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GL Energy Seminar 4 - Reducing Electricity Consumption

GL Energy Seminar 4 - Reducing Electricity Consumption


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Published by Yuval Gonen
Reducing your electricity cost. Finding savings
Reducing your electricity cost. Finding savings

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Published by: Yuval Gonen on Sep 05, 2008
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Groton Local Energy Seminar Series # 4: Reducing Power Consumption of Lights, Electronics, & Household Appliances

12-Dec-07 Lawrence Academy Leo Laverdure Presentation available at: http://grotonlocal.org/seminar.shtml Email: leolav123@charter.net

• Why bother? • Reducing electricity consumption
– Lights – Electronics (including “Phantom Loads”) – Household appliances

• Some thoughts for holiday gifts

Why bother?
• Huge global challenges:
– Global warming: climate change/disruption/chaos – Peaking of fossil fuels: oil & gas (coal, too)

• The response:
– Lower consumption of energy
• Conservation: use less • Efficiency: do more with what we use (but beware the efficiency paradox)

– Switch to renewable sources

• Additional benefit: save $$ • Is this just “rearranging deck chairs”?

Climate change is a “real, rising, imminent and universal” threat to the future of the Earth. “Our world is spinning out of kilter. The very web of life on which we depend is being ripped and frayed. “We, the human species, are confronting a planetary emergency — a threat to the survival of our civilization that is gathering ominous and destructive potential even as we gather here. “But, there is hopeful news as well: we have the ability to solve this crisis and avoid the worst — not all — of its consequences, if we act boldly, decisively and quickly.”
Al Gore, Nobel Peace Prize lecture, 10-Dec-07, Oslo

Energy & Electricity Use in US
by Sector
Energy Use by Sector Electricity Use by Sector

Source: Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC)

Energy Use in US
by Home Type
Energy Use for Single-Family Homes Energy Use for Multi-Family Homes

Source: Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC)

Energy Sources
Mass Energy by Fuel Type Mass Renewable Electricity Sources

Source: Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC)

Groton Electric Energy Sources


Groton Electricity Consumption

Groton Electric Residential Customers Average Min & Max Months Usage
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 KWH 674 Min Max 1183 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 $ $64.64 Min Max $142.47

Source: Groton Electric Light, Annual Report for 2005

How much CO2 emissions?
Cohasset High School’s 1 (metric) Ton of CO2 Cube • Average emission for each US resident in 18.6 days, or for each household (of 2.6 people) in 7.2 days! • Includes our share of total economy • 27 ft. per side • Domestic electricity use in Groton emits about 6.6 mT CO2 per year per residence (~13% of total emissions) • 1 KWH ~= 1.3 lbs CO2 1 metric ton ~= 1.1 US tons

Time for Action:
Reducing our Consumption of Electricity • Lighting • Electronics • Large electric appliances

Where does this info come from?
• Own experience
– Measuring (& estimating) consumption – Prioritizing & implementing changes
• Lifestyle • Household systems

– Tracking reductions

• Local experience/expertise • Published data/expertise
– Device specs/tags, books, magazines, online

Useful tools
Electric Bills

• 49% of residential electricity consumption!? • Easy savings (CO2 & $), low investment, quick payback, little or no inconvenience • Huge improvements in CFLs
– Quality of light, sizes & shapes, start-up time, dimmability, availability, cost – 25% of wattage of equivalently bright incandescent – Recycle because of (minor) mercury content

• LEDs have same efficiency of CFLs but cost considerably more; a few good applications • No-brainer savings: turn out the lights when not needed!
– Manual, light sensor, movement sensor, timer, control center

CFLs come of age
Incandescent 60 watts 25¢-$1 1,000 hours $262.80 vs. Power use Average price Life span Cost for five years
(at 10¢ per kW)

CFL 15 watts $2 10,000 hours $65.70

Time magazine, 17-Dec-2007

(including “Phantom Loads”)
Phantom Load: the continuation of an
appliance to draw power when switched “off ”
– Also called: energy vampires, standby power, leaking electricity – Caused by:
• inefficiencies in converting AC into DC electricity • indicator lights, clocks, etc. on appliances • standby power used for electronic memory or a remote …

– Always a small amount per device (<1 to >20 watts), but multiplied by 24 hrs/day for many devices (in many homes)
• Example: Cable box = 20 watts x 24 hours = 480 watt-hours/day or 175.2 kwh/yr =$22.43 /yr at $0.128/kwh – For Groton average rate payer = ~ 2.5% of electric bill! • 1 watt-year = 24 x 365 / 1000 = 8.76 KWH = $1.12/yr

Phantom Loads: Examples
• Anything with a “wall wart” (AC/DC transformer)
– Laptops, phones, chargers, toys, radios, keyboards, cable modem, routers/wireless access, printers, fax machines, …

• Anything with a clock or always-on power indicator light
– Cable box, kitchen appliances, …

• Anything with a remote control
– TV, cable box, audio system, air conditioner, fan, …

• Anything you turn “off” that has a “standby” mode
– – – – PCs! TVs, cable boxes, … Motion-sensitive light switches, … Light-sensitive switches

Key Test for AC/DC Adapters: Are they warm when not in use?
Visible Light Image Infrared Image

Diagnosing & Eliminating Phantom Loads
Diagnosing: Eliminating: • Visible LED, warm to • Unplug touch, instant on, … • Power-strips • Find appliance on a list of • Switched outlets Phantom loads, e.g.: • Timers http:// • Open circuit standby.lbl.gov/Data/SummaryChart.html breaker • Good PC power mgt. • Make standby power part • Kill-a-watt meter of purchase decisions
– EnergyStar – Efficient AC/DC adapters

Standby Power (watts):
Min, Average, Max


Standby Power (watts) (continued):
Min, Average, Max


Some Global & National Estimates for Phantom Loads (1999)
OECD Fraction of residential electricity 5-10% use (%) Watts per home 50100 United States Japan France

5% 50 (=438 KWH/yr) 45 (=$4.5B) 27





National (TWh/year) Total CO2 emissions (MT/year)


Home Electronics
• Consumer electronics > 25% of household electricity use. Save Energy, Save Money • These products use energy when they're off for features like clock displays and remote controls. ENERGY STAR products use as much as 60% less energy for these functions, while providing the same performance at the same price as less-efficient models.

• •

An adapter that has earned the ENERGY STAR meets strict energy-efficiency guidelines Average 30% more efficient than conventional models. Often lighter and smaller in size

PC Power Consumption Examples
Laptop • Operating: 22-35W • Screen off: 14W • Sleeping: < 1W • Hibernating/turned off: < 0.5W • Unplugged: 0W • Potential savings using after-hours power mgt: ~$15/yr Deskside, w/ 17” CRT • Operating: 150W • Screen off: 80W • Sleeping: 7W • Hibernating/turned off: < 1W • Unplugged: 0W • Potential savings using after-hours power mgt: ~$150/yr

Set power management options on Windows/XP using: - Start / - Control Panel / - Performance and Maintenance / - Power Options

Household Appliances
Save Energy, Save Money • Two price tags for an appliance:
1. what you pay to take it home 2. what you pay for the energy and water it uses.

ENERGY STAR appliances use 10–50% less energy and water. The money saved on utility bills can more than make up for any extra cost of a more efficient ENERGY STAR model. Help Protect the Environment • Simple actions can make a big difference. One in 10 homes using ENERGY STAR qualified appliances would be equivalent to planting 1.7 million acres of trees. • For top performance, premium features, and energy savings, look for energy-efficient clothes washers, refrigerators, dishwashers, room air conditioners and dehumidifiers that have earned the ENERGY STAR.


Clothes Washer
• An ENERGY STAR qualified clothes washer can save you
– $550 in operating costs and – 5,000 lbs. of CO2 emissions over its lifetime

• Much more important to get an efficient washer than a dryer
– the high-speed spin cycle greatly shortens the drying time – easier to dry manually than wash

Save big: use cold water!

• Washer must also perform well, else your savings will disappear in extra wash and rinse cycles

• ENERGY STAR qualified refrigerators require about half as much energy as models manufactured before 1993. • They use high-efficiency compressors, improved insulation, and better temperature and defrost mechanisms to improve energy efficiency. • For best performance: place away from heat, keep coils clean, seals intact, air circulating underneath & around, close the door!
Current (’93) model: $108/yr. EnergyStar model: $56/yr.


Other EnergyStar Appliances
Appliance Dehumidifier Dishwasher Freezer Room A/C Room Air Cleaner Typical EnergyStar Efficiency 10 – 20% > 40% > 10% > 10% 35% Typical Annual Savings $30 $15 $10 $5 $16 Notes Humidistat Full loads, air dry Chest best Prefer natural ventilation, fans Typically 800 KWH/yr

Typical Wattages of Various Appliances
http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/appliances/index.cfm/mytopic=10040 • • • • • • • • • Aquarium = 50–1210 Watts Clock radio = 10 Coffee maker = 900–1200 Clothes washer = 350–500 Clothes dryer = 1800–5000 Dishwasher = 1200–2400 (using the drying feature greatly increases energy consumption) Dehumidifier = 785 Electric blanket- Single/Double = 60 / 100 Fans
– – – – Ceiling = 65–175 Window = 55–250 Furnace = 750 Whole house = 240–750

Personal computer
– – – CPU - awake / asleep = 120 / 30 or less Monitor - awake / asleep = 150 / 30 or less Laptop = 50

• • •

Radio (stereo) = 70–400 Refrigerator (frost-free, 16 cubic feet) = 725 Televisions (color)
– – – – – 19" = 65–110 27" = 113 36" = 133 53"-61" Projection = 170 Flat screen = 120

• • • •

Hair dryer = 1200–1875 Heater (portable) = 750–1500 Clothes iron = 1000–1800 Microwave oven = 750–1100

• • • • • • •

Toaster = 800–1400 Toaster oven = 1225 VCR/DVD = 17–21 / 20–25 Vacuum cleaner = 1000–1440 Water heater (40 gallon) = 4500–5500 Water pump (deep well) = 250–1100 Water bed (with heater, no cover) = 120–380

Other Thoughts on Appliances
• Avoid energy conversions. Examples:
– Gas range and clothes dryer have 1/3 the operational cost of electric versions at today’s prices – Keeping heat in or out of your thermal envelope is much less expensive than adding or removing it – Ground-source heat pumps use refrigeration technology to extract heat from the ground (heating) or transfer it to the ground (cooling)
• Much less expensive than electric heating

– Least-expensive light is daylight

Low-energy Appliances



Decreasing electricity consumption is possible

Some energy-saving holiday gifts
• • • • CFL 4-pack, < $10, many sources Power strip, $5, may sources Timer/outlet, $15, many sources The Carbon Buster’s Home Energy Handbook, $10.36,

• Clothes drying rack, $10-$80+, many sources http:// • Kill-a-watt: pluggable electricity monitor, $25, killawatt.com • TED: The Energy Detective, whole-house energy monitor & display, $140, theenergydetective.com • Durotherm Thermal Cookware, $169,

• Energy-efficient refrigerator, $250-$2500+, many sources • Energy audit, $0 - $$$, a few sources, including GELD • “The Story of Stuff” DVD, $10, storyofstuff.com

Our global food system faces a crisis of unprecedented scope. This crisis, which threatens to imperil the lives of hundreds of millions and possibly billions, consists of four colliding dilemmas, all arising from our dependence on depleting fossil fuels: 1. The direct impacts on agriculture of higher oil prices: increased costs for agricultural fuels & chemicals, and the transport of farm inputs and outputs. 2. An indirect consequence of high oil prices - the increased demand for biofuels, switching farmland from food production to fuel production. 3. The impacts of climate change and extreme weather caused by fuel-based greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change – the greatest environmental crisis of our time – is enormously complicated by fossil fuel depletion. 4. The degradation or loss of basic natural resources (principally, topsoil and fresh water) as a result of unsustainable rates and methods of production enabled by decades of cheap energy. Each of these problems is developing at a different pace regionally, exacerbated by the continually expanding size of the human population. The resulting overall food crisis is likely to be profound and unprecedented in scope. The primary solution to the overall crisis of the world food system must be a planned rapid reduction in the use of fossil fuels in the growing and delivery of food. The organic movement is uniquely positioned to guide this inevitable transition of the world's food systems.

Richard Heinberg, “What Will We Eat as the Oil Runs Out?”
The Lady Eve Balfour Lecture, November 22, 2007

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