Hybrid Cars

Drew Tepper

What is a hybrid?
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor. If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all. Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles.

Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles. Later models may cut these emissions down by even more. . zeroWill cut down emissions of global-warming globalpollutants by a third to a half.GlobalGlobal-Warming: Still An Issue.

Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice). . Emissions are greatly decreased. Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.Why hybrids? Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway. Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well. New materials can be implemented.

phased- National LEV (NLEV): builds on the California Emissions Standards until Tier 2 is implemented. LEV II: California Emissions Standards. .EPA at work Federal guidelines for emissions: Tier 1 took effect in 1997 Tier 2 will phased-in beginning 2004.

SULEV. CO2 reductions not called for. Only HC. ZEV. NOx. LEV. TLEV.ULEV/SULEV Tier 1. Cars can be certified Low Emissions Vehicles but at the same time have high fuel consumption. ULEV. CO. . CARB: California Air Resources Board.

Reductions .

Honda Civic Hybrid or Toyota Prius are eligible for a "Clean"Clean-Fuel" vehicle tax deduction of $2.gov/ .000. 2004www.Tax Incentives The IRS has determined that purchasers of a new Honda Insight.fueleconomy. The current incentive is scheduled to phase out in 2004-06.

A 5 mpg difference in fuel economy equates to about 2.epa.800 pounds of CO2 a year. www.gov/greenvehicles .Some EPA facts Every gallon of gasoline your vehicle burns puts 20 pounds of CO2 into the atmosphere.

0t/yr. (calculated) . Toyota Prius: 4. Honda Civic Hybrid: 3.9 t/yr.Tons of greenhouse gas NLEV program does not take CO2 into account but let s see some numbers: Honda Insight: 3.0 t/yr.4 t/yr. Honda Civic: 5. Ford Explorer: 11.7 t/yr.

Honda Insight 2003 Cost: $19.280 (MT/CVT) MT: manual transmission CVT: continuously variable transmission .080/$21.

6 gal. 11.2V) 155.3/11.Honda Insight 2003 Horsepower Emissions Rating Power Output Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery Length Curb Weight Mileage (City/Highway) Tank Capacity 0 to 60 67(65)@5700 or 73(71)@5700 (with IMA) ULEV/SULEV 13 hp/10 kW @ 3000 rpm 144V (120 cells @ 1.1 inches 1847/(1878) or 1967 lbs. 61/68 or 57/56 mpg 10.2 seconds IMA: integrated motor assist system .

Honda Civic Hybrid 2003 Cost: $19.550/$20.550 (MT/CVT) .

2 gal 8.8 inches 2661/2732 lbs.4 hp @ 4000 rpm 144V (120 cells @ 1. 11 seconds 174.4 seconds 115@4500 ULEV .010 Horsepower Emissions Rating Power Output Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery Length Curb Weight Mileage (City/Highway) Tank Capacity 0 to 60 85@5700 or 93@5700 (with IMA) ULEV 13.2 gal. 51/46 or 48/47 mpg 13. 29/38 mpg 13.6 inches 2500 lbs.Honda Civic Hybrid 2003 Civic DX Auto $13.2V) 174.

Toyota Prius 2003 Cost: $20.480 CVT .

6V (228 cells @ 1.8 gal.7 seconds .2V) 169.6 inches 2765 lbs. 52/45 mpg 11. 12.Toyota Prius 2003 Horsepower Emissions Rating Power Output Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery Length Curb Weight Mileage (City/Highway) Tank Capacity 0 to 60 70@4500 (98 HP combined) SULEV 44 hp/33 kW @ 1040-5600 rpm 273.

. The Explorer: 239 HP. and has a 22.A note about Ford I believe Ford is behind in the Hybrid world. . 4422 lbs. The Hybrid Escape is due at the end of 2003 with 40/29 mpg as compared to 19/25 mpg.5 gallon tank. gets 17/21 mpg.

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Tepper Fleet Consumption 33. www. CO2 Could be reduced to less than half if all cars were hybrids.3 t/yr.fueleconomy.gov .

Cars to come GM: Chevy Pickup 2004. Chevy Suburban 2004. Mercedes S-Class 2006. DaimlerDaimler-Chrysler: Dodge Ram Pickup 2005. S- .

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