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560955869-MI0030 E-Commerce and Web Design

560955869-MI0030 E-Commerce and Web Design

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1/5/2011

Golnaz Aboutorabian

Walmart implemented QR systems in 1980s. even overseas. The availability of accurate information with respect to the current sales enables sophisticated marketing capable of responding to consumers preferences. The failure to stock merchandise that matches customer demand can be extremely costly. Walmart invested half a billion dollars in computer and satellite communications networks. the inventory system of the store then determines the needed supply. Walmart stores were better able to keep their stores well stocked while maintaining tight inventories and low prices. To reduce the risk of being out of stock. Moreover. bar-code systems.1 a. What are the functions of supply chain management? [5 Marks] supply chain management (SCM) means integrating the internal and external partners on the supply and process chains to get raw materials to the manufacturer and finished products to the consumer. scanners. and other QR equipment linking each point-of-sale terminal to distribution centers and headquarters in Bentonville Arkansas. and the system transmits an order message to the retailer. vendor and consumer chain and as consumers make purchases the vendor automatically orders new deliveries from the retailer through its computer network. Many believe that it was this system that enabled Walmart to manage the explosive retail sales growth that catapulted the company to number one position in the US retail business. The system enabledthe company to maintain high service levels and increase sales while reducing the inventory costs to one-fourth of previous levels. Also by empowering its individual stores to order directly from suppliers. individual Walmart stores reduced inventory restocking time from an industry average of six weeks to thirty-sic hours. It creates a closed loop encompassing the retailer. Why did Walmart implemented QR system [5 Marks] QR – Quick Response is a version of JIT purchasing tailored for retailing. QR retailing focuses on market responsiveness while maintaining low levels of stocks. QR provides for a flexible response to product ordering and lowers costly inventory levels. b. by tracking every sale through the point-of-sales devices to see what product was selling in large quantities. Supply chain management functions are: . The bar-coded articles are logged by the cash registers at the point of sale. A single retailer may purchase merchandise form thousands of vendors in a global market.ASSIGNMENTS Subject code: MI0029 (2 credits) Set 1 Marks 30 SUBJECT NAME : Enterprise Resource Planning Note: Each Question carries 10 marks Q. retailers are implementing QR systems.

This process increases the speed at which companies can compute invoices. Q. Documents can be tracked to ensure they were received. advanced ship notices. They need to assess their risk an exposure in global financial markets and deal with global information as opposed to local market information.Sales force productivity: The goal is to improve the communication and flow of information among the sales. 2. purchase orders. and increasingly flexible manufacturing systems resulting in variety of customizable products. and pricing information that once required repeated telephone calls and countless labor hours to provide can now be posted to electronic bulletin boards. When a majority of partners are electronically linked. In all. 7. The inventory management solution should enable the reduction of inventory levels.Financial management: The goal is to enable global companies to manage their money in various foreign exchange accounts.2. product. Thus electronically linking production with their international distributor and reseller networks eliminates thousands of labor hours per week in the process.1. customer. short product life cycles. improve inventory turns. Companies must work with financial institutions to boost their ability to deal on a global basis. 5. and production functions. Paperwork that typically took days to cycle in the past can now be sent in moments and contain more accurate data. In other words.Distribution management: The goal is to move documents related to shipping (bill of lading. List out the Ecommerce opportunities for industries and give an . reducing clerical errors an lowering transaction fees and costs while increasing the number of invoices processed (productivity). 4. 3.Inventory management: The goal is to shorten the order-ship-bill cycle. The benefits are seen in reduced purchase order (PO) processing costs. increased numbers of POs processed by fewer employees.Channel management: The goal is to quickly disseminate information about changing operational conditions to trading partners. the supply chain management process increasingly depends on electronic markets because of global sourcing of products and services to reduce costs. and manifest claims).supplier management: The goal is to reduce the number of suppliers and get them to become partners in business in a win/win relationship. They also need to help their customers (relationship management) introduce their products to market faster giving them a competitive edge. thus allowing improved resources planning. 6. information faxed or mailed in the past can now be sent instantly.Payment management: The goal is to link the company and the suppliers and distributors so that payment can be sent and received electronically. Companies need to collect market intelligence quickly and analyze it more thoroughly. thus improving auditing capabilities. technical. Linking the sales force with regional and corporate offices establishes greater access to market intelligence and competitor information that can e funneled into better customer service and service quality. and eliminate out-of-stock occurrences. thus allowing instant access. and reduced order processing cycle times.

Many banks like ICICI and HDFC are making inroads into this area. their enormous investments in wiring and equipment have become vulnerable to new completion. [10Marks] Ecommerce opportunities for industries: Following are some of the areas where e-commerce is witnessing rapid growth in the global markets. The computer companies are banking on public networks such as the internet which is expanding at an astounding pace. as they seek to reduce costs.Banking: Internet banking is now growing. particularly with the railways and the airlines. 3. the requirement for professional. however. streamline processes and create new business opportunities by providing high-quality administrative services and integrating information systems. The internet has the potential to enhance communications.Financial services: A large number of users use the internet for some form of financial guidance. Inventory management and Organizational applications: With borders opening up and companies facing stiff global competition.Healthcare: Healthcare represents one of the biggest expenditures of governments worldwide. 5. There are significant legal and regulatory implications of implementing an Internet business or of migrating from a traditional off-line business.example of your understanding for all the opportunities. Following are the Ecommerce application for Industries: 1. The ability to offer market access at a competitive price is a key advantage of online stock broking companies and this is slowly happening in India too. These sectors have adapted well because of their online reservation systems. 2. cumpouter networks such as CompuServe or America Online. The distribution of information has become a competitive market with a combination of information has become a competitive market with a combination of offense and defense. and wireless industries.Legal and professional services: Opportunities also exist for Indian companies in legal and other professional services. Now. 2. providers that have enjoyed monopoly positions for decades. managers need to catch on quickly to better ways of doing international business. legal and regulatory advice is expected to increase as the number of e-commerce users increases.Stock trading: online stock trading is nowadays one of the most demanding ecommerce utilities. Indian software and services companies need to tap into some of these vertical segments to gain the maximum advantage in the e-commerce solution sector 1. There has been growing emphasis on the search for alternative distribution channels within the sector. 4. Playing offense are computer companies that offer new hardware capability and software programs with the potential to define new markets. Information Delivery transport and Ecommerce application: Transport providers are principally telecommunications. 6.Tour and travel: The travel industry has readily adapted to e-commerce. Playing on the defense are telephone companies and cable television companies. and public networks such as the internet. cable. Adaptation would include moving . In terms of opportunities for Indian legal service providers.

flexibility and customization of production to meet customer needs. an internetwork that enables easy and inexpensive connection of various organizational segments to improve communications and information sharing among employees to gather and analyze competitive data in real-time. and multimedia email are expected to reduce travel and encourage telecommuting. 3. Internet provides an effective way to extend the enterprise beyond the narrow confines. It also facilitates sales force aoutomation by enabling salespeople to carry product and reference information in one portable device. 5. and increasingly flexible manufacturing systems resulting in a variety of customizable products. cutting down on the number of levels and in the process. Tools like ERP. and in the transportation industry as consignment tracking systems. Inventory Management. the total often reaches 6% to 30% of sales. Distribution management. 4. These processes increasingly depends on electronic markets because of global sourcing of products and services to reduce costs. 24x 7 operation: Round the clock operation is an expensive proposition in the “brickand-conquer” world. Payment management. Channel management. Supply chain management: it means integrating the internal and external partners on the supply and process chains to get raw materials to the manufacturer and finished products to the consumer. Organizational applications of ecommerce have to meet challenges of the new business environment where the emphasis is on service quality. Advantages of E-Commerce in the Industries include the following: 1. permitting amazing efficiency in time needed to market. In the manufacturing industry. Cost of acquiring. Inventory reduction is often a target as it averages 2% of sales. on-time delivery and eventually profitability.toward computerized. serving and retaining customers is relatively cheaper to acquire new customer over the net. while it is natural in the „click-and-conquer‟ world. short product life cycles. Electronic commerce projects seek to reduce this cost by as much as 90%. It includes supplier management. . Work group Collaboration Applications: Ecommerce represents the holy grail of connectivity. Often targeted business process is inventory management. 2. 6. Disintermediation: Using internet. Other applications like video conferencing document sharing. cutting down the cost. Financial management and Sales force productivity.Global reach: Reaching global customers is relatively easy on the net compared to the world of bricks. customer loyalty. SCM and CRM easily deployed over internet. An extended enterprise is easy to build as it is a part of the „connected economy‟. “paperless” operations. 4. they‟re known as just-in-time inventory systems. 3. Improved customer service to clients resulting in higher satisfaction and more sales. Solutions for these process go by different names. to reduce trading costs and facilitate the adoption of new business processes. one can directly approach the customers and suppliers. and when the cost of inbound warehousing of raw materials or the cost of warehousing work in process inventory is included. in the retail industry as quick response programs.

8. 3. The customer can even change the quantity of a certain product. It is more that just an online store. Power to provide the „best of both the worlds‟. It is possible to track customer behavior like behaviors on web sites visited. 5.Visiting the virtual mall: The customer visits the mail b browsing online cataloguea very organized manner of displaying products and their related information such as price. The customer controls the interaction.Merchant processes the order: the merchant then processes the order that is received from the previous stage and fills up the necessary forms. Network economics: It can be best expressed as a situation where the value of a product or service rises as a function of the number of other users who are using the product. Virtual malls may include a basic to an advanced search engine. toys and music. Visit any eBay or Amazon website and write what are the steps to be followed to transaction on any of these two websites.com is a virtual merchant and it includes books. [5 Marks] Amazon. 2. Word of mouth phenomenon that makes viral marketing a reality for consumer oriented e-commerce business such as ICQ in instant messaging system. 9. It benefits the traditional business sideby-side with the internet tools. Q. which has the potential to both increase sales and decrease costs. 11. and the decision to buy. The customer becomes a part of the company‟s growing database and can use the same for knowledge management and data mining.3 a.7. This allows the customer to avail of the shops complete services. purchases. 10. Knowledge of customer behavior: While the customer controls the interaction. electronics. It is about managing the entire process by using technology as a tool for order processing and customer support. product rating system content management. additional charges and price totals are presented in an organized manner. length of stays on a site. repeat purchases behavior. complete with check out forms. the degree of Price/Product comparison. newsletters and other components which make shopping convenient for shoppers.Customer buys products: Through a shopping cart system. taxes. 1. Virtual malls have a very comprehensive shopping system. the firm has unprecedented access to observe and track individual consumer behavior. page views on a site contents of wish lists and shopping carts. the control can rest with either the buyer/seller or the community member. 4. conversion rates of visitors who have completed transactions and other metrics. customer support systems. dollar amount of purchases. shipping charges. Following are the processes involved. the people with whom he or she comes into contact. Other payment methods can be used as . It is a B2C Business-to Consumer model having retail sales. A technology based customer interface with screen to face interaction.Customer registers: The customer has to register to become part of the site‟s shopper registry. In face to face interchange. and availability. bulletin boards. order details.Credit card is processed: The credit card of the customer is authenticated through a payment gateway or a bank. Finding the right product becomes easy by using a keyword search engine. the time spent on various sites. The customers control the search process. description.

It offers live customer support for ecommerce websites (e.g. optimization and project management should still be incorporated even though it is an e-business. in its purest form. Operations management: When the order is passed on to the logistics people. The model has the potential for channel conflict. 2. the aggregator model bypasses distributors so . This is done through customer relationship management or CRM b. Explain the different types of aggregators with an example. the firm has to make sure that it maintains a good relationship with its customers. Some of the aggregator models are: 1.Bit Vendor: This is a merchant that deals strictly in digital products and services and. WallST. Eyewire and OnSale). the traditional business operations will still be used. An example of a service merchant is Facetime.g. Generic news conten. conducts both sales and distribution over the Web.Virtual merchant: This is a business that operates only from the web and offers either traditional or web-specific goods or services. In some cases.Catalogue merchant: Catalogue merchant is a migration of mail order to web based order business (e. The method of selling may be by list price or auction. warehousing.Subscription model: In this.Surf-and-turf: This is a traditional brick-and-mortar establishment with Web storefront. prepaid cards. 3.Journal.6- 7- 89- well. Amazon eToys. 4. High valueadded content is essential (e. The customer can track the order/delivery as virtual malls have a delivery tracking module on the website which allows a customer to check the status of a particular order. or bank-to-bank transfers. the goods and services are unique to web and do not have a traditional brick and mortar store front.Levenger). Getting the product to the customer is still the most important aspect of e-commerce Shipment and delivery: The product is then shipped to the customer. Based on the electronic marketplace. The system should then tell the firm that the order has been fulfilled. Sales can be made based on list prices or through auctions. the users pay for access to the site. Things like inventory management. ConsumerReports). and is verified. After-sales service: After the sale has been made. [5Marks] Classis wholesalers and retailers of goods and services are increasingly referred to as e-tailers. such as debit cards.g. has proven less successful as a subscription model on the web. viable on the news-stand. total quality management. Customer receives: The product is received by the customer. which calls itself an “application service provider”. 5.

They help consumers sift through dozens of e-commerce sites. They are involved in the overall process of selection. reminders. For example. that provides extensive statistics.com.Shopping aggregators: Shopping aggregators let consumers roam through hundreds of sites and catalogues and find the best price in seconds.com.g pathfiner. pool information or cricinfo. fulfillment of the orders and enabling the customers to create a value about the sellers. compare. along with a bunch of attractive tools like e-mail addresses. mortgages-build tools. analysis. which doubles as a clearly defined customer base. for example. matching the buyers‟ requirement with the particulars of the available goods. 3. There are four types of aggregators as follows: 1. 2. 4.com evaluate their quality on independent basis as in the case of consumer reports.that the buyers and sellers come together. To be more precise. . rates.Event aggregators: These are sites that provide in-depth content and tools tailored to the needs of a particular group. advise and the ability to purchase a mortgage online in the same place (Microsoft‟s Home advisor or HomeShark). CANOE and Hockeyplus. the aggregators are the connectors between the buyers and the sellers. organization.com and bizrate.Content aggregators: They are among the first large scale sites on the web and mostly represent large publishing companies.Mainstream aggregators: These include sites like Yahoo providing a Web directory an a search engine. Their basic challenge is that content has to be attractive enough to make the site viable. The most attractive feature of these sites is that they have an „easy to remember‟ URL which is one of the reasons for them to be the top traffic sites on the web. For example. E. and many others. home pages.

Explain [10 Marks] Electronic payment systems are proliferating in banking. DIgiCash)  Electronic checks (e.... or airplane. automated teller machines and cash dispensers)  Home banking (e. Organizations are motivated by the need to deliver products and services more cost effectively and to provide a higher quality of service to customers. anywhere money needs to change hands.C. health care. world wide web form-based . Work on EFT can be segmented into three broad categories: 1. bank-to-bank transfer)  Small-scale or retail payments (e. and even government-in fact. bill payment) 2. On-line electronic commerce payments  Token-based payment systems  Electronic cash (e. Retailing payments  Credit cards (e.”EFT utilizes computer and telecommunication components both to supply and to transfer money or financial assets.g. Thus EFT stands in marked contrast to conventional money and payment modes that rely on physical delivery of cash or checks (or other paper orders to pay) by truck.g.. J.g. American Express) 3.g. NetCheque)  Smart cards or debit cards (e. In the early 1970s.Penney Card)  Charge cards (e... Banking and financial payments  Large-scale or wholesale payments (e.ASSIGNMENTS Subject code: MI0030 (2 credits) Set 2 Marks 30 SUBJECT NAME : E-Commerce and Web Design Note: Each Question carries 10 marks Q.. and the first applications-credit cards-appeared soon after.g.g. train. EFT is defined as “any transfer of funds initiated through an electronic terminal. Mondex Electronic Currency Card)  Credit card-based payment system  Encrypted credit cards (e.1 what are the different methods of electronic payments that we come across in our life. instruct.g. Transfer is information based and intangible. or computer or magnetic tape so as to order. retail. or authorize a financial institution to debit or credit an account. Research into electronic payment systems for consumers can be traced back to the 1940s. telephonic instrument..g.g.g.. VISA or MasterCard)  Private label credit/debit cards (e. on-line markets. the emerging electronic payment technology was labeled electronic funds transfer (EFT).

Without some sort of viable product to offer. and actors. tangible presence and include items such as automobiles. grocery items. hairdressers. First Virtual) Digital Token-Based Electronic Payment System Entirely new forms of financial instruments are being developed.2 Explain the 4 Ps applied to internet marketing? [10 Marks] The four “Ps” of marketing – product. Examples of postpaid mechanisms are credit/debit cards and electronic checks. In essence. accountants. The server authenticates the customers and verifies with the bank that funds are adequate before purchase. place. Sales and marketing promotion Information system CUSTORMER Personalization promotion Product A product is a good or service that a business offers to its customers. Electronic token are designed as electronic analogs of various forms of payment backed by a bank or financial institution. pricing. Electronic tokens are of three types: 1. Traditional service products generally involve the performance of a task for the customer. the customer-oriented value chain model. and printed newspapers. One such new financial instrument is “electronic tokens” in the form of electronic cash/money or checks.encryption)  Third-Party authorization numbers (e.Credit or postpaid.. examples include work performed by doctors. necessitates the synthesis of marketing techniques into virtually all business processes. Simply stated. because of its focus on serving the customer during all phases. Examples of prepaid payment mechanisms are stored in smart cards and electronic purses that store electronic money. a business cannot survive.Cash or real-time. Such as on-line . Users pay in advance for the privilege of getting information.g. Transactions are settled with the exchange of electronic currency. The internet has allowed the creation of new virtual service offerings. electronic tokens are equivalent to cash that is backed by a bank. and distribution are examined and discussed within the context of the customer-oriented value chain and Internet marketing. Below figure illustrates the relationship between the customer oriented value chain and the four Ps and a fifth P – personalization.Debit or prepaid. 3. The product component frequently mentioned in the marketing literature is placed in the production section of the customer oriented value chain. An example of on-line currency exchange is electronic cash (e-cash) 2. Q. Traditional physical goods generally have a physical.

how do you categorize the output of a movie theater?) the delineation between the two product types becomes even more difficult as new products and variations of old products are created and sold on the Internet. To the extent a firm builds the service component into pre-purchase marketing devices. in some cases. such as a high-volume. Electronic commerce involving the sale of physical goods can be very useful in exchanging information between businesses and delivery companies. Frequent purchase systems are also being used to help strengthen customer loyalty and encourage repeat buying. Is an electronic greeting card categorized as a physical good or service product? Labeling a product as a physical good or service product is not very important. it can be considered part of the product the customer is buying. One question raised by the increased use of the Internet for price comparison is – will prices be forced down to the lowest possible point? Clearly. and may actually be bundled with the product when it is sold. low-price penetration strategy. Clearly defining the attributes of a product or service and the corresponding benefits that it provides to the consumer is vitally important. increased competition and consumer buying power will force prices down somewhat. Tupperware‟s distribution channels will change as a result of the changes to its business strategy to incorporate web-based sales. Inventory items will now be shipped. Web-based marketers are already producing interesting pricing strategies. A more dramatic move is for a site to pay customers to use its services. Distinguishing between goods and services is not always easy (for example. with bidders typically bidding the prices up to a fair price. reliability of vendor. The firm‟s strategy typically dictates the type of pricing model chosen. and incentives.news and real-time stock quote services. 24 hour roadside service that accompanies the purchase of a new automobile or six months worth of free product upgrades for a virus scanning software package. Pricing The pricing of a good refers to the processes involved in determining the amount to charge for a specific physical good or service. The distribution task entails moving the product from the producer to the customer. Examples of such bundled include guaranteed. but other items are also important in the purchasing decision: i. such as wholesalers. service availability. Pricing models are typically used to determine a firm‟s price. Low minimum prices are typically set. Physical goods are frequently discounted if a large enough quantity is ordered. An interesting method of pricing goods on the Internet is through offers made by consumers. Service provided to the customer after the sale is also an important component of the total value of the product to the consumer. Place (Distribution) Place is frequently referred to as outbound logistics or distribution. On-line auctions are a popular method for selling items on the Internet. The . Some sites providing free services for visitors in order to create a community for which it can sell advertising space.. Further. differential pricing schemes present a challenge for web-based electronic commerce sites. warehouses and/or retailers.e. directly to the consumer without the necessity of first being delivered to its local distributors. The product may travel directly from the producer to the consumer or it may be channeled through intermediaries.

such as newspaper. a positive message be received by potential customers.  Consumers‟ personal experiences. no problem. electronic-mail with hupertext links to interactive web sites or via a reply function. you go to an on-line store that. and most direct mail. Promotion The sales and marketing function is a separate entity in the customer-oriented value chain.  News stories and press releases. paid advertising channels.interfacing of sales or purchasing systems with delivery companies enables faster pick up of goods from warehouses and shop floors for faster delivery to the customer. Digital products are goods that are comprised of digitally encoded software. The stores are close. radio. downloads a copy of an English-Japanese business document translation software package. Examples of one-way communication include radio. but do not provide a direct mechanism for communication to the business. has formed a strategic alliance with Federal Express. Because paid advertising requires cash outlays. Delivery of such products can occur instantaneously in real-time. and web banners that link to interactive web sites. billboards. infomercials via phone responses and inquiries. Typically a firm will have an advertising budget: and the funds are allocated amongst many competing advertising media. directmail. Two-way channels send the message to the potential customer and provide a direct mechanism for communication from the potential customer to the business. etc. One-way channels send a message to the potential customer. bypassing the need to warehouse many items. This messagemay be communicated in many ways:  Paid advertising channels. and sometimes impossible. Sale and distribution are both completed in less time than it would take to drive to a store (if the store was open). The ability to specifically identify which mechanism(s) caused the consumer to buy the product or service is a challenging. It is 4:00 AM. using the Internet to create an awareness of products is a relatively low-cost and increasing effective medium. The advertising channels in are labeled as either one-way or two-way channels. upon digital receipt and verification of your credit card. magazine. or multimedia files. roadside bulletin boards. Internet marketing firms are aggressively selling their services to businesses. The physical Internet itself is also a delivery channel for digital products. television magazines. data. is a common method used by companies. newspaper. telemarketing. Examples of two-way channels include some direct mail via phone responses and inquiries. task. and you need a software package to translate a business document into Japanese. The successful promotion of a product requires that.  Word of mouth. special events. web site advertising via forms-based input. Inc. at a minimum. Just because two-way channels have the capapbility for two-way communications does . television. and  Packaging The first technique. Insight Enterprises. and the activity performed in this capacity fall under the traditional marketing category called promotion. so that Federal Express performs a valuable service by providing timely deliveries direct from its own suppliers to its customers. marketing groups attempt to track the success or impact of the marketing funds spent.

2. If the business has a lot of information to convey organize it well and spread it out over multiple pages. and consumers‟ personal experiences. these items will also slow down the load time. ad “click. The message sent out by these mechanisms can be positive or negative. and if the site sells or exchanges advertising space in which banners will appear. whether they realize it or not. this reflects negatively on the businesses have rushed to open a web site. however. and the Internet allows both to occur with a new speed and reach. lacking in information. Users with lower speed modems than this will probably browse the Internet with their graphics options turned off. In some cases. Unlike printed advertisements. Q. not as a formula that should be followed point by point. Negative messages can be very detrimental to a company‟s success. web site hosting costs are so low and competitive that the number of pages is typically not a significant cost factor. but too much on a page and the visitor may become frustrated with the required time to load a page.Simplicity Avoid clutter on web pages. For example. some web sites are solely information providers and do not allow the visitor to do much other than read a few pages of printed matter and view a few pictures. which displays text in lieu of graphics options turned off. 1.3 Explain the rules of thumb for designing good websites. For these users. which displays text in lieu of graphics and contains the same hypertext links. the web site should be designed with a text-only option. just because it seemed the fashionable thing to do and is relatively cheap compared to other advertising the visitor and leave some business executives doubting the power of the Internet as an effective marketing channel.not necessarily mean that they are always designed as such. are using a new advertising channel. Do not go overboard. If the website is poorly designed.Page Loading Efficiency The temptation to overload a page with graphics should be resisted. and place so little information on each page that the user must click to advance to the next page after reading only three . In addition to the paid advertising mediums. yet the same attention has not always been given to web site design. Web site designers should review the load time periodically from an off-site connection with a connection speed that is comparable to a reasonably low connection speed. such as web sites. while positive messages can help to strengthen a company‟s reputation and sales base. click” they are off to another site. word of mouth. Frames also increase the loading time. When taking full advantage of highly interactive two-way channels. A few well-chosen graphics are fine. Companies that decide to use the Internet. very powerful advertising mechanisms are available: news stories. These same business executives would not consider placing a poorly designed commercial on television or photograph in a magazine. For these users. not user-friendly. three additional. or slow to respond to visitors‟ commands. the web site should be designed with a text-only option. the potential customer can receive advertisements in a more personalized fashion. the mistakes made in web site design are merely due to inexperience in web site design issues. [10 Marks] These guidelines are offered as a starting point for developing good web design skill. Controlled advertising mechanisms are important because word of mouth is not controllable.

Framing A frame is a section of the viewer‟s computer screen. recipes.Graphics Graphics can enhance a web site when used properly. 7. but a lightly less vivid image that loads faster may payoff in terms of retaining visitors. such as editorials.  Contest. Attempt to use images that are no larger than 70k or the load time may annoy visitors.  Daily or weekly updates to the site that are clearly labeled. A guideline is to use about 60 characters per line. Again. Over time. 8. many image software packagers allow the user to view the image in different storage sizes and indicate the approximate load time for each size. The larger the image. and most search engines cannot read the hypertext links in the frames. not all browsers support frames. even those from other sites. for example. The drawbacks are that they slow the load time. A screen can be split into multiple sections that can load different web pages. but the fonts displayed to visitors are limited to those that are available on their own computer. The times and Helvetica fonts are good fonts for readability on web sites. Further. Fortunately. such as hosting a chat session with a guest celebrity or public figure.Use the Space Wisely Do not ramble on.Create a Reason to Return Once a visitor comes to the site. 6. through the use of highlighted hypertext links. 3. Whenever possible. but the fonts may look good on the web designer‟s screen.or four sentences. and  Events. Suggest they bookmark the site – it works! Some suggestions for items that may cause the visitor to return:  Daily or weekly specials. these drawbacks will most likely be non-issues. Also.Internet Graphics Images that gradually appear sharper are called interlaced graphics. Framing is useful. try to keep line lengths less than 60 characters per line. organizing the material well can preclude excessive scrolling from being necessary. avoid using all uppercase letters as they are more difficult for the eye to follow.Tables and Fonts Tables are useful for providing structure to text that will not be lost due to the size of the visitor‟s screen and the size of the viewing window. for providing a director of options in one frame and the contents of each option in another frame. clearer picture by clicking on the smaller picture. 5. 4. Just because web space is relatively cheap does not mean that visitors want to weed through hoards of verbose commentaries and other non value-added information to find the items desired. The use of frame has it benefits and its drawbacks. allow the user to choose to view a bigger. As mentioned earlier. etc. projects. avoid long pages that require a lot of scrolling. the better the image. It helps the visitor to know where they are and where they have been. make each statement count.  Frequent buyer programs. current events. fice them a reason to return. which is affected by the viewer‟s web browser. If picture clarity is important for example for inventory items.. the use of fancy fonts may look good on the web designer‟s screen. Not everyone .

 Length of time of visit. 10. Obviously.Tracking Data In order to analyze the success or contribution of a site. Further. such as logos. Return policy. JPEG files Either format can be used.  Pages visited.Purchasing Information Sites that sell their products/services on-line should clearly post policies in an easily found place regarding these items: Tax rates. including taxes and shipment cost. should be displayed to the user before asking for payement information. if applicable. items selected for purchase (placed in a shopping cart) should be easily reviewed at any point. The total bill. certain data need to be tracked. such as the correlation between the location of prior site and length of time visited or purchases made. The primary difference between the two file types is the compression techniques used. Some colors work together and some do not. The key is to have enough contrast between the text and the background.GIF vs. 9. Shipping rates. a site selling infant clothing may notice a strong correlation between prior site and length of visit if a significant portion of its visitors are arriving via an advertising banner placed on a site similar to parenthood. and some people find them annoying. if applicable. 11. much analysis of such data is necessary before any conclusions should be drawn and used to . 12. GIF files are typically more efficient for solid color images. Designers that use interlace graphics contend that the visitor is able to see the picture faster. such as credit card data. Some useful information includes:  Number of different visitors (not repeat visitors)  Number and frequency of repeat visitors. and  Purchases made.  Location of site prior to visit.appreciates these pictures.com. For example. including the search engine used to locate the site. The examination of correlations between some of the above items can provide useful information.  Country codes of visitors. a traditional color wheel is useful for choosing contrasting colors. albeit fuzzy. Privacy of transaction and Security of data that is transmitted. or images with large regions of solid color. and has something to view while the remainder of the picture is loading and sharpening.Colors and contrast Most web site designers agree that dark text on light backgrounds works best. Shipping schedules.  Items examined by visitors.  Domain names of visitors. Cookies may be necessary in order to avoid double counting. JPEG formats will typically yield better results for multi-colored images or photographs in terms of best quality for the size.

however.make future decisions. The position of navigation bars should be consistent in all the pages of the website. Navigation bars using icons are often positioned at the top of the page. A navigation bar is a series of icon or text hyperlinks to major pages of a website. The e-business name and contact information is important as customer may print a copy of individual pages from the website and may want the name and the contact information available on the printout. such data contains a wealth of information if collected and analyzed properly.Using navigation elements Navigation elements are important because a viewer may not always enter a website from its home page. sight impaired users may be listening to your page and not viewing it. 14.Designing a website for a variety of displays Majority of the audience the display is the function of monitor and the size and color capabilities. 15. It is important to keep in mind that the diversity goes end here. Other may view using Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). 13. In this situation it is important to have a way to get to site‟s home page or other major pages.Maintain consistency Web pages design emphasize consistency in its presentation. Another important navigational technique is the inclusion of top of page hyperlinks at the bottom of each web page. He or she may enter through any page of the site or search engine or a hyperlink from a different site. also referred to as a palmtop or a cell phone. because users may use Television to watch webpage. which would enable a viewer to quickly return to top of the same page after having scrolled down. .

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