H.P. Feed-Water Heater Performance

Facing to the paradoxical situation of increasing the efficiency of power plant at lesser cost, it is an urgent necessity to improve the performances of the accessories including that of the feed-water heaters. Hence, immediate implementation of measures to achieve higher performances of heaters & their analysis is of utmost importance. The present work outlines the salient features of feed-water heaters, HP Heaters in particular & the probable causes of the discrepancy between the actual performance & design performance along with methods to minimize losses.

The objectives of analysis of the performance high pressure feed water heater are: 1. Prior to an outage, to provide information to determine whether corrective action is required to maintain optimum feed-water heater performance & provide guidance in determining materials, tools & equipment, workers, cost estimates & scheduling. 2. Following an outage, provide information to allow evaluation of the effect of the work on the feed water heater. 3. During normal operation, provide information to allow identification of abnormal changes in heater performance & provide information to assist in identifying the source of the change. 4. During normal operation, provide information to assist in optimizing the operation of the heater. 5. During normal operation, provide information to allow accounting for the contribution of the heater performance deficiencies on unit heat rate & capacity.

The present project envisages the necessity of High Pressure feed-water heaters & extends the analysis for the selection of heater type, its construction & design aspect. The performance parameters & the proper functioning of the heaters depend on the construction, tube material selection, arrangement, location & this has been discussed briefly. Taking into view the constraints, the scope can be extended for further technical analysis in selection of the above parameters. Further, the same concept has been simultaneously extended for designing of Low Pressure heaters as they are of similar type (non-mixing type heaters).


In modern thermal power plants the feed-water heaters play a vital role by way of increasing the average temperature of heat addition and hence improving the cycle efficiency. In order to prevent thermal shock caused by cold feed-water and improve unit efficiency, feed-water heaters are used to heat the incoming feed-water prior to flowing through the economizer section of a boiler. For example, by increasing the feed-water temperature by ten degrees, the unit efficiency increases by one percent. Good performance of these heaters is thus crucial for the overall performance of the plant. Present work aims at performance prediction of HP feed-water heater of horizontal configuration, which is the most commonly used configuration in present day power plants. The three zones in an HP heater viz. de-superheating zone, condensing zone and drain cooling zone can be modeled separately and simulation of the three is used to theoretically predict the heat transfer rate. While Delaware method is conventionally used for de-superheating and drain cooling zones, more detailed simulation is carried out for condensing zone for which Delaware method is strictly not applicable. The control volume approach accounts for the variation in heat transfer coefficient and fluid properties along the flow and hence is expected to be more accurate than a model using a uniform heat transfer coefficient in the entire condensing zone.

Fig.1. Different zones of Shell & tube type heat exchanger


there are two sets of feed-water heaters. which sends the feedwater through a series of high pressure heaters prior to the economizer that. This is accomplished by using extraction steam pulled from the high. The condensate formed from the heating action is still at saturated conditions and is then sent to the next heater. These rely on extraction steam that is at or very near saturated conditions to heat the incoming feed-water. Figure 2 shows the high pressure and low-pressure heater arrangement. In the deaerator. Arrangement of feed-water heaters in a Power Plant 3 . A control valve is used to maintain heater level and will cause the draining condensate to flash. In a power plant. are fed by extraction steam from the high and intermediate pressure turbines. the heating action drives off gases that can become corrosive to piping and associated equipment at elevated temperatures. which increases the efficiency of heat transfer. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a shell and tube heat exchanger that utilizes both steam and the successive heater drains. intermediate and low-pressure sections of the steam turbine. The deaerator provides the suction for the main boiler feed-pumps. A cascading heater arrangement is the most common type of heater arrangement found in a power plant. Fig. The condensate is routed through the low-pressure heaters into an open heater called a deaerator. The condensate from each heater has a considerable amount of energy and is also used to heat the incoming feedwater.The feed-water heaters increase the plant efficiency by making the process regenerative.2. Low-pressure heaters use extraction steam pulled from the low-pressure turbine and are located after the condensate pumps.

The severe operating conditions. With increased thermal rating of the power plants. But. thereby. which have high degree of equipment reliability. 4 .Feed Water heaters are used to achieve thermodynamic gain by bleeding steam from the turbine & heating the incoming feed water. Higher thermal efficiency. there is no tube plate. especially. thereby. although. U-tube. as these heaters are compact. Low cost & maintenance But. The coiled tube type HP heaters are used for 210MW & lesser capacity power stations. There are two types of surface type feed water heaters used in thermal power plants. ensuring excellent thermal transient capability. One is a U-tube type or straight tube heater & another is a coiled tube type heater. demands proper selection of Feed-Water Heaters. shell & tube type heaters with tube plates are extensively being used for HP Heaters & LP Heaters. the high pressure feed water heaters. which are welded to the feed-water inlet & outlet headers. is the same as in surface contact type. direct contact type feed-water heaters require larger number of condensate pumps & larger space due to their bigger size compared to surface type heaters. When the heaters are double pass. These heaters have got a certain specific advantages over the surface type heaters. U-tubes are used & for single pass straight tubes are used. the cooling medium is not separated by a metal wall from the mixture of heating vapour as in the later type. since there is no metal barrier to the heat transfer between steam & water 2. The steam in turn gets condensed in the shell of the heaters raising the temperature of the feed water & drains are cascaded from heater to heater (higher to lower pressure). These heaters can be mounted either vertically or horizontally. They have helical coils tubes. occurring in the direct contact type heaters. Due to the above reason. Feed-Water Heaters are subjected to very high pressure & temperature. These heaters have the following advantages(i) Requires less space. tending to make the cycle a regenerative one. which are located just after the Boiler Feed Pump. these heaters require complicated maintenance practices. but the basic type of heaters remained to be: • Surface type • Direct contact type The condensation mechanism. The only direct contact type heater used in the feed heating line is Deaerator. they are not commonly used in power plants. 6. These are1. Main advantage of this type is that. SELECTION OF FEED WATER HEATER TYPE: The design of Feed-Water Heater has developed considerably since the first generation of the power station.

The tube side & water-box design pressure of HP Heaters shall be the maximum design pressure of the inter-connecting Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) discharge line or the maximum pressure to which feed water is subjected to under worst operating condition. the margin on design temperature for tubes as per HEI shall be applied & the tubes (in all the zones) shall be designed to this temperature.. DESIGN TEMPERATURE: The design temperature of the shell skirt. taking extraction from Cold-Reheat (CRH) line shall be same as the CRH piping design pressure. The design temperature of water-box of the heaters shall be the 5 . 7.1. as per HEI Standard. Considering the above advantages. The maximum operating pressure shall be decided considering operating conditions as brought out above for design pressure. U-tube shell & tube type HP Heaters. to prevent them from imploding. irrespective of whether a de-superheating section is provided or not. In all heaters which would be exposed to superheated steam.e. in any case. 4x500 MW units. (iii) Wide choice of tube materials. The maximum operating pressure is determined basing on the worst operating conditions. the normal operating conditions to be considered is 500 MW output with 3% make-up & back pressure at design cooling water inlet temperature. 7. less than the maximum operating pressure. (iv) High reliability. In the case of LPH-1 mounted in the condenser neck.(ii) Maintenance is easy because tubes can be plugged without dismantling the heater. For all LP Heaters & Drain Cooler the minimum shell thickness shall be 10mm. While applying the above design criteria. The shell side of the heaters shall be designed for full vacuum also. The shell design pressure of all other heaters shall be that corresponding to safety relief valve set pressure + 10% extra margin on the pressure. LP Heaters & Drain Cooler are selected for TSTPP. the pressure at which the valve closes) & shall not be. The tube side & water box design pressure of LP Heaters shall be the Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP) shut-off head under 3% over frequency operation. for safety precaution. The design criteria are discussed below: 7.2. excluding the corrosion allowance. Stage-II. The safety relief valve set pressure shall be computed based on 7% blow-down pressure (i. shell barrel & tube side of HP & LP Heaters shall be based on HEI Standard for closed feed water heaters. DESIGN CRITERIA: The Feed-Water Heaters shall be designed as per design code-HEI standard (USA) for closed Feed-Water Heaters & Indian Boiler Regulation (IBR). DESIGN PRESSURE: The shell design pressure of the heater. the design temperature shall be same as the condenser design temperature.

3.D.05 m/s under all operating conditions. Optimization of regenerative feed-water heater (T-s diagram of Rankine Cycle) 6 .3. 8.4.89) after bending. Minimum size of tubes shall be 15. OPTIMUM DEGREE OF REGENERATION: Fig. entry erosion & stagnation induced localized pitting. TUBE VELOCITY & TUBE DIAMETER: The velocity of the feed water shall be restricted to 3. The tube thickness shall be increased to compensate for tube wall thinking on the inner rows of the tube bundle. However. the use of SS304 tubes permits that tube velocities may be maintained as high as economically feasible in order to preclude stagnation including localized pitting.maximum temperature of the feed water/main condensate leaving the heater rounded off to the next higher 50C. 7. 7. The velocity of 3. FOULING RESISTANCE: Fouling resistance for the tube side & shell side shall be taken as per HEI.875 mm O.05 m/s is chosen to optimize the pump power requirement. Average wall thickness of the tube shall not be less than 20 BWG (0.

(1-m)(h3-h4) = 1 . h1-h6 = h1-h8+h8-h4+h4-h6 = β+α-γ Therefore.) so that by energy balance. as seen from the Fig.4. where h is the local enthalpy on the expansion line at a given pressure.(h2-h6)(h3-h4) (h1-h6) __(h2 -h4)_______ (h2-h4) (h1-h6) (h1-h6) Following Haywood[1]. Horlock[3] & Salisbury[4] it may be approximately assumed that turbine expansion line follows a path on the diagram such that (h.h f) = constant = β. If there is one feed water heater used. Rankine Cycle as shown in Mollier diagram Complete Carnotization of Rankine Cycle is not possible with finite number of heaters. m(h2-h6) = (1-m)(h6-h5) Or m = h6-h5 = h6-h4 h2-h5 h2-h4 Therefore. & hf is the enthalpy of saturated water at that pressure.[1. equation can be written in the form η = 1β2_____ [(β+γ)(α+β-γ)] 7 . which is equal to (h6-h4). h2-h4 = h2-h6+h6-h4 = β+γ If the total enthalpy rise of feed water is equal to α = h8-h4.3. the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = 1 . Let the enthalpy rise of feed water in the heater is γ.3.Fig.h4 = β = constant. Therefore. h1-h8 = h2-h6= h3.(h6 –h4) ](h3-h4) = 1.. ‘m’ kg of steam is extracted from the turbine for each kg of steam entering it to the heat the feed water heater from state 5 to state 6 (Fig. Now. then.

there is an optimum value of γ for which η is maximum.Here.e.5. the temperature rise of feed water in the heater is.(h3-h4) (h1-h4) Now. So. The cycle efficiency is maximum when total enthalpy rise of feed water (h8-h4) from the condenser temperature to the boiler saturation temperature is divided equally between the feed water heater & the economizer (i. Heater train of a steam power plant (γ = α/2) 8 . h3-h4 = β & h1-h4 = h1-h8+h8-h4 = β+α η0 = 1β = α__ (α+β) (α+β) The efficiency gain due to regeneration. γ = α/2. Δη = η. Δt = ½(tboiler saturation – tcondenser) & the corresponding cycle efficiency is η = 1β2 = 1β2 = α2 + 4αβ__ [(β+α/2)(α+β-α/2)] (β+α/2)2 (α+2β)2 For a non-regenerative cycle. justifying the fact that due to regeneration the cycle efficiency increases. So.. η0 = 1 . On differentiation. dη = β2[(α+β-γ)-(β+γ)] =0 dγ Or. α & β are fixed & γ is a variable.η0 = α2 + 4αβ – _ α = α2β____ (α+2β)2 (α+β) (α+β)(α+2β)2 This indicates that Δη is a positive quantity.h8-h6 = h6-h4) in a single bleed cycle. Fig.

By the use of first heater. Δtfw3 = 4/5 ΔtOA & so on. the gain is Δtfw4 . 9 . Δtfw .Δtfw2 = ¾ ΔtOA .). the feed water enters the economizer section of the boiler at state F (Fig. The enthalpy rise per heater (including the economizer) is thus. the total temperature rise of feed water.In the heater train.½ ΔtOA = 1/6 ΔtOA By the use of third heater. Δhper heater = hG –h3 (n+1) where ‘n’ is number of heaters & 1 stands for the economizer. the degree of regeneration thus get optimized. the gain is Δtfw1 . In fact. the gain is Δtfw3 . Therefore. the gain is Δtfw2 . more becomes the mean temperature of heat addition. the total enthalpy rise of the feed water for ‘n’ heaters by regenerative feed heating is Δhtotal = n (hG-h3) (n+1) Thus. the greatest increment in efficiency is brought by addition of the first heater. by regeneration. instead of by the bled turbine steam. more is the total temperature rise of the feed water.6. Δtfw. the total enthalpy rise (hG-h3) or temperature rise from the condenser to the boiler saturation temperature is dividing equally among the feed water heaters for maximum gain in efficiency.Δtfw0 = ½ ΔtOA By the use of second heater. From Eq.⅔ ΔtOA = 1/12 ΔtOA By the use of fourth heater. the efficiency law follows the law of diminishing return with the increase in number of heaters. Since the gain in cycle efficiency is proportional to the gain in feed water temperature. Assuming the economizer also as a feed water heater (where feed water is heated by the outgoing flue gases. & more is the cycle efficiency. The number of heaters is fixed up by heat balance of the whole plant where it is found that cost of adding another heater does not justify the saving in the heat supply Q 1 or the marginal increase in cycle efficiency. due to regeneration for the maximum cycle efficiency is given by Δtfw = n ΔtOA (n+1) where the overall temperature difference is given by ΔtOA = boiler saturation temperature-condenser temperature More is the number of heater.Δtfw1 = ⅔ ΔtOA . () If n=0.).Δtfw3 = 4/5 ΔtOA . The number of heater & hence. Δtfw2 = ⅔ ΔtOA If n=3. where feed water is heated to the saturation temperature (G) at the boiler pressure. Δtfw0 = 0 If n=1.¾ ΔtOA = 1/20 ΔtOA & so on. less become the heat addition to the water in the boiler. The increments for each additional heater successively diminish (Fig. Δtfw1 = ½ ΔtOA If n=2.5. An increase in feed water temperature tfw reduces the heat absorption in the outgoing flue gases from the economizer & may cause a reduction in boiler efficiency. Δtfw3 = ¾ ΔtOA If n=4.

tube-to-tube sheet joint. 100% TMCR load & part load operation of the plant. The maintenance.Fig. PERFORMANCE: The heater shall perform satisfactorily under turbine throttle valve wide open condition. HP-LP bypass operation full load at minimum cooling water temperature. etc. HP Heaters bypassed.. Beside the satisfactory operation throughout the load range.. heaters shall also be capable of operation without any problem whatever so under all abnormal conditions. i. Variation of cycle efficiency with increase in no. shell to tube plate joint. i. inspection & cleaning of all welded feed water heater is easy. extraction steam line & condensate extraction lines are also welded to channel & shell. These heaters are also able to withstand the transient conditions more efficiently than any other type of design. 10 . of feed-water heaters 9.6. tube plate to channel joint are welded. 10.e. All welded heaters offers freedom from leakage. LP Heaters bypassed at full load. CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES: The feed water heaters shall be all welded construction. respectively.e. even at high pressure & temperature. 3% make-up without any over pressure. All the critical areas get safeguarded against the leakages. The feed water inlet & outlet lines.

10. It has good heat transfer properties & high allowable stresses. are used quiet extensively for the HP Heaters. Most common materials used for HP Heaters are carbon steel. The HP Heater tubes shall be welded to tube sheet & then roller expanded. Hence. The carbon steel is the least expensive. right from the Condensate Polishing Unit outlet to the economizer inlet. carbon steel can corrode rapidly if the pH value falls below 8. The tubes are passed through the tube plate. Moreover. SS-304 type stainless steel has got an excellent corrosion resistance property & is unaffected at nearly all operating conditions. it is susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion. When stainless steel tubes are used for HP Heaters & LP Heaters. Due to the above considerations.4. Stainless steel is unaffected at all operating conditions. dezincification & denikelification. Copper alloys are used extensively in the LP Heaters tubes. roller expanded in the tubes with care to avoid stressing in the weld. The carbon steel tubes are also susceptible to the entry erosion near the tube plates. A pH of 9. will be adequate to take care of corrosion in the total condensate feed water line. it is highly susceptible to oxidization when wet system is opened during shutdown. stainless steel & monel metal. It also gives strength to the joints. The shape of the water box can be cylindrical or 11 . TUBE TO TUBE PLATE JOINT: The low pressure heater tubes shall be roller expanded to the tube sheet. To avoid all the above problems.2. the stainless steel tubes are invariably used for LP Heaters. These alloys have got excellent thermal conductivity but on the other hand these alloys have problems of copper carry over & ammonia attack. the carbon steel is the most likely to sustain erosion damage in the de-superheating zone as well as in the drain sub-cooling zone due to the bad level control problem. except that. The expansion will help in preventing tube vibration. pH control becomes easier.5. Of all the alloys. which can result in failures due to stress corrosion cracking.1. it is no longer necessary to maintain different pH of the water on pre-deaeration & post-deaeration sections. exfoliation. But. WATER BOXES: The full access bolted type or self-sealing type of water boxes shall be used for Drain Cooler & LP Heater. welded type 304 stainless steel tubes. although costlier. TUBE MATERIAL: Both copper alloys & non-ferrous alloys are used for the LP Heaters & HP Heaters tubes.3.10.2-9. condensate & feed water lines becomes completely ferrous & so. which may require a complex boiler cleaning after short intervals. Type 304 stainless steel mitigates all the above problems although it is costlier than the carbon steel tubes. Thus. fillet welded at their ends & then. which could cause failure of welding. 10. Copper alloys are also affecter by ammonium sulphide & oxygen in the feed water. welded/seamless tubes of stainless steel type 304 are selected for both LP & HP Heaters.

It should be designed to reduce entry losses & entry attack on the tube ends. frequent cycling may lead to leakage. 10.5. since the studs are not in contact with water & cool more slowly than the tube plates & cover. etc. The tube sheet of the HP Heater shall be overlaid with stainless steel with a minimum thickness of of 6. When full access bolted type of water boxes are used for HP Heaters. The flow inside the water box should be smooth without any water hammer. with a gasket joint. In installations where there are wide variation in operating conditions the advantages of all the welded shell is particularly striking when a joint is subjected to a large temperature difference. this is not a problem. With all welded shall. While designing a heater a careful consideration shall be given to the baffle pitching. In many instances. the joint will be flexed by difference in expansion between two zones. the problems of unsymmetrical sealing pressure & leakage of gasket does not exist. SHELL: For HP & LP Heaters all welded constructions shall be used. TUBE VIBRATION: Several tube failures have occurred in feed water heater in & adjacent to desuperheating zone. A careful assessment of the tension required in the studs is necessary to avoid leakage during the transient conditions.4. to minimize the tube vibration. The heater shall be checked for any undue vibration that can damage the heater tubes. tube hole clearances.6. such as between de-superheating zone & the drain cooling zone.35mm.. 10. As there is no bolting used to keep the water box leak-proof. With rapid feed water temperature changes. The water boxes for HP Heaters & LP Heaters shall have sufficient straight barrel length to provide access for the tube ends. tube hold shall be grooved. Where joints are not to be welded. prevention of leakage at the cover joint is a major problem. Grooves are not required for welded tube-to-tube sheet joints. The overlay is necessary as the HP Heater tubes are welded to the tube sheet. the failures can be attributed to tube vibration in which the tube appears to have exhibited & suffered corrosion damage with adjacent tubes or worn circumferentially at baffle holes. To avoid all such problems. self-sealing type of water boxes with elliptical manhole shall be held shut by the presence of water in the heater. steam velocity. TUBE SHEET: The tube sheet of LP Heater & Drain Cooler shall be of carbon steel & shall be welded to water box & shell. It is light in weight & has a smooth unobstructed shape that simplifies the application of insulation. 10. 12 . The pass partition plate of the heaters shall be bolted type to facilitate removal & access to the tube sheet. But. This design eliminates flanges in the critical areas & reduces the possibility of leakage.hemispherical. joint pressure can be released. The water boxes for the HP Heaters shall be elliptical or hemispherical head design.

this is not a major factor in deciding the type of a feed water heater. The functional requirement of the feed water heater viz. the two extreme ends baffles of de-superheating & drain cooling zone shall be sealed properly to ensure leakage against steam & condensate in the condensing zone. Consequently. where the hot feed water exist.1. in horizontal type heaters. This approach helps in minimizing the thickness of the forged tube sheet & shell wall thickness. DRAIN COOLING: Installation of a drain cooler into a vertical feed water heater poses practical problems.11. the design of drain cooling portion is relatively simpler. To avoid erosion. which may also be located at the base because. specifically.. DE-SUPERHEATING: The de-superheating section does not present any serious design problem with “head-up” vertical heaters & horizontal heaters. a certain amount of steam passes through these clearances & where this steam has considerable turbulence. Consequently. But. if the de-superheater is installed in a “head-down” vertical heater. there is a potential problem associated with the draining of the condensate. de-superheating & drain cooling have different design requirement on each type of feed water heater. to drain towards the base of the heater. it has a tendency to erode. In head-up design. it is desirable to minimize the diameter of the heater & to achieve the required heating surface by adding length. However. it is necessary to duct the drains from the base of the feed water heater. which is farthest away from the head. CONDENSATION: The condensation operation in a feed water heater does not call for any significantly different design consideration on the above arrangements. that is. 11. 11. In all the above three types of heaters.2. The nature of these designs consideration & their impact is discussed below. 11. which pass through & are intended to accommodate the passage & feed water tubes. The head-down vertical arrangement (wherein the head of the feed water heater is located at the base). CONSTRUCTION: • • • The three arrangements generally used in construction of feed water heaters are: The head-up vertical arrangement (wherein the head of the feed water heater is located on the top). up through the length of the feed 13 .3. However. The horizontal design. condensation. cannot be gas tight. In order to prevent its entry into the de-superheating section. as they must allow for expansion of heater. tube holes. during the operation of the feed water. a baffle is installed at the top of the de-superheating section for shedding condensate into de-superheating area.

is to install an auxiliary drain at the base of the heater. however. Because of their height.1. units cannot be handled with the turbine hall crane & must be serviced through a hole located in the turbine-building roof.2. Compromise has to be done with space advantage. particularly at reduced plant load operation. which would open at low loads & allow the condensate to leave without passing through the drain section. it may become necessary to utilize alternate means of draining feed water heater other than cascading. may be staggered in their elevation so as to assist cascading to very low plant loads.water heater to the drain outlet location just below the heads. • Use of a flash tank. A design feature. a high-pressure differential is required between the shell pressure & the drain cooler outlet. OPERATION: 13. In head-down arrangement the drain cooler section is located at the base of feed water heater. The consequence of this design is that. • Use heater drain pump. At part load operations the drain accumulates in the base of the feed water heaters until there is sufficient pressure differential to deliver the condensate out of the drain. 12. This will increase capital cost & occupy additional space. • Use a separate drain cooler. LOCATION: The location of the vertical feed water heater must consider the need to service the heater for maintenance. Horizontal feed water heaters. although it must be noted that. a substantial section of the potential condensing tube is removed by flooding of the drain cooling section. This will result in additional rotary equipment & also increase the maintenance requirements. up through the drain cooler to drain outlet. Hence. 13. as the shell pressure differential between the high pressure feed water heaters & the deaerator should be sufficient to implement cascading drain operation through most of the plant operation range. Because the shell pressure differentials between the low pressure feed water heaters may become extremely low. it is impossible to stagger the elevation of the heater in such a manner as to assist the cascading mode of drain operation. If no de-superheater is installed as with the low-pressure heater. Utilizing a separate drain cooler can eliminate this problem. These are as follows: • Direct the drain to the condenser at part load but it will affect the part load heat rate. This potential problem should only occur with the lower pressure feed water heaters. Otherwise. possibly as high as 12 m. which may be implemented to avoid this flooding of the condensate section. 13. this approach compromises the saving associated with the reduced floor space requirement of the vertical heaters. it is necessary to locate the feed water heater below the operating floor. PERFORMANCE: The elevation of the vertical low pressure feed water heater shall be set so as to assist in cascading mode of drain operation. CONTROL: 14 . This pressure differential is required to lift the condensate from the bottom of the shell.

This reduction in the floor space can be achieved only if the considerations do not dictate the installation of equivalent floor space. To monitor these. The performance of HP Heaters can be analysed by monitoring the terminal temperature difference (TTD). the controller must be such as to dampen the signal to the control valve. the pressure drop through the valve under a given set of operating circumstances may be inadequate to prevent flashing in the drain lines of the valve or conversely. the surface capacitance is adequate to allow sufficient ‘dwell time’ for low-level control. H. The controlling parameters for the determination of permissible elevation are again the shell pressure shown on the heat diagram. the pressure drop on the feed-water side & the temperature rise across the heater. 14. The low-pressure heater shell pressures are adequate to support the heaters located on the mezzanine floor & the lowest pressure heater on condenser neck. the valve setting may at a given time be inappropriate for the water level in the heater. The principal advantage associated with the vertical type feed water heaters. it is necessary to either relocate the deaerator so that the auxiliary bay can be eliminated or the space within the auxiliary bay must be utilized for other purpose. resulting in potentially rapid fluctuation of level during unit load changes. may result in a temporarily high level in the feed water heater. level controller can be designed so as to provide a stable & high-resolution signal to the control valve. is the considerable reduction in the floor space compared with that required for horizontal feed water heaters. drain cooler approach (DCA). The above arrangement of the feed water heater will operate over entire load range with little or no component maintenance or attention from plant operator. The placement of the low-pressure heater in the mezzanine floor subsequently allows the location of the high-pressure heaters on the operating floor.P. ARRANGEMENT OF HEATERS: The heaters can be arranged either vertically or horizontally. 15. Specifically. Horizontal high-pressure heaters are usually placed in the operating floor & low pressure feed water heaters are placed in the mezzanine. As a result. HEATER DESIGN DATA: 15 . however the surface capacitance of the drain fluid is much reduced. As a consequence of this requirement. it is desirable to carry out simplified routine performance test on feed water heaters at a specified frequency. In order to compensate for this rapid flow changes through the heaters. thus allowing the valve to position itself without hunting. It allows more convenient access & removal procedures if maintenance of these heaters is required. In a vertical heater installation. Therefore. This will help in identifying the level of deviations & trending the performance.In a horizontal heater installation.

3 4.12CL. B Nozzles(Shell side) SA 182 F11/SA Gr B.5 Outlet Temp.(Kg/cm2) 36 495 Test Temp.0.mm BWG min MATERIALS Shell/Channel SA 516 Gr 70 /SA 387 Gr.85 -625/ -540/ -110 .Station: TSTPP Sl.583 165.927 3 2 ----------1347 ----------15. No.33 No of passes/Zones 3 2 No. No.13 1063 16. Condensing. x --------OD ¾” x 13 Thickness). (º C) Ambient Ambient Flow Quantity (T/Hr) 42.8 37.88 x 13 BWG min SA 516 Gr 70 SA 688 TP 304 SA 350 LF2 SA 105 SA 350 LF2 SA 350 LF2 & SA 106 Gr B 16 .5 0.8 50. Temperature rise Unit MW Values 500 Horizontal HPH-5 3 m2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 mm 0 0 Unit: 5 HPH-6 3 1278 85.1 Tubes SA 688 TP 304 Tube plate(s) SA 350 LF2 Flanges SA 105 Nozzles(Tube side) SA 106 GR.0. HP HEATER 6A & 6B SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE Steam & Drain Feed Water 57 & Full 330 & Full vacuum vacuum 273 273/293 85. difference Drain Cooler Approach temp.068 749.(º C) 170.1 191. of Zones (Desuperheating.85 -625/ -540/ -110 .591 749. Drain Cooling Surface Area Extraction steam pressure Pressure drop (water side) Operating level (Minimum /Normal/ Maximum) Terminal Temp. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Description Unit Capacity Heater Position (Horizontal/ Vertical) HP Heater No.of Tubes --------1347 Tube size (O.267 335.88 0.83 C C C 0 HP HEATER 5A & 5B Description SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE Medium Steam & Drain Feed Water 2 Design Pr.3 4.(º C) 412.(º C) 224 224/244 Test Pr.267 Inlet Temp.D.25 203.3 203. (Kg/cm ) 24 & Full 330 & Full vacuum vacuum Design Temp.5 495 Ambient Ambient 78.27 208.

06 196. of FW at HPH-6 inlet(6A/ 6B) FW temp.18 -550.23 251. at HPH-6 inlet(6A/ 6B) Pr.97 339.21 11.68 Run 2 168.83 C kg/cm2 0 C kg/cm2 0 C kg/cm2 0 C kg/cm2 mm mm kg/cm2 kg/cm2 0 C 0 C kg/cm2 kg/cm2 0 C 0 C CONTROL ROOM READINGS: Station: TSTPP Sl.22 212.2 -549. kg/cm2 Run 1 499.86 200.43 203.90 197.46 197.08 418.57 198.63 201.87 173.78 1586 23.94 416.34 201. pr.No. of FW at HPH-6 outlet(6A/ 6B) HPH-5 level (5A/ 5B) HPH-6 level (6A/ 6B) HPH-5 shell pressure(5A/ 5B) HPH-6 shell pressure(6A/ 6B) HPH-5 extraction temp. H.01 Test Date: 09/08/05 Run 2 485.00 41.7 16.63 198.22 203. MS pressure Feed water Flow SH attemperation flow RH attemperation flow BFP disch.16.57 253. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15 16 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Measurement FW temp.69 209.06 196.28 196.15 198.6 16.9 -0.85 196. hdr.03 204.9 16.98 200.04 198.17 199.76 414.91 196.P.6 -555. (6A/ 6B) Unit:5 Unit 0 Test Date: 09/08/05 Run 1 168. (5A/ 5B) HPH-6 drain temp.57 40. at HPH-5 outlet(5A/ 5B) Pr.01 17 .27 173.13 327. at HPH-5 inlet(5A/ 5B) Pr.97 197.98 201.35 252. of FW at HPH-5 outlet(5A/ 5B) FW temp.57 40.36 332.66 208.91 1. No. Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Load Main steam temp.69 16.34 17.25 416.86 197.82 -543.84 203.4 -0.7 16.62 195. of FW at HPH-5 inlet(5A/ 5B) FW temp.97 203.20 16.27 -547.69 332.37 165.50 250.5 532.53 -553.77 199.76 42.94 172. (5A/ 5B) HPH-6 extraction temp.67 164.87 42.91 1.16 16. at HPH-6 outlet(6A/ 6B) Pr.78 42.98 41.37 208. Unit: 5 Test Readings Units MW 0 C kg/cm2 T/hr T/hr T/hr kg/cm2 mm of Hg.43 168.86 1578 17.32 4.10 172. HEATER TEST DATA: Station: TSTPP Sl. (6A/ 6B) HPH-5 extraction pressure(5A/ 5B) HPH-6 extraction pressure(6A/ 6B) HPH-5 drain temp.22 168.6 539.88 42.2 -556.4 -544. Condenser vaccum Barometric pr.

29 4.No (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Heater No Pressure of bled steam(ksc) Saturated temp corresponding to bled pr.55 4.27 203.82 1.9 0 168.45 18.6 8 -0.94 40.1 6 203.26 3.2 2 253. CALCULATION: For a closed feed water heater.4 3 0. FAULT ANALYSIS: An increase in either the TTD or DCA. (0C) FW temp at heater outlet (0C) FW inlet temp (0C) Drip outlet temp (0C) TTD (0C) DCA (0C) FW pressure drop (ksc) HPH5A Run 1 Run 2 16. b.19 9. the cycle efficiency will be reduced.6 3 212.8 6 209. This deterioration in the performance could be the result of any or all of the following causes: a.2 1 203.6 9 0.3 7 1.62 199.5 6 203.24 2.28 208.5 7 168.02 9.6 6 -0. or.9 8 172. tube-to-tube sheet leakage resulting in feed water leaking to the steam side). If the value of TTD for a heater is too small.4 6 208.2 2 -0.43 251. If the value is too small.06 8.33 0.79 251.4 6 252.83 -0.57 204.76 253.08 HPH5B Run 1 Run 2 16. but the heater size increases.9 9 201.98 16.69 1.8 9 204. External leakage (through the bypass valve).76 0.88 1.55 1.8 5 168.08 42. it is good for plant efficiency.94 HPH6A Run 1 Run 2 42.0 6 199.0 4 253.21 253.97 HPH6B Run 1 Run 2 41.8 6 172. The Drain Cooler Approach Temperature (DCA) is defined as: DCA = Drip outlet temperature – Feed water inlet temperature The results obtained are shown in tabular form as below: Sl.83 2.9 1 203. Internal leakage (leakage through the water box partition plate resulting in a partial internal bypassing of the heater. the Terminal Temperature Difference (TTD) is defined as: TTD = saturation temperature of bled steam – feed water temperature at heater outlet. Fouled heater tubes (either steam or water side or both).2 2 0.OTHER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: WEIGHTS HPH 5A & 5B HPH 6A & 6B Dry (Kgs) 45250 58050 During Operation (Kgs) 49300 62550 Floaded (Kgs) 56250 70100 17.64 3. The extracted steam on condensation gets sub-cooled in the drain cooler & is removed as drip. c.27 202.25 253.0 4 173.87 16.1 5 168.9 7 173. 18 .09 5. and/or a decrease in the temperature rise indicate the problem with the heater.76 203.

The principal factors affecting the heat transfer coefficient are: • Tube material. while increasing tube velocity). Fig. This ability is determined by the overall heat transfer coefficient.7. Cause-Effect Diagram for Feed-Water Heater Performance TTD is an indication of the ability of the surface to transmit heat under a given set of conditions. Plugged tubes (reducing the heat transfer area.d. diameter. The detailed Fault tree is shown in the adjoining Fish-Bone diagram drawn. length & arrangement • Feed water velocity • Tube cleanliness 19 .

Since flashing is directly related to the downstream pressure. will affect the performance of the heater. These are the normal heater drain valves and the emergency or high-level dump drain valves. As stated above. which if allowed to accumulate. flashing will occur during valve operation. Flashing of steam can lead to severe erosion effects due to the high velocity steam carrying entrained water droplets. The normal heater drain valve is used to control the condensate level in the heater and the flow of condensate to the next successive heater. 20 . The angle valve design directs the flow into the center of the valve away from the valve body and downstream pipe walls. Tight shutoff is a necessity for these applications to protect the integrity of the valve trim. the incoming condensate is under saturated conditions. This usually provides adequate assurance that no heating surface is blanketed with non-condensable gases. 19. Heater efficiency will also be maintained as the warm condensate will not be lost to the condenser and additional extraction steam will not have to be taken from the turbine. To make certain that such condition does not occur. The emergency heater drain can have a similar impact on unit performance. Any condensate that leaks through the valve will go directly to the condenser. Both of these valves can dramatically affect unit efficiency. This valve is used only on high level alarms. the condensate flashes to steam to aid in the heat transfer process. With the outlet flow going directly to the condenser. tight shutoff is necessary to ensure proper performance. following are the recommendations for feed water heaters: 1. Tight shutoff will ensure that damage such as wire draw will be prevented. therefore. All the HP Heater tubes shall be welded to tube sheets & then roller expanded. there is no way to eliminate it from occurring. which requires additional extraction steam to provide the proper heating. As the condensate passes through the valve. LP Heater tubes shall be roller expanded to tube sheet. Therefore. In order to combat the flashing damage while providing proper control. RECOMMENDATIONS: Based on the above discussions. Fisher recommends the use of an angle valve with a downstream liner. The normal heater drain should be supplied with tight shutoff for situations where the heater is bypassed and leakage between heaters is possible. it is necessary to protect the valve and associated equipment from any of the damaging effects. There are two valves that must be addressed on each heater. the vent valves should be adjusted so that sufficient quantity of escapes to cause the temperature rise of the water passing through the heater to remain both maximum & constant.• Non-condensable gases in the steam or water spaces of the heater Steam usually contains non-condensable gases.

Oxford. 10. Moreover. a separate drain cooler bypass connection shall be provided on the shell of the heater. Pergamon Press. R. 3. Steam Turbines and Their Cycles. Combined Heat & Power. The shells of all the heaters shall be welded to the tube plate. New Delhi.Horlock.W. 1950 21 . CONCLUSION: The importance of feed-water heater is judged not only from the role they play in increasing the cycle efficiency. 11. 8. John Wiley. their performance is a direct indication in saving of equivalent amount of fuel cost. The fouling factors on the tube side & the shell side in different zone shall be as per HEI standards. 4. but also. Analysis of Engineering Cycles. Water box should be of hemispherical shape.K. proper monitoring of the feedwater heater parameters is a must for efficient & economic running of the power plants 21. In the HP Heaters the steam leaving the de-superheater section at the full duty shall be above the saturation temperature by a sufficient margin to ensure that no condensation will occur in the tubes under normal operating conditions & steam leaving the de-superheating section will not cause droplet impingement in the condensing section. To avoid excessive velocity in the drain cooling section during emergency draining operation to condenser & lower heater. 1995 3. 7. Hence. Pergamon Press. 9. Periodical checking should be done to avoid any leakage or accumulation of non-condensable gases. Engineering Thermodynamics. For this proper venting has to be ensured during the operating condition of the heaters. Heater water level & operating condition should be maintained as close as possible to the designed values. Oxford. Second edition. BIBILOGRAPHY: 1. Water box of all the HP Heaters & LP Heaters shall be welded to the tube plate. P. from the fact that they reduces thermal stresses in the pipelines & water-wall tubes by increasing the inlet temperature of the drum. Sufficient space area should be provided in between water box & tube plate for efficient & smooth entry of feed water & ease maintenance of the tubes. J. by making the cycle consistently approach towards a regenerative one.K.Haywood. 1984 4. Tata McGraw-Hill. The water box or channel section of all heaters shell should be of carbon steel.Salisbury. 20. feed water & steam at the heaters shall be welded to leak-tight.2. All connections for drains. fabricated or forged construction. All openings on the HP Heater channel shall be self-sealing type. there by adding towards the economic running of the plant. 6.H. J. 1975 2.Nag. New Work. 5.

22. APPENDIX: 22 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful