This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# Chemistry Books

S.No Authors /Publisher Name of Books Remarks

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6

P.Bahadur(G.R.Bathla & Sons) O.P. Tandon O.P. Tandon O.P. Tandon Paula Bruice Yurkanis J.D. Lee Bruce H. Mahan Organic Chemistry by MORRISON & BOYD

Numerical Chemistry Physical Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry University Chemistry Organic Chemistry

Physical Chemistry Physical Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Base Book Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book

Physics Books

S.NO 1 2 3

Authors /Publisher Name of Books Remarks

H.C.Verma I.E. Irodov Halliday, Resnick & Walker

Concepts of Physica Vol I For text books and and II problem books. Problems in General selected problems Physics Fundamentals of Physics Reference Book

Mathematics Books

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Authors /Publisher Name of Books Remarks

R.D. Sharma S. L. Loney S. L. Loney Hall Knight I.A. Maron Arihant Arihant Arihant

Maths XI & XII Trigonometry Co-ordinate Geometry Higher Algebra Problems in Calculus of One Variable Algebra Differential Calculus Integral Calculus

Basic Text Books Recommended Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book

IIT JEE 2012 Syllabus:IIT JEE Chemistry Syllabus 2012:Physical Chemistry:-

Kohlrausch’s law. p and d orbitals. Deviation from ideality. Second law of thermodynamics. Rate constant. Standard electrode potentials. common ion effect. Concentration in terms of mole fraction. spectrum of hydrogen atom. Mole concept. Equilibrium constant. Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions. Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium. pyramidal. Vapour pressure. Order of reactions. Nernst equation and its relation to DG. Hess’s law. square pyramidal. trigonal bipyramidal. work and heat. Kinetic theory of gases. Solid state: Classification of solids. neutralisation.chemistry clip image002 IIT JEE 2011 Syllabus). Hydrogen bond. Enthalpy. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. Wave-particle duality. Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions. Concentration cells. Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts). crystalline state.General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules. equivalent and molar conductivity. tetrahedral and octahedral). Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation). emf of galvanic cells. Chemical formulae. Hybridisation involving s. ideal gas equation. Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction. Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action. de Broglie hypothesis. p and d orbitals only. Dalton’s atomic theory. Polarity in molecules. Diffusion of gases. b. shapes of s. Law of partial pressures. Electrochemical series. Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration. dipole moment (qualitative aspects only). Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model. Uncertainty principle. Criterion of spontaneity. specific. Aufbau principle. molality and normality. First order reactions. Free energy. Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom. seven crystal systems (cell parameters a. Hydrolysis of salts. molarity. triangular. Balanced chemical equations. c. root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature. angular. and displacement reactions. Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36). Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule. Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature. Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species. quantum numbers. square planar. fusion and vapourization. van der Waals equation. close packed . Orbital overlap and covalent bond. Internal energy. VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear. Energetics: First law of thermodynamics. average. pressurevolume work. temperature and pressure). pH and buffer solutions. Solubility product. Electrolytic conductance. Entropy. Heat of reaction.

Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron. phosphorus and sulphur. Silicon: silicones. bcc and hcp lattices. carbonates. Xenon fluorides. Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars. Solutions: Raoult’s law. Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions. hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear. bicarbonates. .structure of solids (cubic). silver oxide. oxyacids (phosphorus acid. point defects. Colloids: types. cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead. chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+. sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides. copper. tin. Phosphorus: oxides. Transition elements (3d series): Definition. Nitrogen: oxides. sulphur and halogens. Properties of chemistry clip image004 IIT JEE 2011 Syllabusrays. Potassium permanganate. general characteristics. Boron: diborane. chlorides and sulphates of sodium. colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment. potassium. oxides and oxyacids of chlorine. peroxides. Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded). Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide. Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide. silicon. methods of preparation and general properties. simple ionic compounds. potassium dichromate. Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio. packing in fcc. Aluminium: alumina. elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point. Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. oxyacids and ammonia. square planar and octahedral). Oxides. silicates and silicon carbide. Elementary ideas of emulsions. Halogens: hydrohalic acids. Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid). oxides. Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure. bleaching powder. carbon dating. Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite). oxidation states and their stabilities. silver nitrate. magnesium and calcium. Nearest neighbours. Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms). surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples). Cu2+ and Zn2+. silver thiosulphate. tetrahedral. phosphorus. nitrogen. oxygen. Inorganic Chemistry:Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron. lead. boric acid and borax. hydroxides. phosphoric acid) and phosphine. aluminium chloride and alums. ionic radii. sulphurous acid.

aluminium.magnesium. Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections). Metal acetylides. Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded). Zn2+. Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+. Bi3+. Preparation. zinc and silver. Preparation. Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases. physical properties of alkanes (melting points. Cyanide process (silver and gold). Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone. Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2. Hg2+. Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method). Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination). halides (excluding fluoride). Structural and geometrical isomerism. Acidity of alkynes. IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons. density and dipole moments). Pb2+. HX. (R. Shapes of simple organic molecules. Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity. m. Al3+. Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage.S and E. Reduction of alkenes and alkynes. properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series. boiling points and density). Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions. Mn2+ and Mg2+). Cr3+. Effect of o-. Addition reactions of alkynes. carbanions and free radicals. Resonance and hyperconjugation. Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides. Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres. . nitration. Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions. Combustion and halogenation of alkanes. Keto-enol tautomerism. sulphonation. Carbon reduction method (iron and tin). Sigma and pi-bonds. Ca2+. Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. monofunctional and bi-functional compounds). structure and stability of carbocations. Cu2+. Self reduction method (copper and lead). Nitrate. Fe3+.and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes. Organic Chemistry:Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon. Formation. Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation. Ba2+. sulphate and sulphide.Z nomenclature excluded). Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium). properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points. HOX and H2O (X=halogen).

electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation. carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone). aldol condensation. Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber. formation of quadratic equations with given roots. S. reaction with sodium. teflon and PVC. conjugation. addition. Carboxylic acids: formation of esters. symmetric functions of roots. glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose. IIT JEE Mathematics Syllabus 2012 :Algebra: Algebra of complex numbers. Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation. cube roots of unity. carboxyl. nucleophilic substitution reactions. multiplication. polar representation. haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition). oxime and hydrazone formation. acid chlorides and amides. conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones.and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose). Kolbe reaction. Carbohydrates: Classification. relations between roots and coefficients. Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation. Cannizzaro reaction. dehydration and oxidation. Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties. amino and nitro. azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines. Grignard reactions. reduction. phosphorus halides. reaction with nitrous acid. sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers. ester hydrolysis. Alcohols: esterification. Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic). geometric and harmonic progressions. Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines. . Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N. Perkin reaction. Reimer-Tieman reaction. infinite geometric series. preparation from nitro compounds. reduction. sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Arithmetic. nylon. cellulose. Oxidation. geometric and harmonic means. mono. Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures. Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloa renes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution). triangle inequality. geometric interpretations.Phenols: Acidity. properties of modulus and principal argument. arithmetic. Quadratic equations with real coefficients. nitration and sulphonation). Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts. carbylamine reaction. ZnCl2/concentrated HCl. Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis. halogens).

equation of a straight line in space. Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines. normal and chord. Centroid. ellipse and hyperbola in standard form. intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle. equality of matrices. general solution of trigonometric equations. directrices and eccentricity. half-angle formula and the area of a triangle. equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines. addition and subtraction formulae. solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables. determinant of a square matrix of order up to three. . symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties. Equation of a circle in various forms. Equations of a parabola. independence of events. multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices. inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only). Addition and multiplication rules of probability. conditional probability. their periodicity and graphs. sine rule. computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations. orthocentre. addition. section formulae. their foci. parametric equations. cosine rule. distance of a point from a line. Parametric equations of a circle. distance of a point from a plane. properties of these matrix operations.Logarithms and their properties. formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles. Equation of a straight line in various forms. Locus Problems. Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers. distance between two points. Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios. Trigonometry: Trigonometric functions. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index. Permutations and combinations. Relations between sides and angles of a triangle. diagonal. angle between two lines. concurrency of lines. equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line. inverse of a square matrix of order up to three. equation of a plane. equations of tangent and normal. transpose of a matrix. properties of binomial coefficients. incentre and circumcentre of a triangle. Bayes Theorem. Analytical geometry: Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates. equations of tangent. shift of origin.

inverse of a function. significant figures. Determination of g using simple pendulum. difference. inverse trigonometric. difference. rational. composite functions. maximum and minimum values of a function. limit and continuity of the sum. exponential and logarithmic functions. separation of variables method. scalar multiplication. trigonometric. Integral calculus: Integration as the inverse process of differentiation. chain rule. geometrical interpretation of the derivative. Integration by parts. IIT JEE Physics Syllabus 2012 :General: Units and dimensions. indefinite integrals of standard functions. tangents and normals. integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions. absolute value. trigonometric. product and quotient of two functions. Derivative of a function. Even and odd functions. derivatives up to order two. Derivatives of implicit functions. Young’s modulus by Searle’s method. rational. scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations. definite integrals and their properties. dimensional analysis. Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using Vernier calipers and screw gauge (micrometer). Speed of sound using resonance column. product and quotient of two functions. solution of homogeneous differential equations. L’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions. linear first order differential equations. dot and cross products. Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus. Vectors: Addition of vectors. Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter. intermediate value property of continuous functions. continuity of composite functions. difference. application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.Differential calculus: Real valued functions of a real variable. product and quotient of two functions. focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method. polynomial. onto and one-toone functions. increasing and decreasing functions. Limit and continuity of a function. sum. Verification of Ohm’s law using voltmeter and . into. derivative of the sum. derivatives of polynomial. exponential and logarithmic functions. Formation of ordinary differential equations. least count. Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.

Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids. Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits. Stefan’s law. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Elementary concepts of convection and radiation. Systems of particles. Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases). Law of gravitation. Streamline flow. Kirchhoff’s law. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference. Pressure in a fluid. Equivalence of heat and work. Speed of sound in gases. Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy. latent heat. Electric field lines. bulk modulus of gases. Young’s modulus. Kinetic and potential energy. Collision of point masses with rigid bodies. Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation. Viscosity (Poiseuille’s equation excluded). First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases). Pascal’s law. Torque. Linear and angular simple harmonic motions. Newton’s law of cooling. Work and power. capillary rise. Gravitational potential and field. Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only). Acceleration due to gravity. and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box. such as. Rolling without slipping of rings. moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes. Escape velocity. Rigid body. Newton’s laws of motion. Vibration of strings and air columns.ammeter. Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers. Heat conduction in one dimension. Calorimetry. Buoyancy. to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. Beats. liquids and gases. Wave motion (plane waves only). . Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases. moment of inertia.Resonance. Flux of electric field. longitudinal and transverse waves. Stoke’s law. projectiles. Doppler effect (in sound). Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Surface energy and surface tension. Hooke’s law. cylinders and spheres. Conservation of angular momentum. Static and dynamic friction. Electric field and potential. Impulse. Equilibrium of rigid bodies. parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. Wien’s displacement law. Uniform Circular motion. Progressive and stationary waves. Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field. Angular momentum. Relative velocity. Ideal gas laws. Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb’s law. equation of continuity. Centre of mass and its motion. Terminal velocity. superposition of waves.

Law of radioactive decay. Decay constant. Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms. sources. polygons.c. Fission and fusion processes. Binding energy and its calculation. colour. Ohm’s law. Capacitors in series and parallel. circles etc. cubes. Wave nature of light: Huygen’s principle.c. volume and orientation. elevation (front or side views) of simple solid objects like prisms. surface texture. equipment. Characteristic and continuous X-rays. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism. Common domestic or day-to-day life usable objects like furniture. Magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire. beta and gamma radiations. IIT JEE Aptitude Test Syllabus 2012:Freehand drawing: This would comprise of simple drawing depicting the total object in its right form and proportion. angles. Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics. Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop. RC. Alpha. cones. splayed surface holders etc. Geometrical drawing: Exercises in geometrical drawing containing lines. interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment. Magnetic moment of a current loop. along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid. cylinders. and a. Architectural awareness: General interest and awareness of famous architectural . relative location and details of its component parts in appropriate scale. Moseley’s law. Sense of colour grouping or application. Capacitance. Moving coil galvanometer. Energy calculation in these processes. Context mapping. Self and mutual inductance. Energy stored in a capacitor. ammeter and their conversions. Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces. Lenz’s law. Visualization through structuring objects in memory. Creativity check through innovative uncommon test with familiar objects. LR and LC circuits with d. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law. Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light. Magnification.. Photoelectric effect. Three-dimensional perception: Understanding and appreciation of three-dimensional forms with building elements.uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. triangles. from memory. Biot–Savart’s law and Ampere’s law. Thin lenses. etc. Study of plan (top view). Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves. quadrilaterals. Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field. Heating effect of current. Imagination and aesthetic sensitivity: Composition exercise with given elements. Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells. Electric current. Total internal reflection. Modern physics: Atomic nucleus. voltmeter. Half-life and mean life.

(A) ZnS type (B) NaCl types (C) CsCl types 1. (b) Similarly. occupy the interstitial voids (a) If the anions (B-) constitute the crystal lattice and all octahedral voids are occupied by cations (A+). (c) When the anions (B-2) are constituting space lattice and all the tetrahedral voids are occupied by the cations (A+). ) in the related domain. Ionic compounds of the type AB Ionic compounds of the type AB have three types of crystalline structures. Sodium chloride (Rock salt) type structure . then the formula of the solid crystal becomes A+B-. From the knowledge of close packed structures and the voids developed there in.creations – both national and international. STRUCTURE OF IONIC COMPOUNDS Simple ionic compounds are of two types i. the anions usually constitute the space lattice with hcp or ccp type of arrangements whereas the cations. pencils. constituting the binary compounds. then the formula of the ionic solid is AB. Among the two ions. erasers and colour pencils or crayons for the Aptitude Test.e. if half of the tetrahedral voids are occupied by cations. then the formula of the solid crystal will be A2B. places and personalities (architects. Candidates are advised to bring geometry box sets. we can have an idea about the structures of simple ionic compounds. AB and AB2 type. designers etc.

each Cl. they do not touch each other and form an expanded face centred lattice. This arrangement is also regarded as face centred cubic arrangement (fcc).The sodium chloride structure is composed of Na+ and Cl.ions move apart slightly i. Cl. This is called 6:6 coordination. stoichiometry of NaCl is 1:1. the number of octahedral holes in ccp structure is equal to the number of anions. The radii of Na+ and Cl. the actual radius ratio (rNA+ / rCr = 0.524 for NaCl suggest an octahedral void. Unit cell structure of NaCl (iii) Since. (ii) The sodium ions are present in all the octahedral holes.e.414. So that the formula of sodium chloride is NaCl i.ion is surrounded by 6 Na+ ions. Similarly each Na+ ion is surrounded by 6 Cl.ions.524 rNA+ / rCr = 95 / 181 = 0. (iv) Since there are six octahedral holes around each chloride ions.as well as of Na+ ions is six.ions are present at the corners and at the centre of each face of the cube. Thus the salient features of this structure are as follows: (i) Chloride ions (In a typical unit cell) are arranged in cubic close packing (ccp). (v) It should be noted that Na+ ions to exactly fit the octahedral holes.ions. However. the Cl.524) exceeds this value. . the radius ratio rNA+ / rCr should be equal to 0. Therefore.ions. In this arrangement.ions 95 pm and 181 pm giving the radius ratio of 0.524 The radius ratio of 0. Therefore to accommodate large Na+ ions. the coordination number of Cl. every octahedral hole is occupied by Na+ ions. The number of sodium ions is equal to that of Cl.e.

Some of the common examples are NaI. NH4Br. the distance between Na+ and Cl.ion) a = 2 (rNA+ + rCr) Thus. oxides and sulphides of alkaline earth metals have this type of structures. However. this oxide is always non – stoichiometric and has the composition . KCl. . types structure in which O-2 ions are arranged in ccp and Fe+2 ions occupy octahedral ions. AgCl. Zinc blende (ZnS) type structures (sphelerite) The zinc sulphide crystals are composed of equal number of Zn+2 and S2. RbF. AgBr and AgI. the number of NaCl units per unit cell is 4. The radii of the two ions (Zn+2 = 74 pm and S-2 = 184 pm) led to the radius (r+ / r–) as 0. It can be explained on the assumption that some of the Fe+2 ion are replaced by 2/3rd as many Fe+3 ions in the octahedral voids. (vii) The edge length of the unit cell of NaCl type of crystal is 2(r+R) (r = radii of Na+ ion) (R = radii of Cl.40 which suggests a tetrahedral arrangement. Ferrous oxide also has sodium chloride.ions = a/2 Most of the halides of alkali metals.(vi) The unit cell of sodium chloride has 4 sodium and 4 chloride ions as calculated below No of sodium ions = 12 (at edge centres) × 1/4 + 1 (at body centre) × 1= 4 No of chloride ions = 8(at corner) × 1/8+6(at face centres) × 1/2 = 4 Thus.ions. 2. RbI. NH4Cl.

e. the ratio Zn+2/S-2 should be 0.rZn+2 / rS–2 = 0. Some more examples of ionic solids having Zinc blende structures are CuC. each zinc ion is surrounded by four sulphide ions and each sulphide ion is surrounded tetrahedrally by four zinc ions. sulphide ions are present at the corners and the centres of each face of the cube (ii) Zinc ions occupy tetrahedral hole. Thus zinc sulphide has 4:4 Co – ordination. CuBr. of S-2 ions = 8(at corners) × 1/8 + 6(at face centres) × 1/2 = 4 No. beryllium sulphide. CuI.40) (v) There are four Zn+2 ions and four S-2 ions per unit cell as calculated below: No. AgI. (iv) For exact fitting of Zn+2 in the tetrahedral holes. formed by close packing of S-2 ions. i.225. the stoichiometry of the compound is 1:1 (Only alternate tetrahedral holes are occupied by Zn+2) (iii) Since the void is tetrahedral. of Zn+2 ions = 4(within the body) × 1 = 4 Thus.e. the number of ZnS units per unit cell is equal to 4. Only half of the tetrahedral holes are occupied by Zn+2 so that the formula of the zinc sulphide is ZnS i. .40 The salient features of this structure are as follows (i) The Zinc ions are arranged in ccp arrangement. Actually this ratio is slightly large (0.

(ii) Only half the alternate tetrahedral voids are occupied by Zn+2 ions. Thus. of Zn+2 ions as well as S-2 ions is 4. there will be nAg+ ions. As I. (iii) Coordinate no. The main features of this structure are (i) Sulphide ions have HCP arrangement and zinc ions occupy tetrahedral voids. there are 6 formula units per unit cell. number of tetrahedral voids = 2n. of S-2 ions per unit cell = 12(at corners) × 1/6 + 2 (at face centres) × 1/2 + 3 (within the unit cell) × 1 = 6 Thus.Illustration 37. Illustration 38. The co-ordination number of a metal crystallising in hcp structure is (A) 12 (B) 10 . if there are nI.ions forming the lattice then calculate fraction of the tetrahedral voids occupied by Ag+ ions. (iv) No.ions form the lattice. As there are nAg+ ions to occupy these voids. of Zn+2 ions per unit cell = 4(within the unit cell) × 1 + 6(at edge centres) × 1/3 = 6 A unit cell representation of wurtzite structure No.ions. The Wurtzite structures It is an alternate form in which ZnS occurs in nature. therefore fraction of tetrahedral voids occupied by Ag+ ions = n/2n = ½ = 50%. Solution: In AgI. 3. this structure has 4 : 4 coordination. If silver iodide crystallizes in a zinc blende structure with I.

= 181 pm) led to radius ratio of rCS+ to rCl– as 0. Therefore packing of Cl. The radii of two ions (Cs+ = 169 pm and Cl.93 which suggest a body centred cubic structure having a cubic hole rCS+ to rCl– = 169 / 181 = 0. . However.93 The salient features of this structure are as follows: (i) The chloride ion form the simple cubic arrangement and the caesium ions occupy the cubic interstitial holes. (iii) For exact fitting of Cs+ ions in the cubic voids the ratio rCS+ / rCl– should be equal to 0.(C) 8 (D) 6 Solution: (A) 4.ions and each Cl. Caesium chloride (CsCl) structure The caesium chloride crystal is composed of equal number of caesium (Cs+) and Chloride Clions.732. actually the ratio is slightly larger (0.ions slightly open up to accommodate Cs+ ions. Thus the Co – ordination number of each ion is eight.ions are at the corners of a cube whereas Cs+ ion is at the centre of the cube or vice versa (ii) Each Cs+ ion is surrounded by 8 Cl.93).ion in surrounded by 8 Cs+ ions. In other words Cl.

Any attempt to pack 8 anions around the relatively small cation (Li+. Rb+) will produce a state in which negative ions will touch each other.(iv) The unit cell of caesium chloride has one Cs+ ion and one Cl. CsI. K+.ion as calculated below No. TlCl. TlBr Higher coordination number in CsCl(8:8) suggest that the caesium chloride lattice is more stable than the sodium chloride lattice in which Co – ordination number is 6:6.ion 8(at corners) × 1/8 = 1 No. rCS to rCl = a√3/2 Other common examples of this type of structure are CsBr. number of CsCl units per unit cell is 1 (v) Relation between radius of cation and anion and edge length of the cube. . of Cs+ ion = 1(at body centre) × 1=1 Thus. Actually the caesium chloride lattice is found to be 1% more stable than the sodium chloride lattice. Then the question arises why NaCl and other similar compounds do not have CsCl type lattice – This is due to their smaller radius ratio. Na+. of Cl. This causes unstability to the lattice. sooner they approach a positive ion.