Cordillera Literature Provinces that belongs to Cordillera Administrative Region: ~Abra ~Kalinga ~Apayao ~Mountain Province ~Benguet Igorot

-used as collective designation for the native peoples of the Cordillera Major Distinct Groups in Cordillera Bontok, Ibaloy(Benguet), Ifugao, Isneg(Apayao), Kalinga, Kankanay and Tinguian(Abra) Cordillera Literature is in the oral tradition and may be classified into ritualistic and non-ritualistic. Ritualistic literature consists of songs, chants, and narratives which can only be performed or recited in a religious context in the observance of certain rituals or ceremonies in divine or supernatural intervention in human affairs is invoked. Non-ritualistic literature consists of secular forms which can be performed on any occasion, during festivities or moment of leisure, to express communal sentiments or personal yearnings. EPIC POETRY Hudhud ~a mythical figure known both for wealth and prowess ~it is sung: during the wake for the member of the upper class, at weeding time when women work the rice fields, and during the harvest season ~a harvest song because it is sung more often than not during harvest ~only women can sing, with a soloist (sings all the parts that pertain to the story itself) and chorus (serves as occasional commentator on

what is presented in the narrative) singing alternately ~have irregular lines, and there is no apparent attempt to adopt a consistent rhyming scheme Ullalim ~are long ballads chanted either by men or women during feasts and other social occasions such as peace pact assemble ~represents the epic tradition of Southern Kalinga Gasumbi ~all about headhunting and courtship, with the narrative being enlivened by elements of magic and the supernatural ~sung at night during harvest time Alim ~it has ritual connections, and its principal characters are divine beings, not mortals ~sung by men ~may be performed on other occasions during conduct of prestige feasts and harvest time Examples are: ·The Harvest Song of Aliguyon(Ifugao) ·The Heroic Exploits of Banna(Kalinga) SONGS AND CHANTS Salidommay ~it has a melodic formula which lends itself well to different themes and purposes ~it can be heard in courtship and wedding feasts, in impromptu programs and community festivals, in the celebration of peace pacts and bountiful harvest Dodong-ay ~not restricted to any particular function or event Dujung (Ibaloy) ~is chanted when there is a wake

Bajun and Chajang (Ifugao) ~are chanted in rituals of warfare Diwas (Tinguian) ~for the sick Sang-sangit (Tinguian) ~it is sung in the evening after the funeral Dawak (Tinguian) ~sung by mediums when summoning the spirits to possess them Namay (Tinguian) ~it is sung at the conclusion of the mourning period for the dead Examples are: ·Prayer to Kabigat (Ibaloy) ·Multiply (Kankanay) ·Day-en (Kankanay) ·Inya¶heng¶s Pride (Ifugao) ·Dalan Mapan Ko Langit (Isneg) ·Daeng (Tinguian) ·Salidommay (Kalinga) ·Maseg-ang Ka Maseg-ang (Bontok) MYTHS ~are o f sacred nature, hence there are restrictions ~are recited to affirm the propriety of ceremonies Diam ~ritual myth, recited by mediums, meant to explain the origin of the particular rituals and how these rituals should be conducted Examples are: ·How Balitok and Bugan Obtained Children (Ifugao) ·Chacha and Ked-yem (Bontok) ·Balitok and Kabigat (Ibaloy) ·Kabukab (Kalinga) ·Aponitolau and Aponibolinayen (Tinguian)

At-atikay nubla. dakda kel inna pagbalinan (Hole) SAYINGS Pagsasao ~distills philosophical insight and reflection about human life as these are rooted in the unique historical and cultural experience of the Ilokano Examples are: ·Kinaagnanayon ti la agdama. inna maparuma ·Biag ni masirib kas allid-ilaw. and they are not recited as part of ritual or sacrifice Examples are: ·The Origin of Man (Kankanay) ·The Sky and Its Contents (Isneg) ·Flood (Kalinga) ·Tilin the Rice Bird (Bontok) ·Origin of Fish (Ibaloy) ·Sogsogot (Tinguian) ·Bañggilit (Ifugao) FOLKTALES ~are narratives not considered as truthful accounts. Ungal ya maulle (Gulun) ·Baranay dali-nag beg tali ya lugan (Sinay) ·Adi matiboy Tukuna ya kumalat (Apuy) ·Katig ama iyaw-algaw nan mangna (Sawang) Northern Luzon Literature Iloko Literature is an attempt to paint the unique life of the Ilokano and to transcend that uniqueness by creating images and narrating experiences beyond that which the Ilokos terrain provides.LEGENDS ~are considered as truthful accounts although the events they narrate often takes place at a time that is more recent than the mythological past ~the principal characters are human and not supernatural being. Kalman. Endaw shalungereng (Mata) ·Atay ya mabungot. or they may appear as figurative couplets Examples are: ·Adu-adu ay kali. bigat.P. EPIC ~reveals the impact of the colonial experience Example is: ·Biag ni Lam-ang RIDDLE Burtia or Burburtia Examples are: ·No baro narukop. the point of the game being to see the convergence of what is literally described and what is metaphorically meant Examples are: ·Pet-eng ni uleng. Marunrunot a mangted silaw. (Ibaloy) ·Lu mankawachi ta mataguta (Kalinga) ·Maphed di kakan ten nun nalingutan (Ifugao) RIDDLES ~are concise and highly metaphorical ~meant to test one¶s wit. no daan nalagda (Carabao manure) ·Aniat¶ banag a no ikkatan. and as such they are not taken seriously ~are told mainly to entertain Examples are: ·Dogidog (Tinguian) ·The Boy Who Became a Wild Hog (Kankanay) ·The Giant and the Dwarf (Ibaloy) ·The Siren of Paling (Bontok) ·Ag-Amon and Balbalngag (Kalinga) ·Surab and the Two Brothers (Isneg) ·Pangudya¶won (Ifugao) PROVERBS ~about human acts and motives. and also embody reflections on the human condition ~come in the form of one-line statements which are often plain and direct. CHANTS Dallot ~a chant during weddings and birthdays Dung-aw ~a chant narrating the pain and joy of the life story of both the living and the departed Examples are: ·Dallot Ti Pagnangas-Asawa ·Dung-aw ·Universo Ti Taengna MYTH Example is: ·Rice For the Moon SONG Example is: ·Pamulinawen Famous Writers in Ilocos Province ·Pedro Bukaneg ·Juan S. Hidalgo ·Artemio Ramel ·Leona Florentino ·Isabelo delos Reyes .