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State of the Philippine Population Report 2004

State of the Philippine Population Report 2004

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Published by Glenda Gonzales
The State of the Population Report 2004 seeks to explain the relationship of local governance, urbanization and population and recommends responsive policy interventions that, if implemented, would contribute to good governance and improved quality of lief of Filipinos.
The State of the Population Report 2004 seeks to explain the relationship of local governance, urbanization and population and recommends responsive policy interventions that, if implemented, would contribute to good governance and improved quality of lief of Filipinos.

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Published by: Glenda Gonzales on May 11, 2011
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State of the Philippine Population Report 2004

Urbis

5

MAKING CITIES WORK
Population, Urbanization, and Local Governance

Commission on Population
Welfareville Compound Acacia Lane Mandaluyong City Philippines www.popcom.gov.ph Tel. +63 (2) 531-6805, 531-6978

n

Commission on Population

United Nations Population Fund

Preface
R
apid urban growth, when unmanaged, strains the capacity of local and national governments to provide even the most basic of services such as health, food, shelter, productive employmen, and education. The challenge then is for the national government and most especially the local governments to develop effective policies, programs, and strategies that will help them get the most out of urbanization; to manage urbanization to ensure development. Efforts at solving urban development problems must be guided by the fact that such problems are inextricably affected by the population and development link, and therefore policy and institutional interventions that address both population and development concerns holistically are required. The State of the Philippine Population Report 2004 entitled “Urbis 5: Making Cities Work” seeks to explain this relationship and recommends responsive policy interventions that, if implemented, would contribute to good governance and the improved quality of life of Filipinos. Maraming salamat po!

Acknowledgments
The following were mainly responsible for the planning, conceptualization, coordination, and production of the SPPR 2004: TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Mercedes B. Concepcion, Ph.D. (Chairperson), CARD Gelia T. Castillo, Ph.D., NAST Ledivina V. Cariño, Ph.D., UP-NCPAG Mario B. Lamberte, Ph.D., PIDS Nimfa B. Ogena, Ph.D., UPPI Marissa C. Reyes-Camacho, PCPD Ma. Theresa M. Fernandez, UNFPA Tomas M. Osias, POPCOM Mia C. Ventura Victoria D. Corpuz Lolita C. Layser Zenaida M. Opiniano Rosalinda D. Marcelino Gloria I. Mendoza TECHNICAL WRITING TEAM Philippine Institute for Development Studies Aniceto C. Orbeta, Ph.D. (Team Leader) Rosario G. Manasan, Ph.D. Fatima E. Del Prado Janet S. Cuenca Iris L. Acejo Eden C. Villanueva Leilanie Q. Basilio COMMISSION ON POPULATION Ma. Libertad M. Dometita Moises F. Villacorta Lyrah Gay Ellies S. Borja Jeremias Cabasan POPULAR VERSION TEAM Katherine S. Lopez Albert A. Borrero George R. Reyes PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE Albert P. Aquino, Ph.D. David Dereck P. Golla, VI Luis M. Pedroso Ronald Allan B. Sindo Ferdinand B. Estoesta PHOTO CREDITS Department of Tourism Benjamin S. Espartero Regional Population Offices (Regions 6, 9 and 11)

Ma. Luisa D. Barrios-Fabian John Michael Ian I. Salas Hope A. Gerochi Glenda R. Gonzales

Tomas M. Osias Executive Director Commission on Population

Ralph A. Ruivivar Harold Alfred P. Marshall Darlyn S. Remolino

Urbis

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Elizabeth M. Libas Serlie B. Jamias Tanya Mia M. Hisanan

The theme of the State of the Philippine Population Report (SPPR) 2004 is Urbanization, Population, and Local Governance. To highlight the importance of the theme, the SPPR titled Urbis 5: Making Cities Work, promotes five interlocking messages on how local governance can be enhanced to manage population and urbanization. Urbis 5 represents the framework that was used to develop the messages and prescriptions for making cities succeed. Urbis is the Latin word for city, while five represents the number of messages, elements, and goals that urban centers could aim for to make cities work. The elements include a productive population, responsive service delivery, revenue generation, investment opportunities, and sustained productivity. These are hinged on five important and basic needs that include food, shelter, health, education, and employment.

Atty. Nolito M. Quilang Tanya Mia M. Hisanan Riela A. Ramos Rey Dennis G. Caballero Felix B. Agravante

City of Lipa Ariel T. Javellana

Urbis

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Making Cities Work

1 The Urban Sprawl
Bahay Kubo Country No More

E

very day, new urban dwellers are added to the world’s cities and urban centers, contributing to the human bloat of more than 3 billion in 2003. A United Nations report says that the dramatic growth of the global urban population, “especially concentrated in the less developed regions, continue to pose formidable challenges to individual countries as well as the world community…”

The Philippines is an urbanizing society. In 2000, its urban population— the proportion of the total population living in areas classified as urban—was pegged at 48%—proof that the country is more urbanized than rural or agricultural. Urban growth was largely attributed to the natural increase in population in urban centers, migration of people from rural areas, and the reclassification of settlements from rural to urban.

This rapid urbanization has occurred only in the last four or five decades, when many rural dwellers trooped to urban centers in search for the proverbial good fortune and good life. Indeed, as research shows, cities provide countless opportunities for economic development. In fact, urban areas contribute to the growth and expansion of the domestic economy. Furthermore, urban areas serve as the industrial, commercial, and

1

Urbis

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Making Cities Work

administrative centers in the different regions of the country. Urban centers represent availability and accessibility to various services and facilities. Often, however, urbanization is occurring at such a rapid pace that cities are not able or are unequipped to manage the attendant concerns and provide the basic services needed by the growing population.

Population management: LGU mandate
Managing rapid urban population growth is a critical concern of the government, especially local government units (LGU). Under Executive Order 307 and Section 17 of the Local Government Code, LGUs are now tasked with providing services and carrying out programs on population. Thus, they are expected to manage the problems arising from population growth resulting from urbanization and development. Our local government executives are faced with a tall order. The

population problem, especially in our rapidly urbanizing society, is a serious concern that needs to be addressed immediately if the quality of life in our cities and towns will be improved. To arrest problems in urbanizing centers, population growth needs to be stabilized and managed. The implication of this is worrisome for the national government, but even more so for local city executives and local government officials. How will they manage the burgeoning urban mass? How can they even plan to enhance delivery of services when basic problems such as lack of an appropriate structure to deal with local governance and inadequate resource generation mechanisms or revenues for city development and improvement persist? How can cities cope with the issues, challenges, and constraints that they currently face? There is no one blueprint for success that local executives could follow. Each local executive can learn from the experiences of other city planners and officials on how best to

solve problems of local governance, service delivery, and population management. Local government units should take on the task of managing the population in earnest. Implementation of population programs indicate the importance that the LGUs place on demographic concerns. And currently, LGUs do not put much focus on these concerns.

SPPR 2004
The State of the Philippine Population Report (SPPR) 2004 focuses on how LGUs manage the growing urban population and cope with the challenges brought about by decentralization, rapid urbanization, and booming population. It presents the results of eight case cities and highlights how selected LGUs rose to the challenge of providing critical services to an ever-increasing population, specifically in the areas of local policies, planning and monitoring, resource mobilization, revenue allocation, population management, and institutional collaboration.

Urbanization
Urbanization refers to the proportion of total population living in urban areas. Urban areas are defined as “cities and municipalities which have a population density of at least 1,000 persons per square kilometer, poblaciones or central districts of municipalities and cities which have a population density of at least 500 persons per square kilometer, and poblaciones or central districts regardless of size, which have the following: street pattern, at least six establishments (commercial, manufacturing, recreational, and/or personal services), any three of the following: town hall, church, or chapel with religious services at least once a month; public plaza, park, or cemetery; market place or building where trading activities are carried out at least once a month; a public building such as a school, hospital, puericulture and health center, or library), and barangays with at least 1,000 inhabitants, where the occupation of inhabitants is predominantly nonagricultural. An updated definition of urbanization will be adopted in the next census.
Source: National Statistics Office in 1960, 1970

Executive Order No.307: devolving the population management mandate to LGUs
Implementing a family planning program at the local government level In Executive Order 307 signed by then President Fidel V. Ramos on February 28, 1996, local chief executives, specifically governors and mayors of cities and municipalities, were directed to promote the Philippine Family Planning Program as a priority government program through advocacy activities, participation in program management, use of local facilities, services of local providers and local employees, and use of other local resources and expertise. Furthermore, local government executives were tasked to ensure that information and services endorsed by the program are made available at appropriate levels of service outlets, that they provide the needed financial support to the program, and that they coordinate with the Department of Health and the Commission on Population as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector in implementing the program.

The report stresses that urbanization creates both opportunities and challenges. Opportunities include expanding tax base and joint economies, accompanied by the burden of heavier service delivery. It is expected that an increase in revenues from tax collection or the internal revenue allotment should be able to pay for increased service provision. This report also promotes several interlocking messages that could make cities work. Productive population, responsive service delivery, revenue generation, investment opportunities, and sustained productivity are the goals that cities work for. These are hinged on five basic needs that include food, shelter, health, education, and employment. How well the LGUs handle changes brought about by urbanization are tackled in the individual case studies, which also show the unique strengths and advantages of each of the cities. Lessons distilled from the cases are presented in the last two chapters, which also include some policy recommendations. Some prescriptions are forwarded here based on the experiences of the selected cities. These should provide local executives with a guide to what works and what does not work. Learning from these experiences would help city planners and executives avoid the pitfalls of poor or lack of urban or municipal planning. Our actions today will decide whether tomorrow’s population will lead healthier and more productive lives. It is urgent that the right choices and decisions are made now because the consequences of these decisions would take time and resources that there is not enough of.

RA 7160: The Local Government Code, Section 17, Basic Services and Facilities
a. Local government units shall endeavor to be self-reliant and shall continue exercising the powers and discharging the duties and functions currently vested upon them. Local government units shall likewise exercise such other powers and discharge such other functions and responsibilities as are necessary, appropriate, or incidental to efficient and effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein. Such basic services and facilities include, but are not limited to, the following: For a Barangay: Health and social welfares which include maintenance of barangay health center and day-care center. For a Municipality: Subject to the provisions of Title Five, Book I of this Code, health services which include the implementation of programs and projects on primary health care, maternal and child care, and communicable and noncommunicable disease control services; access to secondary and tertiary health services; purchase of medicines, medical supplies, and equipment needed to carry out the services herein enumerated. Social services which include programs and projects on child and youth welfare, family and community welfare, women’s welfare of the elderly and disabled persons, community-based rehabilitation programs for vagrants, beggars, street children, scavengers, juvenile delinquents, and victims of drug abuse; livelihood and other propoor projects; nutrition services; and family planning services. For a Province: Subject to the provisions of the Title Five, Book I of this Code, health services which include programs and projects on rebel returnees and evacuees; relief operations and population development services. For a City: All the services and facilities of the municipality and province, and in addition thereto, the following: a. National agencies or offices concerned shall devolve to local government units the responsibility for the provision of basic services and facilities enumerated in this section within six months after the effectivity of this Code. The basic services and facilities shall be funded from the share of local government units in the proceeds of national taxes and other local revenues and funding support from the National Government, its instrumentalities and government-owned or controlled corporations which are tasked by law to establish and maintain such services or facilities. Any fund or resource available for use of local government units shall be first allocated to the provision of basic services or facilities enumerated in subsection (b) hereof before applying the same for other purposes, unless otherwise provided in this Code.

b.

b.

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State of Philippine Population Report 2004

The urban sprawl

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Making Cities Work

The Facts of Urbanization
Urbanization levels
History clearly documents the beginning of cities and urban cores during the Spanish times and how this set off the Philippines’ path to urbanization. By 1950, approximately 15% of the country’s population resided in urban agglomerations or clusters with more than 26,000 persons, while 10% resided in poblaciones or town centers of municipalities. In addition, the proportion of urban population in the Philippines stood at 27.1%, the highest in Southeast Asia at the time. During the 50s and 60s, however, the pace of urbanization in the country became slower than its Asian neighbors. In contrast, the level of urbanization increased from 31.8% in 1970 to 37.5% in 1980, further shooting up to 47% in 1990. The increase was attributed to the marked rise in urban population growth, which was 4.4% in the 1970s
and 5% per annum in the 1980s, and a decline in rural population growth from 1.8% in the 1970s to 0.3% in the 1980s. Surprisingly, the acceleration in urbanization coincided with the stagnating economy during the period. From 1990 to 2000, urbanization increased only by one percentage point, that is 47.1% to 48%. This was due to two major setbacks that severely constrained the expansion of employment opportunities in urban areas. The 1990-1991 and 1997-1998 periods experienced negative real gross domestic product (GDP) growth. The Philippines had the lowest annual growth rate of 1.4% in Asia from 1992 to 2002.

World urban population (%), 1995 More developed regions Less developed regions East Asia

Geographical patterns
Two patterns of urbanization are evident by geographic location: (1) Urbanization rates have consistently been highest in the same five regions—excluding the

National Capital Region (NCR), and (2) the urban population has remained spatially concentrated. The NCR along with other regions such as Central Luzon (Region lll), Southern Tagalog (Region lV), Central Visayas (Region Vll), Northern Mindanao (Region X ), and Southern Mindanao (Region Xl) had the highest proportion of urban population since 1970. Of the 1,500 towns and cities in the Philippines, the 14 urban areas with population sizes exceeding 250,000 accounted for about 55% of urban population in 1970 and about 44% in 2000. The NCR accounted for 27.8%—a condition referred to as urban primacy. The obvious trend is that smaller towns and cities are starting to have higher population growth than the larger cities, indicating that: (1) migration has started to favor smaller urban centers as areas of destination, and (2) gradual geographic deconcentration of the urban population has started.

Central Asia Southeast Asia South Asia Latin America North Africa sub-Saharan Africa 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percent (%)
Sources: Pernia and Alabastro 1997, 2002 ADB Key Indicators

Urban population (% of total), SEA countries, 1950-1995 Percentage (%) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

The facts of urbanization
• • • • • •
The world’s urban population was 3 billion in 2003 and is expected to rise to 5 billion by 2030. 48% of the world’s population lived in urban areas in 2003. This is projected to exceed the 50% mark by 2007, when the world will have more urban residents than rural residents. By 2030, the proportion of urban population is expected to be 61%. Population growth will be particularly rapid in urban areas of less developed regions, averaging 2.3% per year during 20022003. By 2017, the number of urban dwellers will equal the number of rural dwellers in the less developed regions. Asia posted the fastest urban population growth in the world in recent years. By 2015 almost half of the world’s 27 cities will be found in Asia.

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

1995

Source: Pernia and Alabastro 1997, Pernia and Israel 1994, and NSO (Philippines 1970-1995)

Source: UN Press Release POP/899, 24 March 2004

Urban areas and cities in the Philippines with population exceeding 250,000 persons in 2000
Percentage (%) 30 NCR

Sources of growth
In the Philippines, urban population has been growing much faster than total population. It has been increasing in three ways: natural increase (births minus deaths), net migration (inmigration minus out-migration), and reclassification of previously rural to urban areas. Among the three sources of urban growth, natural increase was the largest source of growth, followed only by reclassification in 1960-1970. Net migration was also a significant

15 5
M et ro D Ce av ao bu

source of urban growth. In contrast, reclassification was the main source followed by natural increase in the 1980s-1990s.

4 3 2 1 0

Across cities, the importance of migration in the growth of cities located within the same region varied. Another observation was that while core cities may not be growing fast, the surrounding areas are growing faster, indicating spillover effects. Urbanization is expected to continue and may reach 65% by 2020. Urban primacy, however, will be reduced as other urban destinations become more attractive.

Za m bo an Ca ga ga ya nd Ba eO co lo ro d G en er al Sa Ilo nt ilo os Ilig an

2000

Source: Philippine Statistical Yearbooks, 1970 and 2000

Bu tu an An ge les Ta rla c Ba gu io Ba ta ng as

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State of Philippine Population Report 2004

The urban sprawl

5

Tales of 8 Cities

Urbis

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Making Cities Work

Legalizing Cooperation in Cebu
A metropolitan area is defined as a large urban settlement with a population of at least 1 million. Its geographical area extends across several local government boundaries. There’s no question about it—Metro Cebu is a metropolitan area. Metro Cebu consists of four cities—Cebu, Mandaue, Lapu-Lapu, and Talisay—and six municipalities. In 2000, its population was 1,693,881. This is projected to double by 2010. Cebu one of the major sites for foreign investments. And as the manufacturing industries and economic activities came in, so did the workers and migrants from nearby municipalities and provinces. Metro Cebu offered an alternative for people wanting to go to Metro Manila. Now, Metro Cebu is the economic, trading, and educational hub of central and southern Philippines. It is accessible through numerous ports and an international airport. It is the second international gateway and the second largest urban area in the country—Metro Manila being the first. It is also second to Metro Manila in terms of population.

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General

Ceboom
Before the 70s, Cebu was among the slowest growing provinces. But during the late 80s to early 90s, changes in the global environment made Metro

Facts
Land area Industries Population Population growth rate Population density Crude birth rate Crude death rate Net migration Per capita income Total income 74,209 ha Manufacturing, banking, real estate 1,693,881 (2000) 2.90 (2000) 2,351 persons/km2 Cebu: 26.16%; Lapu-Lapu: 31.28%; Mandaue: 29.78% (2000) Cebu: 6.17%; Lapu-Lapu: 4.43%; Mandaue: 4.56% (2000) -187.87 (2000) PhP1,088.35 PhP3,390.60 M (2000)

CEBU
T
he mention of Cebu City brings to mind Magellan’s cross and the feast of Sinulog. Cebu City is the second most important city in the Philippines and, according to Asiaweek in 1995, the eighth most livable city in Asia. It is part of a bigger group of towns and cities called Metropolitan Cebu.

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

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Tales of 8 Cities

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Making Cities Work

Population Trend 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 1970 1980 1990 2000

Population landscape
Although Metro Cebu’s almost 2 million population is a far cry from Metro Manila’s 8 million, its population increase is still rapid. Its growth rate may have decreased from 3.69 in 1990 to 2.90 in 2000, but this figure is still higher than Cebu Province’s 2.41% and the country’s 2.34%. Both the significant migration and the high rate of natural increase have contributed to this. Metro Cebu has a young population as a result of high fertility. Its median age is 22, which means half of the population is 22 years and below. Women of child-bearing age (15-49 years old) make up 55.4% of the total population. This has an implication on Metro Cebu’s increased population growth.

However, congestion and high housing prices have forced many to move out of the Metro Cebu cities. This is reflected by the trend of outmigration observed in 2000 in the cities of Cebu and Lapu-Lapu. But Metro Cebu is still densely populated. Its entire population is almost half of the population of the province of Cebu but it only takes up 14% of the province’s land area.

Curbing the baby boom
Metro Cebu exhibits high fertility rates. In 2000, the cities of Cebu, Mandaue, and Lapu-Lapu exhibited 10.1, 8.5, and 11.4% fertility rates, respectively, compared with the country’s average of 3.38%.

In Cebu City, the City Health Office dispenses free family planning commodities distributed to health centers in the city’s 77 barangays. In Lapu-Lapu, it has been noted that female sterilization has become a popular method of family planning. The Metro Cebu Community Advocacy Network for Family Planning and Reproductive Health was also launched last July 2004. This is a network of different urban poor groups and community associations which aims to bring other urban poor communities and informal sector organizations into the family planning advocacy to intensify information dissemination on reproductive health.

Improving service delivery
Metro Cebu’s population programs are part of its efforts of battling the growing population problem. Improving service delivery is another area of concern because of the increasing need for basic services. For Cebu City, LapuLapu and Mandaue, the biggest share of their budget in 2000 went to general public services. Despite this, there are still inadequacies that need to be met. Although the number of health facilities covers 91% of the total area of Metro

Cebu, infant mortality is still high in Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, and Mandaue. School facilities and teachers are also inadequate in number. From 1993 to 1999, there was a 60% increase in the number of registered motor vehicles in the Metro, which further aggravated the traffic problem. There is also a housing crisis because of unavailability and unaffordability of land for mass housing. The creation of the Inayawan Sanitary Landfill addressed the problem of waste disposal but the dumpsite is now on its 6th year of operation and is nearing its life. In addition, the water supply capacity of the Metro Cebu Water District is not sufficient for the growing number of urban population in Metro Cebu.

MCDP addressed traffic management and congestion through infrastructure development by expanding existing roads, constructing new roads, and establishing a bus terminal and public markets. The delivery of more cost-effective services such as water supply, garbage disposal, and solid waste management across shared borders is also being studied. Public health and basic education receive priority attention because these services benefit even nonresidents of a local jurisdiction.

Toward a metropolitan development authority
Establishing a permanent body that would look into the various development needs of Metro Cebu as a whole looks like the answer to more efficient service delivery and governance. A metropolitan development authority would address the lack of financial sustainability of a council whose budget is tied with funds coming from partner agencies. Under Section 10 of RA 7924, a metropolitan development authority is given one billion pesos as an initial budget for its operation. Thereafter, annual expenditures are provided for under the General Appropriations Act. A bill creating a Metropolitan Cebu Development Authority (MCDA) was forwarded in Congress. The proposal is for MCDA not to be placed under the Office of the President. Its Chairman will be elected from among the members of the council annually instead of being a presidential appointee. Until now, Metro Cebu is waiting for the bill to be passed so the LGUs can officially work with each other in improving service delivery.

Putting their acts together
Urban services are provided more efficiently and effectively if they are jointly planned and delivered. Thus, the cities and municipalities of Metro Cebu embarked on a project called Metro Cebu Development Project (MCDP) to put their acts together. The Metro Cebu Development Council (MCDC) was created as its project office. The governor of Cebu plus the mayors of Metro Cebu’s four cities and six municipalities are its members.

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State of Philippine Population Report 2004

Tales of 8 Cities

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Making Cities Work

Iligan: Steeling it Up

ILIGAN

Industries fuel urbanization
These industries became the magnet that attracted a throng of migrants looking for higher wages or better jobs. The population of Iligan City climbed by 7.5% in 1960. Two decades later, the population of 58,433 almost tripled to 167,358. The highest net migration rate recorded so far was 14.5% in 19751980. The population in Iligan City skyrocketed from 9% in 1970 to 31% in 1990. Iligan City was home to 17 manufacturing industries at one time, which fueled its growth. These industries became a significant source of revenue and livelihood. The most notable of these is the NSC which employed as many as 4,000 people and provided as much as 75% of Iligan’s total tax revenue. This does

General

Facts
Land area Industries Products Charter year Population Population growth rate Crude birth rate Crude death rate Net migration Poverty incidence Total income 81,337 ha Manufacturing, Agriculture Services Steel, cement, coffee, abaca, cutflower, cabbage, watermelon 1950 285,061 (2000) 0.93% (2000) 31.95% (1995-2000) 5.41% (1995-2000) -25,135 (1995-2000) 54% (1998) PhP698 M (2003)

B

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

ehind Iligan City’s industrialization is Mother Nature’s gift of a 320-foot high cascade, the Maria Cristina Falls. When this wonder of nature dubbed as “The Mother of Industry” was tapped for hydroelectric power in 1952, it propelled Iligan City to urbanization and eventual progress. Soon, many industries sprouted in the city such as Mabuhay Vinyl Corp., Mindanao Portland Cement, San Miguel Corporation-Iligan Coconut Oil Mill, Granexport Manufacturing Corp., and National Steel Corp. (NSC), among others.

not include the other industries which catered to NSC’s needs, such as the Refractories Corporation of the Philippines, which supplied industrial bricks for the NSC heating system. To some extent the lifeline of Iligan and its people heavily relied on NSC’s operations. As long as NSC and the other major industries were ticking, good times are to stay in Iligan, or so the city residents thought. However, Iligan and its people were unprepared for the turnaround. Unfavorable climate conditions such as El Niño and La Niña, implementation of trade liberalization, and the onslaught of the Asian financial crisis drove away the major industries in Iligan. At least 10 major firms closed and stopped their operations between 1998 and 1999. The hardest blow came when NSC suspended its operations. As a result of the economic crisis,
Tales of 8 Cities

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Making Cities Work

Population Trend 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0
Total Population Urban Population

Employment by Industry (1997–2002)

Agriculture 17% Industry 18% Services 65%

investments nose-dived by 87% from PhP4,144 million in 1997 to PhP358 million in 1999. Exports plummeted from $178 million in 1998 to $84 million in 1999. Many residents in Iligan found themselves jobless. According to the National Statistics Office (NSO), industrial employment constantly decreased from 1997 to 2000 with 9,000 jobs lost. Overall employment did not decrease though until 2000 with 12,000 jobs lost. Consequently, with the bleak economy, many Iliganons scrambled to look for other sources of livelihood elsewhere. Iligan City ’s population growth rate dipped to 0.93% when the crisis hit. From 1995 to 2000,

net migration rate was at an almost negative 9%. The city’s population went down by 25,135 due to outmigration. Accordingly, the city government of Iligan found itself with many jobless constituents amid decreasing revenues and economic slowdown.

Involving the people in solving the crisis
In responding to the crisis, the city government of Iligan was unfazed. It ventured into participatory and innovative programs to address the problems. It launched week-long trainings for displaced workers to learn new skills. It also provided part-time and

casual employment in the city hall. The city government also embarked on infrastructure projects to boost the competitiveness of Iligan and at the same time supply jobs to Iliganons. Learning from the crisis, the city government shifted its development strategies and decided to start developing its agriculture and tourism to expand its economic base. In addition, it committed itself to improving revenue generation through the Tax Revenue Assessment and Collection System (TRACS), a software that facilitates identification and collection of due revenues; intensification of tax mapping; modernization of property assessment; and the one-stop shop for tax

collection. It even advertised in the local radio and television to remind its constituents of the tax payment period and permit renewal. There was even a government vehicle roving around barangays making public announcements. The most exemplary effort of the city government is its dedication to involve its constituents in its projects. A case in point is the rebuilding of Iligan’s city market which was gutted by fire. Stall owners helped raise resources to reconstruct 240 stalls by paying a PhP20,000—equity fund which served as a tax credit for five years. After which the stalls will be passed on to the city government. The city government also conducts public consultations so that land use and medium-term plans echo the true needs of its constituents. The city government broadened its participatory governance approaches by requiring barangays to come up with their own Barangay Development Plan (BDP) before their share of the city budget could be granted. The BDP uses the Participatory Resource Appraisal (PRA) to determine the needs of the barangay residents. In recognition of the efforts of the city government, the Mayor of Iligan who showed the way during the economic crisis was named Most Outstanding City Mayor in 2002 and was the recipient of a Local Government Leadership Award. Five years after the economic crisis, Iligan City is gradually bouncing back to regain its status as the “symbol of RP’s industrialization”.

Enhancing revenue collection in Iligan
The abrupt exit of the big manufacturing industries in Iligan meant that the local government suddenly had to support its large and newly-jobless population with too little money. But by improving tax collection, Iligan City proved that “pamamaluktot” is not the only solution for a “maiksing kumot”. It showed that to cope with a short blanket, every square inch must be maximized. With increased revenues from efficient tax collection, Iligan city ensured that it would have enough funds to serve its people. Systematized Tax Records Computerizing and integrating the tax collection system made it easier to assess and verify Iligan residents’ tax records. With the help of the Philippine Regional Municipal Development Project, Iligan developed the TRACS or Tax Revenue Assessment and Collection System software. This resulted in more accurate tax record-keeping and cross-checking for the city. Intensified Tax Mapping Small businesses sustain local economies, not just by creating job opportunities, but also by contributing to local government revenue. Efficient fund collection, however, begins with registration and validation of businesses. By linking to the Geographic Information System, the Iligan Treasurer’s Office and Planning Office worked together to easily identify new business and commercial areas, and facilitate proper taxation. Updated Property Assessment Outdated land classification schemes and market values in City Assessors’ records often result in below-optimum collection of property taxes. Iligan, particularly, had been collecting very low property taxes since its land classification scheme had not been adjusted since 1997. Thus, new property assessment levels were recommended in 2002, based on new land classifications and market values. Because of public opposition to the sudden property tax increase, the government based the new assessments on 1997 classification rates, but adopted new market values. Although taxes under the new scheme still did not reflect true market values, the government already managed to get some increases. Easier Tax Payments The hassle involved in going from one office to another to get documents and make payments is one reason why people hate paying taxes. Thus, to encourage Iligan residents to pay their taxes, the city government set up a “one-stop shop”, allowing taxpayers to get all needed documents and make necessary payments in one complex. The city government also painstakingly reminded people to pay their taxes using posters, TV and radio ads, and even government vehicles equipped with loudspeakers. Innovative Financing Strategies Aside from improving taxation, Iligan also made innovations in funding infrastructure projects, such as the reconstruction of the public market, and the construction of the integrated bus and jeepney terminal. Two hundred forty stalls had to be rebuilt when fire destroyed the Iligan City Market in 2000. Realizing that high interest payments to government financial institutions would devour the city’s finances, the Iligan city government worked instead with the stall owners themselves. Store owners agreed to shoulder the reconstruction of their respective stalls, in return for 5 years of free rental. After 5 years, the stalls would be passed on to the city government. The Iligan City jeepney and bus terminal was built to facilitate transportation. To maximize revenues, a commercial center was built inside it. Bidding was employed to allocate stalls in the complex. Minimum prices for each stall were set by the city government based on the expected profitability of the stall locations. Bidding started from these minimum prices. This process generated prices which more accurately reflected the stalls’ actual market values.

19 03 19 18 19 39 19 48 19 60 19 70 19 80 19 90 20 00

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ILOILO
More Heads Are Working in Iloilo
Participatory Iloilo General
Participation is at the heart of the development efforts in Iloilo City. Many of the city’s projects and programs involve the participation of various sectors. One good example is the city’s Community Oriented Policing System (COPS). The project capitalizes on people’s cooperation to prevent and solve crimes. This system helped improve the Iloilo City Police Office’s (ICPO) efficiency and effectiveness. Thus, despite the ICPO’s shortage in manpower, it bagged the Best City Police award in 2003. Another example of Iloilo’s participatory approach to governance is the planning workshops it conducted to come up with the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) for 1998 to 2010. Here, the city government sought public participation in identifying measures that would address urbanization issues. Various sectors actively participated in the workshop including the academe, nongovernment organizations, people’s organizations, church, banking institutions, business clubs, civic clubs, and other professional clubs. In addition, the preparation of the CLUP was closely coordinated with its neighboring municipalities of Pavia, Leganes, Oton, and San Miguel. Iloilo City is able to grab the opportunities brought about by the active participation of the various sectors, which play a big role in helping

Facts
Land area Industries Population Daytime transient population Population growth rate Population density Crude birth rate Crude death rate Per capita income Poverty incidence 7,023 ha Agro-industrial, services 391,293 (2003) 550,000 (2003) 1.93% (1995-2000) 6,533 persons/km2 10.23% (2003) 4.89% (2003) PhP1,632 (2002) 9.11% (2002)

M

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

outh-watering seafood and original La Paz batchoy—one of the best places to find these delicacies is in Iloilo. These delicacies are not prepared by Ilonggos to be savored alone but in groups. Eating is indeed more pleasurable when the experience is shared. In the same manner, responding to the problems brought about by urban growth is more efficient when done by a group. There are more ideas and inputs, and efforts become coordinated making the resulting response more cost-effective.

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Employment by Type of Job (2002) 22% Gov’t and special interest org officials Professionals Technicians Clerks Service workers Farmers Traders Plant and machine operators Laborers

23%

10% 5% 9% 3% 14%

5% 9%

it meet the needs of its populace despite limited resources. This strategy of governance has also helped the city address the challenges associated with urban growth.

Controlling inmigration
The city’s economic activity started to flourish during the American regime when the sugar industry was booming. Its thriving business environment was also enhanced by the availability of port facilities. Job opportunities were

created. And the migrants from other provinces and nearby municipalities came. In 2003, Iloilo City had a resident population of 391,293. Its daytime transient population was around 550,000. Since the city can only accommodate a maximum of 405,000 people because of limited area and facilities, the city’s land use and facilities plan regulates net migration. Its population growth rate of 1.93% in 1995 to 2002 is relatively low compared with the national average of 2.36% which could be attributed to its very high population density. However, the neighboring towns of Leganes, Oton, Pavia, and San Miguel with growth rates of 4.30%, 3.05%, 4.48%, and 2.12%, respectively, seem to be the ones absorbing the population pressures.

Delivering local services
Iloilo City puts extra effort in managing urban growth, especially in its basic services delivery. In education, one of its noteworthy projects are the scholarship grants it gives to children of poor families. It also provides free

technical and vocational education through the Technical Institute of Iloilo City. All seven of Iloilo City’s district health centers are certified Sentrong Sigla, which means they have met the standards and requirements set by the Department of Health. Also noteworthy is the city’s prioritization of social welfare services. In particular, the day care service of the City Social Welfare and Development Office (CSWDO) eats up almost half (47%) of its budget. The CSWDO also pays attention to the street children and out-of-school youth population. In environmental protection, the City Environment and Natural Resources Office has accomplished several projects particularly in water resources management. With only 70% efficiency in garbage collection, the city

has also launched initiatives to address all components of an ecological waste management system. Traffic is also being addressed with one of the city’s projects which is setting of perimeter boundaries for public utility vehicles. As with housing, 41% of the total urban poor have benefitted from the city’s resettlement program. On the one hand, almost 48% have remained informal settlers and majority of them are located in danger zones or high-risk areas, such as waterways, road easements, and shorelines. The remaining portion accounts for renters. Thus, 59% of the urban poor are in need of resettlement home lots, the city government is expecting funding from the National Housing Authority, which would allow it to buy an additional 16 hectares for relocation sites. However, despite Iloilo City’s efforts to manage its urban growth, social, economic, and environmental problems have begun to spill over to the nearby municipalities of Leganes, Oton, Pavia, and San Miguel.

Iloilo’s development plans
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Panay Area Business Development Project. This aims to make Panay Island a premier agricultural and fishery product exporter and tourism service provider. Circumferential Road System. This will connect the municipalities inside and outside the metropolitan area. Solid Waste Management. This is in line with RA 9003 which converts open dumps into controlled dumps within three years. Iloilo Flood Control Project. The plans and maps of Iloilo Flood Control Project will be integrated in the final Metro Iloilo Land Use Plan (MILUP). Integrated Water Resource Management. This will: 5.1. develop a master plan on how to manage water resources; 5.2. ensure that efforts are properly linked and coordinated with other planning initiatives and programs; 5.3. plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate projects with other entities; 5.4. raise people’s awareness on managing and conserving water resources; 5.5. support the development of infrastructure such as drainages; and 5.6. formulate measures to sustain the economic value of water resources. Iloilo River Rehabilitation. This is a major initiative to rehabilitate the urban region’s largest and most polluted waterway.

6.

Dealing with the spillover
The Metropolitan Iloilo Development Council (MIDC) was created to answer the problems associated with urban growth, which is spreading its tentacles

across Metro Iloilo. Iloilo City, Leganes, Oton, Pavia, and San Miguel are partners in this arrangement and their respective mayors are the members of the Executive Council. MIDC was created so that these five local government units (LGUs) can address the urban growth problems collectively. They have identified areas of collaboration along which they based their common and integrated development plan. In the MIDC framework, Iloilo City will remain as the center for residential, commercial, financial, and educational activities. The other four municipalities are

its satellites. Pavia will serve as the agro-industrial center; San Miguel as the agricultural basket; Leganes as the center for light industries; and Oton as a residential area. The contribution of the Canadian Urban Institute in the success of MIDC is also noteworthy. In 1998, it started to sponsor capability-building activities for local officials. These activities helped them realize the importance of a metropolitan arrangement in planning and managing issues and services that cut across LGU borders.

On participation
Indeed, Iloilo City’s recognition of the importance of participation and cooperation has helped the city stay afloat amid problems regarding urban growth. Its alliance with neighboring municipalities has proved to be a wise move in facing the complicated pressures of urbanization. After all, five LGUs working together are indeed better than one.

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Different Folks, Different Strokes
T
here are many ways to skin a cat. Similarly, there are various paths to urbanization and there are diverse ways of treading these paths. A look at eight cities though show some similarities in how local government units (LGUs) deal with the challenges and changes that go with urbanization.

Some cities urbanized because of their strategic locations, others because of national government mandate. There were those whose urbanization and progress were largely dependent upon one firm or one industry, which led to lessons about expanding one’s economic base.

With urbanization looming in the horizon, some resorted to metropolitan arrangements, others employed participatory governance. Many realized the need to make their local revenue generation more aggressive.

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At the right place, at the right time
Lipa, Tagum, and Zamboanga City owe their urbanization to their strategic locations. Lipa is only one and a half hours away from Metro Manila and thirty minutes away from Batangas City, where an international port is located. Tagum is at the crossroads of two progressive areas. It is the doorway to the northern regions of Mindanao and Davao City. Zamboanga City is the gateway to Southwestern Mindanao. Their locations jumpstarted their economic growth. For Lipa, which gets the spillover of development from Metro Manila and Batangas City, its centralized location makes it an ideal financial center of Region IV, with the number of banks increasing steadily. Being at the crossroads, Tagum is the trading center for gold, agricultural products and other services. On the other hand, Zamboanga City, with its port facilities, is the hub of Southwestern Mindanao for trade and transportation. Their locations made them fertile ground for investments and trade. Livelihood opportunities became abundant, attracting migrants seeking for greener and better pastures. These paved the way for urbanization.

SOCIAL WELFARE

Meeting Needs, Building Hopes
Public office is public service. Meeting the needs of the various sectors in a city or municipality delegates a big responsibility to administrators. In Iloilo City, the City Social Welfare and Development Office (CSWDO) carries six major functions: (1) day care services, (2) nutrition program, (3) emergency assistance program, (4) practical skills development and job placement, (5) selfemployment assistance, and (6) other special social services. Much of the programs of the CSWDO have benefited children ages 6 and below. With the help of the World Bank Early Childhood Care and Development (ECD) Project, CSWDO continues to improve day care services and nutrition programs in various barangays. As of April 2004, there were 251 day care centers in the city. Only 25 out of the 180 barangays in the city do not have day care centers, a big improvement from 32 in 2002. Another big chunk of the budget is the emergency assistance program, which amounted to P5.136 million in 2003. Victims of calamities, accidents, and squatter families, which need to be relocated avail of the assistance. The CSWDO also extends its hands to the street children and the out-of-school-youths in the city through scholarship programs and leadership trainings among others. Meanwhile, Zamboanga City has a unique experience in providing social services. Among those the city government is working on are the less privileged and marginalized deportees from Malaysia. The One-Stop Shop Crisis Assistance Center was established to assist repatriates in the processing and documentation of travel employment papers, including the issuance of free passports. On the other hand, the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council continues to implement the necessary program of action for the “halaws” not only in Zamboanga but throughout the region. The city government is also addressing the health and education needs of the migrants’ children.

On the spotlight
The national government agenda can influence urbanization trends. The branding of Mindanao as “the land of promise” and the inclusion of Bohol in the Philippine Tourism Master Plan are just a couple of examples. These brought Zamboanga City and Tagbilaran into the spotlight.

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Tagbilaran and Zamboanga’s image became that of “a place to be” for tourism and a better life, respectively, for tourists and migrants alike. With the government promoting Mindanao, migrants trooped to Zamboanga City. This spurred economic activities in the city and lured crowds of transients. However, the ethnic strife in Mindanao and the worsening peace and order situation in the area has tarnished its image as “the land of promise”.

On the other hand, the development of Tagbilaran’s feature as the gateway to Bohol became one of the province’s top priorities. Various infrastructure developments were undertaken to create the right tourism atmosphere. Compared with Zamboanga, wherein the campaign lured people to become permanent settlers, the campaign for Tagbilaran hopes to attract tourists into the province of Bohol, which boasts of a good many natural attractions.

Vulnerability of one-firm cities
Iligan had a phenomenal net migration of 14.5% because of the livelihood opportunities that its major industries offered, particularly, the National Steel Corporation (NSC). These industries pushed Iligan to industrialize with many Iliganons, even the LGU, relying on these industries for livelihood. When many of these industries shut down, including NSC, it brought with it the economy of Iligan. This compelled its residents to look for jobs elsewhere. Iligan City’s population growth rate of barely one percent (0.93) during this crisis was attributed to outmigration. More residents were leaving Iligan during this time with a net migration of negative 9%. Olongapo suffered the same experience as Iligan whose urbanization was brought about by beefing up the support services needs of the US military facility, was ravaged when the military bases were closed down. This was worsened by the eruption of Mt.

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

Promoting Vasectomy in Tagum
Migration played a significant role in the city’s rapid urbanization in the early 80s during the gold rush in the Davao region but no doubt the relatively high population growth rate increase presents an overwhelming challenge for the city government in supplying adequate basic services to its constituents. Realizing that resources can hardly keep up with the growing demand, the local government embarked on population management programs to influence the tempo of population growth. Aside from premarriage counseling and making artificial family planning devices available at the City Health Office, the city government is encouraging males to voluntarily undergo a vasectomy. The City Health Office was tasked to administer the program while the surgical procedure was carried out by the Davao Provincial Hospital, charged against the city’s annual contribution to the provincial hospital.

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THE ADOLESCENT-FRIENDLY HEALTH SERVICES NETWORK

More is Better
A bleak future apparently awaits those who are touted to be the hope of it. A number of studies show that figures on unwanted pregnancies, abortions, sexually transmitted diseases, and drug addiction continue to soar among the youth who comprised one-fourth of the country’s total population. Adolescence is a critical period in a person’s life. It is a time when young people discover themselves as individuals and establish life-long patterns of adult behavior and relationships. Unfortunately, many young people go through this period without information or skills they need to make responsible decisions. The public and private sectors have long been addressing this problem on the youth. However, most of the programs fail because they tend to work independently. They fail to recognize that the interrelatedness of the causes should bring about a holistic solution. The national government has recently delegated to the local government units (LGUs) the problem on the booming population, an offshoot of poor reproductive health knowledge and practices. The LGUs are now in a very influential position to spearhead programs for their constituents. Interestingly, however, programs nowadays consider the problem as part of the solution—the youth. Not only one In 2003, the Save the Children Federation (SCF) based in Manila launched a network of adolescent-friendly health centers. It was piloted in Las Piñas, Parañaque, and Taguig. The network aims to ensure better delivery of a comprehensive package of quality reproductive and sexual health information to the Filipino youth. Emphasizing the role of networking, it pools together government agencies, LGUs, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), and most important—the parents and youth organizations. The network ensures the quality of delivered services through six standards: (1) trained health service providers, (2) adequate space and service, (3) youth involvement, (4) sufficient privacy and confidentiality, (5) availability of referrals, and (6) information, education, and communication materials. All these actions, however, have to thrive in a supportive policy environment. Hence, on top of its priority, the network conducts advocacy activities among local government officials for them to allocate funds, create resolutions, and support clinics focusing on adolescent reproductive and sexual health. Bringing back hope The lifeline of the network relies on building on its human resources. The network is proud of having trained more than 100 nurses, midwives, and barangay health workers in handling and treating adolescent clients. A core group of trainers, the first to undergo training, have been conducting these training courses for their colleagues. They have also served as models, mentors, and coaches to fellow service providers. In the little time the network has been operating, it already has taken big leaps as more organizations continue to link up. It may still take time for alarming figures carried by studies on the Filipino youth to drop. But the experience of the Adolescent-Friendly Health Services Network definitely proves that it pays to work with partners.

Pinatubo, resulting in outmigration in the early 90s. The population grew by barely 1.45% annually starting in 1991. Faced with the dilemma of “deurbanization”, Iligan chose to reinforce its tax collection and cultivate its neglected agriculture and tourism. Notable was Iligan’s effort to draw on the participation of its residents in dealing with the crisis. Olongapo, on the other hand, took advantage of its Subic Bay Freeport and converted the US military facility to industrial

parks, thus reviving the city’s economy. Employment rate and jobs considerably increased.

TEAM
Metropolitan arrangements are the wave of the future. More and more urban areas are realizing the costeffectiveness of planning together and pooling their resources with other LGUs to improve their basic services delivery across city borders. These

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metropolitan arrangements highlight the importance of cooperation between and among the different LGUs involved. This is clear in the cases of Metro Iloilo and Metro Cebu. In both cases, Iloilo City and Cebu City are the core

cities. Due to their rapid urbanization, their neighboring cities and municipalities experience the spillover effects of their developments. People attracted to the jobs and opportunities these urban centers offer also chose to live in the nearby cities

and municipalities. In addition, the neighboring cities and municipalities’ nearness to the core cities make them attractive to investments and trade. These are the positive spillover effects. As the neighboring cities and municipalities urbanize as well, they also experience urbanization’s negative effects. Pressures on the water supply become evident. Problems in garbage disposal and solid waste management set in, with the increasing volume of wastes and growing lack of space for dumps. Housing also becomes a problem as the squatter population soars. In the case of Iloilo City and Cebu City, they signed memoranda of agreement with their respective neighbor cities. Both are now part of metropolitan development councils. Iloilo City, along with its neighbor LGUs Pavia, Leganes, San Miguel, and Oton, is now part of the

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Metropolitan Iloilo Development Council (MIDC). Together, they compose Metro Iloilo. On the other hand, Cebu City is part of the Metropolitan Cebu Development Council. With it are its three neighbor cities (Mandaue, Lapu-Lapu, and Talisay) and six other municipalities. Together they form Metro Cebu. Organizing these metropolitan development councils helps address the problems associated with rapid urban growth, which are experienced by all member LGUs. Metro Cebu and Metro Iloilo have recognized that through cooperation they can provide certain urban services more efficiently and effectively. After all, Together Everyone Achieves More (TEAM).

REVENUE GENERATION

Getting More to Do More
Money makes the world go round, especially cities. Revenue generation has always been one of the key concerns of any city administration to keep it operating and ensure the delivery of services to its constituents. In Lipa City, revenue generation in the past 10 years may seem to be a roller coaster ride. Nevertheless, it managed to bounce back especially in 2002 when income posted a growth rate of 15%. In 2003, it reached PhP422 million. Part of the city government’s success was due to amendments made to its Revenue Code to generate additional income. Aside from tax amendments, the city government also invested in computerization of its collection system. This also gave birth to the one-stop shop project for faster transaction and issuance of permits. A user’s fee called Environmental Management Fee (EMF) has also been imposed on households for the city’s comprehensive waste disposal and management system. Lipa City’s effort to improve its revenue collection was not left unnoticed. In 2000 and 2003, the city government received recognition for being first in the collection of RPT citywide in Region IV. In addition, it was one of the awardees in the “best in tax collection efforts” category in 2002. Tagum City is getting the right amount of tax, not imposing new ones. Aside from tax mapping and the one-stop shop, the city government deploys a revenue task force, which visits establishments and bring the renewal process right at their doorstep. Tagum City officials definitely know how to take care of business. They recently enacted a “Code for Economic Enterprises” which codifies and refines the various ordinances governing its economic enterprise. Alongside is the formation of the Economic Enterprises Regulatory Board that ensures and oversees the effective and efficient management of the enterprises. Getting more and saving more money seems to work in Tagbiliran City. The city’s expenditure is decreasing in recent years (within 45-55% cap for 2000-2003). The city’s aggressiveness in tax collection is evident in the increase of the locally sourced revenues from PhP71.6 million in 1999 to PhP101.6 million in 2003. True to the idea that taxes do mean improved services, Iloilo City’s collection of 1% additional property taxes amounting to PhP56.5 million went to its Special Education Fund (SEF). Moreover, an increased collection of RPT in 2003 which resulted in a surplus enabled the City to supplement the budget for the Iloilo City School Board in 2004.

Echoing the true needs of the folks
Any effort in handling urbanization is ineffective if it does not mirror the real concerns of the people. Lipa, Iloilo, Tagum, Iligan, and Olongapo know this well as they explore participatory approaches in their governance. Tagum’s City Council teamed up with purok leaders in visiting barangays and other activities to keep an eye on implementing ordinances passed. The City Council also took the initiative of educating its purok leaders on legal matters. Iligan moved a step higher with its public consultations before formulating its land use and midterm plans. It expanded its efforts by requiring barangays to come up with their own barangay development plan (BDP) before they could get their share of the city budget. In coming up with the BDP, the barangays employ participatory resource appraisal to uncover the needs of their constituents.

No Goliath

How the Quezon City government was able to solve its mammoth budget deficit through improved tax administration A ballooning revenue deficit and debt may have been his greatest challenge when he was elected mayor of the largest city in Metro Manila in 2001. Now on to his fourth year as Quezon City’s top official, Feliciano Belmonte Jr. is proud to have solved the problem and paints a bright future of the city. Together with city treasurer Victor Endriga, Belmonte improved the city’s tax administration through a “carrot and stick” approach. The “sticks” are direct measures to increase tax collection. These include strict monitoring of delinquent payers and property auctions; submission by business establishments of detailed financial statements and prerequisite permits; and direct withholding of taxes from the city’s contractors. On the other hand, the “carrots” were measures in the form of incentives and services to encourage city constituents to pay their dues on time. “Outstanding” taxpayers were even recognized by the mayor in a ceremony. Within 18 months at the helm, Belmonte was able to solve the city’s fiscal problem. From PhP2.3 billion in 2001, own-source revenue rose to PhP3.9 billion in 2002. The city even closed the year 2002 with a surplus of PhP0.5 billion. Apparently, the city government’s solution to the seemingly insurmountable fiscal problem was not just by increasing tax rates. More importantly, it is exercising a strong political will and creating a conducive environment for all taxpayers in one of the highly urbanized cities in the country.

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EDUCATION

Free to Learn
The best way to empower people is through education. Some city governments, despite their many concerns, extend as much assistance to what could be the greatest investment they could do for the youth. This is by providing them, especially the less fortunate, free education. The Lipa City Public College (LCPC) operated by the city government offers free education to poor yet deserving students of Lipa City and nearby towns. The city government also ensures the improvement of the delivery of basic education. In collaboration with Synergia Foundation, De La Salle Lipa and Department of Education through the City Schools Division, it implements “Project K” which is short for “Karunungan para sa Kinabukasan ng mga Kabataan.” Funded by the Ford Foundation, the project aims to improve the quality of primary education particularly the reading proficiency of Grades I-IV pupils. Specifically, it aims to assess the quality of primary education in reading proficiency; determine areas for strategic intervention; implement reforms in teacher preparation, teaching methods, curriculum, and instructional materials; and device a mechanism for sustaining the efforts identified in the first two objectives and for generating resources for possible replication and expansion of the project. The project started in 2002 and will run until 2006. In the case of Iloilo City, education also remains the top priority. The city government provides scholarships to deserving yet financially incapable students to pursue college or enrol in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) courses. The Technical Institute of Iloilo City provides free technical and vocational education to children of poor families.

Public consultation is also the tool of choice of Iloilo City. In 1998, the LGU got the public’s participation in coming up with ways to combat

urbanization issues. A series of planning workshops was conducted to come up with the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) for 1998 to

2010. Various sectors that include the academe, NGOs, people’s organizations, church, banking institutions, business clubs, civic clubs and other professional clubs were actively involved in these planning workshops. The CLUP was also formulated in close coordination with the four neighboring municipalities. Lipa, on the other hand, focused on institutional capability building through VILMA’S MBN. The project hopes to make barangays self-reliant and strong through orientations, consultations, and capability-building trainings. Olongapo instituted reforms and launched campaigns and projects championed by its residents. Residents also had a highly ingrained civic consiousness, sense of duty, and volunterism.

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PEACE AND ORDER

Taking care of business
A peaceful environment is always a perquisite for development. The rights of all groups and individuals regardless of gender, social status, political belief, and religion have to be upheld to maintain societal order. However, maintaining peace and order in a community does not always have to be the sole responsibility of law enforcers or the police. In fact, it is through closely working with the various stakeholders in the community when peace and order can be truly achieved. The Lipa City Police Station (LCPS) has been receiving support from the city government and barangay-based organizations/task forces/ groups. Despite the shortage in human resource, the LCPS has managed to improve its crime solution efficiency rating (CSER) through the years. Their labor began to bear fruit when they won third place in the PNP National Headquarters’ search for the Best City Police Station in 2002. Similarly, the Iloilo City Police Office (ICPO) has managed to deal with peace and order problems through its community oriented policing system (COPS). The system is guided by the principle, “The Community is the Police and the Police is the Community.” The barangay tanods take care of the crime intelligence while the police provide firearms. This strategy also proved to be successful with a sharp decline in reported crimes since the early 1990s. Recently, the ICPO was adjudged as the Best City Police in 2003.

Filling up the coffers
How much and how many services a city can provide its constituents largely depend on its revenue. This is why cities are aggresively boosting their revenue generation efforts. Constrained by a five-year tax moratorium, Tagum intensified its drive to perk up local revenues through tax mapping, one-stop shop for tax collection, and the establishment of a Revenue Task Force. This Task Force facilitates tax collection by bringing the renewal right at the clients’ doorsteps. Lipa also came up with a onestop shop for the processing of the mayor’s permit and paying taxes. The city invested on computerization to encourage residents to pay their taxes correctly and promptly.

Tagbilaran, like Lipa and Tagum, also has a one-stop shop center for taxpayers. Satellite centers for tax collection are also established within the city to make payment easy. Delinquent taxpayers are sent demand letters and non-compliance means that their names will be published in the local newspaper at the end of the year. There are also incentives such as the 20 percent discount on real property tax given to early taxpayers. Olongapo, with its strong political leadership used its savings to improve its service delivery and enhance revenue generation by establishing a one-stop shop for business permits, licenses, and tax payments; computerizing its real estate tax assessment, and upgrading the cityowned electricity distribution facility to cut down on losses.

Iligan capitalized on information technology.It benefited from the Tax Revenue Assessment and Collection System (TRACS, a software that hastens identification and collection of due revenues). The city also took advantage of the geographic information system (GIS) to identify new businesses and commercial areas more easily. These are in addition to its one-stop shop for tax collection and revisions in property assessment and revenue code. Progress is the ultimate goal and urbanization and the accompanying population issues are the probable outcomes. If a city’s dream is to progress, it must be prepared to face the inevitable challenges. It may be that there are different strokes for different folks but the bottomline is for governance to be responsive to the needs of the people.

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LIPA
Lipa: Coping with Urbanization
General

Facts
Land area Industries Products Charter year Population Population growth rate Population density Crude birth rate Poverty incidence Total income Education 20,940 ha Trade, services, poultry, livestock, agriculture Coffee, coconut, rice, corn, sugarcane 1947 218,447 (2000) 4.50% (1995-2000) 10.43 persons/ha 23.79% (2000) 11% (2000) PhP422 M Enrolment data (2003-2004) 31,139 (Elementary) 15,998 (High school)

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Boom boom
The city’s booming business economy may be attributed to its strategic location. It is only one and a half hours away from Metro Manila and 30 minutes from Batangas City, where an international port is located. Thus, Lipa is able to get the spillover of development from these two more established urban centers. Moreover, Lipa’s centralized location makes it an ideal financial center of Region IV as well. There is an increasing number of banks in the city—yet another clear indication of its favorable business environment.

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

he first-time visitor would find it difficult to think of Lipa as an agricultural city with its busy streets lined with retail trade shops and the occasional mall or shopping center looming in the horizon. Many would probably be surprised to know that Lipa City is comprised of more than 70% agricultural land. However, Lipa’s agricultural activities are no longer so intensive. An increasing number of Lipeños are engaging in commerce and trade, which they believe to be more profitable. The commercial sector has become increasingly important to the city’s economic development. From the 30 hectares devoted to commerce in 1995, it now occupies 105 hectares—a clear indication of Lipa’s thriving business sector.

Because of this, Lipa has attracted multinational companies such as LIMA Industrial Estate, PKI, and Nestle Philippines. In turn, they have attracted migrants from near and far. From 1995 to 2000, within which the LIMA Technology Park was established, Lipa’s population growth rate more than doubled from the previous period’s average. From 2.12% to 4.5%, this figure is very much higher than the growth rate of Batangas City, the province of Batangas, Region IV, and the entire country. Thus, Lipa’s booming economy is accompanied by a booming population, which can also be

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attributed to natural increase. It is now 7th among Philippine cities in population growth increase.

Urbanization issues
With the growth of its business sector and the rate of in-migration, it is clear that the city is urbanizing. A very good indicator of well-managed urbanization is ensuring tenure in housing— especially among the urban poor. However, in Lipa’s case the squatter population had more than doubled between 1987 and 1998 and continued to increase further in 2000. This implies the need to improve security and housing tenure.

There is also the increasing amount of garbage to contend with. Lipa generates 24 truckloads of garbage a day. This does not include the waste generated by the 40 barangays not covered by the garbage collection. An Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) Unit was institutionalized by the city’s Environment and Natural Resources Office in 2001. In principle, the CENRO should continue the EPM project activities, i.e., to implement them in as many barangays as possible but it did not materialize. If activities have pushed through and have been supported by local officials, barangays not covered by the garbage

collection could have designed their own community-based solid waste management plan.

Proving its worth
Despite these headaches with obvious potentials to become migraines in the future, the city government of Lipa is coping well with its health, peace and order, and education sectors–even if its resources and manpower are not commensurate to its increasing population. For instance, although the city needs 167 more police personnel to satisfy the 1:1000 police-topopulation ratio, the Lipa City Police Station still managed to bag the 2nd

runner-up place in the search for “Best City Police Station” by the PNP National Headquarters in 2002. Lipa also bagged the Department of Health Sentrong Sigla regional award in 2001 for its five district health centers (DHC)—all equipped with facilities, personnel, supplies, and laboratory. These DHCs offer various programs on health—such as family planning, which includes premarital counseling. Also noteworthy is Lipa’s emphasis on education, which is the top priority in the 10-point agenda of the city government. This city has various projects and programs to improve its educational system, including the free college education it offers with Lipa City Public College (LCC) to less privileged yet deserving students of Lipa and other nearby towns. This operation bagged the second place in the first League of Cities of the Philippines Best Practice Award.

project where representatives from all the offices concerned with the issuance of Mayor’s permits and taxes are assembled in one place to process permits faster—only a day or two. This generated PhP20 M for business permits alone in 2001. Another innovation is the collection of the environment management fee, which is a user’s fee intended for the city’s comprehensive waste disposal and management system. It is collected by including it in the monthly household water bills. The fee collected is remitted to the City’s Treasurer Office in the nature of a trust fund form the CENRO operation. Since April 2000 until October 4, 2004, a considerable amount has been collected and it has been a source of funding for the CENRO operations.

Unity and cooperation are values that the city government hopes to cultivate among its citizenry. The LGU provides the enabling framework for participatory governance. This is evident from the launch of the Vibrant and Innovative Local Managers’ Action Toward Mobilizing Barangays in Nation Building (VILMA’S MBN). The project believes that a convergent approach is needed in preparing and implementing plans and strategies to streamline and synchronize anti-poverty efforts. VILMA’S MBN is viewed as a “catalytic vehicle” that will bring Lipa to the list of top ten cities.

On to the top ten…
The Asian Institute of Management ranked Lipa City as 6th in the Philippine Cities Competitiveness Ranking Project in 2002. Although Lipa did not maintain this position in 2003, it was still in the list of top 13 cities among the 50 cities in the country. Yet as Lipa City gears toward urbanization, it is faced with issues and challenges, which together with its potentials, will determine whether Lipa remains a promising city or transforms into a highly-urbanized one.

United we stand
Besides Lipa’s moves to cope with growing population and urbanization, the Lipeños’ strong sense of cooperation is worthy of note. Various cooperative and civic organizations actively participate in local government activities. However, there is still a need to increase the participation of the grassroots community in local governance.

Financing the coping mechanisms
Lipa’s ability to respond to the residents’ growing demand for basic services is crucial. Recognizing the need to generate funds, it has adopted measures to boost income generation. Aside from tax amendments, the city government set up a one-stop shop

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OLONGAPO
Bouncing Back: a Second Life for Olongapo
‘Thank you, Joe?’ General

Facts
Land area Industries Charter year Population Population growth rate Population density Crude birth rate Crude death rate Net migration Total income 185 km2 Trade, manufacturing 1966 194,260 (2000) 1.56% (2000) 1, 050 persons/km2 2.4% (2001) 0.4% (2001) -4,988 (1995-2000) PhP369,702 (1994)

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Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

longapo, with its rugged mountains, pristine beaches, and virgin forests is a nature lover’s paradise. No wonder it has been a favorite destination for many tourists. And with the rise of world-class industrial parks and a seaport that rivals the cramped South Harbor in Manila Bay, Olongapo is now again making waves as entrepreneuers and traders swamp the area. Olongapo is also known as “Sin City” because of rampant prostitution when the US military bases were still in the area. This is a part of Olongapo’s history that many of its townsfolk would rather forget.

However, there are those who look at the US military bases as the boon of Olongapo. It was during the establishment of the bases that Olongapo experienced rapid urbanization. Olongapo was once (circa 1948) a quiet and rustic barangay in Subic with only 14,090 inhabitants. Twelve years later and nine years since the development of the Cubi Naval Air Station, its population more than

tripled to 45,330, registering an annual growth rate of 10.23%. By conservative estimates, this is quite high. Because of this, having only been declared as a municipality in itself in 1959, Olongapo was chartered as a city in 1966.

‘Feminization’ of migration
The shoot-up in the city population and its consequent rapid urbanization from 1950 to 1974 were attributed to the high natural rate of increase in population and influx of migrants,

mostly females and of child-bearing age. Olongapo is a good example of a city where there is feminization of migration. Migration heightened in the late 1960s with the booming activities in the naval base. The inmigration that occurred contributed to rapid population growth. In fact, migrants comprised about 45.9% of the population 10 years old and over in 1970. In 1974, the city registered an unusually high rate of natural births and a sizeable number of illegitimate births.
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As expected, when activities in the military bases dwindled because of the signing of the Vietnam ceasefire agreement in 1973, the local economy of Olongapo took a downturn. Inmigration decrease beginning in 1975, with people even trooping out until 1980. Furthermore, the actual annual population growth rate of the city also dropped from 6.42% in 1975 to 1.24% in 1980 and 2.14% in 1990. After achieving its peak as an urban center in 1983, Olongapo stopped being a favored destination of migrants. From 1975 to 1990, urbanization slowed down.

Economic turnaround
This “deurbanization” was turned around by its leaders, who wanted to prove that Olongapo was more than just the US military base. The naval facility was immediately converted into an industrial complex and freeport, in line with a 1981 development plan. The city mayor was appointed as the first chair of the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA). The development of the freeport revived the city’s economy. Manufacturing jobs started to increase and employment rose again. Even females moved into this line of work; they were accommodated in parts assembly and garments factories. The employment rate improved to 71% in 1996-97 and rose to 81% in 1998-2001, even higher than the 1980 levels.

Wrath of Mt. Pinatubo, pull-out of American troops
The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 and the pull-out of American troops from the Subic Naval Base in 1992 further crippled Olongapo’s already limping economy. In fact, employment rate was strikingly lower when the military bases closed. Its employment rate averaged 78% in 1990-1991, 72% in 1992-1993, and 69% in 1995. The 1995 census recorded the first-ever decline in the city’s population and population density.

Government responses
To combat the negative image of Olongapo, the city government instituted reforms that showcased the strengths of the city and its people. It pioneered an integrated solid waste management program that relied on user fees for operating expenses. After

an extensive information campaign that highlighted civic responsibility, residents adopted the program wholeheartedly. This resulted in arguably the cleanest city in the country. The city also initiated color-coding of public transportation that reduced colorum vehicles and ensured safety in the streets. Community slogans were also placed in public spaces that rallied the residents around government programs and priorities such as “Keep Olongapo City Clean”, “Self-Help, Self-Reliance and Cooperation”, “Aim High Olongapo”. In 1997, as economic activity picked up, “Redevelop, Reurbanize, It’s Our Time” was the battle cry. The residents identified with the slogans and made them their own. Even with the presence of the naval base, an STD testing center was established to ensure the health of entertainment workers, who were required to undergo weekly examinations. Affected workers were immediately treated. Establishments were routinely checked for compliance of their workers and were closed if they violated the mandated health procedure. This program successfully

kept HIV infections at bay and controlled the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. With the turnover of the military base, volunteerism was encouraged to protect and maintain the facilities. Residents physically cut grass, guarded entry and exit points, cleaned buildings and rooms, among others. The volunteers were given priority in job placements. The pull-out of the bases imperiled the city’s finances. The resulting economic hardship forced residents to use existing public services, aggravating the need for additional facilities. The city subsidized the medical fees of indigent patients, which include residents from the city and from nearby areas.

Because the city government previously succeeded in addressing public needs, bouncing back was not an uphill battle. To maintain the quality of life of its residents, the city used its savings to improve infrastructure and service delivery. It helped that significant outmigration set in immediately and that new jobs were soon created in the freeport, easing the strain on service delivery. Moreover, the SBMA leadership supported the city by donating medical apparati and shouldering the PhP80 million dredging and desilting of city rivers and creeks. The city undertook steps toward self-reliance. Thus, an infrastructure program was initiated in full blast to complement existing tourism facilities and to promote the city as an all-yearround services and leisure center. The city even availed of a PhP60 million loan in 2000 and 2001 to help finance projects. This was complemented by enhanced revenue generation through the establishment of a one-stop center for business permits, licenses, and tax payments, the computerization of real estate tax assessment and the use of GIS tax mapping, and the upgrading of facilities at the city-owned electricity distribution utility to cut down on costly system losses.

Bouncing back
Despite the ambitious plans, the city continues to improve the quality of life of its residents by constructing additional classrooms, establishing a city college, providing scholarships to deserving students from high school to college, constructing additional wards and private rooms at the city hospital, and upgrading all barangay centers to Sentrong Sigla standards. Population management has not taken a backseat either, with the city fully supporting a family planning program that does not discriminate between artificial and natural means. This has led to a continued increase in the number of registered current acceptors. The city population office spearheaded this effort with active support from civic organizations. Through the years, the city consistently reaped honors for its innovative approaches and consistency in high quality service delivery. It garnered numerous Galing Pook awards, Clean and Green citations, the titles Child-Friendly City and Healthy Public Market, among others. In various years, its police force, disaster coordinating council, budget office, and barangay officials (lupong tagapamayapa) have been recognized as the best local government unit departments in the region and in the country. The city’s remarkable turnaround from a “sin” city to a model city and from reliance on the former military facility to finding its own competitive niche is a lesson in local governance that deserves to be emulated not because it pays tribute to an equipped leadership but because it celebrates the strength and resilience of its residents.

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TAGBILARAN
General

Facts
Land area Products/industries Charter year Population Population growth rate Crude birth rate Crude death rate Net migration rate Per capita income Poverty incidence Total Revenue Education 32.7 km2 Handicrafts, tourism, Retail, accommodation, transport, manufacturing, meat processing, automotive machine shops 1966 89,037 (2003) 3.26% (2000) 21.2% (2002) 3.93% (2001) 37.03% (2003) PhP 5,954 40% (1997) PhP101,606,376 (2003) Enrolment rate (2003-2004): 60.80% (Elementary) 59.56% (High school)

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agbilaran is on its way to the top. Years of suffering from substandard water and power systems, plus its nearness to the popular Metro Cebu had retarded Tagbilaran’s rate of progress. But now that Bohol and Panglao Islands have been identified in the Philippine Tourism Master Plan as major tourist attractions, the city’s development is picking up pace. Ecotourism, now identified in Bohol’s Medium-Term Development Plan as one of its three priority growth areas, demands that Tagbilaran play a significant role.

Tourism Catapults Tagbilaran into Limelight
Developing its front act ability
Tagbilaran is not a major tourist destination. Most of the popular tourist attractions in Bohol Province are outside the city. But its accessibility makes it a necessary and major stopover to tourist destinations in the province. Tagbilaran is only one hour

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

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and 20 minutes away from Cebu by test craft and 45 minutes away from Manila by plane. It is this characteristic as the gateway to the province that Tagbilaran hopes to exploit. The city’s efforts now focus on pursuing the development of infrastructure, services, and facilities and creating the right tourism atmosphere. Improvements in the Tagbilaran Airport and Tagbilaran

City Tourist Pier have enhanced its accessibility. Enhancements in its social services delivery have also been made. To finance this tourism-oriented development strategy, the city has become more aggressive in its tax collection. Treasury satellite centers for tax collection have been established within the city to make paying easy. Delinquent tax payers are sent demand letters and their noncompliance leads

to the publication of their names in the newspaper annually. A 20% discount on real property tax for early taxpayers was also introduced as an incentive. The city’s aggressiveness in tax collection has increased the locally sourced income from PhP71.6 million in 1999 to PhP101.6 million in 2003. This income, plus the additional funding from the national government thru the internal revenue allotment, has enabled

Tagbilaran to start more developmental projects. More than 50% of the city’s development fund is set aside for infrastructure improvement.

Ensuring the spotlight doesn’t dim
But all these efforts to create the right tourism atmosphere will not succeed if the city’s population remains

unmanaged. Tagbilaran is yet to prepare a comprehensive population management plan. Although the number of births declined in the last two decades, the city’s crude birth rate is still higher than that of the whole province. This means that Tagbilaran has not been able to significantly reduce its birth rate as Bohol, whose crude birth rate was once 3.28% points higher than Tagbilaran’s in 2000.

Tagbilaran City has a young population—more than 60% of its citizens are below 30 years of age. Statistics show that it will retain this young population for some time but at a declining rate. Nevertheless, without any indication of a comprehensive population plan, unmanaged population growth may occur. This will definitely hamper any development in tourism, however complete other preparations are to meet the demands of the tourism market. Unmanaged increase in population puts pressure on limited resources available such as employment, housing, and safe water supply. It also results in congestion and increase in squatters. This is undesirable, especially for a city whose major undertaking is to attract tourists. Tagbilaran must seriously incorporate population concerns in all aspects of local development planning and program implementation. For an emerging city on its way to the top, Tagbilaran must make sure that it does everything to guarantee that it indeed gets there.

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TAGUM
Tagum at the Crossroads
General

Facts
Industries Products Charter year Population Population growth rate Population density Crude birth rate Crude death rate Net migration Total income Trade, services, agriculture coconut, banana, rice, metalcraft, jewelry, and construction 1998 179,531 (2000) 2.93% (2000) 935 persons/km2 25.6% (1999) 4.2% (1999) 1,005 (1999) PhP335 M (2002)

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agum City’s strategic location earned for it the name, “The City of Golden Opportunities”. The city, being at the crossroads of the northern regions of Mindanao and of the Region XI capital, Davao City, has become the commercial and trading hub and the favored destination of many in search of a better life. The myriad of industries in Tagum includes coconut, banana, and rice production, furniture, metalcraft, jewelry, and construction.

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

When the banana industry weakened sometime in the 80s, the discovery of mineral resources in nearby Davao transformed Tagum into the focal point of buy-and-sell activities for small-scale gold producers and miners. Business establishments and other commercial activities soon flourished bringing about rapid urbanization during the late 80s. Urban population growth increased to as high as 10% per year during this period. Shortly thereafter, Tagum became a city in 1998. It is the seat of government of Davao del Norte.

Fated urbanization
Because of the many livelihood opportunities that Tagum has to offer, there was an influx of migrants especially in the 90s. Tagum City’s population grew annually at almost 3% in 1995-2000. This is higher than the national, regional, and provincial growth rates. The two main sources of the city’s population growth are natural increase and net migration. The recent

population growth was attributed more to natural increase stemming from a persistently high birth rate. Efforts to manage the population was done in 2001-2003 when males were encouraged to voluntarily underwent vasectomy. Although the population of Tagum has been increasing, total population growth rate has consistently slowed down throughout the censal periods. In contrast, urban population share to total population radically increased from less than half in 1980 to 76% in 1990.
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Total Population Urban Population

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To ease congestion in urban areas, there is a plan to relocate the city hall to a less densely populated area. This would disperse economic activity from the poblacion to other parts of the city.

From agriculture to trade and services
Trade and services dominate the local economy of Tagum, comprising as much as 95% of its total new Department of Trade and Investment (DTI)-registered investment in 2003. Likewise, in the same year, the city’s employment share in Davao del Norte’s total employment in trade and services was 58%. On the other hand, the share of agriculture in the investment pie shrank to 2%. Given the slowdown in the banana industry and the changing structure of the city, less investments

is turning up for the agriculture sector through the emerging banana chips industry that has the potential to further boost the rural economy of Tagum. Nevertheless, agriculture is still an important sector for the city with 17 of the city’s 23 barangays still engaged in agricultural production. Tagum, along with Panabo City, was designated as the Provincial AgriIndustrial Center (PAIC) for Region Xl.

Head to head with the challenges of urbanization
The local government of Tagum did not leave any stone unturned in responding to the changing demands of urbanization. Improvements have been made in infrastructure, education, health, and water supply. To fund these efforts, the city heavily relied on its

internal revenue allotment (IRA) and strengthened its drive to generate other sources of local revenues particularly from its economic enterprises. The city adopted a fiveyear moratorium on its tax rates to cushion residents from an abrupt increase in taxes as Tagum was elevated to a city. The tax moratorium leaves little room for local revenue-raising measures but the city’s economic enterprises made it possible to gain some fiscal elbow room. In fact, economic enterprises contributed about 12% of total income since 1999. These enterprises, such as the public market, slaughterhouse, overland transport integrated terminal, livestock auction center, cultural and trade center, and asphalt plant are all earning profits. Meanwhile, the maintenance and expansion of the city’s road network are the main city expenditures. In fact, large capital outlays in 1998 were due to enhancement of roads and other structures. Although construction and maintenance of national roads are under the jurisdiction of the national government, Tagum has contributed to paving portions of the national highway passing through its territory

to speed up the development of its main corridor. However, much of the barangay roads are still unpaved while about only a little over half (52%) of its city roads are paved. Data in 2000 showed that around 89% of national roads and 15.5% of provincial roads traversing Tagum are already paved. The City also has other notable projects in the delivery of social services. Part of the social services provided by the City Government is education. The City Government took an active stance in increasing the number of classrooms. The City Government funded majority of the classrooms which followed the more spacious and aesthetic “Tagum-style” classroom. Notwithstanding, student-classroom ratio for both the secondary and elementary schools still fall short of meeting the standard ratio. The health and potable water supply needs of the City are the most problematic. In 2001, to cope with only one doctor and 12 nurses in its two health centers the City adopted the referral system wherein barangay health workers first screened patients in the barangay and determined who will be referred to the health centers in the poblacion. Meanwhile, the City Government’s remarkable management of its finances was recognized when it was awarded the “Most Outstanding LGU in Budget Administration” in 1999 and 2000. Some of the innovative undertakings of the City Government are tax mapping, one-stop shop for tax collection, and a Revenue Task Force, which visits establishments and brings the renewal right at the doorsteps of their clients. This is apart from actual monitoring and inspection of activities to validate tax declarations of businesses.

APPROACH TO REVENUE GENERATION

All Roads Lead to Tagum
Two major road networks—the Davao-Mati and the Davao-Agusan national highways— intersect at the heart of Tagum City. This makes the city very accessible—being at the crossroads—whether going to the northern regions of Mindanao from Davao City or to neighboring provinces such as Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental. Operating a transport terminal capitalizes on its geographical advantage. The Tagum City Overland Transport Integrated Terminal or TCOTIT was constructed in 1997 through a loan. It has 24 bays for buses and a lounge that can accommodate about 100 waiting passengers. On average, around 150 buses and 800 public utility jeepneys load and unload passengers at the terminal daily. Terminal fees are set according to passenger capacity and destination. Toll fees are also collected from multicabs, jeepneys soliciting passengers, and vans and cargo trucks doing business in the terminal area. Spaces for businesses are also rented. But demand is only half the story. Since becoming a component city in 1998, Tagum aims to establish and operate viable and stable economic enterprises. By adopting business practices and management styles of private enterprises, fiscal discipline is instilled. The revenues generated are earmarked for the enterprises’ administrative, operating, improvement and debt-servicing expenses. Going a step further, Tagum recently enacted a Code of Economic Enterprises, which refines the various ordinances governing the operation of its economic enterprises— the transport terminal, public market, livestock auction center, cultural trade center, slaughterhouse, and public cemetery. The Code serves as the “bible” for the overall management of the city’s economic enterprises. New provisions include the creation of the Economic Enterprises Regulatory Board which ensures and oversees the effective and efficient management of the enterprises. Two private sector representatives—one from an accredited stallholders/vendors organization and another from a consumers’ group—are given a seat on the board. To date, all of the city’s economic enterprises cover more than the operation and maintenance costs. Self-sufficient and earning, Tagum’s economic enterprises have emerged as a major local revenue source.

Attempting a more responsive governance
The different City Council Committees teamed up with other local officials in visits to barangays to monitor the implementation of ordinances passed and other activities. The City Council also has a program in continuing legal education of purok leaders by inviting speakers. Although the city government implemented concrete projects in addressing the challenges posed by Tagum’s urbanization, its Governance for Local Development Index (GOFORDEV) wherein it ranked second to the last in the six pilot

areas in Davao del Norte, shows that there is still a need for a stronger feedback mechanism to determine the real needs and concerns of its constituents.

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ZAMBOANGA
General

Facts
Land area Industries Products Charter year Population Net migration Poverty incidence Total Income 148,338.49 ha Trade, agriculture, fishery Coconut, seafood 1936 601, 794 (2000) 26, 657 (1995-2000) 53% (2000) PhP974, 136, 332.08 (2000)

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Zamboanga: the Gateway to Better Opportunities?
Zamboanga City is the hub of Southwestern Mindanao for trade, transportation, communication, education, government, tourism, and religion. As the gateway to and from Mindanao, Zamboanga is accessible both by sea and land. Its main source of income are process aqua marine products, which account for 78.5%.

he colorful and beautiful native vintas reflect the richness and diversity that is Zamboanga City. Contributing to these richness and diversity are the mixed races that had settled in Zamboanga. Aside from domestic migrants, there were the Chinese, Malays, and Spaniards who for a time stayed in this city. Indeed, migration has played a key role in shaping Zamboanga City. A multitude of migrants from Luzon and Visayas came to Zamboanga especially when the Philippine Government launched a campaign promoting Mindanao as “The Land of Promise”.

Impact of ethnic strife in Mindanao
From 1970 to 1980, the City’s population growth rate attained its highest at 5.8%. In the 70s urban growth soared as a result of migration from nearby rural areas. In the 1980s, the population density of the city was twice that for western Mindanao (Region IX) and

Source: Techinical Report on Population, Urbanization and Local Governance, a joint project of POPCOM and PIDS.

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Population Trend 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0

Year

one and a half times more than the national average. In 2000, Zamboanga’s population density was five times the national rate. The dramatic increase in population was attributed to high natural increase and greater net migration over the two decades. Almost 60% of Zamboanga’s population in 2000 are 24 years old and under. Some native Zamboangenos saw the influx of migrants as a deliberate

19 70 19 80 19 90 20 00

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and systematic resettlement program of the government. This resulted in conflict and disputes in land ownership between the migrants and the native inhabitants. Following the 1972 Martial Law declaration, 45,000 Muslim Filipinos fled the ethnic strife in Mindanao. Despite this, however, migrants still trooped to Zamboanga because of its nearness and accessibility to Sabah, Malaysia where Filipino southerners

sought economic and political refuge. As of 2002, approximately 500,000 Filipino Muslims ran away to Malaysia to escape the long-standing conflict between Muslim insurgents and the Philippine military. In addition, when the peace and order situation in nearby Sulu, TawiTawi, and Basilan worsened during 1990-1995, many moved to Zamboanga City.

Compounding these population movements were the returning migrants composed of deportees from Malaysia called the “halaws” and Badjaos who went home to Zamboanga when they failed to find better opportunities in Manila. As a result of the urban sprawl, Zamboanga City is now troubled with traffic congestion, slums, deterioration of quality and water levels, lack of proper disposal and waste management system, and degradation of major rivers and pollution of marine life.

Aggravating these is the state of peace and order which factored in its declining investments. Also, the city’s existing road network in the urban core is inefficient because the roads are narrow with limited interconnectedness. Consequently, it is said that Zamboanga City is now failing to live up to its image as “The City of Flowers”. However, these concerns do not remain unaddressed. In its 1997-2012 Master Development Plan, the city

recognized the need to persistently pursue efforts to remove the root cause of dissidence and internal conflicts by improving the delivery of basic services to the poor. The newly elected Mayor, Honorable Celso L. Lobregat, emphasized the need for the improvement of the plight of the less privileged and marginalized sectors of the society and bringing the government closer to the people. To help the “halaws”, the City Government set up the “One-StopShop Crisis Assistance Center” to assist repatriates in processing and documentation of travel employment papers, including the issuance of free passports. The regional line agencies, led by the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council, provide several relief and emergency programs for the “halaws” not only in Zamboanga, but throughout the region. In addition, the AIDS Council was created to help sex workers who were reported to have been forced into prostitution because of poverty.

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Making Cities Work

Urbanization Does Not Happen by Chance
MANAGE URBANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT
“Whoever would change men must change the conditions of their lives.” – Theodore Herzl

For urbanization to succeed, the city government should focus on the areas of fiscal management and development planning, and policy development. Successfully fought battles are not achieved overnight, but with careful planning and strategy. Development should also be seen in this light.

Generating revenue need not mean increasing taxes. It is finding measures to collect the amount that the city government should be getting in the first place.

From words to action
Planning the growth of a city is no longer the sole role of the city government. The various stakeholders and sectors in the city are now well represented in the decision-making process. Long before Iloilo City became a chartered city on July 16, 1973, its economy already started to flourish during the American regime because of its booming sugar industry. Through the years, roads and port areas were

Inside the treasure chest
A plan is good only on paper if there are no resources to achieve it. Any city government would agree that essential to any development plan is a stable resource base. But any city official would find it hard to generate the right amount of money if more than half of the people in the city have just enough to live modestly. In the case of Tagbilaran City and Iloilo City, an efficient tax collection is the key. One-stop shops and tax collection centers were established. While the city government is running after delinquent taxpayers, it seeks to improve its collection offices and facilities, and come up with incentives for regular taxpayers.

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veryone aspires to be in power. However, only a few are given the chance. Winning the election may have come off easy for local public officials, but the true challenge lies when they buckle down to work and chart the development of their municipality or city in the next three or six years. Promises and plans may vary from one official or city to another. On the other hand, if we are to look closely, they all seem to thread the same road—the road to urbanization. Urbanization, which is sometimes equated with industrialization and development, continues to effect

changes in the lives of the people and key cities in the country. Urbanization generally aims to improve our present day living, provide more jobs, and deliver more goods and services. Undeniably, however, it has its ugly side. Problems on poverty, burgeoning population, environmental destruction—to name a few, have also been hounding any urbanized society in the country. It is in this light that local public officials and units should be aware of the immense power that they yield. Power, if used wisely, could spell progress for any growing city in the country.

constructed. Job opportunities became available to locals. Migrants from other provinces found jobs in this growing city. A total of 2,495 business establishments registered with the Department of Trade and Industry as of 2003. Canteens, karinderia and restaurants ranked first, followed by semi-skilled services. To address the demands of urbanization and development, the city government solicited public participation. These sectors were identified: economic, infrastructure, land use, environment, social, local administration, and demography. The private sector also participated actively in the planning and implementation of projects. These include the

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academe, NGOs, POs, church, banking institutions, business clubs, civic clubs, and other professional clubs. This concerted effort gave birth to the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) for 1998-2010.

Lipa City, on the other hand, bids as the “emerging city for all seasons,” a take-off from the well-deserved accolade heaped upon the city’s current mayor, Vilma Santos, known in the history of Philippine Movies as the “star for all seasons.”

DAVAO CITY

Kaugmaon Center for Children’s Concern Formulation
Life is a stage. You have to dance to the tune if you want to get the attention. This is the strategy used by the Kaugmaon Center for Children’s Concern Foundation in Davao City in implementing their adolescent reproductive health project. They have put up youth centers which will serve as a shelter where the youth can socialize and learn important life skills. They use the peer education strategy, which entails developing trained people to assist others in their peer group to make decisions about reproductive health issues. This is conducted either through one-on-one counseling or in the Group Guided Interactions (CGI). The centers have been successful not only in getting adolescent participants but also youth organizations. Kaugmaon was also commended by the barangay by making it a member of the Barangay Council for Protection of Children and Youth. Different sectors have also been mobilized to address adolescent reproductive health issues. This led to a more efficient way of implementing reproductive and sexual health programs for the youth. Topping all these strategies is perhaps the most interesting way of getting the youth interested in reproductive health—through Interactive Theater. The MAKAMALAY, a community theater group, was able to reach out to the wider audience to deliver reproductive health messages. The whole community was able to watch and learn from the performances. The nature of the theater presentations dictates that it can be done anywhere where there are large, empty spaces—parks, basketball courts. The total number of performances reached 26 with an audience of 4,000. The group has been getting a number of requests from communities and networks especially during fiestas and special holidays.

As early as 1887, Queen Isabella of Spain elevated the town of Lipa to a city with the name “Villa de Lipa” due to the prosperity brought about by the booming coffee industry (The coffee beans are called “Barako”). For some unknown reason, the city was reverted to a municipality in 1895. The new town, which was once a city, continued to develop just the same with “barako” coffee still its

topnotch agricultural product and revenue earner. Fifty-two years later, the town again became a city—this time with its own charter under Republic Act No. 162 sponsored by then Speaker Jose P. Laurel, Sr. Lipa was inaugurated as a city in 1947. If there is an agricultural city that is enjoying rapid urbanization growth, Lipa City fits the description. Its top three

products are coffee, coconut, and rice. Meanwhile, there were 137 poultry and livestock raisers as of 2000. Complementing this impressive agricultural profile is the equally impressive business profile totaling 5,276 as of 2003. Majority of the city business is on retail trade and services. The city’s progress would be in vain if it does not trickle down to the people. Development, as exemplified by these two cities, will be truly appreciated by the people themselves because they are working for it.

Write what is right
Any government program or project is anchored on a policy. Legislation, therefore, is a very crucial process. It should create a conducive ‘environment’ before any development plan could take place. Local government officials should take their role seriously in passing laws and making sure that these are concerns of the constituents.

However, coming up with many laws is no guaranteed solution to an ailing community. It is when the city government exercises political will when everything begins to take shape. The steel will of Olongapo’s leaders helped turn around the city’s ailing economy. With strong resolve, the city government took steps to institute reforms that successfully transformed Olongapo into a city to emulate. The strategies employed by the most successful cities in the country are backed by the full implementation of policies by their city governments. No miracle program or project is bound to succeed if the city government does not render its hand to steer its resources and mobilize people to action. If we want to see results, we have to express our desire and take the lead. Political will is needed to make urbanization work.

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Lonely at the Top? Listen to the Vibrancy Below
BUILD FROM THE GROUND UP: WORK WITH PEOPLE
“It is they who bear the risk; they must make the commitment.” – J. Brian Atwood, USAID Administrator

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articipation is the most essential ingredient of development. When city managers plan for development priorities and policies, the first and best management strategy they can adopt is to seek out and listen to their constituents. What do they really need? What are their aspirations and dreams? What can they contribute? When people are involved in making decisions about their community, they do not only feel a strong sense of belongingness. They

gain the dignity of being partners, not just beneficiaries of development. They are empowered. The stories of eight cities show that more and more local governments are appreciating and using participatory approaches to listen to their constituents.

Build on local initiatives and contribute to peoples’ efforts
A wise city manager picks up from where his constituents have already started or builds on what they have initiated.

The Metro Iloilo Development Authority (MIDA) was formed because business entrepreneurs in the early 1990s had the foresight to bat for a metropolitan agreement between fastgrowing Iloilo City and its neighboring municipalities to make governance better. Their initiative was picked up by the local government officials who revived the concept of a metropolitan Iloilo in 1996. A congressman later lobbied for the mayors’ proposal in Congress and successfully passed it as a bill. In 1998, the Canadian Urban Institute started to support the establishment of a council. It advocated the value of interlocal cooperation among local officials by sponsoring their meetings, workshops, and study tours here and abroad for them to witness success stories of metro cities. To establish the council, the city enjoined the active participation of all stakeholders. It conducted consultative workshops, participatory strategic planning workshops, and public consultations with over 500 stakeholders from local government, national government agencies, business sector, and nongovernment organizations. Today the MIDA is recognized as a governance body in Iloilo with staff support and funding.

Consult affected people and strengthen communication among stakeholders
LGUs have involved their constituents quite extensively in land use planning. This is very important because land use planning guides zoning ordinances on which real properties are assessed. Better assessments can generate higher incomes for the cities, thus bolstering their economies. In Iligan, the draft City Land Use Plan (CLUP), which was approved in 2001, first passed through a series of public consultations. This was presented for review and feedback to purok leaders representing their barangays, labor groups, farmers, teachers, students, and others. The same goes with its City Development Strategy (CDS) or medium-term plan. The CDS passed through a continuous feedback system from various stakeholders who were consulted using intercity and national consultation workshops. Iligan is part of the CDS Project, which advocates an integrated, comprehensive, and participatory approach to urban management. Iloilo also held a series of multisectoral consultation workshops to produce its Comprehensive Land

Use Plan (CLUP) for 1998-2010. The city’s private sector partners, such as the academe, NGOs, POs, church, banking institutions, business clubs, civic clubs, and other professional clubs participated in the planning process.

Increase the enabling capacity of people
To mobilize barangays into strong and self-reliant communities, Mayor Vilma Santos-Recto launched Vibrant, and Innovative Local Managers’ Action Toward Mobilizing Barangays in Nation

Building or VILMA’S MBN in 2001. The project holds a series of trainings for community volunteers on barangay orientation, consultations, and capability building. Further, it also aims to empower the poor by teaching and assisting them to be self-reliant. Believing that education is a potent tool to fight poverty and to build a competent manpower for its growing industries, Lipa has prioritized education in its 10-point agenda. It has invested in providing free education to poor but deserving students in the city and nearby communities in the Lipa City Public Colleges (LCPC). Students of the college also immerse themselves in rural communities for two months to teach out-of-school youths and for community organizing and building. Iloilo, on the other hand, is soliciting the inputs of villagers in three barangays where community-based solid waste management facilities will be set up. Staff of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and CENRO staff have started organizing and conducting planning workshops for the villagers. They are also teaching villagers how to manage the materials recovery facilities that will be built in their barangays.

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Unleash local initiative and innovation
In Iloilo, the community has risen up to the challenge of providing better services. To augment the collection service, some commercial centers deploy their own vehicles to dispose garbage. Starting 2003, the private sector and peoples’ organizations have also joined forces with the city to clean up the Iloilo River in celebration of the International Coastal Cleanup Day. To beef up the shortage of police officers, Iloilo also enforced the barangay-based anti-crime strategy. Dubbed as Community Oriented Policing System (COPS), the system is simply a partnership between civilians and police in fighting crimes. The tanods provide intelligence; the police the firearms. In Iligan, the mayor has required barangays to come up with barangay development plans (BDP) before they can get a slice of the city’s budget. Assisted by the Barangay Management Committee, the barangay leaders drafted these plans in consultation with their constituents. The BDP uses participatory resource appraisal (PRA) to assess the real needs and priorities of the community.

Three barangays have already finished their BDPs while the rest are still consulting with the general assembly. The city government is really proud of this project and residents have accepted it with enthusiasm because they are now more involved in developing their city. Involvement enhances the commitment of the community and the accountability of local leaders. To rebuild Iligan’s public market razed by fire in 2000, the stall owners agreed to share part of the reconstruction cost of their booths with the city. They enjoyed “free”

rent in the first five years, and the city was able to augment its funds for infrastructure. Winning bidders also occupy the market stalls of a commercial center that was built inside the Integrated Bus-Jeepney Terminal. All interested renters in the community actively participated in a fair and transparent process. In return, the city got the best competitive prices for its investment.

Provide a greater voice to the poor and disadvantaged
Under the late Mayor Ma. Clara L. Lobregat, Zamboanga worked with an NGO to study the urban poor areas in Zamboanga. Forced migrants—natives fleeing war-strifed Mindanao, Badjaos, Filipino Muslim deportees from Malaysia—have converged as urban poor in the city. While they were treated with humanitarian care, some sectors perceived them as potential problems. This local research was an initial attempt to ‘put a face’ on the urban poor to serve as inputs in development planning. To track newcomers and monitor transients, the city has issued an ordinance to barangay officials to report them to the mayor’s office. It

has also set up the ‘One-Stop-Shop’ Crisis Assistance Center to assist Malaysian deportees process and document their travel and employment papers, as well as to secure free passports. A participatory approach may be considered in future resettlement programs of the government to avoid internal conflicts among population groups. It is also a promising tool to grip the root causes of dissidence and internal conflicts among the city’s ethnic groups and diverse population. The urban poor communities and informal sector organizations are also being drawn to help advocate family planning in Cebu. To fast track population management and family planning, local leaders launched the Metro Cebu Community Advocacy Network for Family Planning and Reproductive Health in July 2004. The network is composed of different urban poor groups and community associations—those who are most affected and stand to gain the most benefits from the program. Tagbilaran provides housing for the poor and has reserved two resettlement areas for them with the help of the private sector. The city was also the first and the only city in the

region to implement socialized housing projects. Taxes generated from the housing project increased the city’s income a hundred percent from PhP13 million in 2000 to PhP27 million in 2003.

Strengthen the capacity of institutions
In Tagum City, the different City Council Committees teamed up with other local officials in visiting

the barangays and in monitoring the implementation of ordinances passed by the Sangguniang Panglunsod (SP). The City council also invites speakers to provide a continuing legal education for purok leaders. These undertakings provide a good monitoring and an informal feedback mechanism on the ordinances passed by the SP. A project funded by the United Nations Development Programme in 1998 enhanced Lipa’s capacity for participatory environmental planning and management. Through the project, the city has produced its City Environmental Profile (CEP).

The vibrancy below
Participatory development is not just about listening to the people, but helping them to voice out their needs. And enabling them to articulate their aspirations and ideas as stakeholders and partners in development through education and empowering mechanisms. The people know the heart of the communities best. They know the vibrancy below.

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Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: They Make Cities Rise
MANAGE THE POPULATION: ENHANCE PRODUCTIVE CAPACITIES
“People are the primary reasons for development and that they, in turn, are the prime resource for development.” –Ignacio R. Bunye, former mayor of Muntinlupa

31% (in 2003); and Zamboanga, 36% (in 2001). Tagbilaran also spent most of its maintenance and operating expenses on community development, especially in 1999 with a 63% share of the budget. Others chose to invest in development priorities that strategically generate revenues to provide for such social services. Tagum invested more on economic services, basically to build massive infrastructures for industries, and Metro Cebu poured in more money on economic and general public services.

Wealth in health
Health and education should be given priority as these greatly affect the human resources available. Poor health can lead to increased government expenditures, thus negating the benefits of urbanization. Malnutrition, on the other hand, can decimate the future generation’s ability to manage growth. Bulk of Iloilo’s budget in health goes to basic health services. The city’s seven health district health centers are certified Sentrong Sigla, with health facilities that have met the DOH’s standards to deliver quality basic services. It has a family planning and population management program,

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healthy, well-educated, skilled, and active population is a boon to any leader. They are not only physically, but mentally, emotionally and socially capable to be partners in the development process. They are the foundations in building cities; the prime assets in expanding them. Thus, a city manager must ensure that he provides health, education, livelihood opportunities and other services that harness and enhance

these capabilities. This requires considerable investments that may bear fruit only after some years, even decades. But they are worth it.

It pays to invest in people
Most of the cities invested much of their budgets on social services—that is to provide their constituents education, health, housing and social welfare services. Metro Iloilo allocated 40% of its budget to social services; Iligan,

premarital counseling, and information and education campaign. Its nutrition programs have also slightly reduced malnutrition problems to 4.5%. Almost 91% of Metro Cebu is covered by hospitals, puericulture centers and barangay health stations. There are also enough government doctors and nurses for Cebu, Mandaue and Lapu-Lapu City. Population programs in Cebu are administered primarily by the Regional Commission on Population. Cebu City dispenses free family planning aids that are distributed to 77 barangays. In LapuLapu City, female sterilization has become a popular method of family planning. To involve urban poor groups and community associations in advocacy and information dissemination, the city launched the Metro Cebu Community Advocacy Network for Family Planning and Reproductive Health in 2004. Iligan constructed and expanded its health facilities using funds from the national government and international agencies like the UNFPA. The city plans to construct seven district health stations and clinics, build 24 daycare centers, and expand the Gregorio T. Lluch Memorial Hospital.

Zamboanga offers health services to its constituents, including migrants—native Muslims fleeing ethnic war in Mindanao, Badjaos, and Filipino Muslim deportees from Malaysia—with augmenting funds from the PCSO, Zamboanga Medical Center, NGOs and the private sector. The city has created the City Health Board to support health programs and the AIDS Council to control diseases from prostitution. Dubbed as the ‘medical center for Laguna’, Lipa’s budget for health has been increasing yearly to about 11% (PhP41 million) of its expenditures. All five district health centers of Lipa equipped with facility, manpower and laboratories are DOH-accredited Sentrong Sigla. The people use pills, and condoms for family planning. Almost all mothers (99.6%) have delivered their babies attended by

trained health personnel in 2003. In 2002, Lipa also forked PhP2 million for supplemental feeding of children and nutrition classes among parents of malnourished children and pregnant mothers. In 2001, it reserved PhP5 million for health insurance of the poor. Tagbilaran’s successful efforts to reduce malnutrition from 1999 to 2001 earned for it the CROWN Green Banner awards for 2000, 2001, and 2003. From 2001 to 2003, Tagum implemented a radical population program by giving incentives for males who would undergo vasectomy. The city also holds pre-marriage counseling. It has also proposed a plantilla item for a POPCOM officer in the city’s new organizational structure. To augment and complement the services of the health centers, barangay health workers have been trained to screen and then

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refer patients to the health centers when needed. Service charges are minimal and free if the patient is poor.

Price to be wise
Poor quality of education can lead to poor quality of human resources. Hence, the fast urbanizing Lipa placed education as top priority in its 10-point agenda. Believing that education is the best weapon against poverty, the Lipa City Public College

(LCPC) provides free education to poor but deserving students of Lipa and nearby towns. The city gave PhP14 million for its operation in 2000. Since 1999, the city has sponsored the scholarship of 27 poor students who received stipends of PhP50,000 a year each to study. To improve the quality of teaching reading to elementary pupils, Lipa is implementing Project K or Karunungan Para sa Kinabukasan ng mga Kabataan from 2002 to 2006. This collaborative

TRADE UNION CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES (TUCP)

Young, Working, and Healthy
It’s not just about money. The Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) is eyeing better sexual and reproductive health opportunities for our young people at work. Adapting a more holistic reproductive health program, the TUCP has more than a hundred companies that have already integrated reproductive health provisions and benefits in their collective bargaining agreements. There are five labor federations and two labor education counseling centers (LECC) that have adopted the program, distributed in at least five strategic areas in the country including the National Capital Region, Regions III, VI, VII, and XI. Their project “Work-based Reproductive Health Project for the Youth” employs the following strategies: (a) capacity building for youth leadership on sexual and reproductive health; (b) young adult peer education; (c) youth-friendly behavior change communication materials; (d) engaging trade union leaders and employers; and (e) harnessing multisectoral partnership. The program has been successful in generating wider recognition among unions and partners alike that youth sexual and reproductive health is a human right. It also led to the training of 45 selected young workers into leaders and young adult peer educators. Innovative schemes (like Young Adult Peer Education) were also employed to address youth information needs. This is particularly helpful to the youth who are too embarrassed to ask questions.

project with Synergia Foundation, De La Salle Lipa and DepEd involves training of teachers and parents as well as dialogues with the community to develop a better curriculum, methods and materials for teaching. Tagbilaran, an emerging city, has used remedial classes for the elementary and night classes for secondary pupils starting 2000 to improve basic education. With five colleges, 11 high schools, 22 elementary schools and 31 daycare centers, it is the center of education in the province. Now, it has also opened branches of three information technology schools. Tagum City implements a college scholarship program—City Educational Scholarhip Program (CESPRO)—for poor deserving students. Aside from paying their tuition and miscellaneous fees, it provides scholars a PhP1,000 monthly stipend and PhP1,000 per semester book and uniform allowance. With education as a major thrust for Tagum, this rising city has built more classrooms designed Tagumstyle—that is more spacious and aesthetic. The city funded most of the classrooms while the rest were built from congressional funds. The more established Metro Iloilo provided scholarships, free education

to indigents, and trainings to out-ofschool youth. For instance, it allotted PhP2.3 million to grant scholarships for college and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in 2003. That same year, it gave the Technical Institute of Iloilo PhP1.3 million to provide free TVET to children of poor families. The school imparts skills in automotive, electrical, and civil technology to the youth for free. The city also keeps a Special Education Fund, mainly from real

property taxes. As of 2004, the School Board has a budget of PhP70.5 million and a supplemental budget of PhP12 million. Through the latter, the city was able to hire more teachers, improve its instruction programs, books, science facilities and supplies and to construct covered gyms. Preschoolers are also taken cared of in 251 daycare centers. In 2003, the city allotted PhP7.1 million for daycare services and

P0.56 million for supplemental feeding. Iloilo gave PhP3 million counterpart to the World Bank-funded Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) project for children six years old and younger. ECCD focuses on the psychosocial development and early education of preschoolers and provides for supplemental feeding. Metro Cebu is also expanding its education facilities, including classrooms, and beefing up its teachers. In 2000, 81% of the barangays have

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elementary schools and 42% barangays have secondary schools up from the 77% and 26% figures in 1990 respectively. Iligan, which also prioritized education, plans to construct more classrooms, and establish elementary and highschools in some barangays to improve access to education of remote areas. Zamboanga, an educational center of the region, has sought to address early childhood care and development, elementary education for all, literacy programs, continuing adult education, special education to meet the needs of its special population, and improvements in curricular programs and services, such as post secondary or higher education.

Iligan is now widening its economic base from industrial to agriculture and tourism industries. A contract with Nestle Philippines Corporation now provides its coffee industry with a ready market. The government has also forged a cooperative venture with the New Tech Pulp using the Iligan abaca fiber. This supports the cooperatives that have been managing and operating these abaca plantations in one of the barangays. It is also formulating a city tourism development and marketing plan.

Employment for enrichment
Livelihood opportunities make a population productive and enhances its economic and social contributions. In 2002, 80% of the labor force of Iloilo was employed. Many work in government and special interest sectors or are engaged in enterprises, such as the food business.

Zamboanga aims to increase the urban core of the city to as much as 20 times over. This will extend the commercial areas with expanded industrial and residential zones. Access to livelihood will also be given to resettlement areas to make these communities viable and sustainable. Tagum operates viable economic enterprises that provide jobs to its population such as the transport terminal, public market, livestock auction center, cultural trade center, slaughter house, and public cemetery. Its own asphalt plant has earned PhP11 million in its first year of operation in 2002. Trade and services, which account for 95% of its new investments, are expected to generate more jobs. Tagbilaran with its 16 major banks and 33 lending institutions, airport, and seaport is a hub of trade and commerce. Its booming ecotourism industry is matched by the growing retail, accommodation, and transport industries. The traditional handicraft industry, which dates back to 1920, has become a leading source of livelihood and income. In 1997, 80% of the households in the province and 70% of city households derived their income from entrepreneurial activities.

Other sectors–potent factors
Women are gaining a voice and are being empowered. Lipa’s Women Welfare Division give women trainings on self and social enhancement, leadership, livelihood and family life. Cebu will soon construct a Women’s Crisis Center. The marginalized or problem groups are also being empowered and integrated into mainstream society. Lipa provides services for solo parents, disabled persons, senior citizens, and juvenile delinquents. Solo parents can take more leaves. Disabled persons or those who are visually impaired, mentally challenged, and autistic attend trainings and workshops to develop skills and potentials. Senior

citizens also undergo social and self-enhancement training. Juvenile delinquents are counseled and their parents pass through some training to curb drug addiction, gambling, and other social ills. Cebu plans to build a holding center for street children and a rehabilitation center for drug dependents. In Iloilo, out-of-school youths aged 15-24 are given scholarships or undergo leadership training and selfawareness programs to rekindle their interest in going back to school. The barangays also actively involve them in community building, capability building, and skills enhancement programs. Iligan also encourages out-ofschool youths to go back to school and

city conducts peer group support and community-based services, as well as coordinate with parents, teachers, and community associations. As part of their curriculum, students of the Lipa City Public Colleges immerse themselves in the community for two months— organizing, mobilizing, and building the community particularly, the out-ofschool youth. Lipa also offers nonformal courses in dressmaking, paper craft, home décor, cosmetology, and practical electricity to wives, the youth, and other interested villagers. Notable too is the Arabic literacy class facilitated by the Tagum City government and the establishment of seven tribal centers for indigenous Muslim tribes residing in Tagum to foster cooperation and understanding.

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Leaders and Partners Work Wonders
WORKING TOGETHER IS KEY
“Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success.” – Henry Ford

It is a new brand of leadership; it is called partnership.

Mega cities need metropolitan arrangements: Iloilo and Cebu form councils
Thriving economic activities of major cities sometimes spill over urbanization problems to neighboring municipalities. To solve these problems, Iloilo City and Cebu City solons signed metropolitan agreements with their neighbors. In 1997, Cebu City formed the Metro Cebu Development Council (MCDC) with the cities of Mandaue, Lapu-Lapu, and Talisay and six other municipalities in the eastern part of the Cebu Province. In 2001, Iloilo City also formed the Metro Iloilo Development Council (MIDC) with the municipalities of Leganes, Oton, Pavia, and San Miguel. Delivery of services and governance improved. Lessons are also thriving for future city leaders. Partnership and political will equal power. Iloilo had foundations to build on, an enabling environment, and a strong political will to make partnership work for it. The local leaders have already been exposed to the concept of a metropolitan council

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anaging cities nowadays is serious business. It has become more complex, multidimensional, and dynamic. The city managers are expected to provide quality basic services for a burgeoning population with diverse needs. They must generate and expand the economic base yet promote equity to all constituents. Further, they should sustain the environment for present and future needs. Most importantly, they should be a leader who can work with partners. These partners are stakeholders that influence the city’s development: the state, the private sector, and the civil society. The state includes the national and local governments.

The private sector comprises the business sector and organizations, such as professional organizations (e.g., medical), sociocivic groups, the academe, and even media groups. The civil society includes NGOs and POs. Donor agencies working through GOs and NGOs are also key players. It is the city managers’ task to innovatively and decisively manage the city’s unique strengths. They must find ways where they can converge, cooperate, and coordinate. By managing economies of scale, the managers can harness the social and economic benefits of urbanization more efficiently and effectively to benefit the people.

when it was forwarded by progressiveminded Iloilo business entrepreneurs in the early 1990s. Advocacy and capability-building of an international agency further ingrained in them the advantages of a council. When the concept was revived in 1996, the mayors were ready. They prepared a memorandum of agreement (MOA) for forming a Metropolitan Iloilo Development Authority (MIDA). Strong local political will plus the strong support of a local congressman, Rep. Raul Gonzales, clinched the agreement. House Bill 1355 creating the Metropolitan Iloilo Development Authority (MIDA) was passed in Congress. Olongapo’s strong political leadership helped the city rise out its economic slump and transformed into a model world-class urban center. Institutionalized partnership moves mountain. Because the partnership in Iloilo was institutionalized, it evolved into an organizational structure with support staff, office space, and sustainable funding. The Executive Council composed of the five mayors is supported by an Advisory Board, a Secretariat, and Project Steering Committees. The Secretariat holds office in the city hall and staff are paid

GOVERNANCE

It’s Everybody’s Business
Power is in people. Local government units no longer have the monopoly of decision making in the community. The church, business, and youth sectors among others now actively work with the city or municipal government in laying out their plans for development. Iligan’s recipe for growth Empowering barangays in Iligan City has just gone a notch higher. Barangays are now required to formulate their own barangay development plans (BDP). To accomplish this plan, a barangay has to conduct a participatory resource appraisal (PRA), which would provide them data for planning. The process of formulating the BDP involves three steps: (1) community orientation; (2) socioeconomic profiling; and (3) development of the BDP. The PRA is conducted in the second step. The mayor of Iligan City started the program in 2003. A Barangay Management Committee was also formed to assist the barangays in formulating their plans. Eventually, the BDP will be a prerequisite before a barangay gets its share of the city budget. As of April 2004, three barangays have already submitted their BDPs while others are still in consultation with the general assembly. Lipa’s plan for all seasons The city of Lipa may have a movie star as mayor, but the various barangays are now sharing the spotlight when it comes to chartering their own development plans. VILMA’S MBN launched in 2001 aims to empower barangays to become strong and self-reliant communities by running a series of orientation, consultations, and capacity building training for community volunteers. The private sector, academe, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) also actively participate in the program. This strategy is envisioned to put Lipa into the list of the top ten cities in the country. Community participation: the Ilonggo way Urbanization is a big issue and the Ilonggos are not going to take it sitting down. In 1998, the Iloilo City government solicited public participation in drawing up measures that would address urbanization issues. A series of multisectoral consultative planning workshops were conducted to come up with the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) for 1998-2010. The CLUP was formulated in close coordination with the four neighboring municipalities of Leganes, Oton, Pavia, and San Miguel. The experiences of Iligan, Lipa, and Iloilo may already be a part of a growing number of cities, which are realizing the importance of engaging all stakeholders in their respective areas in drawing out their plan for progress. Although it may be too early to see the fruits of convened efforts, it is relieving to know that no one will be left out. This is the true essence of empowering people. Making Cities Work

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plantilla salaries. Funds come from commitments of council members: Iloilo City shouldered PhP100,000 for the first year and PhP200,000 for the second year; the partner municipalities shared half of the city’s counterpart funds. Support for capability building from the Canadian Urban Institute is also assured until 2006. With these resources, the council was able to flexibly respond to development needs. On the other hand, the Metro Cebu Development Council was created by the Regional Development Council in 1997. Without a support staff, the Governor of Cebu, who acts as Interim Chairman of the Council, relies on the NEDA Regional Office VII as Interim Secretariat. To give the council legal and institutional powers and resources similar to that enjoyed by the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Cebu has proposed a bill to create a Metro Cebu Development Authority (MCDA). This bill is pending in both the Congress and Senate. Common vision and grounds unite. An MIDC Operations Manual has laid down the ‘practical’ guidelines’ on how Ilonggos can achieve a common vision. All council members pursue a common and integrated development plan. The

plan defines priorities and areas of partnership which they themselves agreed upon. Further, a framework directs them toward complementary areas of growth. Hence, the council is a partnership of equals, respecting each city’s strengths and contributions. Partnership is forged, not forced. Appreciation, readiness, and capability to manage a metropolitan agreement did not come overnight to Metro Iloilo. An international partner—the Canadian Urban Institute—began building this conducive environment starting in 1998. It funded capabilitybuilding activities, sponsored meetings, workshops, and study tours here and abroad, which impinged on local officials the importance of an interlocal partnership. Aware of the benefits of membership, all the LGUs voluntarily joined the council. International partners mobilize. International partners have been tapped to fund or cosponsor infrastructure projects. Metro Iloilo’s priority projects to improve the road and flood control systems for 2004 to 2014 are funded by the Japanese government. Meanwhile, international donor agencies from Japan and Malaysia were

tapped by Metro Cebu to fund its massive infrastructure projects—the focus of its development plan (MCDP) to solve its urban problems. Metro Cebu also networked with sister cities in China to build economic enterprises and solicit donations. The city received a fire truck from Xiamen and 100 buses to run a bus transport system from Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Professional organizations and NGOs infuse valuable material and nonmaterial inputs. In Iloilo, representatives from the academe and different national agencies support the mayors in policy and decision-making. As members of the Advisory Board in the council, these think-tanks provide vital technical, advisory, and information inputs that cannot be valued in money terms. Further, many NGOs support the city’s family planning and reproductive health programs, thus extending the city government’s service in health care. To sum up, metropolitan arrangements require political maturity and the strong political will of the local leaders. Constituents also need to fully understand and appreciate its advantages. Moreover, stakeholders must be willing to support the council’s human resource and financial needs.

For rising mega cities, a metropolitan development authority is a more attractive structure. The institution is relatively permanent, it exerts greater corporate powers and functions, and it enjoys fiscal advantage.

FAMILY PLANNING

The Manobo Way
The Manobos comprise one of the largest tribes in the province of Sultan Kudarat. It has a population of 52,186 spread through the five municipalities of the province. Poor and marginalized, the Manobos dwell in less accessible and mountainous places. Access to basic services, such as reproductive health, has been very limited. The Manobo culture permits young marriages, which often lead to bearings of an average of five children. This condition coupled with social and institutional discrimination makes it more difficult for a typical Manobo family to be able to improve their lives and actively contribute to the development of the province. Hence, the Provincial Health Office devised a strategy to facilitate the promotion of family planning in areas where this indigenous group lives. Taking advantage of certain influential people in the tribe, the health office has tapped them to be family planning motivators. To make them more effective motivators, selected Manobo leaders were made to undergo trainings. They were also taught to translate information, education, and communication (IEC) materials into their native tongue to be used as a tool when they go around to do their work as family planning motivators. Since 1999, the program has been successful in making more couples responsible over family planning. The increase in acceptance among Manobo couples has raised contraceptive use nearly 60%.

People come and people go: deurbanization in Iligan and reurbanization in Olongapo
When economic distress hits an area and forces its residents to leave and seek better cities, how does a city manager cope? Depopulation and deurbanization have hit Iligan and Olongapo, although the latter has started reurbanizing in 1996. Iligan’s economy crumbled when its biggest taxpayer, the National Steel Corporation, shut down. Olongapo’s economy blew to ashes when Mt. Pinatubo erupted and the US military facilities pulled out. Both cities experienced out-migration; people simply left. Quite bleak situations. Yet through many forms of partnerships, these cities have survived, transformed, and progressed. Olongapo’s remarkable transformation to a model city

stems from its strong and equipped leadership, and its equally strong and resilient residents. Local and international partners facilitate the job. LGUS can seek or accept the advice of local and foreign experts in areas where they are weak. For instance, the Australian government renowned for its urban planning, has assisted Iligan to develop its City Land Use Plan (CLUP).

SAGRIC, a foreign firm consultant hired by AusAid, also reviewed the tenyear plan as it passed through a series of consultations with stakeholders. The plan is a product of partnerships among local institutions, including branches of the Department of Trade and Industries (DTI), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), and others. The plan is now ready for approval by the Regional Land Use Committee (RLUC).

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As a beneficiary of the Philippine Regional Municipal Development Project (PRMDP) that is funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Australian Assistance for International Development (AIDAB), Iligan stepped up its efforts to bolster its economy. It computerized its tax registration in 2001. Further, the Tax Revenue Assessment and Collection System (TRACS), which it developed, was made the pilot system for other cities under the PRMDP. Iligan’s partnership with other national and private agencies resulted to innovative and effective revenue programs. With the DENR, CREBA, and other agencies, it mapped new and existing businesses, updated land classification, and valuated properties in 44 barangays. One-stop shops managed with local branches of DTI, Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), DENR, and the Social Security System eased tax and business transactions. The media also actively campaigned for tax payments. Olongapo, on the other hand, coordinated with the ADB, DENR, and the Office of the President in settling problems in land titling and boundaries, as well as in conducting cadastral surveys.

Involve the private sector in profitable or useful projects. International agencies like the UNFPA helped Iligan construct and expand its health centers. Other infrastructure projects were funded by the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP), and ADB. The private sector was also very active in Iligan’s multisectoral housing project, the GK Missionville. The city government provided the resettlement sites. But mobilized for funding and construction were over a hundred representatives from the private sector, business associations, NGOs, religious organizations, urban poor organizations, and the Philippine Army construction battalion. The UN Undersecretary General referred to Missionville as an international model for urban poor housing. Business associations such as the Iligan Bay Chamber of Industries and the Iligan Chamber of Commerce are also actively promoting investments and industries in the city. In Olongapo, the World Bank supported studies on the city’s landfill that can be used jointly with the SBMA. Private investors in general services, construction, and supplies that flocked

to the Subic Freeport also boosted Olongapo’s economy and tourism industry.

People come and stay, but who are they? Forced migration in Zamboanga
What if the scenario was reversed? What if socioeconomic and political distresses hit other areas and dislocated migrants flock to your city? This is Zamboanga’s plight. Many forced migrants populate the city: Muslims fleeing wars in other parts of Mindanao; prodigal Badjaos coming back from Metro Manila; and Filipino Muslim refugees being deported from neighboring Malaysia. People stay but who are they? The city’s Master Development Plan for 1997-2012, which aims to reduce poverty, especially among the ‘forced migrants’ have led to partnerships to meet their needs. With funds from the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office, Zamboanga City Medical Center, NGOs, and the private sector, the city provides health services to all constituents, including the migrants. There is no discrimination. Under

Mayor Celso Lobregat’s term, resettlement areas are also given access to livelihood programs that can transform them into economically viable and sustainable communities. Further, the regional line agencies like the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council (RDCC) have initiated many relief and short-term emergency programs for deportees. The LGUs and the NGOs assist in delivering services for these programs.

Rising stars: the emerging cities of Lipa, Tagbilaran, and Tagum
Three cities are rising fast. Lipa in Luzon enjoys the spillover effects of development from Manila and Batangas

City. Tagbilaran in the Visayas is the gateway to Bohol and plays a critical role in the province’s ecotourism development strategy. Tagum has been named one of the Provincial AgriIndustrial Centers (PAIC) in Region 11 in Mindanao. Again partnerships helped local leaders manage their city’s potentials to turn them into shining urban centers. The private sector in Lipa, such as Nestle Philippines, Inc. and the LIMA Technology Center, support the city’s environmental programs. They maintain an environmental office or committee to monitor and prevent the ill effects of their operations on the city’s environment. With the help of the city planning experts from the DILG-AusAID PRMDP Project, Tagbilaran identified tourism as a key development strategy in its medium-term development plan and city land use plan. A technical study by foreign groups like the AIDAB served as input to the success of a five-year water development program in 1997. Waterworks now generate about a third of the city’s income. The ADB and DENR have also set up a center for migrants.

In Tagum, an Economic Enterprises Regulatory Board was created to manage the city’s economic enterprises. The Board is empowered by two representatives from the private sector – one from the vendors group and one from the consumers group. The city also built more classrooms and designed the spacious and aesthetic Tagum-style classrooms by coordinating with the DepED and DPWH.

Working together works
Partnership of the local government with other stakeholders helps cities survive, transform, and progress. Where partnership was pursued, somehow, something worked or was accomplished. And where partnership was more extensive and formalized, the greater were the impacts. Only by collaboration, cooperation, or partnership with other stakeholders in growing urban centers can the city manager govern efficiently and effectively from all angles—politically, socioeconomically, and even culturally. The point is that working together actually works!

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Building Stronger and Healthier Cities
CAPITALIZE ON STRENGTHS, DIVERSIFY
“Results are obtained by exploiting opportunities, not by solving problems.” – Peter Drucker

M

aking do with what one has is a popular maxim. This implies building up one’s strengths to compensate for one’s weaknesses. Each city has something that it can maximize to further its progress. It could be a culture of participation, its strategic location, its natural resources, existing laws, and even its increasing population—each can be used to cope with the demands of urban growth.

Expanding the economic base
Struggling to pull itself together after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and pull-out of the US Navy base on which it heavily depended, Olongapo tapped its port and what was left of the former military bases to pick up where it left off. Olongapo now has a free port, international airport, and industrial park which employs many of its residents and provides the city most

of its revenue. These positive changes have transformed Olongapo into a model city. In the same way that Olongapo reIied a great deal on the US military bases, Iligan City’s economy revolved around manufacturing industries, particularly one firm—the National Steel Corporation (NSC). Hence, when many of these industries stopped their operations, the local economy collapsed. In managing the crisis, Iligan altered its development strategies—it started to work on its agriculture and tourism. Although it is still striving to regain its title as the “Industrial City of the South”, it is now diversifying its income and employment sources. The stories of Olongapo and Iligan are a reminder for city managers to cultivate a wide economic base and not to rely on only a few major industries for income. This means not putting all of one’s eggs in one basket.

Making the most of its location
Tagum’s economy prospered because of its improved transportation node. Because of its location, entrepreneurs and traders found it advantageous to do business in the city at the crossroads. Capitalizing on its strategic location, Tagum maintained and expanded its road network to profit from the bustling business activities and positive spillovers from the more developed cities in Davao. Aside from improving its road network, Tagum City capitalized on its geographical advantage by operating revenue-earning enterprises such as the 24-bay Tagum Overland Transport Integrated Terminal. The same is true for Lipa City, which is strategically located between Metro Manila and Batangas City. From being purely an agricultural economy, it is now fast developing its commerce and trade, thus widening its economic base. Lipa City is continually exerting efforts to attract more investments by ensuring that various support facilities are in place. These include communication facilities such as broadcast stations, a postal service,

telephone companies, cellular phone companies, telegraph/telegram offices, courier service providers, Internet providers, and a cable TV operator. Another city that benefited from its strategic location is Zamboanga City. Being the gateway from the South, it is the heart of trade, transportation, communication, and tourism in Southwestern Mindanao. It is also the transshipment center to other parts of the Philippines and to Indonesia and Malaysia. Zamboanga City’s free port and abundant natural resources, particularly marine wealth keep it afloat amid declining investments because of the unstable peace and order situation in Mindanao.

On the other hand, what Tagbilaran lacked in natural resource is more than compensated for by its strategic position as the island’s center of education, trade, and commerce; seat of political power; and, more importantly, the province’s primary gateway. It houses the only domestic airport and base port in the province. Since it uses its location as the province’s gateway to advantage, Tagbilaran has established infrastructure to enhance its accessibility. The Tagbilaran Airport and City Tourist Pier have been improved further. The city has also made sure that it has world class facilities and amenities for visiting tourists.

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Recognizing and capitalizing on an area’s potential and strong points provide options for spurring economic activity and investments. Other important concerns should be addressed to promote the benefits of urbanization, for instance, the impact of the conflict in Mindanao on Zamboanga’s economic viability. Linking with partner organizations and consulting local residents will help make the transformation to an urban center less of a problem.

gave males who voluntarily underwent vasectomy an incentive. The city also intends to include a population management section with two population officers in its proposed organizational structure.

Joining efforts with other LGUs
A booming population brought about by urbanization means more and more people needing basic services. Neighboring towns and municipalities also experience the spillover effects of this demand for a more efficient and effective way to deliver basic services. According to the 1991 Local Government Code, “Local government units may, through appropriate ordinances, group themselves, consolidate or coordinate efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them.” This is exactly what Metro Cebu and Metro Iloilo did. Together with their neighboring local government units (LGUs), they formed metropolitan bodies that address the problems of urbanization as a collective. City managers and planners should look out for avenues of collaboration and cooperation to

Being mindful of its carrying capacity
Migration is inevitable in the process of urbanization. The increase in investments in an area creates more jobs, which attracts people. City manager should seriously look at controlling the flow of migrants into a city. A good example is Iloilo City. The city can only accommodate a maximum of 405,000 people due to limited area and facilities. Thus, it regulates its net migration. It also strictly implements a no-squatting policy to control inmigration. In the same vein, in an effort to manage its population, Tagum City

enhance governance. Metropolitan arrangements enable the different LGUs concerned to pool their resources and unite in addressing cross-border problems. Urban services can be provided more effectively and efficiently if they are jointly planned and delivered by LGUs, their partners, and stakeholders. Such an arrangement, however, requires a common vision of development, a unified economic and political base to implement the vision, and an appropriate structure to provide an institutional framework for successful planning and implementation. In short, local officials need to be politically mature and strong willed to be able to work together in synergy. The success of a metropolitan arrangement largely depends upon their ability to coordinate and cooperate.

Generating local revenues
One of the advantages of urbanization and population growth is the increased opportunity for resource generation. Under the Local Government Code of 1991, LGUs are authorized to impose taxes. They are also empowered to collect service fees, user charges and fines, and operate enterprises.

Lipa’s Environmental Management Fee (EMF), which is included in the monthly household water bills, and Iloilo City’s 1% additional property tax that goes to the Special Education Fund (SEF) are good examples. City managers could innovate in enhancing the efficiency of the tax collection system. Lipa’s and Tagbilaran’s one-stop shops are prime examples. Incentives such as Tagbilaran’s 20% discount on real property tax for early taxpayers can also be instituted. Tagum’s Revenue Task Force— which moves around the city to visit commercial establishments—is an innovation from the “one-stop shop,” which most cities have. It’s practically bringing the process of effective tax collection right at the people’s doorstep. Computerization and ICTs can also be exploited. This is what Iligan did in its effort to systematize tax records. It adopted the Tax Revenue Assessment and Collection System (TRACS) to make identification and collection of due revenues easier. Iligan also conducts business mapping with the help of the geographic information system (GIS) to identify new business and commercial areas more easily.

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

Responsibly Macho
Talk about equality of the sexes. Men should also be aware of reproductive health and forget the notion that only women are responsible for unwanted pregnancies. In Nueva Vizcaya, a program has already been running to make men actively participate in family planning in their own households. The Male Reproductive Health Program is a community-based initiative under the 4th Country Programme in 1999. The UNFPA and the local government jointly implemented the project. Two pilot barangays were selected namely, Calaocan and Sto. Domingo, both in the municipality of Bambang. The program has three components: capability building, awareness building, and rural health service provision. In terms of strategies, the project employs the following: information, education and communication (IEC) campaign; advocacy; social mobilization; multisectoral participation and networking capability building; and peer approach. Under the 5th Country Programme in 2000, the program went into full gear. Men had to undergo training on reproductive health while purok reproductive health committees were organized. Husband dialogues, meetings, consultations, and film showing were conducted and used as venues for information and education campaigns. Traditional barangay activities such as fiestas and sportsfest were also used for IEC activities. Nearly PhP600,000 was spent for the project in the last 3.5 years. The provincial, municipal, and barangay LGUs absorbed almost 48% of the total expenses for the implementation of the project while the UNFPA covered 52%. Within three years of implementation, more male residents were reported to have used condoms and greatly participated in health care and family planning. There was also a significant decrease in cases of domestic violence against women reported to the Katarungang Pambarangay. The program has been extended to four other barangays.

Meeting the demands of urban growth is a challenge that requires skill and innovativeness on the part of the local government and local executives. Each city has unique

strengths and potentials. By focusing on what one has, enhancing its potential, and exploiting existing diversity, city executives can wield strength.

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Lessons, Policy Implications, and Recommendations
“What makes greatness is starting something that lives after you.” – Ralph W. Stockman

5
Population and Urbanization
Urbanization in a wider geographic area. Urbanization continues although the primacy of core cities is declining as alternative sites become more attractive. In addition, in many cases, the surrounding areas are growing faster than the original city core so that urbanization is occurring in a wider geographic area. This could mean the rise of metropolitan arrangements in the future. The challenge of the ever-changing economic structure. The economic structure of cities, as expected, is shaped by the drivers of urbanization. While it is strategic to concentrate on the development of leading sectors, the experiences in Iligan and Olongapo stress the importance of diversifying the portfolio of economic activities early enough while the city is still reaping the fruits of its leading sector. To find alternatives only after the collapse of the leading economic activity will be difficult because of the accompanying diminished financial capacity. Cities as hubs. While cities may be embroiled in their own problems, it may not be in their best interest to be solely inward looking. It is a strategic advantage for cities to develop into hubs for nearby municipalities by providing gateway facilities for the movement of people, goods, and services. Tagbilaran, for instance, is a gateway to final tourist destinations in the province of Bohol. Cities usually have the best transportation and storage facilities for goods. They are also usually a host to services which may be not be viable in smaller municipalities, such as banks, telecommunication systems, tertiary schools, and medical facilities. This stance will likely stave off unwanted migrations into the cities.

Varied attention to population concerns. The attention given to population concerns had been varied—largely dependent on the city executive. In some cities, strong population programs meant promoting male involvement through vasectomy (Tagum). In others, there is no mention of any significant population program at all. In still other cities, a strong population program means promoting only natural family planning and banning artificial methods (Manila). Several factors may have contributed to this prevailing outcome. At the core is that, the national government has not provided the needed leadership for better management of population growth leaving it to the LGUs to craft their own population management programs. There are several reasons why this stance will not achieve the desired effect of better population management. LGUs may not find it advantageous to manage population growth. For one, the IRA allocation is determined by population size. In addition, because of the devolvement, cities with successful population management programs become economically viable and thus attract migrants like a magnet. Finally,

good population management may undermine politicians’ interest in building a larger political base. Given all of these, a better strategy is for the national government to provide strong leadership in population management and enjoin LGUs to participate in the effort. In addition, there might be a need to reexamine some more the IRA allocation formula to minimize the importance given to population size.

Republic Act 7279
Section 37 Article IX of the Republic Act 7279 or “Urban Development and Housing Act (UDHA) of 1992. The law requires local governments to act upon an effective mechanism to monitor trends in the movement of people from rural to urban, urban to urban, and urban to rural areas. They shall identify measures by which such movements can be influenced to achieve balance between urban capabilities and population, to direct appropriate segments of the population into areas where they can have opportunities to improve their lives and contribute to national growth. They shall also recommend legislation to Congress, if necessary. POPCOM, NEDA, and NSO to provide advanced planning information to national and local government planners on population projections and the services needed in particular urban and urbanizable areas.

Resource Generation and Allocation and Service Delivery
Resource generation. Revenue generation efforts have been, at best, half-hearted because up to this point cities did not feel the need to raise revenues given the dividends derived from urbanization and a generous IRA allocation. While this may be acceptable in the past, this may not be necessarily true in the near future. As the national government face fiscal problems, the current IRA share may not remain sacrosanct. A clear indication of this is that there are already attempts at withholding IRA allocations in the recent past. There is therefore a need for cities to develop its revenue generation capacities.

There are already many examples of good practices in raising own-source revenues. Quezon City is leading the way in improving tax administration. Tagum has demonstrated that public utilities can contribute to the city coffers rather than being a huge drain

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to it. Olongapo, by simply including garbage collection fees in the electric (a utility the city owns) bill, has improved its collection of garbage fees which has, in turn, financed one of the model garbage collection systems in the country. Improved resource generation would enable cities to finance even better service delivery. Beyond average service delivery performance. Cities provide better service delivery, in general, better than the surrounding areas and the national average. This is easy to understand given that in cities the households are relatively richer and/or poverty incidence lower and that city governments are well endowed with financial resources both from urbanization dividends and from generous IRA shares. Given the higher financial resources, they are in the best position to go beyond the better than average performance and be aggressive in improving access of poorer households. Cross-border service use. The devolution of frontline services has highlighted the need for developing

models of dealing with cross-border use of public services. Cross-border use is not an issue if services are nationally funded. With the devolution, however, most frontline services are locally funded. Nonresidents using publicly funded services represent a drain on services available to residents. Enforcing residency requirements is one administrative solution to this problem but may be difficult or costly to implement. There is a need to look at other arrangements including costsharing arrangements, which can be part of a metropolitan or inter-LGU arrangement.

Role of Institutions
The role of development planning in resource allocation. There are indications that development planning has limited influence in actual resource allocation. While there are already several good practices, short-term considerations and personal preference of the city executive still predominate. For instance, the importance given to City Land Use Plans (CLUPs) was not really because of strategic resource allocation concerns but because it is

a requirement for zoning ordinances, which are needed for taxation purposes. The experience in developing executive agendas, where the local chief executive is engaged together with stakeholders in a participatory planning process, is an innovative way of not leaving planning to technocrats alone. On the whole, there is therefore a need to create an environment where the role of development planning is enhanced and the influence of shortterm concerns in actual resource allocation decisions is reduced even before embarking on the desired methodology of planning for population development (POPDEV). Participatory development. Participation in development planning and administration has worked wonders in many cities in both normal and difficult times. It has been promoted for at least two significant reasons, namely, improving responsiveness to the needs of the constituency and at the same time promoting empowerment. The LGC has provided mechanisms for participation in planning and implementing development efforts.

These mechanisms need to be continuously reviewed to identify better ways of effecting participatory development. Sustainable cooperation among cities and nearby municipalities. Cooperation among cities and adjacent municipalities was resorted to in dealing with coordination problems and spillover effects. Several configurations have appeared in the Philippine scene. A critical review of the arrangements done revealed that the search is still on for an effective local governance arrangement (Mercado and Manasan 2002). The Cebu case study revealed that voluntary cooperation has proven to be weak in terms of sustainability as succeeding administrations tend to be not as committed as previous administrations who were party to the forging of the agreements. Thus, city administrators have proposed the creation of a legal structure like the MMDA. Mandated cooperation, on the other hand, as illustrated by the MMDA experience has also been criticized as infringing too much on the autonomy of member LGUs. This is demonstrated by the perennial tussle between the MMDA and the

Population Size and IRA Allocation of LGUs
Share of LGUs • After the LGC (1991): 40% of internal revenue taxes • Before LGC: a maximum of 20% of internal revenue taxes Shares among different levels of LGUs • After LGC (1991): 23% to provinces, 23% to cities, 34% to municipalities and 20% to barangays • Before LGC: 27% to provinces, 23% to cities, 41% to municipalities, and 10% to barangays Basis of allocation • After LGC (1991): 50% population, 25% land area, 25% equal sharing • Before LGC: 70% population, 20% land area, 10% equal sharing For ARMM: Sharing • After the amendment to the organic act (2001): 30% central government, 35% regional government, 35% local government distributed using abovementioned formula • Before the amendment to the organic act: 40% central government, 30% regional government, 30% LGUs
Source: Manasan (2003) “Decentralization and Service Delivery Study: Intergovernmental Finance.” Report to ADB-WB.

executives of member cities. On the other hand, voluntary cooperation seems to be working in the case of Iloilo. The need for cooperation among cities and nearby areas is real especially in a decentralized environment. It would be prudent to follow Manasan and Mercado’s (2002) recommendation that an in-depth research on models/

arrangements of cooperation be done. Among the nagging questions to be answered: How do we deal with the challenge of infringement on the autonomy of LGUs under a mandated cooperation arrangement? What kind of an environment needs to be developed to hasten development and improve the sustainability of voluntary cooperation arrangements?

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References
Asian Development Bank. 2002. Key Indicators 2002. Population and human resource trends and challenges. Manila: Asian Development Bank. Cabegin, Emily C.A., and Mary Joy Arguillas. The changing Philippine urban landscape in the 1990s. Quezon City: Demographic Research and Development Foundations Inc., 1997. Jaromay, Elma D. 2003. Process documentation on best practices: Sultan Kudarat Province. Promoting family planning in a tribal community. The Manobo Highlanders Information, Education Team (HIT) Experience. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Local Government Code of 1991. Mercado, Ruben G. and Rosario G. Manasan. 1998. Metropolitan arrangements in the Philippines: passing fancy or the future megatrend? Discussion Paper Series No. 98-31. PIDS Discussion Paper Series. Makati: Philippine Institute for Development Studies. October. National Statistical Coordination Board. 2003 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. Makati City. October 2002. National Statistics Office. 2002. Philippines: Urban population was registered at 48.05 percent. Manila: National Statistics Office Press Release Number 200382. 10 October. Pernia, Ernesto M. and Stella L.F. Alabastro. 1997. Aspects of urban water and sanitation in the context of rapid urbanization in Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank, Economic Development Research Center, Economic Staff Paper No. 56, September. Pernia, Ernesto M. and Rex David C. Israel. 1994. Spatial development, urbanization and migration patterns in the Philippines. In: Spatial development, land use and urban-rural growth linkages in the Philippines. Manila: National Economic Development Authority, Integrated Population and Development Planning Project. Population Commission (POPCOM) and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS). 2004. Population, urbanization, and local governance. Technical report. A joint project of POPCOM and PIDS. October. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). 2004. 2004 Population data sheet. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 2003. Best practices. Getting men into RH: the Nueva Vizcaya Male RH Program. UNFPA. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 2003. Three best practices: youth center, mobilization, and community theater group. Kaugmaon Center for Children’s Concern Foundation (Kaugmaon), Davao City. UNFPA. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 2003. Workbased reproductive health project for the youth. Trade Union Congress of the Philippines. UNDP. United Nations Press Release POP/899 24 March 2004. UN Report says world urban population of 3 billion today expected to reach 5 billion by 2030

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