts and saw Kuwait as a potential solution. Thus the economic problems of Iraq are an important cause of conflict between Iraq and Kuwait. Oil production: Iraq s main source of income is through the sale of oil. Oil production was maintained by OPEC, to prevent a decline in oil prices. However, Kuwait ignored its quota, thus the price of oil dropped from US$18 to US$7 per barrel. This loss of revenue for Iraq meant that it was unable to pay off its debts through the sale of oil. This prompted Iraq to look for alternative ways to settle their debts and looked to Kuwait as a potential solution. Thus oil production is an important cause of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict. Territorial dispute: Some borders in the region were not well defined as both Iraq and Kuwait inherited their borders from the British. There were thus clashes between the two countries as they both wanted certain territories for themselves. An example is the Rumaila oilfield. The Rumaila oilfield was shared between both countries as its borders were not clearly defined. However in 1990, Iraq claimed that Kuwait had drilled from the Iraq side using slant-drilling technology. Iraq demanded compensation from Kuwait but Kuwait refused. This led to strained relations between the two countries. Thus dispute over territory is an important cause of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict. BOC: Factor>Other factors: Oil production> other 2: Oil production is more important than the other factors as it is the root cause. Kuwait s overproduction of oil led to Iraq s economic problems as oil was Iraq s main export. Iraq s desperation to solve their economic problems caused by their massive wartime debts led them to believe Kuwait s actions were a result of an economic war waged on Iraq. Whether or not this is true, this caused Iraq to retaliate in the form of disputes over territory, before finally culminating in an invasion. Thus, the oil production of Kuwait is the most important cause of conflict as it is the root cause. Reason for invasion Factors: Iraq s official reason, Saddam s leadership and misreading US position Format: XXXX is an important reason for Iraq s invasion of Kuwait. Official reason: The Iraqi government claimed to have invaded Kuwait at the request of revolutionaries in Kuwait who were dissatisfied with the ruling government. Using this alibi, Iraq
Comment [A1]: Yes
Comment [A2]: Yes
Comment [A3]: Yes
Comment [A4]: Yes
Kuwait s defiance was seen as a personal attack on him. This is because even after it became apparent that the US would intervene after all. Arab solution: Kuwaiti officials appealed to the Arab League to organize a coalition force to counter the Iraqis. This meant that both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had to look elsewhere to solve their problems. Often it is easier to argue that it is because of Iraqi s economic greed for Kuwait oil that resulted in Iraq invading Kuwait. pressure from the military and civilians induced Saddam Hussein to invade Kuwait before his position became untenable. This shows that Saddam Hussein was prepared to take on the US if need be.justified its actions and thus warned other countries not to intervene. Arab solution. the ease of the Kuwait invasion might encourage Iraq to become even more aggressive and take over other parts of the Middle East. This would allow them to amass a large stock of oil and enable Iraq to set a high price for oil. However. It was clear that the League would not be able to deal with the crisis effectively. By taking over Kuwait. including Saudi Arabia. However. Thus Saddam Hussein s leadership is the more important factor. But you must be prepared for the causes of conflict and reasons for invasion to be combined. Saddam was also facing pressure from the populace and military. Furthermore. Iraq had no reason to help them. Saddam s leadership>US position: Saddam Hussein s leadership is a more important reason for invading Kuwait than misreading the US position. Thus fear of Iraqi dominance is an important reaction to the invasion of Kuwait. He feared a religious uprising and a military Coup d'état if the situation in Iraq did not improve. This bravado stems from necessity as Saddam Hussein was under immense pressure to improve the situation in Iraq. the Arab League was indecisive in countering the Iraqis. they were an extremely small minority. Thus misreading the US position explains why Iraq invaded Kuwait. BOC: Saddam s leadership> Official reason: Saddam Hussein s leadership is a more important reason for invading Kuwait than Iraq s official reason. He believed that the Americans were sympathetic to Iraq s situation and were not likely to go to Kuwait s aid. Comment [A5]: Yes Comment [A6]: This is alright. Thus Saddam Hussein s leadership explains why Iraq invaded Kuwait. Saddam Hussein was not deterred and pressed on with the attack. US position: Before the invasion. This encouraged him to invade Kuwait as he thought there would not be any severe consequences for doing so. Thus the Arab solution is an important reaction to the invasion of Kuwait. This was adverse for other countries. Dominance: Other countries around the world feared Iraqi dominance over the world s supply of oil. Reaction to invasion Factors: Fear of Iraqi dominance. Iraq controlled 20% of the world s oil production. This induced Saddam Hussein to invade Kuwait. Even so. Eight members did not support the counter-offensive. American response and International response Format: XXXX is an important reaction to the invasion of Kuwait. Saddam Hussein had met with the American ambassador. This is because although there were some revolutionaries in Kuwait. Thus Iraq s official reason explains why Iraq invaded Kuwait. Thus Saddam Hussein s leadership is the more important factor. . Saddam s leadership: The egoistic Saddam Hussein envisioned himself as the leader of the Arab world.
Thus the international response is an important reaction to the invasion of Kuwait. A coalition of countries was formed to help defend Saudi Arabia from the Iraqi threat. This fear was a rallying point and proved decisive against Iraq. The heavy losses suffered by the Iraqis resulted in a loss of morale among the remaining troops. More than 30 countries took part in the coalition by providing troops. the Saudis invited the US to help defend the kingdom against any potential Iraqi attacks. Iraq and International impact. BOC: Fear of dominance> other factors excluding Arab solution: The fear of Iraqi dominance is more important as it is the root cause of the other factors. The fear of Iraq increasing oil prices meant that America s economic interests were at stake. This got the US involved in a conflict that they would not be a part of otherwise. Impact of conflict This portion is divided into 3 factors: Kuwait. Coalition air superiority caused massive damage to Iraqi ground troops in a sustained bombing campaign. Economic and military sanctions were used in an attempt to force Iraq out of Kuwait. they rallied under the US banner forming a coalition that would deal a decisive strike to Iraq and resolve the conflict. the fear of Iraqi dominance is the more important factor based on impact. Iraqi suffering Format: XXXX factor is an important impact of the conflict on Iraq. the American response is an important reaction to the invasion of Kuwait. Thus. An example of Iraqi military losses is the highway of death incident. political instability in Iraq. Fear of dominance>Arab solution: The fear of Iraqi dominance is more important as it caused a coalition force to be formed under the common fear of high oil prices. This same fear also mobilized other countries as they too were threatened by the prospect of high oil prices and at the same time. The UN Security Council passed a resolution unanimously that demanded immediate Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait. navy ships and planes to defend the Saudi kingdom. military equipment and money for the efforts to defend Saudi Arabia and get Iraq out of Kuwait. The decision of the Arab League was so indecisive that it forced Saudi Arabia to seek American intervention. Impact on Iraq: Factors: Destruction of Iraq military. This was significant as Iraq imported most of its goods. Soldiers Comment [A7]: Ok .American response: In response to the large number of Iraqi soldiers at its borders. International response: The international response to the invasion was quick. Military: The vast difference between the technological superiority of the coalition forces and the Iraqi military meant that the Iraqis suffered massive losses with their defeat. However the Arab solution was ineffective as it was split between member nations. Both Kuwaiti and Iraqi assets were also frozen to prevent Iraq from using them. Thus. Thus the fear of Iraqi dominance is the more important factor. Impact on Iraq has 3 subpoints. This led to a lot of troops fleeing Iraq. The US responded by deploying soldiers.
The Iraqi military was forced to put down uprisings from various factions intending to utilize the tumultuous situation to overthrow Saddam Hussein. the destruction of the Iraqi military is an important impact of the conflict on Iraq. Political instability: Coalition leaders had encouraged dissatisfied groups in Iraq to rise up against Saddam. BOC Note that BOC here can change with the question. This was because water purification and sewage treatment facilities could not operate without electricity. they received no help from the coalition forces and were mercilessly put down. even before the conflict there was already political instability and Iraqi suffering in Iraq. Saddam Hussein was a cruel dictator whose leadership was opposed by many in Iraq. political instability within Iraq contributed to its problems. the sustained bombings carried out by coalition warplanes destroyed a large part of Iraq s infrastructure. Military would be the most important. An example is the Kurdish uprising. this military was reduced to a fraction of its original strength. if question asks which impact is most severe. However if question asks for significance. However. more than 1. Also. a large part of Iraqi infrastructure was destroyed. This not only led to more military Comment [A8]: Ok . This created political instability in Iraq. Finally. The retreating Iraqi army set fire to 600 oil wells in Kuwait. Military>all other factors: The destruction of Iraqi military capability is the most important factor as it had the most drastic impact on Iraq. This harsh treatment forced many to flee the country. In addition. This loss of military capacity left Iraq vulnerable to neighboring states. Impact of conflict: Format: XXXX factor is an important impact of the conflict. For example. including religious factions. The Iraqi people suffered as the bombings disrupted the supply of electricity which led to the contamination of the water supply causing the spread of diseases. Iraqi suffering: Due to the sustained bombing of Iraq by coalition airplanes. Before the conflict. Thus. Thousands of soldiers were killed. the Iraqi economy was drained and the Iraqi people were already suffering as a result. This cost Kuwait tremendously. As the belligerent. Thousands of Kurds were massacred.000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed and thousands tortured. impact on Kuwait is an important impact of the conflict. the Iraqi military was decimated by coalition forces in Operation Desert Storm. the destruction of Iraqi military capability is the most important factor. Iraq: Iraq suffered heavily from the conflict. The Kurds rose up against Saddam Hussein as they felt his power was declining and that the coalition forces would help them overthrow the dictator. The estimated damages in Kuwait are over US$25 billion. Kuwait: During the Iraqi occupation. Kuwaiti property was seized and given to the Iraqis. causing suffering to Iraqi civilians like the spread of diseases as a result. Thus. Iraqi suffering would be the most important. Thus political instability is an important impact of the conflict on Iraq. After the war however. Iraqi suffering is an important impact of the conflict on Iraq. Iraq had the fourth largest military in the world. Thus. Thus.fleeing the allied attack were bombed by coalition warplanes. However. due to the IranIraq war.
The displacement of foreign workers and the loss of oil made the Gulf War a global incident as not only the countries involved in the fighting were affected by the conflict but others as well. the regional and international impact is an important impact of the conflict. The relatively short time that it took coalition forces to retake Iraqmeant that with the exception of the oil wells. Thus. loss of income for fishermen in the region. the displaced Kuwaitis were able to return and rebuild their country. It also cost millions of dollars to put out the fires and clear the oil slick from the Persian Gulf. This led to tremendous pollution to the atmosphere and the ocean. In addition. especially the damage done to the military. They set fire to Kuwaiti oil wells and dumped 11 million barrels of oil into the Persian Gulf. International: The actions of the retreating Iraqi army created an environmental catastrophe. Coalition forces had found defeating the army easy but were stumped by the horrific and reckless burning of oil wells that were nightmarishly difficult to extinguish. Iraq s military had to suffer huge losses before Saddam Hussein finally relented. nearly two million foreign workers who were working in Kuwait were displaced as a result of the conflict. Thus. although severe was justified. The impact on Iraq.losses but also created a dystopia within Iraq. the damage done to Kuwait was minimized. Many of these had been supporting their families back home and the abrupt loss of salary meant great misfortune for their families. On the other hand. the regional and international impact is the most important impact of the conflict. The environmental damage caused by the Iraqi army was possibly the harshest consequence of the conflict. Once coalition forces retook Kuwait. Comment [A9]: Ok . Thus. BOC: International>all other factors: The regional and international impact is the most important impact based on the area of impact. Oil slicks also resulted in the loss of marine life and as a result. the impact on Kuwait was lessened by the coalition counteroffensive. As the belligerent. the impact of Iraq is an important impact of the conflict.
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