Chernobyl

Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment
Alexey V. YABLOKOV Vassily B. NESTERENKO Alexey V. NESTERENKO
coNsultiNG editor Janette d. sherman-Nevinger

ANNAls of the New york AcAdemy of scieNces

VOLUME 1181

oN the coVer Pine trees reveal changes in wood color, density, and growth rate following irradiation from the chernobyl disaster. t.A. mousseau, university of south carolina (2009)

I S B N 978-1-57331-757-3

9

781573 317573

Published by the New york AcAdemy of scieNces

Chernobyl

Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment

ANN. N.y. AcAd. sci. Vol. 1181

ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Volume 1181
Director and Executive Editor DOUGLAS BRAATEN Assistant Editor JOSEPH ABRAJANO Project Manager STEVEN E. BOHALL Project Coordinator RALPH W. BROWN Creative Director ASH AYMAN SHAIRZAY The New York Academy of Sciences 7 World Trade Center 250 Greenwich Street, 40th Floor New York, New York 10007-2157

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Chernobyl
Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment

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Massachusetts 2009 . SHERMAN-NEVINGER Published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences Boston.ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Volume 1181 Chernobyl Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment ALEXEY V. YABLOKOV VASSILY B. NESTERENKO ALEXEY V. NESTERENKO Consulting Editor JANETTE D.

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. . . . . .. . . .. By Alexey V. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter I. . Mortality after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . General Morbidity. Grodzinsky . . . . .. . 42 4. . . . Yablokov and Vassily B. . . . . . . . . . . NESTERENKO. . . . .. .. Yablokov . . . . . . . . Chapter II.ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Volume 1181 Chernobyl Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment ALEXEY V. .. . . . .. 58 6. . . . . . . . .. By Alexey V. . and Disability after the Chernobyl Catastrophe.. . . Impairment. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . VASSILY B. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7. . . . . . . . . . . Yablokov . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . By Alexey V. . . . . Nesterenko .. By Alexey V. . .. . . NESTERENKO Consulting Editor JANETTE D.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yablokov . YABLOKOV. . . . . . . . Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health 2.. . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chernobyl Contamination through Time and Space. . . . . . . . .. . . . . By Prof. Vassily B. . . Chernobyl’s Public Health Consequences: Some Methodological Problems. Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . . . . Biol. . . .. . . . . . . . . 55 5. . . AND ALEXEY V. . . .. . . . . By Alexey V. . . . . . Yablokov . . . . and Alexey V. . . .. . . . . Nesterenko . . . .. . Nonmalignant Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface. . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . 192 Conclusion to Chapter II . . . . . .. . . . . . . By Alexey V. .. v vii x xiv 1 5 217 . ... . Dimitro M. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nesterenko. . Yablokov and Vassily B. . . . . . . .. .. . . SHERMAN-NEVINGER CONTENTS Foreword. . . . . Chernobyl Contamination: An Overview 1. . . . . Oncological Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . . . . . . By Alexey V. . . . . .. . . . . . . Yablokov .. Yablokov .. . . . . . Introduction: The Difficult Truth about Chernobyl. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By Alexey V. . . . By Alexey V. . Yablokov . Dr. . . . Nesterenko. 32 3. . . .

.. . Vassily B. . 13. . . .. . . . . . . . and Alexey V. .. .. . . . and Soil Contamination after Chernobyl. . . Protective Measures for Activities in Chernobyl’s Radioactively Contaminated Territories. . .. . By Alexey V.. .vi Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Chapter III. .. .. . .. 10.. . . Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment 8.. .. Yablokov . . . Water. . and Alexey V. . . . Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Fauna. . . . By Alexey V. . . .. . . . . . and Alexey V. . Yablokov. ... .. By Alexey V. . Nesterenko . ... .. . ... ..... . . Nesterenko. . . . ... Nesterenko . . .. By Alexey V. .. . . . . .. . .. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Contamination of Food and People. . . .. . Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health and the Environment 23 Years Later. .. . Nesterenko .. Nesterenko. . . . . Nesterenko and Alexey V. . . . Conclusion to Chapter IV . . .. . . . .. . . Yablokov . . . .. .. . ... . .. The positions taken by the participants in the reported conferences are their own and not necessarily those of the Academy. . . . . Nesterenko. Decorporation of Chernobyl Radionuclides. 14.. . . . . . .... . . . By Vassily B. . By Alexey V. .. .. .. . . .. . Yablokov.. . Conclusion to Chapter III . . ... ... . .. .. . .. . . . ... . ... . .. . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Flora. .. . By Alexey V. . . . . Yablokov .. Atmospheric... .. . . . . . 223 237 255 281 285 Chapter IV. . . .. 289 303 311 318 327 The New York Academy of Sciences believes it has a responsibility to provide an open forum for discussion of scientific questions. . ... . Nesterenko and Vassily B. . ....... Nesterenko.. ...... . . . . . . Yablokov . . . . . .. . ... . Vassily B.. . 15. . . . . . . . . The Academy has no intent to influence legislation by providing such forums.. . .. .. . Radiation Protection after the Chernobyl Catastrophe 12. 9. . .. . . . .. . . . . Nesterenko . .. Vassily B. . Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota. . . ... By Alexey V. .

trees. to protect the population from possible negative effects. Owing to the polarization of the problem. natural waters. The decision of the first conference has not been accepted up to now because the Ukrainian party disagrees with its extremely optimistic positions. and official bodies in charge of nuclear technology and led to a paradoxical polarization as to how to address the issues of those injured by the Chernobyl catastrophe and the effects of chronic irradiation on the health of people living in contaminated areas. When it became impossible to hide the obvious increase in radiation-related diseases. and taking adequate measures. In just a few days. flowers. international organizations. attempts were made to explain it away as being a result of nationwide fear. as radioactive substances emitted by the destroyed reactor fell upon all life. a campaign began to deny nonthreshold radiation effects. Naturally. Ukraine. This response disturbed the governments of many countries. By that time the health and quality of life had decreased for millions of people. The second conference unanimously agreed that radioactive contamination of large areas is accompanied by distinctly negative health consequences for the populations and predicted increased risk of radiogenic diseases in European countries in the coming years. woods. some scientists began to insist that such doses from Chernobyl would actually benefit humans and all other living things. instead of organizing an objective and comprehensive study of the radiological and radiobiological phenomena induced by small doses of radiation. For example. contrary to elementary observations about the nature of the primary interactions of ionizing radiation and the molecular structure of cells. In April 2006 in Kiev. two international conferences were held in venues close to one another: one was convened by supporters of atomic energy and the other by a number of international organizations alarmed by the true state of health of those affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. anticipating possible negative consequences. and seas turned to potential sources of danger to people. rivers. and the increasing morbidity among the people that were affected. just after the failure. At the same time some concepts of modern radiobiology were suddenly revised. The apogee of this situation was reached in 2006 on the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl meltdown. the doses of radiation.CHERNOBYL Foreword More than 22 years have passed since the Chernobyl catastrophe burst upon and changed our world. A number of countries decided to stop the construction of new nuclear power stations. public response was very strong and demonstrated mistrust of atomic engineering. insofar as possible. the air. vii . Throughout the Northern Hemisphere radioactivity covered most living spaces and became a source of potential harm for all living things. The enormous expenses required to mitigate the negative consequences of Chernobyl at once “raised the price” of nuclear-generated electric power. On the basis of the effects of small doses of radiation in some nonhuman systems where hormesis was noted. apologists of nuclear power began a blackout on data concerning the actual amounts of radioactive emissions.

a fact also neglected. Thus in the Ukrainian Poles’e region. We do not know the quantity or dose of hot particles that settled in the nasopharyngeal epithelium to cause this syndrome. and the percent of practically healthy children has continued to decrease. Even in 1987 activity of some of the radionuclides exceeded the contamination by Cs-137 and Sr-90. Thus decisions to calculate dose only on the scale of Cs-137 radiation led to obvious underestimation of the actual accumulated effective doses. and morbidity has essentially increased for all age groups. oncological diseases with longer latency periods. the radioactivity was not considered. which contaminated various forms of food with short-half-life radionuclides. in particular. Declassified documents of that time issued by Soviet Union/Ukraine governmental commissions in regard to the first decade after 1986 contain data on a number of people who were hospitalized with acute radiation sickness. How can we understand this difference in calculating the numbers of individuals who are ill as a result of irradiation? It is groundless to think that the doctors’ diagnoses were universally wrong. In some Ukrainian Poles’e territories. it is critical to consider the irradiation contributed by ground and foliage fallout. Increased cardiovascular disease with increased frequency of heart attacks and ischemic disease are evident. especially for the first year after the reactor’s failure. The number is greater by two orders of magnitude than was recently quoted in official documents. where before the meltdown. Many knew in the first 10-day period after the meltdown that diseases of the nasopharynx were widespread. became more frequent. The incidence of eye problems. The frequency of disease has increased several times since the accident at Chernobyl. The basis for believing that these risks are not minor is very convincing. Average life expectancy is accordingly reduced. Against the background of such persuasive data. some defenders of atomic energy look specious as they deny the obvious negative effects of radiation upon populations. In . With the passage of time. First of all. Ukraine. there is reason to believe that doses of irradiation have not been properly estimated. Data on the growth of morbidity over two decades after the catastrophe confirm this conclusion. in Kiev. there are very concrete data about malignant thyroid disease in children. The biological efficiency of cytogenic effects varies depending on whether the radiation is external or internal: internal radiation causes greater damage. Causes for alarm are complications of pregnancy and the state of health of children born to so-called “liquidators” (Chernobyl’s cleanup workers) and evacuees from zones of high radionuclide contamination. so even supporters of “radiophobia” as the principal cause of disease do not deny it.viii Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences For a long time I have thought that the time has come to put an end to the opposition between technocracy advocates and those who support objective scientific approaches to estimate the negative risks for people exposed to the Chernobyl fallout. the figure is now 20%. up to 90% of children were considered healthy. there are no healthy children. which has raised the incidence of overall morbidity in children in areas affected by the catastrophe. has increased sharply. To estimate doses of the Chernobyl catastrophe over the course of a year. Internal radiation doses were defined on the basis of the activity in milk and potatoes for different areas. particularly cataracts. From year to year there has been an increase in nonmalignant diseases. Thus. They were probably higher than the accepted figures. breast and lung cancers’. Diseases of the central nervous system in both children and adults are cause for concern. For example. where mushrooms and other forest products make up a sizable share of the food consumed.

Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences. officials have also diverted scientific personnel away from studying the problems caused by Chernobyl. GRODZINSKY Chairman. but. and this research will advance much more quickly if it is carried out against the background of experience that Ukrainian. Belarussian. in fact. BIOL. Chairman. even liquidating government bodies that were in charge of the “affairs of Chernobyl. are increasing and will continue to do so into the future. DR.” Over the next several future generations the health of people and of nature will continue to be adversely impacted. We must look toward the day that unbiased objectivity will win out and lead to unqualified support for efforts to determine the influence of the Chernobyl catastrophe on the health of people and biodiversity and shape our approach to future technological progress and general moral attitudes. Rapid progress in biology and medicine is a source of hope in finding ways to prevent many diseases caused by exposure to chronic nuclear radiation.Grodzinsky: Foreword ix fact. The main conclusion of the book is that it is impossible and wrong “to forget Chernobyl. Ukrainian National Commission on Radiation Protection . Department of General Biology. PROF. The present volume probably provides the largest and most complete collection of data concerning the negative consequences of Chernobyl on the health of people and on the environment. It would be very wrong to neglect the opportunities that are open to us today.” Under pressure from the nuclear lobby. We must hope and trust that this will happen. and Russian scientists and physicians gained after the Chernobyl catastrophe. DIMITRO M. Information in this volume shows that these consequences do not decrease. their reactions include almost complete refusal to fund medical and biological studies.

in a brief and systematic form.iaea.org/international/press/reports/chernobylhealthreport). and many reports with new materials concerning the consequences of the meltdown were published.]. (//www. 235 pp.) (Greenpeace. Volkov (Eds. Blokov. T. 2006. the Russian Federation and Ukraine 2nd Rev. many experts.seu. Russian Academy of Science.pdf ). Ed. V.asp#2007). Belarus. Russia. the need for such an analysis became especially important after September 2005 when the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) presented and widely advertised “The Chernobyl Forum” report [IAEA (2006). the results from researchers who observed and documented the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Chernobyl Legacy: Health. Just before the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe. and Russia (see the list below). Stimulated by the IAEA/WHO “Chernobyl Forum” report. presented their latest data/publications on the consequences of Chernobyl. http://www. and before the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe. These materials were added to the Chernobyl literature collected over the years by Alexey Yablokov [A. Amsterdam. Thus part of this original material was published as “The Health Effects of the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Collection of Scientific Articles. Among them: • • “The Other Report on Chernobyl (TORCH)” [I. Sadownichik.pdf ) (in Russian)]. with the initiative of Greenpeace International.” I. (IAEA. I. x . the United States. 2006. 24 pp.greenpeace. In 2006 multiple conferences were convened in Ukraine. and Russian Greenpeace Council (2006). mostly from Belarus. Blokov (Eds.) (Greenpeace.to/publications.org/Publications/Booklets/Chernobyl/chernobyl.. Ukraine. 90 pp. and other countries devoted to the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe.]. it was not possible to include all of the above-mentioned material in that book. Amsterdam. In our view.] because it lacked sufficiently detailed facts concerning the consequences of the disaster (http://www. and I. Environment and Socio-Economic Impact and Recommendation to the Governments of Belarus. Greenpeace International also collected hundreds of Chernobyl publications and doctoral theses.. Labunska. Labunska. I. www. “Chernobyl Accident’s Consequences: An Estimation and the Forecast of Additional General Mortality and Malignant Diseases” [Center of Independent Ecological Assessment. Fairly and D. Moscow. and I. Switzerland. For technical reasons. 137 pp. 2007. Berlin.greenpeace. Yablokov. the report “The Chernobyl Catastrophe–Consequences on Human Health” was published by A. Vienna): 50 pp. Germany.CHERNOBYL Preface The principal idea behind this volume is to present. Moscow): 112 pp. Yablokov (2001): Myth of the Insignificance of the Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Center for Russian Environmental Policy.ru/programs/atomsafe/books/mif_3. on April 18. Sumner (2006).

mentions only 350 mainly English publications. & Gurachevsky. Ministry of Emergencies. etc. Yablokov (Eds. (2006). V. The authors of the separate parts of this volume are: • • • Chapter I: Cherbobyl Contamination: An Overview—A.ecopolicy. memoirs.gov. mainly in Slavic languages. German IPPNW. 2006. Yablokov. Shevchyuk. V.ua/news show.pdf]. Agenda Verlag. Yablokov and V.000 titles and reflects more than 5. (in Russian). Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. The scientific literature on the consequences of the catastrophe now includes more than 30. Ukraine.pdf. HOLTEH Kiev. photos. E. (in Russian).php?news id=614&p=1. Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Results and Perspective on Efforts to Overcome Its Consequences in Russia. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident [C. There are many special Chernobyl Internet portals.org/T1. 112 pp. http://www. V. For example in GOOGLE there are 14. M¨ nster. (in Russian). (Eds. The list of the literature incorporated into the present volume includes about 1. However. Moscow. National Belarussian Report (2006). V.) (2006). in YANDEX. K. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Consequences in Belarus and Overcoming the Obstacles. and in RAMBLER. Millions of documents/materials exist in various Internet information systems—descriptions.25 million citations.ru/upload/File/conferencebook_2006. 1.V. A. especially numerous for “Children of Chernobyl” and for the Chernobyl Cleanup Workers (“Liquidators so called”) organizations. Chapter II: Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health—A. the authors apologize in advance to those colleagues whose papers addressing the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe are not mentioned in this review—to list all papers is physically impossible. u “Health Effects of Chernobyl: 20 Years after the Reactor Catastrophe” [S. Pflugbeil et al.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Preface • xi • • • • • • • Chernobyl: 20 Years On. Yablokov. 20 Years After. L. 305 pp. Kiev. Chernobyl. www. Chapter III: Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment— A. National Russian Report (2006). and U. Nesterenko.87 million. Kiev.tesec-int. www. V.]. National Ukrainian Report (2006). Busby and A. advertised by WHO and IAEA as “the fullest and objective review” of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Eds.].). Nesterenko.) (2006).].5 million. Berlin. V. At the same time the IAEA/WHO “Chernobyl Forum” Report (2005). 2006. 1–3. 1986–2006. Minsk. Shoigu. B. maps. Moscow.). Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Future Outlook. B. Watermann (Eds. . Nesterenko. R. vol. primarily in Slavic languages. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook [Contributed Papers to International Conference. 217 pp.. June 5. Aberystwyth. 1.000 printed and Internet publications. 250 pp. 76 pp. L. S. Green Audit. C. Myth and Truth [A. Belarus Publishers. Yablokov. The Chernobyl Digest—scientific abstract collections—was published in Minsk with the participation of many Byelorussian and Russian scientific institutes and includes several thousand annotated publications dating to 1990. and A. Braun. 92 pp. April 24–26. V. Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Ecological and Sociological Lessons.000 publications. & Bol’shov. European Committee on Radiation Risk.mns.

2.” “low. Nesterenko. The expressions “weak.” and “Chernobyl territories” mean the radioactive contamination caused by radionuclide fallout as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe. and Europe and most of the Northern Hemisphere were to some extent contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclide fallout. Such expressions as “distribution of diseases in territory. 1–5 Ci/km2 (37–185 kBq/m2 ). Chapter III documents the consequences for the environment. The words “Chernobyl contamination. Specific facts are presented in the form that has long been accepted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)— itemized by numbered paragraphs. The structure of this volume is as follows: Chapter I provides an estimate of the level and character of radioactive contamination released from the Chernobyl accident. 3. The final text was coordinated by all authors and expresses their common viewpoint. 4. However. Yablokov.” mean occurrence of diseases in the population of the specified territory. affecting primarily the Northern Hemisphere. V. For comments and offers for a subsequent edition we ask you to address information to: Alexey Vladimirovich Yablokov. however. 1986 and continued thereafter. . and Russia. Ukraine. Chapter IV discusses measures for minimizing the Chernobyl consequences for Belarus. and European Russia. V.ru or . during the first weeks and months of the catastrophe practically all territories of Belarus. Yablokov@ecopolicy. Some important editorial remarks: 1. the largest technological catastrophe in history. . V. The word “catastrophe” means the release of numerous radionuclides into the atmosphere and underground water as a result of the explosion of the fourth reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (Ukraine).xii • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Chapter IV: Radiation Protection after the Chernobyl Catastrophe—A. it is necessary for humankind to deal with the consequences of this.” “contaminated territories. 5. Leninsky Prospect 33. Office 319. Russia. 5–15 Ci/km2 (185–555 kBq/m2 ). The term “clean territory” is a conventional one. and 15–40 Ci/km2 (555–1480 kBq/m2 ). In spite of a vast amount of material. the current information is not comprehensive because new studies are continually being released. Levels (amount) of contamination are expressed as in the original papers— either in Curies per square kilometer (Ci/km2 ) or in Bequerels per square meter (Bq/m2 ). Ukraine. and A. Nesterenko. and so these data are presented. which started on April 26. 119071 Moscow. The volume comes to an end with general conclusions and an index (available online only). 6. Chapter II analyzes the public health consequences of the catastrophe. Russian Academy of Sciences.” “contamination. B.” and “high” (“heavy”) radioactive contamination usually indicate a comparison among officially designated different levels of radioactive contamination in the territories: less than 1 Ci/km2 (<37 kBq/m2 ).

ALEXEY V.js@verizon. VA 22303. Vassily Nesterenko passed away on August 23. anester@mail.ru or Janette D. Belarus. YABLOKOV AND VASSILY B. He was a great person who. Alexandria.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Preface xiii Alexey Vassil’evich Nesterenko. Kalamazoo. stopped his own bright professional nuclear career as the general design engineer of the Soviet Union’s mobile nuclear power plant “Pamir” and director of Belarussian Nuclear Center to devote his life’s efforts to the protection of humankind from Chernobyl’s radioactive dangers.O. NESTERENKO This book had been nearly completed when Prof. 2008. Minsk. USA. Michigan. Sherman-Nevinger. toxdoc. Contact: P.net ALEXEY V. Environmental Institute. Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). 220053. YABLOKOV . Western Michigan University. Box 4605. 27. 2-nd Marusinsky Street. like Andrey Sakharov.

Richard Bramhall and Chris Busby (England). Nikolay Bochkov. Igor Gudkov. Zakharov (Russia). Dmitry Schepotkin. Elena Klymets. provided original material or reviews of specific topics to Greenpeace International. Valery Soyfer. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. and Vladimir P. Obstetrics and Gynecology.. Vladimir Remez. Rosalia Bertel (Canada). Michael Ferne. Elena B. Rustem Il’ayzov. who tirelessly scientifically edited our very rough translation. Pavlo Fedirko. Arabskaya. Sergey Klado. Yu. Morozova (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. Iryna Pelevyna. Lydia Popova. and Alexander Oceanov (Belarus). Svetlana Davydova. Sebastian Pflugbeil. Lym Keisevich (Israel). Michail Malko. and Jurg Ulrich (Switzerland). Many individuals helped the authors with information and consultations. Arjun Makhijani. Alexander Bahur. Eugen Krysanov. This English edition would have been impossible without Dr. Kiev. Ukraine. Dmitry Lazjuk. Tatyana Belookaya. Natalia Preobrazhenskaya. Academy of Medical Sciences. Ukraine. Zakharov. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Bazyka. Ukraine. Rimma Filippova. Leonid Tymonin. Vladymir Borejko. Michael Mariotte. Institute of Pediatrics. Rosa Goncharova. Dimitro M. Galina Bandazhevskaja. Forty-nine researchers. and Inge Schmits-Feuerhake (Germany). which have been widely used (see below). Vladimir Gubarev. Janette ShermanNevinger. Grigory Lepin.P. Tatyana Murza. Peter Hill. Vladimir Tchertkov. Svetlana Revina. Special thanks go to Prof. Joe Mangano. Anatoly Tsyb. Grodzinsky (Kiev) for reviewing the manuscript. Lyudmyla Komogortseva. and Karl Grossman. Dmitry Rybakov.A. and Russia. Jay Gould. and to Julia F. Ida Oradovskaya. Alexander Nikitin. Yury Bandazhevsky (Lithuania). and RADNET (USA). Alexander Glushchenko. Igor Reformatsky. Burlakova (Moscow) and Prof. Eugenia Najdich. D. Nykolay Karpan. Lyudmyla Kovalevskaja. The following is a list of the experts who provided original material or reviews of specific topics for the first 2006 edition: Antipkin. Yury Izrael.. Galina Talalaeva. Vladimir M. Institute of Pediatrics. Kiev. Elena Mokeeva. Angelina Nyagu. Academy of Medical Sciences. Leonid Rikhvanov. Vyacheslav Grishin.G. We are sincerely grateful to all of them as well as to many others who aided us in the preparation of this book. primarily from Ukraine. Dilbar Klado. Ernst Sternglass. Svetlana Aleksievich. Ivan Blokov. Moscow) for inexhaustible patience in putting numerous variants of the text in order and laboriously working with the lists of cited literature. and Bronislav Pshenichnykov (Ukraine). Belarus. Academy of Medical Sciences. L.CHERNOBYL Acknowledgments The present book would have been impossible without the help of many experts and activists. xiv . including (by alphabetical order in each country): Rashid Alymov. Galyna Klevezal’. Mikhail Mina. Vytaly Mezhzherin. Konstantin Loganovsky.. Kiev. Ol’ga Horishna. Vladymir Ivanov. Alfred Korblein. Igor Chasnikov (Kazakhstan). Valery Mentshykov. Alison Katz. Hagen Scherb. Christophe Bisson and Anders Moller (France).

Kiev. P.Ye. Laboratory of Medical Demography. Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Sakharov’ International Environment University. Minsk. “Physicians of Chernobyl” Association. Research Center for Radiation Medicine..... N. Ukraine.. Moscow. Belarus. Institute of Pediatrics. Ukraine.A. . Ukraine. Lipskaya. Kiev. Institute of Experimental Pathology.. National Academy of Sciences. Oncology and Radiobiology. Petrov’ Research Institute of Oncology. Kiev. Ukraine. E. Buzunov.. Academy of Medical Sciences. Zh. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Institute of Oncology. Kiev. Fuzik.. Loganovsky. Fedorenko. Belarus. Druzhyna.. Malko. Ukraine. Minsk.. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Kiev. I. Gulak. G. A. A. St... Kiev.. Immunology Institute of the Ministry of Public Health. A. Ukraine. Ukraine. Oncology and Radiobiology.I. Moscow. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Kiev. M. Ukraine.A. D.K. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev. Ukraine. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. National Academy of Sciences.V. Russia. A. Ukraine. Kiev. Fedirko. Kovalenko. Academy of Medical Sciences. Oradovskaya. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine. Department of Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particles. Kiev. Kiev.V. Omelyanets. National Academy of Sciences. Research Center for Radiation Medicine.. N.. Burlakova. Kiev. Academy of Medical Sciences. V. Department of Ecohygienic Investigations of the Radioecological Center.A.N. Academy of Medical Sciences. M.. Kiev. Kiev. Center of Independent Environmental Expertise. Greece.A. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine. Kiev. Academy of Medical Sciences. Ukraine. Research Center for Radiation Medicine.E.. Ukraine. E. Russia. Ukraine. Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism. N. Institute of Experimental Pathology.. Ukraine. M. M. V. University of Athens. Kiev. V. Institute of Oncology. Academy of Medical Sciences. K. Academy of Medical Sciences.F.B.. Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research. Geranios. Z.. Ukraine. Gryshchenko. Oncology and Radiobiology. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. I. Pilinskaya.V. Academy of Medical Sciences. “Physicians of Chernobyl” Association. Cheban.A. A. Okeanov. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev.I.I.. Institute of Biochemical Physics and Russian Academy of Science. M. Naboka. Russian Academy of Sciences. International Journal of Radiation Medicine.A. Ukraine. Diomyna. Petersburg. Dashkevich. E. V.. Institute of Radiological Hygiene and Epidemiology... Ukraine.Acknowledgments xv Burlak.V.. Mishryna. Komissarenko. G. Kiev.A.. Russia. Ukraine. Kiev.V. Kiev. Khudoley.L. Academy of Medical Sciences. Nyagu. A. Academy of Medical Sciences. Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism.

A. Wenisch.. Russian Scientific Radiology Center.. V. Kiev. Ukraine. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Usatenko.. Ukraine. Kiev. Rybakov. V. Rjazskay. Zubovsky. Ukraine.. Moscow. Academy of Medical Sciences. L. Kiev. A.S. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. N. Serkiz.. Tereshchenko. Ukraine..I. E.B.. Shestopalov. Kiev... K. Kiev.M. V. Skvarskaya. Kiev. National Academy of Sciences. Academy of Medical Sciences. Moscow.. Russia. Rymyantseva. Oncology and Radiobiology. Ukraine.. Research Center for Radiation Medicine.. Kiev. Ukraine. Prysyazhnyuk. National Academy of Sciences. Academy of Medical Sciences. Oncology and Radiobiology.B. Kiev. V. Rodionova. V. Department of Physics. Moscow. National Academy of Sciences.P. V. Kiev.S. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Vienna. University of Bremen. Slypeyuk. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Academy of Medical Sciences.. Ukraine. Germany. Academy of Medical Sciences. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. National Academy of Sciences. National Commission of Radiation Protection of Ukraine.A. Sushko.A.. Academy of Medical Sciences. Ukraine. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. G. Ukraine. Russia. Ukraine. S. Academy of Medical Sciences. Serbskiy’ Institute for Social and Forensic Psychiatry. Ya. P.K. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Academy of Medical Sciences. Radioecological Center. . Kiev. G. O. Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. State Scientific Research Center for Preventive Medicine..I. Institute of Experimental Pathology.. Schmitz-Feuerhake. Ukraine. Academy of Medical Sciences. Austrian Institute of Applied Ecology. E.A.I.M. Stepanova. Austria.xvi Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Pintchouk. Surgical Department. Tararukhyna. Russia. Sherashov.. Ukraine. Kiev. Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. V. Kiev. Moscow.. Oncology and Radiobiology. E. Russia. I. Vdovenko. Kiev. Ukraine.Yu..I. Kiev.

1181: 1–3 (2009).1749-6632. dated June 9. Acad. and governmental organizations from Belarus. In April 2005. Chernobyl has become synonymous with human suffering and has brought new words into our lives—Chernobyl liquidators. Russia.x c 2009 New York Academy of Sciences. The Chernobyl catastrophe was the occasion for technological adventurism and heroism on the part of the “liquidators. 2005. and. It is not known how many liquidators ultimately took part in the mitigation. the Third Chernobyl Forum Meeting was held in Vienna. and Chernobyl collar (thyroid disease). Chernobyl heart. For the past 23 years it has been clear that there is a danger greater than nuclear weapons concealed within nuclear power. Moscow. Nesterenko.04819. or 4–5% of the total radionuclides released from the reactor. and other individuals from the United Nations. 1986 divided life into two parts: before and after. UNDP. Russia.a Vassily B. Russia For millions of people on this planet. Russian Academy of Sciences. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. N. the World Health Organization (WHO). and Ukraine. Nesterenko. WHO.ru Chernobyl: Ann. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Forum experts included representatives from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Emissions from this one reactor exceeded a hundredfold the radioactive contamination of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 1 . mandated secrecy (Chapter II.a and Alexey V. The questions persist: How many radionuclides spread over the world? How much radiation is still stored inside the sarcophagus. Sci.3). The result was a three-volume report presented in September 2005 (IAEA.” the personnel who worked at the site attempting to contain the escaping radiation. the explosion of the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26. in our view. 2002. children of Chernobyl.1). for cowardice on the part of people in public life who were afraid to warn the population of the unimaginable threat to innocent victims.2009.1111/j. Belarus b Russian Academy of Sciences. Yablokov.Y. but the estimates vary from 50 × 106 Ci. Leninsky Prospect 33. for the latest short version see IAEA. Office 319. doi: 10. Yablokovb a Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). Minsk.CHERNOBYL Introduction: The Difficult Truth about Chernobyl Alexey V. the dome that covers the reactor? No one knows for certain. the World Bank. prior to the 20th anniversary of the catastrophe. Yablokov@ecopolicy. 1989. Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Chernobyl dust. to the reactor being essentially empty and more than 10 × 109 Ci dispersed over the globe (Chapter I. etc. 119071 Moscow. Chernobyl contamination. Chernobyl fallout covered the entire Northern Hemisphere. the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 2006. Chernobyl AIDs. a directive from the USSR Ministry of Defense. No citizen of any country can be assured that he or she can be protected from radioactive contamination. 2006). One nuclear reactor can pollute half the globe.

We believe it is unreasonable to attribute the increased occurrence of disease in the contaminated territories to screening or socioeconomic factors because the only variable is radioactive loading. Ukraine. their future life will be deformed by it. some of whom were associated with the nuclear industry.000 of the . and European Russia were healthy. Those experts. They are still suffering. . Some believe that poverty. More than 50% of the surface of 13 European countries and 30% of eight other countries have been contaminated by Chernobyl fallout (Chapter I. research was forbidden. are more dangerous than the radioactive contamination.000 victims died or developed radiogenic cancers. But more than seven million of our fellow human beings do not have the luxury of forgetting. Sr. the adverse consequences for the health of the people were not as significant as previously thought. In the contaminated areas. Why are the assessments of experts so different? There are several reasons. especially during intrauterine development (Chapter II. Among the terrible consequences of Chernobyl radiation are malignant neoplasms and brain damage. concerned doctors observed a significant increase in diseases in the contaminated areas and demanded help. Given biological and statistical laws the adverse effects in these areas will be apparent for many generations. including that some experts believe that any conclusions about radiation-based disease requires a correlation between an illness and the received dose of radioactivity.2 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences The basic conclusion of the report’s medical volume is that 9.” Some 4. as a result of what happened . An opposing position was voiced by Secretary-General Kofi Annan: Chernobyl is a word we would all like to erase from our memory. feelings of victimization. but given the background of spontaneous cancers. as was done for those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” Prior to 1985 more than 80% of children in the Chernobyl territories of Belarus. concluded that as a whole.6). but in the 10 years immediately following the catastrophe. During that time more than 100. as well as their childhood. For the first 4 years after the atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. and fatalism. Initial levels could have been a thousand times higher than the ones ultimately measured several weeks and months later. such as Cs. But three million children demanding treatment until 2016 and earlier represents the number of those who can be seriously ill .000 children were operated on for thyroid cancer. Pu. The exact number of victims can never be known. I. Soon after the catastrophe. . The experts involved with the nuclear industry and highly placed tribunals declared that there is no “statistically authentic” proof of Chernobyl radiation.1).4). In the heavily contaminated areas it is difficult to find one healthy child (Chapter II. everyday. today fewer than 20% are well. A second reason is that some experts believe the only way to make conclusions is to calculate the effect of radiation based upon the total radiation. . It is also impossible to calculate variable and “hot spot” deposition of nuclides or to measure the contribution of all of the isotopes. (AP. and others. cataracts were increasingly seen in liquidators and children. Many will die prematurely. We believe this is an impossibility because no measurements were taken in the first few days. or to measure the kinds and total amount of radionuclides that a particular individual ingested from food and water. 2000) No fewer than three billion persons inhabit areas contaminated by Chernobyl’s radionuclides. “it will be difficult to determine the exact cause of the deaths. which are widespread among the population of the contaminated areas. . official documents recognized that the number of thyroid cancers grew “unexpectedly.

UNDP (2002). the USSR authorities officially forbade doctors from connecting diseases with radiation and. like the Japanese experience. Vienna): 280 pp. The Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: A Strategy for Recovery. WHO (2006). Edn.iaea. IAEA (2006). Environment and Socio-Economic Impact and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus.clnk&cd&equals. A similar pattern emerged after Chernobyl. 2nd Rev.uk/phpBB3/viewtopic.org/publications/booklets/Chernobyl/Chernobyl. The Chernobyl Legacy: Health.3). A Report Commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the Support of UN-OCHA and WHO (UNDP.3).104/ search?q=cache: EN91goYTe_gJ: www. Worst effects of Chernobyl to come.18&gl&equals. In independent investigations scientists have compared the health of individuals in various territories that are identical in terms of ethnic. Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation: Twenty Years of Experience.chernobyl.who.co. Geneva): 167 pp. and such comparisons have unequivocally attributed differences in health outcomes to Chernobyl fallout (Chapter II.php%3Ff%3D12% 26t%3D5256%26st%3D0%26sk%3Dt%26sd%3Da+Kofi+Annan+million+children+demanding+ treatment+Chernobyl+2016&hl=ru&ct&equals.) (WHO. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “Health.pdf). IAEA (2005).scorched3d. (//www. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care Programmes. (//www-pub. . Carr (Eds.” B.135. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “Environment” (EGE) August 2005 (IAEA. the Russian Federation and Ukraine. New York): 75 pp.pdf). This volume is an attempt to determine and document the true scale of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. (//www. (IAEA. It is scientifically valid to compare specific groups over time (a longitudinal study).int/ionizing_radiation/chernobyl/WHO%20Report%20on% 20Chernobyl%20Health%20Effects%20July%2006. Associated Press 25 April 2000 (//www. social. Vienna): 50 pp.Introduction 3 weakest died.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1239_web.pdf).iaea.85. However. References AP (2000). M. Bennett. (//www.org/english/docs/Strategy%20for%20Recovery.pdf). Repacholi & Zh.209.undp. and economic characteristics and differ only in the intensity of their exposure to radiation. all data were classified for the first 3 years (Chapter II.ru).

2009. Yablokovb a Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). Acad.1111/j. radioactive contamination. Chernobyl Contamination: An Overview Vassily B. lead contamination. Minsk. N. 1181: 4–30 (2009). Sci. Russia Key words: Chernobyl.04820. Moscow. 4 . Northern Hemisphere Chernobyl: Ann. Belarus b Russian Academy of Sciences. Nesterenkoa and Alexey V.1749-6632.Y.x C 2009 New York Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.CHERNOBYL Chapter I.

Russia. Clouds of radiation reached heights between 1. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. and even now. rainfall. Nearly 400 million people resided in territories that were contaminated with radioactivity at a level higher than 4 kBq/m2 (0. Georgia. Norway. many articles report levels of radioactivity calculated by the density of the contamination—Ci/km2 (Bq/m2 ).2.CHERNOBYL 1. Germany.2). Romania. Nesterenko Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl meltdown spread over 40% of Europe (including Austria. 119071 Moscow.500 and 10. Yablokov.11 Ci/km2 ) from April to July 1986. Chernobyl Contamination through Time and Space Alexey V. Emirates. leaving deposits of radionuclides and radioactive debris. Yablokov and Vassily B. which received more than 50% of the Chernobyl radionuclides.) for each Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Radioactive Contamination Immediately after the explosion.1).000 m and spread around the globe. primarily in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1. more than 1 million children) still live with dangerous levels of radioactive contamination in Belarus. even without taking the gaseous radionuclides into account. such an approach is not completely valid as it does not take into account either the ecological or the physical aspects of radioactive contamination. etc. northern Africa. Even if the current level is low. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Italy. Switzerland. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. Nearly 5 million people (including. Claims that the Chernobyl radioactive fallout adds “only 2%” to the global radioactive background overshadows the fact that many affected territories had previously dangerously high levels of radiation. Ukraine.1. There has been some dispute over the years as to the volume of radionuclides released when reactor number four of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) exploded. Finland. China). There is no reasonable explanation for the fact that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (Chernobyl Forum. Slovenia) and wide territories in Asia (including Turkey. Office 319. and European Russia. a quantity hundreds of times larger than the fallout from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Leninsky Prospect 33. and North America. 1. Russian Academy of Sciences. 1. and addressed concerns only in Belarus. France. Great Britain. nor does it provide exact calculations of received doses (see Chapter II. and it is critical to be aware of the fact that there continue to be emissions. Sweden. and European Russia. there was high irradiation in the first days and weeks after the Chernobyl catastrophe. was many hundreds of millions of curies. While these levels form a basis for further calculations of collective and individual doses. Iceland. attempts began to reconstruct the radioactive fallout picture to determine radioactive fallout distribution levels using hydrometeorological data (wind direction. as shown below. To fully understand the consequences of Chernobyl it is necessary to appreciate the scale of the disaster. That release. Geographical Features of Contamination Immediately after the NPP explosion. 2005) have completely neglected the consequences of radioactive contamination in other countries. Armenia. Greece. Ukraine.ru 5 .

7 is a reconstruction of only one of the Chernobyl clouds (corresponding to No. table 3. 48 and 85 PBq. Izrael. We do not have accurate instrumental data for Chernobyl radionuclide contamination for all of Europe. Europe According to other data (Fairlie and Sumner.2.2. Fairlie and Sumner. 6 mSv. Figure 1.S. the winds around Chernobyl varied by 360◦ . 1. or 36 and 64%. It is important to understand that radionuclide emissions from the burning reactor continued until the middle of May. Table 1. Te-132. From April 26 through May 5. The effective doses in May 1986 for Chernobyl radionuclides in England were: Cs-134 and Cs-137. Ukraine.3. The daily emissions formed several radioactive clouds. 1995). and each such cloud had its own radionuclide composition and geography.e. 1988). so the radioactive emissions from the mix of radionuclides varied from day to day and covered an enormous territory (Figures 1.1. The data in Table 1.. and 1. Sr-90. 1.4. Sr-90.6). subsequent day and include emissions of fuel particles. respectively). 2006. Borzylov. 27 mSv. Geographic distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides around the globe is shown in Figure 1. For example. then the proportional distribution Figure 1.9 mSv (Smith et al. e. If the distribution of radioactivity for Cs-134 and Cs-137 corresponds to their ratio in emissions (i.g. Spatial distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere 10 days after the explosion. aerosol particles.4). 2 on Figure 1. 48 & 49) Europe received from about 68 to 89% of the gaseous–aerosol radionuclides from the Chernobyl clouds in a distribution that was extremely nonuniform. Livermore National Laboratory modeling (Lange et al.2. 1990.1. It is clear that most of the gaseous–aerosol radionuclides set- Figure 1. I-131. 2006).6 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences tled outside of Belarus. 1986. in May 1986 in Wales and in the Cumbria area of England rainwater contained up to 345 Bq/liter of I-132 and 150 Bq/liter Cs134 (Busby. U.. 1992). cc. Geographic distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides (UNSCEAR. 0.2).1). and I-132. and European Russia (Figure 1.. while Cs-137 contaminated all of the European countries. and radioactive gases from the destroyed reactor (see. 1991. (2000).2 refer only to the distribution of Cs-137. but there were significant quantities of many other radionuclides in the form of gases.6. I-131. . aerosols. without exception (Table 1. Calculated data (averaged for 1 km2 ) were published only for Cs-137 and Pu. and “hot particles” (see below) widely dispersed across Europe in the first weeks and months following the explosion: Cs-134.5. UNSCEAR. 2000.

3 9..8 through 1.e. and 9 in England. Fairlie and Sumner. I-132. Tsalko. and Te-132 radioisotope fallout covered the entire country (Figures 1.3. pasturing more than 200. the density of Cs137 contamination exceeded 37 kBq/m2 in 41. of the main Chernobyl radionuclides in England should be as follows [Dreicer et al.6 17.7 136. 1996.10).0 28. Chernobyl radioactive fallout in the Northern Hemisphere (Livermore National Laboratory data from Yablokov et al.6 17.2.7 100 PBq 70a 39 24 3. 1. in 2006..9 % 51.1.0 0.7 2. Belarus If the proportional distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides in England is similar to that of other European countries (i. A maximum level of I-131 contamination of 600 Ci/km2 was measured in the Svetlovichi village in Gomel Province in May 1986.1. one can assume that the total amount of radioactive fallout in Europe is nearly 137 PBq: % 51. continue to be dangerously contaminated with Cs-137 (McSmith. 2006). 2006). .000 km2 ) was contaminated by Cs-137 at a level higher than 1 Ci/km2 (Nesterenko. 70 PBq Cs-137 made up 51% of all the radionuclide fallout).9 33. Some 23% of the area of Belarus (47. 2006.8(i)]: mSv 17. For example.100 km2 (Figure 1.0 28.7 100 Cs-137 Cs-134 I-131 Sr-90 Total Twenty years after the Chernobyl catastrophe.2.12). 1996. according to Great Britain’s Ministry of Health 355 farms in Wales. 2005). Practically the entire country of Belarus was covered by the Chernobyl cloud. Until 2004. 11 in Scotland. Table 3.7 Cs-137 Cs-134 I-131 Sr-90 Total a See Table 1.7 2.000 sheep..7 6. many areas in Europe remain contaminated.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 7 Figure 1. I-131.

covering an Figure 1.00 hours (Borzylov. 12. Shading indicates the main areas of the radionuclide fallout. 2000 34 (33) 34 (33) 33 (32) No No 100 (98) 47 (40) 60 (45) No No No 100 (85) Maximum levels of Cs-137 contamination were 475 Ci/km2 in the village of Zales’ye. 2006. 48 Belarus. 1986: (1) April 26. 0 hours (Greenwich time). Mogilev District.402 kBq/m2 or 145 Ci/km2 .5 kBq/m2 .39 8 6 0. 1988. European Russia Other European countries Asia Africa America <50 . Some 10% of the area of Belarus has levels of Sr-90 soil contamination above 5. exceeding the precatastrophe level by a factor of 3. 0 hours. Six stages of formation of radioactive gaseous–aerosol emissions from Chernobyl from April 26 to May 4. The maximum radioactive contamination in the soil found in 1993 in the village of Tchudyany. 1991). Fairlie and Sumner. (3) April 27.500 (Il’yazov. pp. and 500 Ci/km2 in the village of Dovliady and the Narovlja District of Gomel Province. 2006. 12. 41 (29) 37 (26) 21 (15) No No 100 (70) UNSCEAR. p. 2006: table 3. 0 hours. was 5. 1987.1. . (6) May 4.6. 48–49) UNSCEAR. Ukraine.6 100 Goldman. Contamination from Sr-90 has a more local character than that of Cs-137. (2) April 27. Fairlie and Sumner.8 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 1. (4) April 29. (5) May 2. 0 hours. Braginsk District.00 hours. Estimations of a Geographic Distribution of Chernobyl’s Cs-137.4. % (PBq) (Fairlie and Sumner. 2002).

An alternative version of radioactive gaseous–aerosol distribution over Europe from April 26 to May 6.12). or nearly 2% of the country (Kono- plya et al. Soil contaminated by Pu-238. Pu-239. Figure 1.000 km2 of agricultural land or 22% of Belarus farmland is heavily contaminated. more than 18.000 km2 . 2006. area of 21.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 9 Figure 1.37 kBq/m2 was found in 4.. and Pu-240 at levels higher than 0. Of that. 1986 (National Belarussian Report.5. As a whole.640 km2 cannot be used .11).100 km2 (Figure 1. an area of 2. 2006).

Ukraine Chernobyl radionuclides have contaminated more than a quarter of Ukraine.2. some additional comments follow.10 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. 2. 1. Other European Countries The level of Chernobyl’s Cs-137 contamination in each European country is shown in Table 1. with Cs-137 levels higher than 1 Ci/km2 in 4. Portugal. Turkey was surveyed only in part and Bulgaria.2. so consideration must be given to serious contamination in the Asian part of Russia as well. There were two peaks of fallout: May 1 and 9 (Pourchet et al.6.2. European Russia Until 1992 contamination in European Russia was found in parts of 19 Russian provinces (Table 1. Chernobyl fallout clouds over southern Finland reached peak concentrations between 15:10 and 22:10 hours on April 28.13). Yugoslavia.300-km2 Polessk state radioactive reserve near the Chernobyl NPP is forever excluded from any economic activity owing to contamination by long half-life isotopes. 1. This is contrary to the finding that a significant part of the country. 1998). especially the alpine regions. 1. and Sicily were not surveyed at all (Cort and Tsaturov..1.3.1. 1.4. FINLAND.3). Iceland. 1998). BULGARIA. 1986. FRANCE.2. 1986. for agriculture and the 1. were .8% of the country (Figure 1.1. Official Service Central de Protection Contre les Radiations Ionisantes initially denied that the radioactive cloud had passed over France. 3. The primary Chernobyl radionuclides reached Bulgaria on May 1–10. Some of the main areas of Europe contaminated at a level higher than 1 Ci/km2 by Cs-137 as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe.2.

24 0.0 18.53 (14) 0.01 90.02 0.4 3.40 (11) 0.8e Cort and Tsaturov.02 0.63 0. c Without Yugoslavia.44 0.55 0.3) ? 2.0 4. Portugal.5 2.18 (47) 0. 2006: tables 3.9 (79) 2.48 0. d Without Portugal and Iceland.97 1.1) 0.09 0.3) 0. Bulgaria.80 1.18 0.28 0.08 0. e Includes nearly 20 PBq Cs-137. 1998: table III.35 0.06 0.43) 0.5).6 (42) 1.98 1.26) 0.40 0.80 − 4.02 0.2 0.32 0.83) 0.60 3. The scale of Chernobyl’s contamination in Germany is reflected in the fact that several shipments of powdered milk to Africa were returned to West Germany because they were dangerously contaminated with radiation (Brooke.43 0. Albania.38 0.75 2.05 0.10 − 2.95 3.34 (93) 0. GERMANY. 2006d 31.8) 0.05 0.5) 0. Fairlie and Sumner.05 1.2 0.39 0. remaining from nuclear weapons tests before the 1970s.16 0. Greece reported significant fallout of several Chernobyl radionuclides .27 (7.39 0.21 (5.01 100.53 0.6 0.9) ? 0.5) 0.2) 0.02 <0.4) 0.9 0.15 (4.44 0. 1998c 19 (520) 15 (400) 12 (310) 3.36 0.40 1.26) 0.35 (9.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 11 TABLE 1.39 0.4) 0.40 2.055 (1.18 0. Without Sicily.40 0.01 (0.83 0.32 0.8 2.57 (15)b 0.19 5.10 (2.35 0.4 0.33 (8.52 − 0. GREECE.051 (1.003 (0. 1988). contaminated on April 29 and 30.07 0.33 4.86 2.09 0.2 (32) 0.7 1.7 23.33 0.38 0. and Iceland. 1986 (see Figure 1.54 0.4 and 3.44 0.34 (9.0 (53) ? 1.66 1.06 0.8 5.5 (41) 1.0 European Russia.016 (0.53 14.42 0.10 1.1 1.031 (0.0 Fairlie and Sumner.6) 0.01 100. Cs-137 Contamination of European Countries from Chernobyl (Cort and Tsaturov. 1998c 29.93 0.31 2.33 0.69 (19) 0.8) 0.93 0.02 0.98 2.35 0.40 0.37 0.5) Portion (%) Country Russiaa Belarus Ukraine Finland Yugoslavia Sweden Norway Bulgaria Austria Romania Germany Greece Italy Great Britain Poland Czech Republic France Moldova Slovenia Albania Switzerland Lithuania Ireland Croatia Slovakia Hungary Turkeya Latvia Estonia Spain Denmark Belgium The Netherlands Luxembourg Europe as a whole a b PBq (kCi) Cort and Tsaturov.10 0.2.90 0.1 (8.95 0.21 (5.10 0.5 2.08) 64 (1700)c Fairlie and Sumner. 2006d 29 15 13 3. 4.24 (6.96 16.25 0.43 0. 5.28 0.1.16 0.88 1.01 (0.

The path of one Chernobyl radioactive cloud across Europe from April 27 to early May 1986 (Pakumeika and Matveenka. and Sb-125 (Papastefanou et al. 1988. Numerous “hot particles” were detected with a prevalence of Ru-103 and Ru-106 (Broda.b. 1988). SWEDEN. SCOTLAND. In June 1987. 1986. 1988a. see Figure 1. 1986. 1990). POLAND. I-132. 1987). and Te-132 in the . but it is also evidence of the inadequacy of the available data relevant to Chernobyl contamination: where are comparable data about radioactive Ag-110 m contamination in other countries? Do data not exist because no one has compiled it or because this radioactive Ag contaminated only Greece. 1986. The main plume passed over Poland around April 30. with Te-122 as the primary radionuclide. 1996).16). 8. Patterns of fallout related to local weather conditions: Cs-137 dominated on the coast of southern Norrland.12 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1.. 7... Some 97% of the total deposition in Italy occurred between April 30 and May 7 (Spezzano and Giacomelli. and Scotland (Boccolini et al. ITALY. 1987). and I-131 (Martin et al. with the largest concentrations of Te-132. 1986. There were several radioactive plumes. Cs-137. 9. I131 in the north and south. a 1. Italy. but 99% of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides were deposited in Sweden during a single period of rain on May 8. including: Ag-110 m. The main radioactive plume passed Scotland between 21:00 and 23:00 hours on May 3. Noting unusual contamination (see Section 1. but the main Chernobyl fallout cloud passed over northern Italy on May 5.4.7. Martin et al. 1988)? 6. The peak concentration of Cs137 in air occurred on April 28. 1986.1 below) is important.600-ton shipment of powdered milk from Poland to Bangladesh showed unacceptably high levels of radioactivity (Mydans..

1986 (National Belarussian Report. 2006). Reconstruction of Te-132 and I-132 contamination of Belarus from April to May 1986 (Zhuravkov and Myronov.8.9. Reconstruction of I-131 contamination of Belarus for May 10.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 13 Figure 1. Figure 1. 2005). .

1986 (National Belarussian Report. Imanaka and Koide. 1. 2001) and in Japan (Imanaka. Huge ar- eas of Asian Russia (Siberia. 1987). Official reports grossly underestimated the Chernobyl-derived fallout and its radiological impact on the United Kingdom. . East and Central China (Figure 1. 1988. central Upland area (Kresten and Chyssler. 2008.10. 1989).. 1988. most powerful emissions on the first days of the catastrophe. and the Asian part of Turkey were highly contaminated. Figure 1. YUGOSLAVIA. including. and that figure was twice as high in East Georgia. The average soil radioactivity due to Cs-137 from 1995 to 2005 was 530 Bq/kg. 1987). Reconstruction of contamination of territory of Belarus by Cs-137 for May 10. Chankseliany et al. Asia Up to 10% of all the Chernobyl radionuclides fell on Asia. 10. 1989. 1986). UNITED KINGDOM. 2006).500 Bq/kg (Chankseliany..14). 2006). Chernobyl fallout was noted in central Asia (Imamniyazova. with the highest level in northwestern Japan and a maximum concentration on May 5. some tens of PBq of the first. 1999. Far East). The combined activity of Cs-137 and Sr-90 reached 1. basically. Western Georgia was especially heavily contaminated.2. Sanderson and Scott. Mattson and Vesanen. 2. Chernobyl-derived stratospheric fallout continued until the end of 1988 (Higuchi et al. Mellander. The main radioactive fallout occurred on May 3–5. JAPAN.14). 1. TRANS-CAUCASUS.2. Fisheries and Food (RADNET. 11. Twenty Chernobyl radionuclides were detected in two plumes in early and late May 1986.14 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. Cs-137 deposition in Cumbria was up to 40 times higher than originally reported by the Ministry of Agriculture. 2006. 1986 (Juznic and Fedina.

Idaho. Cs-134. CANADA. Nb-95. noted “Officials in Oregon have warned that those who use rainwater for drinking should use other sources of water for some time.2. Florida. Cs-134. Ru-103. Zr-95. Ru-106. Ba-140. Ru-106. lower. New Jersey. Fe-59. La-140. and the Persian Gulf area. continuing until the present time. most powerful explosion. Ce-144. Mn-54. and Afghanistan). Iran. 1. Hawaii. 1988). Zr95. By the official “Environmental Radioactivity in Canada” report for 1986 (RADNET. which lifted a cloud of radionuclides to a height of more than 10 km. Oregon. Iraq. I-131. and Zr-95 were detected in Alaska. 1986. La-140. Cs136. respectively.4). New York.11. and Cs-137. There is still a high probability of small but dangerously radioactive areas in the Caucasus. 2006).. Sr-90 contamination of Belarus at the beginning of 2005 (National Belarussian Report. Ba-140. I-132. Ce-141. and other states (Table 1.” . Co-60. Ce-141.3. UNITED STATES. Some 1% of all Chernobyl radionuclides—nearly several PBq—fell on North America. The fallout of May 6 and 14 arrived via the Arctic. central. The Chernobyl plumes crossed the Arctic within the lower troposphere and the Pacific Ocean within the mid-troposphere. Cs-137.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 15 Figure 1. Mo-95. There were three waves of Chernobyl airborne radioactivity over eastern Canada composed of: Be-7. Zn-65. and middle Asia (including Turkey. Ce-144. Chernobyl isotopes of Ru-103. 2. 2008) Chernobyl Ru-103. and Cs-137 were consistently measurable until about mid-June. North America Areas in North America were contaminated from the first. and that of May 25 and 26 via the Pacific (Roy et al. 1. Trans-Caucasia. Ru-106. China. An Associated Press release on May 15.

1. 1.6. 2000). 1.12. 1986. Estimates of Primary Chernobyl Radionuclide Emissions The official view was that the total radionuclide emissions calculated for May 6. Southern Hemisphere In the Southern Hemisphere Cs-137 and Cs134 from Chernobyl have been found on Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean and on Tahiti in the Pacific..2. the .4.16 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. 1998). EGYPT. The greatest concentration of Cs-137 in the Antarctic was found near the South Pole in snow that fell from 1987 to 1988 (UNSCEAR. The moss Racomitrium on Franz Josef Land contained up to 630 Bq/kg (dry weight) of Cs-137 of which 548 Bq/kg (87%) came from the Chernobyl fallout (Rissanen et al.. 1.2.2.3. 2006). 1. Arctic Regions A high level of Chernobyl contamination is found in Arctic regions.5. 1999). The Cs-137 to Pu-239/Pu-240 ratio in accumulated Nile River sediment is evi- dence of significant Chernobyl contamination (Benninger et al. Transuranic radionuclide contamination of Belarus in 2005 (National Belarussian Report. Northern Africa Radionuclide fallout in northern Africa came from the most powerful emissions on the first day of the catastrophe and that area has been subject to more than 5% of all Chernobyl releases—up to 20 PBq.

Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space

17

Figure 1.13. Contamination of Ukraine [Cs-137 (above) and Pu (below)] as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe (National Report of Ukraine, 2006).

time when most of the short-lived radionuclides had decayed, was 50 × 106 Ci or 1.85 × 1018 Bq (Izrael, 1990, 1996). It was estimated that 3–4% of the fuel from the moment of meltdown (i.e., from 190.3 tons) was blown out of the reactor, a serious underestimation. Emissions continued after May 6, with intensity decreasing over 10 days until the graphite lining of the reactor stopped burning. Emission of radioactive

substances into the atmosphere was prolonged. UNSCEAR (2000) estimated that the total activity of ejected radionuclides was 1.2 × 1019 Bq, including 1.2–1.7× 1018 Bq of I-131 and 3.7 × 1016 Bq of Cs-137. UNSCEAR reports (1988, 2000) contain data (comparable with emissions of I-131) about an enormous volume of emissions of Te-132 (half-life 78 h and decaying into

18 TABLE 1.3. Radioactive Contamination of European Russia (≥1 Ci/km2 ) as a Result of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Yaroshinskaya, 1996) Province Tula Bryansk Oryol Ryazan Kursk Penza Kaluga Belgorod Lipetsk Ulyanovsk Voronezh Leningrad Mordova Tambov Tatarstan Saratov Nizhniy Novgorod Chuvashiya Smolensk Total Contaminated area, 1 × 103 km2 11.5 11.7 8.4 5.4 1.4 3.9 4.8 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 56.0 Population, 103 936.2 476.5 346.7 199.6 140.0 130.6 95.0 77.8 71.0 58.0 40.4 19.6 18.0 16.2 7.0a 5.2a 3.7a 1.3a 1.1a 2,644.8

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Figure 1.14. Activity of Cs-137 in sediments from Dabusupao Lake (northeast of China). The peak of radioactivity of sediment at a depth of about 6 centimeters is associated with atmospheric nuclear tests, and peaks at a depth of 1–2 centimeters, with the Chernobyl fallout (Xiang, 1998).

a Authors’ estimation based on average population density in each province.

radioactive iodine), as well as emissions of Zr-95 (half-life 64 days). According to calculations by Vukovic (1996) there were additional emissions of more than 0.5 × 106 Ci of Ag-110 (half-life 250 days). Disputes concerning the amount of radionuclides released are important to estiTABLE 1.4. Data on the May 1986 Peak Concentrations of Some Nuclides in Areas of the United States (RADNET, 2008) Date May 5, 1986 May 5, 1986 May 7–8, 1986 May 8, 1986 May 11, 1986 May 11, 1986 May 15, 1986 May 16, 1986 Place Forks, WA Spokane, WA Augusta, ME Portland, ME Rexburg, ID New York, NY Chester, NJ Cheyenne, WY Radionuclide Ru-103, Cs-134 Total Total Total I-131, air Cs-137 Total Total

mate the collective dose. If only about 3% of the fuel (5 tons) was discharged then the Chernobyl catastrophe caused the world to be contaminated with 20 kg of Pu, a quantity sufficient to contaminate a territory of 20,000 km2 forever. The half-life of Pu-239 is 24,000 years. If 30–40% of the fuel was released (Gofman, 1994; Medvedev, 1990; Sich, 1996; UNSCEAR, 2000; and others) allowing nearly 3 × 109 Ci to escape, or 80–90% was released (i.e., 7–8 × 109 Ci; see Chernousenko, 1992; Kyselev et al., 1996; Medvedev, 1991)—the manifold larger territories of the Northern Hemisphere will be contaminated forever. Table 1.5 shows some estimates of the total of the primary radionuclides emitted during the catastrophe. All existing estimates of emitted radionuclides are rough calculations and indications are that we will be seeing an appreciable increase in these estimates as time goes on. It is indicative that even 20 years after the catastrophe there are new thoughts about the role of some of the radionuclides that initially were not taken into account at all, such as Cl-36 and Te-99 with half-lives of nearly 30,000 years and more than 23,000 years, respectively (Fairlie and Sumner, 2006).

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TABLE 1.5. Some Estimates of the Amount of Primary Radionuclides Emitted from April 26 to May 20, 1986, from the Fourth Chernobyl NPP Reactor (106 Ci) Radionuclide (half-life/full decay time, hours, days, months, years) I-135 (6.6 h/2.75 d) I-133 (20.8 h/8.7 d) La-140 (40.2 h/16.7 d) Np-239 (2.36 d/23.6 d) Mo-99 (2.75 d/27.5 d) Te-132 (3.26 d/32.6 d) Xe-133 (5.3 d/53 d) I-131 (8.04 d/2.7 mo) Ba-140 (12.8 d/4.3 mo) Cs-136 (12.98 d/4.3 mo) Ce-141 (32.5 d/10.8 mo) Ru-103 (39.4 d/1 y 1 mo) Sr-89 (50.6 d/1.39 y) Zr-95 (64.0 d/1.75 y) Cm-242 (162.8 d/4.6 y) Ce-144 (284 d/7.8 y) Ru-106 (367 d/10 y) Cs-134 (2.06 y/20.6 y) Kr-85 (10.7 y/107 y) Pu-241 (14.7 y/147 y) Sr-90 (28.5 y/285 y) Cs-137 (30.1 y/301 y) Pu-238 (86.4 y/864 y) Pu-240 (6,553 y/65,530 y) Pu-239 (24,100 y/241,000 y)
a b

Nuclear Energy Agency (1995) ∼1.5 25.6 >4.6 ∼37.1 175.7 ∼47.6 6.5 5.3 >4.6 ∼3.1 5.3 ∼0.024 ∼3.1 >1.97 ∼1.5 0.89 ∼0.16 ∼0.27 ∼2.3 0.001 0.001 0.023

Devell et al. (1995)

Medvedev (1991) Several 140–150 A lot of

Guntay et al. (1996)

4.5 31 180 48 6.4 0.644a 5.3 4.5 3.1 5.3 0.024 3.1 2.0 1.5 — 0.16 0.27 l2.3 0.001 0.001 0.001

A lot of 170 >85b

45.9 5.67 27.0 175.5 32.4–45.9 4.59 5.40 4.59 2.19 4.59 0.025 3.78 0.81 1.19–1.30 0.89 0.078 0.22 1.89–2.30 0.0001 0.001 0.0001

— —

c —

Cort and Tsaturov (1998). Nesterenko (1996)—more than 100. c Nesterenko (1996)—total emission of Cs-136 and Cs-137 is up to 420 ×1015 Bq (1.14 × 106 Ci).

1.4. Ecological Features of Contamination The three most important factors in connection with the Chernobyl contamination for nature and public health are: spotty/uneven deposits of contamination, the impact of “hot particles,” and bioaccumulation of radionuclides (also see Chapter III). 1.4.1. Uneven/Spotty Contamination Until now the uneven/spotty distribution of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout has attracted too little attention. Aerogamma studies, upon which most maps of contamination are based, give only average values of radioactivity for

200–400 m of a route, so small, local, highly radioactive “hot spots” can exist without being marked. The character of actual contamination of an area is shown on Figure 1.15. As can be seen, a distance of 10 m can make a sharp difference in radionuclide concentrations.

“Public health services of the French department Vosges found out that a hog hit by one of local hunters ‘was glowing.’ Experts, armed with supermodern equipment, conveyed a message even more disturbing: practically the entire mountain where the dead animal had just run is radioactive at a level from 12,000 to 24,000 Bq/m2 . For comparison, the European norm is 600 Bq/m2 . It was remembered that radioactive mushrooms were found

20

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Figure 1.15. Spotty concentration (Ci/km2 ) of Cs-137 (above) and Ce-144 (below) in the forest bedding in the 30-km Chernobyl zone. Scale 1:600 (Tscheglov, 1999).

in these forests last autumn. The level of Cs-137 in chanterelles, boleros and stalks of mushrooms exceeded the norm by approximately forty times . . .” (Chykin, 1997)

There is still uncertainty in regard to contamination not only by Cs-137 and Sr-90, but

also by other radionuclides, including beta and alpha emitters. Detailed mapping of territories for the varying spectra of radioactive contamination could not be done owing to the impossibility of fast remote detection of beta and alpha radionuclides. Typical Chernobyl hot spots measure tens to hundreds of meters across and have levels

Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space

21

of radioactivity ten times higher than the surrounding areas. The concentration density of Cs-137 can have several different values even within the limits of the nutrient area of a single tree (Krasnov et al., 1997). In Poland, Ru-106 was the predominant hot spot nuclide in 1986, although a few hot spots were due to Ba-140 or La-140 (Rich, 1986). Figure 1.16. shows distinct large-scale spotty radioactive distribution of Sb, Cs, and Ag in areas of continental Greece. 1.4.2. Problem of “Hot Particles” A fundamental complexity in estimating the levels of Chernobyl radioactive contamination is the problem of so-called “hot particles” or “Chernobyl dust.” When the reactor exploded, it expelled not only gases and aerosols (the products of splitting of U (Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu, etc.), but also particles of U fuel melted together with other radionuclides—firm hot particles. Near the Chernobyl NPP, heavy large particles of U and Pu dropped out. Areas of Hungary, Germany, Finland, Poland, Bulgaria, and other European countries saw hot particles with an average size of about 15 μm. Their activity mostly was determined to be (UNSCEAR, 2000) Zr-95 (half-life 35.1 days), La-140 (1.68 days), and Ce-144 (284 days). Some hot particles included beta-emitting radionuclides such as Ru-103 and Ru-106 (39.3 and 368 days, respectively) and Ba-140 (12.7 days). Particles with volatile elements that included I-131, Te132, Cs-137, and Sb-126 (12.4 days) spread over thousands of kilometers. “Liquid hot particles” were formed when radionuclides became concentrated in raindrops:

these houses are occupied by staff of the Chernobyl atomic power station. While planning occupancy the special dosimeter commands I developed (I then was the deputy chief engineer of Chernobyl NPP on radiation safety and was responsible for the personnel in areas found to be contaminated) carried out a radiation check on the apartments. As a result of these measurements I sent a report to the Governmental Commission advising of the inadmissibility of inhabiting these “dirty” apartments. The sanitation service of the Kiev municipality . . . answered with a dishonest letter in which it agreed that there was radioactivity in these apartments, but explained it away as dirt that was brought in by tenants.” (Karpan, 2007 by permission)

Radioactivity of individual hot particles reached 10 kBq. When absorbed into the body (with water, food, or inhaled air), such particles generate high doses of radiation even if an individual is in areas of low contamination. Fine particles (smaller than 1 μm) easily penetrate the lungs, whereas larger ones (20–40 μm) are concentrated primarily in the upper respiratory system (Khruch et al., 1988; Ivanov et al., 1990; IAEA, 1994). Studies concerning the peculiarities of the formation and disintegration of hot particles, their properties, and their impact on the health of humans and other living organisms are meager and totally inadequate. 1.5. Changes in the Radionuclide Dose Spectrum To understand the impact of Chernobyl contamination on public health and the environment it is necessary to consider the essential changes in the radionuclide spectrum during of the first days, weeks, months, and decades after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The maximum level of activity from Chernobyl’s fallout in the first days and weeks, which was due mostly to short-lived radionuclides, exceeded background levels by more than 10,000-fold (Krishev and Ryazantsev, 2000; and many others). Today radioactive contamination is only a

“Hot particles” were found in new apartment houses in Kiev that were to be populated in the autumn of 1986. In April and May they stood without roofs or windows, so they absorbed a lot of a radioactive dust, which we found in concrete plates of walls and ceilings, in the carpenter’s room, under plastic covers on a floor, etc. For the most part

22

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Figure 1.16. Maps of the Chernobyl fallout: (A) Sb-124, 125; (B) Cs-137; and (C) Ag125m in areas of continental Greece (by permission of S. E. Simopoulos, National Technical University of Athens; arcas.nuclear.ntua.gr/apache2-default/radmaps/page1.htm).

small part of all the radiation emitted during the catastrophe. most external radiation levels have been defined by Cs-137. During the first days after the explosion the share of total external radiation due to Cs-137 did not exceed 4%. Within the succeeding months and the first year after the explosion the major external radiation was due to isotopes of Ce-141. Sr-90.17). but the level of radiation from I-131. Dynamics of radioisotope structure of Chernobyl’s contamination.17. and Pu. Te-132. percentage of total activity (Yablokov. . and several other radionuclides was hundreds of times higher. 1998). 2002. Today these radionuclides. ratios of Cs-137 and other radionuclide fallout in the first days and weeks allows for reconstruction of the relative value of the various nuclides that make up the total external dose (Figure 1. Ru-103. Continued. Zr-95. Timescales of radiation contamination can be determined by an analysis of tooth enamel. Such analyses were conducted by experts with the German group “Physicians of the World for the Prevention of Nuclear War.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 23 Figure 1. and Np-239. Based on data from Sweden and Finland. from Sokolov and Krivolutsky. Since 1987. I-133. Ni-95.9 and IV. Cs-136. Te-129. which are found mostly in soil.13). Ce144. Ru-106.16. seriously impact agricultural production (for details see Chapters III.” They tested Figure 1.

3.6). However. boiling.000 persons/Sv (Table 1. exceeding maximum permissible concentrations.. 1.000 persons/Sv (or even 514. 2000). 2006) this collective dose is 216.000–930. causing. according to other data. How Many People Were and Will Be Exposed to Chernobyl’s Contamination? The first official forecasts regarding the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe .. Ukraine.9).109 ± 0. UNSCEAR. 1998). levels of Pb in the air breathed by operators of agricultural machinery was up to 10 times or more. for example. will again become dangerous as a result of the future disintegration of Pu-241 to Am-241 in the ensuing tens and even hundreds of years (see also Chapter III. 1997). The territory contaminated by Pu today. 2.001 mg/liter.6. An additional danger of Am-241 is its higher solubility and consequent mobility into ecosystems compared with Pu. 1993. helicopters dumped 2. the level of Pb was 0. 1. Moreover. 1997). By other more grounded estimates (see Fairlie and Sumner. Belarussian children contaminated with both Cs-137 and Pb have an increased frequency of atrophic gastritis (Gres and Polyakova.7. Problem of Americium-241. a significant part of the Pb was spewed out into the atmosphere as a result of its fusion. Pb poisoning is dangerous in itself.720 tons (Nesterenko. Blood Pb levels in both children and adults in Belarus have noticeably increased over the last years (Rolevich et al. and about half of these children had levels of 0. and sublimation in the burning reactor. and European Russia as 55. 1. and many others). Increased levels of Pb were apparent in the soil and atmosphere and in the urine and the hair of adults and children in Kiev soon after the explosion (Bar’yakhtar.000 persons/Sv. The worldwide collective dose from the Chernobyl catastrophe is estimated at 600.8. Ionizing radiation causes biochemical oxidation of free radicals in cells. the figure was 6.188 ± 0.003 mg/liter (Petrova et al. 2000). where the level of alpha radiation is usually low. 1. The powerful alpha radiation emitter Am-241. In Ukraine in the Poles’e District of Kiev Province. retardation in children (Ziegel and Ziegel. Pb contamination added to radiation causes harm to living organisms (Petin and Synsynys. 1995).000 persons/Sv only for Belarus.000 children and found that children born soon after the Chernobyl catastrophe had 10 times more Sr-90 in their teeth compared with children born in 1983 (Ecologist. of 213 children studied. formed as a result of the natural disintegration of Pu-241.000 km from the Chernobyl NPP.24 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences the teeth of 6. Lead Contamination During operations to quench the fires in the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl NPP. whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) norm for children is no more than 0.400 tons of Pb into the reactor (Samushia et al.. During several subsequent days. In the Brest Province of Belarus. 2007. 1996). Evaluation of Chernobyl’s Population Doses The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and WHO (Chernobyl Forum.000– 326. is a very important factor in the increasing levels of contamination in many areas located up to 1. for example. 1996). National Belarussian Report. 2006). it is now clear that these figures for collective doses are considerably underestimated.007 mg/liter. 2005) estimated a collective dose for Belarus. Under the influence of heavy metals (such as Pb) these reactions proceed especially intensively.

405.000 250. (1988).000 Not less than 90. 2006).000a 2. Department of Energya Belarus..000 — — 270.000 318.7).000 Anspaugh et al. and nearly 15 million in the areas where the Cs-137 contamination is higher than 40 kBq/m2 (1.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/ N01/568/11/PDF/N0156811.000 (1986–1987) — — — 7. c Kazakhstan: 31.08 Ci/km2 ). evacuated from 6 to 11 days from 30-km zone in Ukraine: 41.un. In 20 years it has become clear that no fewer than 8 million inhabitants of Belarus.500.500. Georgia.000.800.08 Ci/km2 .600. Great Britain. Optimization of international efforts in study.000 28. Also in Moldova.379.2). b Evacuated from city of Pripyat and the railway station at Janov: 49.6. and evacuees and liquidators have had no fewer than 450.000a 130. the United States.S. .400 a Report of the UN Secretary General (2001).000 326.000 580. mitigation. The total number of people forced to leave their homes because of Chernobyl contamination was nearly 350. Ukraine.720 (Kaminsky.. we can calculate that nearly 550 million people are contaminated. Ukraine.6% of North TABLE 1.725 (Total 116. and European Russia Individuals.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space TABLE 1. Germany. Latvia: >6.000 930.000 6.000 (Oganesyan et al. and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe (http://daccessdds.000 360. Lithuania: >7.000 66. 6% of Africa.000a 3.000 — — 200. and other countries. Ukraine. Bennett (1995. see Table 1. Total Collective Effective Dose (persons/Sv) of Additional Irradiation from the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Fairlie and Sumner. 103 Group Evacuated and movedb Country Belarus Ukraine Russia Different sources 135. Russia: 78. included only several additional cases of cancer over a period of some 10 years.7. 1993). in Belarus: 24. European Russia Other European countries Rest of the world Total a b 25 UNSCEARb 216.614.000 (Oldinger. Population Suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Belarus.792.400a Cardis et al.000a 52. Assuming that about 35% of the European population lives in this territory (where radionuclides fell on sparsely populated mountain areas) and counting the total European population at the end of the 1980s. It is possible to consider that about 190 million Europeans live in noticeably contaminated areas. 2006).483.000a 162.400. evacuated 1986–1987 from territories with density of irradiation above 15 Ci/km2 —Ukraine: 70. One must understand that in areas contaminated above 1 Ci/km2 (a level that undoubtedly has statistical impact on public health) there are no fewer than 1 million children. 2006) U. Belarus: 110.000 600. Chernobyl fallout contaminated about 8% of Asia. and 0.000 children. It is possible to estimate the number of people living in areas subject to Chernobyl fallout all over the world. 1996 135.pdf>).000c 9. Armenia: >3. Some 40% of Europe has been exposed to Chernobyl’s Cs-137 at a level 4–40 kBq/m2 (0. Israel. and Russia have been adversely affected (Table 1.275. 1996). 231).11–1.000 Lived in territory contaminated by Cs-137 > 555 kBq|m2 (>15 Ci/km2 ) Lived in territory contaminated by 7 Cs-137 > 37 kBq/m2 (>1 Ci/km2 ) Liquidators Belarus Ukraine Russia Belarus Ukraine Russia Other countries Total 2.700.

000 600. in 1986 nearly 400 million individuals (nearly 205 million in Europe and 200 million outside Europe) were exposed to radioactive contamination at a level of 4 kBq/m2 (0.9. Estimation of the Population (103 ) outside of Europe Exposed to Chernobyl Radioactive Contamination in 1986 Share of the total Chernobyl Cs-137 fallout.000.000 Nearly 10.7 billion and at a level of higher than 0.4 mSv more than 605 million.270. The true number of people living in 1986 in areas outside of Europe with noticeable Chernobyl contamination can be no fewer than 150 million and no more than 230 million.000.5 × 10−2 Presumably 1986–1987 (A.000. On the other hand. Population Suffering from Chernobyl Radioactive Contamination at Different Levels of Radiation Based on Collective Doses (Fairlie.Y.500. .). The latter isotopes cause very low levels of radiation.1 Ci/km2 ).000 Nearly 196.000. respectively (Fairlie and Sumner. end of 1980s 2. the calculated figures in Table 1. 2007) Group USSR liquidatorsa Evacuees USSR heavily contaminated areas USSR less contaminated areas Other areas in Europe Outside Europe a Number of individuals 240.000 years.26 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 1. Conclusion Most of the Chernobyl radionuclides (up to 57%) fell outside of the former USSR and caused noticeable radioactive contamination over a large area of the world—practically the entire Northern Hemisphere.5 × 10−2 mSv might be more than 4. mSv 100 33 50 10 ≥0. TABLE 1. and some others.000 5.000 3.000 Population under fallout of 1–40 kBq/m2 Nearly 150. so by similar reasoning it appears that outside of Europe the total number of individuals living in areas contaminated by Chernobyl Cs-137 at a level up to 40 kBq/m2 could reach nearly 200 million (Table 1. 2006).000. According to one such calculation (Table 1.000.000.000 Average individual dose.8 are of limited accuracy. by calculations that do not include several short-lived radionuclides. these calculations are based on a uniform distribution of population.8). which result in much higher levels of radiation than that due to Cs-137.8.6 14.000 170.6% Total population. on the one hand.4 ≥2.000 years and more than 21.000 4.000. which is not a legitimate assumption.000.000 Nearly 36. such as I-131.000 Continent Asia Africa America Total America.000 600.000 116.000. Other calculations of populations exposed to Chernobyl radiation have been based on the total collective dose. These include Cl-36 and Te-99 with half-lives of nearly 30. I-133.000 270. This uncertainty is caused. Te-132.000.9. Certainly. but it will persist for many millennia.9) the number of people who were exposed to additional radiation at a level higher than 2.000. In total. 1.% 8 6 0.

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CHERNOBYL

Chapter II. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health
Alexey B. Nesterenko,a Vassily B. Nesterenko,a,† and Alexey V. Yablokovb
a

Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD), Minsk, Belarus
b

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia †Deceased

Key words: Chernobyl; secrecy; irradiation; health statistics

Chernobyl: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1181: 31–220 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04822.x C 2009 New York Academy of Sciences.

31

CHERNOBYL

2. Chernobyl’s Public Health Consequences
Some Methodological Problems
Alexey V. Yablokov

Problems complicating a full assessment of the effects from Chernobyl included official secrecy and falsification of medical records by the USSR for the first 3.5 years after the catastrophe and the lack of reliable medical statistics in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Official data concerning the thousands of cleanup workers (Chernobyl liquidators) who worked to control the emissions are especially difficult to reconstruct. Using criteria demanded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) resulted in marked underestimates of the number of fatalities and the extent and degree of sickness among those exposed to radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Data on exposures were absent or grossly inadequate, while mounting indications of adverse effects became more and more apparent. Using objective information collected by scientists in the affected areas—comparisons of morbidity and mortality in territories characterized by identical physiography, demography, and economy, which differed only in the levels and spectra of radioactive contamination— revealed significant abnormalities associated with irradiation, unrelated to age or sex (e.g., stable chromosomal aberrations), as well as other genetic and nongenetic pathologies.

The first official forecasts of the catastrophic health consequences of the Chernobyl meltdown noted only a limited number of additional cases of cancer over the first decades. Four years later, the same officials increased the number of foreseeable cancer cases to several hundred (Il’in et al., 1990), at a time when there were already 1,000 people suffering from Chernobyl-engendered thyroid cancer. Twenty years after the catastrophe, the official position of the Chernobyl Forum (2006) is that about 9,000 related deaths have occurred and some 200,000 people have illnesses caused by the catastrophe. A more accurate number estimates nearly 400 million human beings have been exposed
Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Yablokov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 33, Office 319, 119071 Moscow, Russia.Voice: +7-495-952-80-19; fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Yablokov@ecopolicy.ru

to Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout and, for many generations, they and their descendants will suffer the devastating consequences. Globally, adverse effects on public health will require special studies continuing far into the future. This review concerns the health of the populations in the European part of the former USSR (primarily, Ukraine, Belarus, and European Russia), for which a very large body of scientific literature has been published of which but little is known in the Western world. The aim of the present volume is not to present an exhaustive analysis of all available facts concerning Chernobyl’s disastrous effects—analyzing all of the known effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe would fill many full-size monographs—but rather to elucidate the known scale and spectrum of its consequences.

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2.1. Difficulties in Obtaining Objective Data on the Catastrophe’s Impact For both subjective and objective reasons, it is very difficult to draw a complete picture of Chernobyl’s influence on public health. The subjective reasons include: 1. The official secrecy that the USSR imposed on Chernobyl’s public health data in the first days after the meltdown, which continued for more than 3 years—until May 23, 1989, when the ban was lifted. During those 3 years an unknown number of people died from early leukosis. Secrecy was the norm not only in the USSR, but in other countries as well, including France, Great Britain, and even the United States. After the explosion, France’s official Service Central de Protection Contre les Radiations Ionisantes (SCPRI) denied that the radioactive cloud had passed over France (CRIIRAD, 2002) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture failed to disclose that dangerous levels of Chernobyl radionuclides had been found in imported foods in 1987 and 1988. The first public announcement of these contaminations was not made until 8 years later (RADNET, 2008, Sect. 6 and Sect. 9, part 4). 2. The USSR’s official irreversible and intentional falsification of medical statistics for the first 3.5 years after the catastrophe. 3. The lack of authentic medical statistics in the USSR and after its disintegration in 1991, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, including health data for hundreds of thousands of people who left the contaminated territories. 4. The expressed desire of national and international official organizations and the nuclear industry to minimize the consequences of the catastrophe.

The number of persons added to the Chernobyl state registers continues to grow, even during the most recent years, which casts doubt on the completeness and accuracy of documentation. Data about cancer mortality and morbidity are gathered from many and various sources and are coded without taking into account standard international principles . . . public health data connected to the Chernobyl accident are difficult to compare to official state of health statistics . . . (UNSCEAR, 2000, Item 242, p. 49).

The situation of the liquidators is indicative. Their total number exceeds 800,000 (see Chapter I). Within the first years after the catastrophe it was officially forbidden to associate the diseases they were suffering from with radiation, and, accordingly, their morbidity data were irreversibly forged until 1989.
EXAMPLES OF OFFICIAL REQUIREMENTS THAT FALSIFIED LIQUIDATORS’ MORBIDITY DATA: 1. “. . . For specified persons hospitalized after exposure to ionizing radiation and having no signs or symptoms of acute radiation sickness at the time of release, the diagnosis shall be ‘vegetovascular dystonia.’” [From a letter from the USSR’s First Deputy Minister of Public Health O. Shchepin, May 21, 1986, # 02–6/83–6 to Ukrainian Ministry of Public Health (cit. by V. Boreiko, 1996, pp. 123–124).] 2. “. . . For workers involved in emergency activities who do not have signs or symptoms of acute radiation sickness, the diagnosis of vegetovascular dystonia is identical to no change in their state of health in connection with radiation (i.e., for all intents and purposes healthy vis-` -vis radiation sickness). Thus the diagnoa sis does not exclude somatoneurological symptoms, including situational neurosis . . ..” [From a telegram of the Chief of the Third Main Administration of the USSR’s Ministry of Health, E. Shulzhenko, # “02 DSP”-1, dated January 4, 1987 (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 189).] 3. “(1) For remote consequences caused by ionizing radiation and a cause-and-effect relationship, it is necessary to consider: leukemia or leukosis 5–10 years after radiation in doses exceeding 50 rad. (2) The presence of acute somatic illness and activation of chronic disease in

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persons who were involved in liquidation and who do not have ARS (acute radiation sickness – Ed.), the effect of ionizing radiation should not be included as a causal relationship. (3) When issuing certificates of illness for persons involved in work on ChNPP who did not suffer ARS in point “10” do not mention participation in liquidation activities or the total dose of radiation that did not reach a degree of radiation sickness.” [From an explanatory note of the Central Military-Medical Commission of the USSR Ministry of Defense, # 205 dated July 8, 1987, directed by the Chief of 10th MMC Colonel V. Bakshutov to the military registration and enlistment offices (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 12).]

Officially it is admitted that “the full-size personal dosimeter control of liquidators in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) zone managed to be adjusted only for some months” (National Russian Report, 2001, p. 11). It was typical to use so-called “group dosimetry” and “group assessment.” Even official medical representatives recognize that a number of Russian liquidators could have received doses seven times (!) higher than 25 cGy, the level specified in the Russian state register (Il’in et al., 1995). Based on official data, this evidence makes the liquidators’ “official” dose/sickness correlation obsolete and unreliable.
TWO EXAMPLES OF CONCEALMENT OF TRUE

Data from the official Liquidators Registers in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus cannot be considered reliable because the status of “liquidator” conveyed numerous privileges. We do not know if an individual described as a “liquidator” was really directly exposed to radiation, and we do not know the number of individuals who were in the contaminated zone for only a brief time. At the same time, liquidators who served at the site and were not included in official registers are just now coming forward. Among them are the military men who participated in the Chernobyl operations but lack documentation concerning their participation (Mityunin, 2005). For example, among nearly 60,000 investigated military servicemen who participated in the clean-up operations in the Chernobyl zone, not one (!) had notice of an excess of the then-existing “normal” reading of 25 R on his military identity card. At the same time a survey of 1,100 male Ukrainian military clean-up workers revealed that 37% of them have clinical and hematological characteristics of radiation sickness, which means that these men received more than 25 R exposure (Kharchenko et al., 2001). It is not by chance that 15 years after the catastrophe up to 30% of Russian liquidators did not have radiation dose data on their official certificates (Zubovsky and Smirnova, 2000).

DATA
ON THE

CATASTROPHE’S CONSEQUENCES

1. “(4) To classify information on the accident. . . (8) To classify information on results of medical treatment. (9) To classify information on the degree of radioactive effects on the personnel who participated in the liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences.” [From the order by the Chief of Third Main Administration of the USSR’s Ministry of Health E. Shulzhenko concerning reinforcing the secrecy surrounding the activities on liquidation of the consequences of the nuclear accident in ChNPP, #U-2617-S, June 27, 1986 (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 188).] 2. “(2) The data on patients’ records related to the accident and accumulated in medical establishments should have a ‘limited access’ status. And data generalized in regional and municipal sanitary control establishments, . . . on radioactive contamination of objects, environment (including food) that exceeds maximum permissible concentration is ‘classified’.” [From Order # 30-S by Minister of Health of Ukraine A. Romanenko on May 18, 1986, about reinforcing secrecy (cit. by N. Baranov’ska, 1996, p. 139).]

Comparison of the data received via individual biodosimetry methods (by the number of chromosomal aberrations and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry) has shown that officially documented doses of radiation can be both over- and underestimated

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(Elyseeva, 1991; Vinnykov et al., 2002; Maznik et al., 2003; Chumak, 2006; and others). The Chernobyl literature widely admits that tens of thousands of the Chernobyl liquidators who worked in 1986–1987, were irradiated at levels of 110–130 mSv. Some individuals (and, accordingly, some groups) could have received doses considerably different than the average. All of the above indicates that from a strictly methodological point of view, it is impossible to correlate sickness among liquidators with the formally documented levels of radiation. Official data of thyroid-dosimetric and dosimetric certification in Ukraine were revised several times (Burlak et al., 2006). In addition to the subjective reasons noted above, there are at least two major objective reasons for the difficulty in establishing the true scale of the catastrophe’s impact on public health. The first impediment is determining the true radioactive impact on individuals and population groups, owing to the following factors:

Difficulty in reconstructing doses from the radionuclides released in the first days, weeks, and months after the catastrophe. Levels of radioisotopes such as I-133, I135, Te-132, and a number of other radionuclides having short half-lives were initially hundreds and thousand of times higher than when Cs-137 levels were subsequently measured (see Chapter I for details). Many studies revealed that the rate of unstable and stable chromosome aberrations is much higher—by up to one to two orders of magnitude—than would be expected if the derived exposures were correct (Pflugbeil and Schmitz-Feuerhake, 2006). Difficulty in calculating the influence of “hot particles” for different radionuclides owing to their physical and chemical properties. Difficulty determining levels of external and internal radiation for the average person and/or group because “doses”

were not directly measured and calculations were based on dubious assumptions. These assumptions included an average consumption of a set of foodstuffs by the “average” person, and an average level of external irradiation owing to each of the radionuclides. As an example, all official calculations of thyroid irradiation in Belarus were based on about 200,000 measurements done in May–June 1986 on fewer than 130,000 persons, or only about 1.3% of the total population. All calculations for internal irradiation of millions of Belarussians were made on the basis of a straw poll of several thousand people concerning their consumption of milk and vegetables (Borysevich and Poplyko, 2002). Objective reconstruction of received doses cannot be done on the basis of such data. Difficulty determining the influence of the spotty distribution of radionuclides (specific for each one; see Chapter I for details) and, as a result, the high probability that the individual doses of personal radiation are both higher and lower than “average” doses for the territory. Difficulty accounting for all of the multiple radionuclides in a territory. Sr-90, Pu, and Am can also contaminate an area counted as contaminated solely by Cs-137. For instance, in 206 samples of breast milk, from six districts of the Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest provinces (Belarus), where the official level of radiation was defined only by Sr-90 contamination, high levels of Cs-137 were also found (Zubovich et al., 1998). Difficulty accounting for the movement of radionuclides from the soil to food chains, levels of contamination for each animal species and plant cultivar. The same difficulties exist for different soil types, seasons, and climatic conditions, as well as for different years (see Chapter III of this volume for details). Difficulty determining the health of individuals who have moved away from contaminated areas. Even considering

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the incomplete official data for the period 1986–2000 for only Belarus, nearly 1.5 million citizens (15% of the population) changed their place of residence. For the period 1990–2000 more than 675,000 people, or about 7% of the population left Belarus (National Belarussian Report, 2006). The second objective barrier to determining the true radioactive impact on individuals and/or population groups is the inadequacy of information and, in particular, incomplete studies of the following:

rious effects from Chernobyl. More and more cases are coming to light in which the calculated radiation dose does not correlate with observable impacts on health that are obviously due to radiation (IFECA, 1995; Vorob’iev and Shklovsky-Kodry, 1996; Adamovich et al., 1998; Drozd, 2002; Lyubchenko, 2001; Kornev et al., 2004; Igumnov et al., 2004; and others). All of these factors do not prove the absence of radiation effects but do demonstrate the inaccurate methodology of the official IAEA, WHO, and UNSCEAR approach. 2.2. “Scientific Protocols” According to the Chernobyl Forum (2006), a common objection to taking into account the enormous body of data on the public health consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus is that they were collected without observing the “scientific protocols” that are the norms for Western science. Usually this means that there was no statistical processing of the received data. Thus, valid distinctions among compared parameters, as for groups from heavily contaminated versus those from less contaminated territories or for groups from areas with different levels of radiation, have not demonstrated statistical significance. In the last decade—a sufficient time span for effects to become manifest—as information has accumulated, a range of values has been found to be within the limits of true “statistical significance.” One of the authors has considerable experience in statistical processing of biological material—the review Variability of Mammals (Yablokov, 1976) contains thousands of data calculations of various biological parameters and comparisons. In other reviews as Introduction into Population Phenetics (Yablokov and Larina, 1985) and Population Biology (Yablokov, 1987) methodical approaches were analyzed to obtain reliable statistically significant conclusions for various types of biological characteristics. Generalizing these and other factors concerning statistical

Specificity of the influence of each radionuclide on an organism, and their effect in combination with other factors in the environment. Variability of populations and individuals in regard to radiosensitivity (Yablokov, 1998; and others). The impact of the ultralow doses (Petkau, 1980; Graeub, 1992; Burlakova, 1995; ECRR, 2003). The influences of internally absorbed radiation (Bandazhevsky et al., 1995; Bandazhevsky, 2000).

The above are the factors that expose the scientific fallacy in the requirements outlined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and similar official national bodies that are associated with the nuclear industry. They demand a simple correlation—“a level of radiation and effect”—to recognize a link to adverse health effects as a consequence of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination. It is methodologically incorrect to combine imprecisely defined ionizing radiation exposure levels for individuals or groups with the much more accurately determined impacts on health (increases in morbidity and mortality) and to demand a “statistically significant correlation” as conclusive evidence of the delete-

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processing of biological and epidemiological data, it is possible to formulate four positions: 1. The calculation “reliability of distinctions by Student,” devised about a century ago for comparison of very small samples, is not relevant for large-size samples. When the size of the sample is comparable to the entire assembly, average value is an exact enough parameter. Many epidemiological studies of Chernobyl contain data on thousands of patients. In such cases the averages show real distinctions among the compared samples with high reliability. 2. To determine the reliability of distinctions among many-fold divergent averages, it is not necessary to calculate “standard errors.” For example, why calculate formal “significance of difference” among liquidators’s morbidities for 1987 and 1997 if the averages differ tenfold? 3. The full spectrum of the factors influencing one parameter or another is never known, so it does not have a great impact on the accuracy of the distinct factors known to the researcher. Colleagues from the nuclear establishment have ostracized one of the authors (A. Y.) for citing in a scientific paper the story from the famous novel Chernobyl Prayer (English translation Voices from Chernobyl, 2006) by Svetlana Aleksievich. Ms. Aleksievich writes of a doctor seeing a lactating 70-year-old woman in one Chernobyl village. Subsequently well-founded scientific papers reported the connection between radiation and abnormal production of prolactin hormone, a cause of lactation in elderly women. 4. When the case analysis of individual unique characteristics in a big data set does not fit the calculation of average values, it is necessary to use a probability approach. In some modern epidemiological literature the “case-control” approach is popular, but it is also possible to calculate the probability of the constellations of very

rare cases on the basis of previously published data. Scientific research methodology will be always improved upon, and today’s “scientific protocols” with, for example, “confidence intervals” and “case control,” are not perfect. It is correct and justified for the whole of society to analyze the consequences of the largest-scale catastrophe in history and to use the enormous database collected by thousands of experts in the radioactively contaminated territories, despite some data not being in the form of Western scientific protocols. This database must be used because it is impossible to collect other data after the fact. The doctors and scientists who collected such data were, first of all, trying to help the victims, and, second, owing to the lack of time and resources, not always able to offer their findings for publication. It is indicative that many of the medical/epidemiological conferences in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia on Chernobyl problems officially were termed “scientific and practical” conferences. Academic theses and abstracts from these conferences were sometimes unique sources of information resulting from the examination of hundreds of thousands of afflicted individuals. Although the catastrophe is quickly and widely being ignored, this information must be made available to the world. Some very important data that were released during press conferences and never presented in any scientific paper are cited in this volume. Mortality and morbidity are unquestionably higher among the medical experts who worked selflessly in the contaminated territories and were subject to additional radiation, including exposure to radioactive isotopes from contaminated patients. Many of these doctors and scientists died prematurely, which is one more reason that the medical results from Chernobyl were never published. The data presented at the numerous scientifically practical Chernobyl conferences in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia from 1986 to 1999 were briefly reported in departmental

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periodic journals and magazines and in various collections of papers (“sborniks”), but it is impossible to collect them again. We must reject the criticism of “mismatching scientific protocols,” and search for ways to extract the valuable objective information from these data. In November 2006 the German Federal Committee on Ionizing Radiation organized the BfS-Workshop on Chernobyl Health Consequences in Nuremberg. It was a rare opportunity for experts with differing approaches to have open and in-depth discussions and analyze the public health consequences of the catastrophe. One conclusion reached during this meeting is especially important for the past Chernobyl material: it is reasonable to doubt data lacking Western scientific protocols only when studies using the same or similar material diverge. From both scientific and social-ethical points of view, we cannot refuse to discuss data that were acquired in the absence of strict scientific protocols. 2.3. Dismissing the Impact of Chernobyl Radionuclides Is a Fallacy Natural ionizing radiation has always been an element of life on Earth. Indeed, it is one of the main sources of on-going genetic mutations—the basis for natural selection and all evolutionary processes. All life on Earth— humans included—evolved and adapted in the presence of this natural background radiation. Some have estimated that “the fallout from Chernobyl adds only about 2% to the global radioactive background.” This “only” 2% mistakenly looks trivial: for many populations in the Northern Hemisphere the Chernobyl doses could be many times higher compared with the natural background, whereas for others (mostly in the Southern Hemisphere) it can be close to zero. Averaging Chernobyl doses globally is like averaging the temperature of hospital patients. Another argument is that there are many places around of the world where the natural radioactive background is many times greater

than the average Chernobyl fallouts and as humans successfully inhabit such areas, the Chernobyl radioactive fallout is not so significant. Let us discuss this argument in detail. Humans have a similar level of individual variation of radiosensitivity as do voles and dogs: 10–12% of humans have lower (and about 10–14% have a higher one) individual radiosensitivity than everyone else (Yablokov, 1998, 2002). Experiments on mammalian radiosensitivity carried out on voles showed that it requires strong selection for about 20 generations to establish a less radiosensitive population (Il’enko and Krapivko, 1988). If what is true for the experimental vole populations is also true for humans in Chernobyl contaminated areas, it means that in 400 years (20 human generations) the local populations in the Chernobylcontaminated areas can be less radiosensitive than they are today. Will individuals with reduced radioresistance agree that their progeny will be the first to be eliminated from populations? One physical analogy can illustrate the importance of even the smallest additional load of radioactivity: only a few drops of water added to a glass filled to the brim are needed to initiate a flow. The same few drops can initiate the same overflow when it is a barrel that is filled to the brim rather than a glass. Natural radioactive background may be as small as a glass or as big as a barrel. Irrespective of its volume, we simply do not know when only a small amount of additional Chernobyl radiation will cause an overflow of damage and irreversible change in the health of humans and in nature. All of the above reasoning makes it clear that we cannot ignore the Chernobyl irradiation, even if it is “only” 2% of the world’s average background radiation. 2.4. Determining the Impact of the Chernobyl Catastrophe on Public Health It is clear that various radionuclides caused radiogenic diseases owing to both internal and

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Non-standard approaches to the Chernobyl catastrophe. 35(6): 803–827 (in Russian). (Moscow): 24 pp. Contaminations Radioactives. V. Barretsur-Meouge): 196 pp. Bennett. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Consequences for Belarus Republic and Its Surrounding Area (Minsk): 112 pp.pdf). (1995). N. A. 1998. & Popov. L. Thyroid system conditions in children irradiated in utero. People and Trees (Four Walls Eight Windows. A. P. Il’in. Scientific Report (WHO. Rad. L. M. I.” Kiev): 328 pp. (1980). 11: 20–22 (in Russian). Biol.) (Yves Michel Editions. (2005). Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Strategy of Recovery (Abstracts. Atomic penal battalion: National characteristics of liquidators and the consequences of radiation accidents in the USSR and Russia. CRIIRAD (2002). Information about source points of anthropogenic radioactivity: A Freedom of Nuclear Information Resource. I. S. V. 110–111 (in Russian). 2–3 (in Russian). 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(2002).portalus. V. V. & Laryna. Med. Kil’chevskaya. V. A. A. Yablokov. Yablokov. New York). 11 (//www. (1998). (2002). N. I. Population Biology: Progress and Problems of Studies of Natural Populations. I. (1987). Genetic Consequences of Extraordinary Radioactive Situations (Peoples’ Friendship University. Transfusiol. Maznik. A. Human milk and babies’ health in the radioactive contaminated areas of Belarus. Vinnykov. 41(6): 9–10 (in Russian). Moscow): 180 pp. Tenth Chernobyl anniversary. USSR. Chernobyl catastrophe and your health. Variability of Mammals (Amerind. A. G. Public Health 5: 28–30 (in Russian). Yablokov. . Biology (Mir..ru/modules/ecology/print.php? subaction=snowfull&id) (in Russian). V. N. Annex G (United Nations. A. Radiol.Yablokov: Public Health Consequences of Chernobyl UNSCEAR (2000). (1998). K. Introduction into Population Phenetics: A New Approach to Natural Population Studies (“Vysshaya Shkola. V. 25–26 (in Russian). A. & Myzyna. Vorob’ev. & Zemskov. I. Myth on Safety of the Low Doses of Radiation (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. N. What to do? Hematol. & Shklovsky-Kodry. A. Moscow): pp. Advanced Scientific Technologies.. E. Zubovsky. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. 6. V. A. E. Safety 43(1): 24– 29 (in Russian). V. Zubovich. New Delhi): XI + 350 pp. V. (1976). V. Beresten. G.. N. (in Russian). Radiat. A. & Smirnova. S. (1985). A. V. Moscow): 304 pp. (in Russian). International Conference. S. Petrov. Yablokov. (1996). Russian Chernobyl 4. (2000). Some problems of ecology and 41 radiation safety.” Moscow): 160 pp. Yablokov..

3. 5.1.000.. and Disability after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. Belarus 1. 1996). and in the most contaminated Gomel Province. The general morbidity of children noticeably increased in the heavily contaminated territories. 1993). Even the smallest excess of radiation over that of natural background will statistically (stochastically) affect the health of exposed individuals or their descendants. Increased numbers of sick and weak newborns were found in the heavily contaminated territories in Belarus. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. 6.5%. The largest increase (up to 205%). for 16 classes of illnesses) in the 42 . 1996). there is a marked increase in general morbidity in the former. There is no threshold for ionizing radiation’s impact on health. The explosion of the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) dispersed an enormous amount of radionuclides (see Chapter I for details). Yablokov@ecopolicy. economy. Leninsky Prospect 33. Changes in general morbidity were among the first stochastic effects of the Chernobyl irradiation. and environment.5% of children (0 to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe) were healthy in areas within the Kormyansk and Chechersk districts of Gomel Province. and environment. In 1993. Yablokov. From 1986 to 1994 the overall death rate for newborns was 9. where soil Cs-137 levels were higher than 5 Ci/km2 .. 2001). demography. fewer than 10% of children were well (Nesterenko. The number of children with impaired physical development increased in the heavily contaminated territories (Sharapov. increased numbers of weak newborns. there is increased morbidity in the more contaminated territories. The annual increase in disease (per 1. Ukraine.ru as well as rare illnesses (Nesterenko et al. and European Russia. sooner or later. 119071 Moscow. 2.” By 2000 fewer than 20% were considered so. This includes deaths from common Address for correspondence: Alexey V. In all cases when territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides are compared with less contaminated areas that are similar in ethnography. just before the catastrophe (in 1985). and increased impairment and disability. was due primarily to disease among the growing number of premature infants. Office 319. demography. 3. found in the most contaminated Gomel Province (Dzykovich et al. Russian Academy of Sciences. Impairment. General Morbidity. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19.CHERNOBYL 3.. 2004). Children from areas with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 who were newborn to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe have significantly more illnesses than those from places with contamination levels of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al. The data on morbidity included in this chapter are only a few examples from many similar studies. only 9. According to data from the Belarussian Ministry of Public Health. Yablokov In all cases when comparing the territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl’s radionuclides with less contaminated areas that are characterized by a similar economy. 4. Russia. 90% of children were considered “practically healthy. Some 37% of the children there suffer from chronic diseases.

Each child was followed for 3 years. 8.020 0. Brest Province. 2002) Heavily contaminated: 73 boys. Blet’ko et al.77 0. 1999). urine. 11.03∗∗∗ 0. mg/liter Cd.019 Three years later (b) 0.Yablokov: Morbidity. 12. but a smaller head and a smaller thorax circumference (Akulich and Gerasymovich. 13. and individual contamination determined by measuring the level of incorporated radionuclides (using an individual radioactivity counter) and the levels of Pb and other heavy metals. 1998).1. In the Vetca. The rates of both premature neonates and small-for-gestational-age babies in Belarus as a whole were considerably higher in the more radioactive contaminated territories for 10 years following the catastrophe (Tsimlyakova and Lavrent’eva.000 children increased 3. Brest Province. age 9. Table 3. mg/liter Hg. 7. 1993). Narovly.1 show that within groups the level of radioactive contamination did not change statistically over 3 years.7 (Voronetsky.6. whereas heavy metals levels were slightly reduced. avg. Impairment.022∗∗ Three years later (d) 0. Radioactive and Heavy Metal Contamination in Children from the Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas (Arinchin et al. 10.. 1995).017∗∗ 0. urine. 9. ∗∗∗ d-b (P < 0. heavily contaminated areas reached 102–130 cases. spontaneous abortions and miscarriages and the numbers of low-birth-weight newborns were significantly higher in the heavily contaminated territories (Izhevsky and Meshkov. 1995). and Disability after Chernobyl 43 TABLE 3.3.02∗∗ 0. The state of their health was obtained by subjective (self-estimation) and objective (based on clinical observations) studies.031 b-a.02∗∗ 0.2 shows the results of children’s self-estimation of health.05). which was considerably higher than for less contaminated territories (Gutkovsky et al. 85 girls. illnesses per 1.05). It is clear that children living in the heavily contaminated areas complain more often of various illnesses. most of the parameters were higher among the heavily contaminated. and Hoyniky districts of Gomel Province and the Kalinkovich District of Mogilev Province. Newborns whose mothers had been evacuated from a zone of the strict control (≥15 Ci/km2 ) had a statistically significant longer body. d-c (P < 0. In the 8 years after the catastrophe.03∗ 0. urine. Although the number of complaints increased in both the heavily contaminated and the less contaminated groups after 3 years of observation. in the heavily contaminated Luninetsk District. which increased in controls. Data in Table 3. 60 girls.81 ∗ 0.035 0.5 times—1986–1988: 166. ∗∗ c-a (P < 0. 1989– 1991: 337. Data from Table 3.021∗ 0. age 10. 1996). avg. morbidity was significantly higher for the primary classes of illnesses 10 years later.025 0. For children of the Stolinsk District. Table 3. The number of complaints in the group living in heavily contaminated areas was noticeably greater than in less contaminated places.5 years First survey (c) 0.. with the exception of the Pb level. mg/liter ∗ Less contaminated: 101 boys..1 shows the results of two groups of children from the heavily and less contaminated territories surveyed for the years from 1995 to 2001.6 years First survey (a) mSv Pb. Disease diagnoses were manifest at ages 6 to 7 years (Sychik and Stozharov.3 show that children living in heavily contaminated areas differed noticeably from those in less contaminated places for . who were radiated in utero from ambient Cs-137 levels up to 15 Ci/km2 .015 0. 1992–1994: 610. 1995.040 0.05).

2∗.1 (Arinchin et al.7∗ 12.6 1.3∗..3.4 4.1 and 3.6 17.8 7.9∗∗ 20.5 8.2 11.6∗∗∗ 52.1). According to official data (Medical Consequences.0 Three years later 66.05).2∗∗ 1.4∗∗ 40.2 59.6∗∗ 0∗∗ Three years later 32.3 3.5 9. d-c (P < 0.6 17.8 1.5 21.2 and Table 3.7∗∗ 0 0. The findings in both Table 3.5∗∗ 13.3∗∗ 7.4 67.5 b-a.3 45.2∗ 0.7 11.8∗ 64.8 37.3 18. 2002) Heavily contaminated areas First survey Complaints of state of health Weakness Dizziness Headache Fainting Nose bleeds Fatigue Heart arrhythmias Stomach pain Vomiting Heartburn Loss of appetite Allergy ∗ Less contaminated areas First survey 45.. ∗∗∗ 24.1 73. The authors of this research defined this condition as “ecological disadaptation syndrome” which may be another definitive Chernobyl effect (Gres’ and Arinchin.2 17.8∗ 72.9 9.9 9.0 1. 2001).2 31.1 1.9∗∗∗ 0 1.9 1.5 11.9 28.6 0.3 27. especially during 1997 and 1998 (Figure 3.2 (Arinchin et al. 2003) morbidity of Belarus TABLE 3. ∗∗ c-a (P < 0.3∗∗∗ 0.05).05).8 23. d-c (P < 0.3 17. ∗∗ c-a (P < 0.2 6. 1996). 2002) Heavily contaminated areas Syndrome/diagnosis Chronic gastroenteric pathology Including chronic duodenitis Including chronic gastroduodenitis Gallbladder inflammation Vascular dystonia and heart syndrome Asthenia-neurosis Tonsil hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis Tooth caries Chronic periodontitis ∗ Lees contaminated areas First survey 31..8 2.5∗ 34. 14. but in Mogilev Province there were more sick children (Kozhunov et al. Primary invalidism in contaminated territories of Belarus noticeably increased after 1993.2∗∗ 2. In the Gomel Province the relative number of invalids was higher.6 First survey 44.3∗ 5.4 2.7∗ 15.5 51.6 42.2∗∗∗ 37.5 ∗∗ Three years later 78.1∗ .4 28.05). ∗∗∗ d-b (P < 0.7 39.3 3. Frequency of Clinical Syndromes and Diagnoses (%)—Same Children as in Tables 3. 16.8∗ 10.1 2.6∗ 5.5∗ 14.9 6.7 16.05).9 1.∗∗∗ 11.44 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 3. According to official statistics in 1993– 1994 primary morbidity was significantly higher in territories with Cs-137 levels above 15 Ci/km2 (Kozhunov et al.1 58.05).∗∗∗ 44.3 give a convincing picture of sharply worsening health for children in the heavily contaminated areas..8∗∗∗ 25.1 43.6 12.8 Three years later 36.1∗∗ 0.9∗∗ 4.2 17.9 20. Frequency of Complaints (%) on State of Health—Same Children as Table 3. .2.4 b-a.8∗. 15. 17. 1996). The number of invalids was noticeably higher in the more contaminated Gomel and Mogilev provinces than in the country as a whole.7∗ 5. ∗∗∗ d-b (P < 0.∗∗∗ 12. practically all diseases in both the first and the second survey.2∗∗ 0.

652 2. 8. 7. and Disability after Chernobyl 45 Figure 3. There was appreciably retarded growth in children from 5 to 12 years of age at the time of the survey in the heavily contaminated territories (Arabskaya. but comparison of the same groups in 1995 showed that morbidity was significantly higher in the highly contamTABLE 3. 1999.2). and the number (percentage) of “chronically ill” children increased from 8. Primary and General Morbidity of Children (0 to 14 Years) in the Heavily Contaminated Territories of Ukraine.5% (Horishna.7 times (from 27.Yablokov: Morbidity. 2006). 1998.285 n/a By Stepanova (2006).2. 3. Dynamics of primary invalidism in Belarus that is officially connected with the catastrophe in heavily (top curve) and less contaminated provinces (Sosnovskaya. 1993. 6.. Ukraine 1.4% in 1986–1987 to 77. 1995. 2005) Year 1987 1994 2001 2004 a Primary morbidity 455 1. 3.423 (1384a ) General morbidity 787 1. 2005). In spite of the intensive social and medical programs in place from 1986 to 2003. By 1996 those functional disturbances had become chronic pathological processes with long-term relapses that were relatively resistant to treatment (Stepanova et al. 9.. 2006).4% . For the first 10 years after the catastrophe. 2001). The annual disease rate among this group of liquidators was up to eight times higher than for the adult population of Belarus as a whole (Antypova et al. per 1. 1997. general morbidity in Ukrainian children increased sixfold (TASS. 5. 160 had congenital malformations and 47 were cancer victims (Law of Ukraine.139 n/a 1.2%). The percent of children with chronic diseases increased steadily—from 8.2 to 0.5 to 7. Horishna. 2006). 2002).4. 1998) followed by a slight reduction. 2... 1997). liquidators 1986–1987 was significantly higher than for a similarly aged group. but 15 years after the catastrophe it was 2. indicative of hormonal and immune imbalance. Impairment.. inated areas (Baida and Zhirnosecova. Among 252 children in contaminated territories officially recognized as invalids in 2004. Zapesochny et al. Law of Ukraine. Zakrevsky et al.8% in 2003 (Figure 3.. 1995. At the beginning of 2005 the percentage of invalid children in contaminated territories was more than fourfold that of the average among children in other populations (Omelyanets. 10.4). it was typical for children from heavily contaminated territories to suffer from functional disturbances of various organ systems. In 1988.000 (Grodzinsky. From 1997 to 2005 the number of the “practically healthy” children in heavily contaminated areas decreased more than sixfold— from 3. In 1999 there were fourfold more sick children in contaminated territories than the average of such children in Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk et al.1. 2005). From 1987 to 1989. the number (percentage) of “practically healthy” children in affected territories decreased 3. Ushakov et al. Horishna. 2003.9 times higher than in 1986 (Table 3. Moskalenko. 2006). 4. there was no indication of significant differences in general morbidity among children living in heavily contaminated versus less contaminated areas. Children radiated in utero had lower birth weight and more diseases during the first year of life as well as irregularities in their physical development (Stepanova and Davydenko. 1998).

Morbidity among adults and teenagers in the heavily contaminated territories increased fourfold: from 137.000).5 in 2003. among them were 3. The level of general morbidity among evacuee children increased 1. At the same time. 18.000) in 2000.6– 24. General morbidity increased 1.9 in 2004 (Stepanova.224 to 1. marked increase (Lukyanova et al. According to annual surveys during the period from 1988 to 2005 there were severalfold fewer children of liquidators considered “practically healthy” than were found in the control group (2.46 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 3.57 in 2004 (Stepanova.2. The current second set of primary disabilities in the contaminated territories is due to circulatory disease (32. 17.367. This trend is continuing: 455. 20. Table 3.3).3%). Since 2001 the primary disability is neoplasm (53. 4. In 1991 the prevailing primary physical disabilities in the contaminated territories were due to circulatory problems (39.665 per 1.2 in 2000.160. At the same time in less contaminated areas the percentage of healthy children has been constant during the last 20 years—up to 30% (Burlak et al.2% compared with 18. 2006a. 1. 2006a). 866.4 per 1.326 children (Ipatov et al.3% in 2005).000 in 1987. 16. 2006). in 1986–1987 to 77. According to official Ukrainian data. 11.2 in 2004 (Horishna.8% in 2004 (Stepanova.1 (per 1.046). 2006a). After the catastrophe the number (percentage) of “practically healthy” children in contaminated territories declined markedly and the number of sick children significantly increased (Table 3.199 people whose invalidism resulted from the Chernobyl catastrophe. In Ukraine in the 15 to 18 years after the catastrophe there has been a steady increase in the numbers of invalid children: 3.6).. Number (percentage) of “practically healthy” children (1) and those with “chronic pathologies” (2) in affected territories in Ukraine from 1987 to 2003 (Stepanova. 15.6–9. From 1988 to 1997 increased morbidity related to radiation levels was more apparent in the heavily contaminated territories: up to ..4 times from 1987 to 1992 (from 1. In the years from 1988 to 2002.000 in 1987 to 573. 1. and 1...2 per 1. 12. 4. 2006).9 in 1995.6%).0%) and diseases of the nervous system (32. 2005).5 in 1990. Figure 3.3. The prevalence of diseases for this period rose more than double (1. 19. Number of invalids (per 1. For the period 1992 to 2005 disability due to neoplasm increased nearly fourfold.4 times in the contaminated territories from the period before the catastrophe until 1992. furthermore these liquidators’ children were statistically significantly taller and more overweight (Kondrashova et al. Children in contaminated territories were undersized and had low body weight (Kondrashova et al.425 up to 3. 14.5). 13. at the beginning of 2005 there were 148. 2006). among adult evacuees the number of “healthy” fell from 68 to 22% and the number “chronically ill” rose from 32 to 77% (National Ukrainian Report.0 in 2002. 2006). 1995). across the whole of Ukraine child morbidity showed a Figure 3.5% in 2005. 2006).. 2006a). and 4.000) among children in Ukraine from 1987 to 2003 (Stepanova.422. 2006b).5 to 2.

the general morbidity significantly exceeded that in areas with less contamination.4). 2002.4 0..8).2 1989 39.000). 2002).8 times (from 632 to 3. the general morbidity for the entire province was significantly higher 10 years after the catastrophe as compared with 10 years before (Donets. Law of the Ukraine. and up to 1. and Disability after Chernobyl 47 TABLE 3.2 1. From 1988 to 2003 disabilities among liquidators increased 76-fold (from 2.6%).9 41.3%.9 29.7 and 3. TABLE 3. 2005).4 times in a zone with 1–5 Ci/km2 (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2006). Typical complaints in the contaminated territories in the first year after the catastrophe included rapidly developing fatigue (59. 2006). Children’s Health (percent in each healthy group) in Contaminated Territories in Ukraine.. Buzunov et al.5%). 1995). and the number with chronic illnesses increased 6.9 30. 2006). Primary Diseases (%) Resulting in Invalidism Connected with the Chernobyl Catastrophe.6%).000) from 1988 to 2002. 21.3 43. 27. Prevalence and occurrence of nonmalignant diseases among adult evacuees and the population of Ukraine from 1988 to 2002 (National Ukrainian Report.2%) (Buzunov et al.8 to 81. 25. 2006) Illness Neoplasms Nervous system diseases Circulatory diseases 1992 8.6 2001 43.3 40. 1986–1991 (Luk’yanova et al. Among adult evacuees the occurrence of nonmalignant diseases increased 4.5 28. up to 2.6 34.9 39.. 28.2 times: from 12. headache (65.8 1987 50.9 34. The general morbidity of Ukrainian liquidators increased 3. In the heavily contaminated districts of Chernygov Province. 1998).5 41.6 1990 25.7 16. Beginning in 1991–1992 the occurrence and prevalence of these diseases was above the average for the country (Figure 3.0 2005 53. From 1988 to 1999 primary morbidity among the populations in the contaminated territories doubled (from 621 to 1.4.1 1.4% (National Ukrainian Report. National Ukrainian Report.2 2.3 4.8 times: from 67. 23. 1995) Health group First (healthy) Second Third Fourth 1986 56. 22.1 1988 54. .6.2 8.8 1.1 8.276 and from 310 to 746 per 1. Beginning in 1993 these parameters have continually exceeded the Ukrainian norms (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Figure 3. From 1988 to 2002 physical disabilities among adult evacuees increased 42-fold (from 4.5 National Ukrainian Report.0 50. Impairment.037 per 10.0 4. abnormal dreaming (37. 24.7 1991 19.5 times in the 10 years following the catastrophe (Serdyuk and Bobyleva.000.. 26.7 to 206 per 1. 2006.5. 1992 to 2005 (Ipatov et al. 2006) and are still increasing (Tables 3.2 times in a zone with more than 15 Ci/km2 . and aching joints (30.7 9..5 32.3 times in a zone with 5–15 Ci/km2 .9 1. blood pressure instability (37.000. 2006).3 4..6 to 5.Yablokov: Morbidity.6 to 193 per 1.8%). During the period from 1988 to 2004 the number of liquidators who were healthy decreased 12.

phenomena.5–3. Lubensky. Morbidity (per 1. 1999.48 TABLE 3. 3. 2001). 4.5. 1987–1994 (Grodzinsky.3 times the provincial level as well as the level across Russia (Fetysov. In 2004 childhood morbidity in these districts was double the average for the province (Sergeeva et al. was 1. 96. 27.3.. . 1999. which exceeded the Ukrainian norms (Table 3. 64. 34. 75. Invalidism as a result of nonmalignant diseases in Ukrainian liquidators (1986—1987) from 1988 to 2003 (National Ukrainian Report. 2001).9 29.5% in Sumy Province were sick and 96% in Donetsk Province (LIGA. 42. 2004). Primary Invalidism (per 1.8 during the 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsyb... Law of Ukraine. Figure 3.8. 2.2 Evacuees 2. 2004.9).. 1987–1994 (Grodzinsky.255.9.097.5 Ukraine 0. Children from radioactive contaminated provinces became ill much more often than children in “clean” regions. 000) in Ukraine.0 1. to 81% (Grodzinsky. 30.6 23. some 99.1 9. For the period from 1988 to 1994 there was a manifold increase in primary disabilities (invalidism) among liquidators and evacuees. The total measure of the “health of the population” (the sum of invalidism and morbidity) in the Russian part of the European Chernobyl territories worsened up to threefold TABLE 3.5). 2006) Year 1987 1994 2004 Adults and teenagers 421. 31. In 2003. In the 18 years after the catastrophe the number of “sick” liquidators exceeded 94%. Disability among liquidators began to increase sharply from 1991 and by the year 2003 had risen tenfold (Figure 3.7. 1999). 2006). Childhood morbidity in the contaminated districts of Kaluga Province 15 years after the catastrophe was noticeably higher (Ignatov et al. Since 1987 the number of liquidators in the category of “ill” has consistently increased: 18. 57. Kuiyshev et al. From 1995–1998 the annual prevalence of all registered diseases of children in the southwest districts of Bryansk Province (Cs-137 > 5 Ci/km2 ). Percent of “Practically Healthy” Individuals in Three Categories of Chernobyl Victims in Ukraine. and inexact designated conditions” (Kulakov et al. 2005). 1999) Year 1987 1994 Liquidators 9.9 2. 1996).9% of the liquidators were officially “sick” in Kiev. 1999) Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Liquidators 82 73 66 58 43 34 25 19 Evacuees 59 48 38 29 25 20 16 18 Children born to irradiated parents 86 78 72 62 53 45 38 26 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 3.5 0. 3. Russia 1. 1997).000) in Radioactive Contaminated Territories of Ukraine (Grodzinsky. The greatest differences in morbidity are expressed in the class of illness labeled “symptoms.

The total morbidity owing to all classes of illnesses for the Russian liquidators in 1993–1996 was about 1.7 ± 3. 1998). Lyubchenko.2 1996–2000 130. The number of diseases diagnosed in each liquidator has increased: up until 1991 each liquidator had an average of 2.1 ± 10.11.. 2001. 7.5∗ 121.Yablokov: Morbidity.4 ± 4. Within 5 years after the catastrophe 30% of them were officially recognized as “sick”.5 diseases. 15.3% vs. State of Health of Russian Liquidators: Percent Officially Recognized as “Sick ” (Ivanov et al. Children’s disability in all of Bryansk Province in 1998–1999 was twice that of three of the most contaminated districts: 352 vs.5 108. 5. 2004). 16. Prybylova et al. The frequency of spontaneous abortions and miscarriages and the number of newborns with low birth weight were higher in the more contaminated Klintsy and Novozybkov districts of Bryansk Province (Izhevsky and Meshkov.9 ± 16.. in the group “31–40 years of age” the highest morbidity occurred 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe (Karamullin et al. in 1995.8 ± 2. 2001. 2004.1 ± 64. 14.3 1986–1990 198. 174 per 1.11). 5. 10.506 to 2.140 per 1.3 130.8 177. 1981–2000 (Tsyb et al.000.6 ± 10.5 times above that for corresponding groups in the population (Kudryashov. In Bryansk Province there was a tendency toward increased general morbidity in liquidators from 1995 to 1998 (from 1. TABLE 3.1 ± 8.8% (Lyaginskaya et al.4∗ 81. 10 years after fewer than 9% of them were considered “healthy. The number of low-birth-weight children in the contaminated territories was more than 43%. total 1981–1985 128.5 ± 6. The morbidity of liquidators exceeds that of the rest of the Russian population (Byryukov et al.. 1999. Invalidism among liquidators was apparent 2 years after the catastrophe and increased torrentially (Table 3. The general morbidity of the Russian liquidators (3. 8. 2002). Komogortseva. Initially diagnosed childhood illnesses measured in 5-year periods for the years from 1981 to 2000 show an increase in the first two decades after the catastrophe (Table 3. 2004).8 diseases. only up to 2% were “healthy” (Table 3. and Disability after Chernobyl 49 TABLE 3.0 ± 6.000 (average for Russia. 161. 2001). were initially healthy. Fetysov.4∗∗ 176. 2006). ∗∗ significantly different from province’s average and from the period before the catastrophe.6 ± 9. 11. and the risk of birth of a sick child in this area was more than twofold compared with a control group: 66. 2001).4 ± 5. 1999). 31.. 13.. 2001).8∗∗ 171.10).3 ± 6. 9.882 surveyed) who were “under the age of 30” at the time of the catastrophe increased threefold over the next 15 years. All the Russian liquidators.000) in the Contaminated Districts of Kaluga Province..0∗ 100.10.12). Initially Diagnosed Children’s Morbidity (M ± m per 1.0 diseases (Lyubchenko and Agal’tsov.6 1991–1995 253. mostly young men.. Ivanov et al.2 ± 3.0 ∗ Significantly different from province’s average. 2004) Years after the catastrophe 0 5 10 16 Percent “sick” 0 30 90–92 98–99 . The general morbidity of adults in 1995– 1998 in the districts with Cs-137 contamination of more than 5 Ci/km2 was noticeably higher than in Bryansk Province as a whole (Fetysov. 12.” and after 16 years. 2006) Districts Three heavily contaminated Three less contaminated Province. Kukishev et al. 6. 3. and in 1999. Impairment..

Disability in Liquidators (%) Compared to Calculated Radiation Doses.5 28.3 31.808 survived) morbidity was noticeably higher among those who were 45 to 54 years of age during their time in Chernobyl (Burokaite. and psychological factors. ∗∗∗∗∗∗ It is clear that there is significantly increased general morbidity in territories heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout and higher rates of disability among liquidators and others who were exposed to higher doses of radiation than the general population or corresponding nonradiated groups. 2002). and differ only in their exposure to Chernobyl contamination. 1989). 2001). economic. I. 4. 1990–1993 (Ryabzev. 5. 1995).0 >20 cGy 17.5 5–20 cGy 10. 2008) Disabled (%) Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 0–5 cGy 6.6. 2. In 1995 the level of disability among liquidators was triple that of corresponding groups (Russian Security Council.12. if not Chernobyl? The IAEA and WHO suggested (Chernobyl Forum.1 57. 27% of the Russian liquidators became invalids at an average age of 48 to 49 (National Russian Report. By the year 2004 up to 64.6 84. Mills’s canons.0 12.6 43. LITHUANIA.6). age composition. (1993). 3.500 g) were noted in 1986–1987 (Figure 3. S.1 74. and Bradford Hill criteria.50 TABLE 3. Among infants born in May– June 1986 there was a significantly higher number of low-birth-weight newborns (Wals and Dolk. etc. The number of newborns with low birth weight was significantly higher in July 1986 (Ericson and Kallen.7% of all the liquidators of working age were disabled (Zubovsky and Tararukhina. . Following scientific canons such as Occam’s Razor. abnormally low birth weights (less than 1. but the question is: What else can account for the increased illness and disability that coincide precisely in time and with increased levels of radioactive contamination.4. G. there is no direct proof of the influence of the Chernobyl catastrophe on these figures. & Gerasymovich. Certainly.3 21. Some 15 years after the catastrophe. 2006) that the increased morbidity is partly due to social. Among liquidators (of whom 1. 1998). Other Countries 1. GREAT BRITAIN. 3.4 50. 2002).500 g from 1983 to 1992 (top curve) and a level of Sr-90 in soil (bottom curve) in Wales (Busby. HUNGARY. N. Physical development abnormalities in newborns born Figure 3. 1990).. Percent of newborns with birth weight less than 1. one of the regions most heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. 2007). In Wales. References Akulich. we cannot discern any reason for this level of illness other than the radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl catastrophe. 1994). FINLAND. Socioeconomic factors cannot be the reason because the compared groups are identical in social and economic position.7 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 17. and in 1998 was four times higher (Romamenkova. SWEDEN. natural surroundings. There was an increase in the number of premature births just after the catastrophe (Harjulehto et al.

1997. (1994). Kiev Ukraine. Dzykovich. (1997). Minsk): pp.). T. 231–240. N. Influence of radiation factor on the morbidity level of population in Chernygiv Region. Burlak. 14–15 (in Ukrainian). Ukraine and Russia. N. 4(3): 11–22 (in Russian). E. L. 5: 9–10 (in Russian). Buzunov. 16–23 (in Russian). B. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook.” Moscow): pp. 37–41 (www. N. 33–44 (in Russian). Yu. Kyoto): pp. (Ed. Liquidators’ tendency toward chronic nonspecific illnesses. Strapko.. L. and Disability after Chernobyl to mothers exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. & Suvorova. Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation: Twenty Years of Experience. Ed. Nuclear Contamination and Human Health (Green Audit Books. A.iaea. B. (1995). In: Belarussian Children’s Health in Modern Ecological Situation: Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe. V. (Ed. Inform. N. In: Lyubchenko. A. Blet’ko. G. Gomel (Treatise. & Shestopalov. (2002). (1998). who. 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May 24–28. Radioecol. After the Chernobyl accident Ukrainian children’s morbidity increased 6 times. Sychik. Actual and Prognostic Infringements of Physical Health after the Nuclear Catastrophe in Chernobyl.). Matveenko. of the Gomel Medical Institute. A. International Scientific and Practical Conference Devoted to the Fifth Anniversary.. (Eds. 9–10 (in Russian). Sadownichik. B. I. Tsyb.. A. J.. M. Gutkovsky. (1993). Gomel): pp. O. M. Kiev. Rad. G. Moscow): 247 pp. Transfus. L. Brit. June 5. K.. Dolzhanov. B. & Volkov. (1995). Progr. Zubovsky. Zapesochny. November 9–10. F. I. V. V. Chernobyl and Public Health (Abstracts. Tsyb. G. Perinatal irradiation assessment of function of critical organs and systems in children long after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (in Russian). Ph. 5 (in Russian). In: Blokov. Burdyga. I. (1996). B. 13” 17 (Moscow). TASS (1998). A.. & Martynenko. E. (1995). Ivanov. H. & Tararukhyna. Kiev) 1: pp. Early postnatal adaptation of newborns whose mothers were impacted by radiation. Amsterdam): pp. M. .. 147–151. Labunska. M. A. V. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Biological and Social Lessons. International Conference. p. I. Biol. Borovykova. L. “Tverskaya. I. E. N. Results of 10-year cohort observation of children irradiated after the Chernobyl accident. Haemat. Gomel (Materials. A. Biol. United NewsList. (1996). (2007). I. A. P. 1995. 10: 25. 1995. Arlashchenko. F. (1999). Scientific and Practical Conference. N. 116–117 (in Russian). T. April 6. Wals. & Blet’ko. M. Tsimlyakova. 340: 339– 346. E. Maksyutov. A. G. Chernobyl traces in Russia. & Popov. (2006). L. Chernobyl: Radiation Psychophysiology and Ecology of the Person (SSRI Aviation and Space Medicine... Irradiation in utero and intellectual development: Complex science-metrical analysis of information flow. T. N. A. A.54 prenatally irradiated children. Moscow): pp. Ukraine (Materials. Analysis of medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in children who live in contaminated territories in order to develop strategy and tactics for special dispensation. Kiev. J. 41(6): 11–13 (in Russian). I. Porada. The Health Effects on the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. Ushakov. (1997). (1990). Res. Kiev): 311–312 (in Russian). Effect of the Chernobyl radiological contamination on human reproduction in Western Europe. A. Nykulyna. Zakrevsky. & Karelo. B. Morbidity among persons exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Voronetsky. 6: 128–136 (in Russian).. Chem. 269–277 (in Russian). I.. Hematol. Moscow (Materials. Scientific and Practical Conference. & Tsybenko. Morbidity of children inhabiting territories with radionuclide contamination. & Lavrent’eva. S. de & Dolk. G. K.. G. I. A. 2006. Z. & Stozharov. V.

1996. pancreatitis... 2001). 2007). Stepanenko.. Fedirko et al. Yablokov Accelerated aging is one of the well-known consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation.. leading to senile 55 . Russian Academy of Sciences. Early aging is a typical characteristic seen in liquidators. Children living in all the Belarussian territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout evidence a characteristic constellation of senile illnesses (Nesterenko. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. 70% came from the heavily contaminated territories (Morozevich et al. 1998). Druzhynyna. 2007).. 3. 1997). 2002.g. 2006).CHERNOBYL 4. 8.. 2003. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. osteoporosis. 6. Tron’ko et al. 7. Men and women categorized as middle aged living in territories with Cs-137 contamination above 555 kBq/m2 died from heart attacks 8 years younger than the average person in Belarus (Antypova and Babichevskaya. Yablokov.. and renal dystrophy). 9. 2004. 2004. 1998. This phenomenon is apparent to a greater or lesser degree in all of the populations contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclides. Leninsky Prospect 33. Ushakov et al. Of 69 children and teenagers hospitalized in Belarus from 1991 to 1996 diagnosed with premature baldness (alopecia). 2002. 1995. Bebeshko et al.. 119071 Moscow. Russia. Kholodova and Zubovsky. 2. and many others).ru • Multiple illnesses characteristic of senility in individuals at early ages (10. Presenile characteristics of liquidators include (Antypova et al. Krasylenko and Eler Ayad. Inhabitants of Ukrainian territories heavily contaminated with radiation developed abnormalities of accommodation and other senile eye changes (Fedirko. The biological ages of inhabitants from the radioactive contaminated territories of Ukraine exceed their calendar ages by 7 to 9 years (Mezhzherin. Office 319. Kharchenko et al. Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. Zubovsky and Malova. Accelerated aging of blood vessels. 2002. 1994. 1996). 1997a. Kirke. and many of them develop diseases 10 to 15 years earlier than the average population. 1997). Fedirko and Kadochnykova. Romanenko et al. Degenerate and dystrophic changes in various organs and tissues (e. 2003. 2006): • • Address for correspondence: Alexey V. fatty liver. Chernobyl radiation induced premature aging of the eyes (Fedirko and Kadochnykova. 4. Zhavoronkova et al. 1996.4 times higher that the age norm). Yablokov@ ecopolicy. Vartanyan et al. 2004. The same phenomenon is observed in Russia (Malygin et al.6 diseases diagnosed in one liquidator is 2. 1995. 2002....b. 1. Children from the contaminated areas of Belarus have digestive tract epithelium characteristic of senile changes (Nesterenko. Oradovskaya et al. chronic cholecystitis. 1999.. 2002. 5.. The biological ages of liquidators calculated by characteristics of aging are 5 to 15 years older than their calendar ages (Gadasyna. including those in the brain.

Chernobyl accident and the eyes: Some results of a prolonged clinical investigation. June 30. T. V. Kharchenko. Inter-Region Inter-Institute Scientific Student Conference. Otolarygolog. M. & Furmanova. 59–60 (in Russian). Fedirko. 2: 69–73. (Collection of Papers Dedicated to the Tenth Anniversary of the Republic’s Radiation Medicine Dispensary. S.. S. Perm’ April 5–7. Korzhunov... D. (1997b). A. Medical Biological Problems of Radioactive and Chemical Protection. Izvestiya (Moscow) July 22. Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: The Results of 15 Years of Investigation. p. A. Gadasyna. Polyakov.. Yu. Third Interna- tional Conference. In: Blokov. P. & Kovalenko. Petersburg): pp. 13. Kiev) 1: pp. 2006). I. Petersburg (Materials.. I. Actual Problems of Medical Rehabilitation of Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. May 20– 21. I.. . J. V. P. Amsterdam): pp. V. Sadownichik. I. & Kadochnykova. Decline in higher mental function characteristic of senility. Perm’/Izhevsk) 1: pp. Belarussian adult mortality among the evacuees. Fedirko. S. and generalized arteriosclerosis. K. A. (2004). T. June 4–8. Druzhynyna. (1994). 208–210 (in Russian).. 3–6 (in Russian). 4: 44–49 (in Russian). Ukraine (Materials.). S. B.pdf). 16–24. I. Kholodova. S. Ukraine. Evidence of accelerated biological time in liquidators is the shortened rhythm of intracircadian arterial pressure (Talalaeva. including early senile cataracts and premature presbyopia. Antypova. Bazyka.org/T1. V.. G. 2004. V.. 1997. 2004 (Materials. Findings indicating accelerated aging in practically all liquidators are changes in blood vessel walls leading to the development of atherosclerosis.. including that of the intestines (Tlepshukov et al. 152– 153 (in Russian). M. Contributed Papers (HOLTEH. and acoustic and vestibular disorders as a syndrome of premature aging in liquidators (clinical experimental study). V. I. & Babichevskaya. A. Mitchanchuk. Antypova. Does ionizing radiation accelerate aging phenomena? International Conference. Minsk.. (Collection of Papers Dedicated to the Tenth Anniversary of the Chernobyl Accident.tesecint. 2001. (2007). Kiev. Hearing and vestibular disorders at younger ages. B. I. Fedirko. Retina vessel arteriosclerosis. Scientific and Practical Conference. 11. A. 2000. 53–54 (in Russian). measured in 5-year intervals. & Volkov. 10. Labunska. S. V. Liquidators’ health problems In: Medical Biological Effects and Ways to Overcome the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident. (2006).. (2004). N. References Antypova. (1997a). P. & Suvorova. Condition of liquidators’ mandibles. Loss of stability in the antioxidant system.. & Kholodenko. I. I. April 24–26. Bebeshko. Changes are also found in epithelial tissue. 12. et al. M. All-Russian Scientific Conference. Minsk): pp. Ophthalmol. 1998). Liquidators’ tendency to develop chronic non-specific illnesses. The Health Effects of the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. P. N. 2002). (2004). Risks of eye pathology in victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Eds. Volovik. 3. Materials. 2001. Ocular changes. St. Development of Type II diabetes in liquidators younger than 30 years of age. marked by biological and cardiopulmonary changes (and for 11 years by physiological changes) was found in 81% of men and 77% of women liquidators (306 surveyed). Liquidators younger than 45 years of age were more vulnerable. Clinical and psycho-physical correlates of premature aging after low dose irradiation. The biological age of liquidators who worked at the Chernobyl catastrophe site in the first 4 months after the meltdown exceeds the biological age of those who labored there subsequently (Polyukhov et al. 13–18 (//www.. Korzhunov. An accelerated rate of aging. 2000). Chernobyl tightens spring of life. Minsk/Vitebsk): pp. St. Bebeshko et al. Loganovsky. I. Atherosclerotic changes of the aorta and eye vessels. & Zubovsky. Kiev): pp.56 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences • • • • • • encephalopathy in those 40 years of age. It is proposed that the accelerated occurrence of age-related changes in organs of liquidators is a radiation-induced progeroid syndrome (Polyukhov et al. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook. 2006. (1999). Kiev.

Ukraine and Russia (Pravo and Economica. Chernobyl Catastrophe: History. A. 103–108 (in Russian). (2002). M. Hematol. Atlas. & Zubovsky. V. (1995).N. (1996). Polyukhov. Nat. 8(8): 82–83 (in Russian). Actual Problems of Medical Rehabilitation of the Population Suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. K. Changes of biological time in liquidators. slavutich. Kozachenko. . G.stopatom. G. A. Social. A. Book 1 (“Logos. (1998). Mezhzherin. S. P. N. B. (2002). J. V.. & Zubovsky. Psychological health of the population in radioactive contaminated territories (psycho-physiological study).. 1997. & Bozheskaya. Dedicated to the Tenth Anniversary of the Republic’s Radiation Medicine Dispensary (Materials.). 3: 11–17 (in Russian). V. G. Social. (2002). L. V.htm) (in Russian). Zubovsky. Yu. V. Aging Longev. 43(2): 203– 205 (in Russian). B. A. V. (1997). Moscow (Materials.). Stepanenko. In: Bar’yakhtar.. B. I.” Moscow): 179 pp. (1964). Postradiation effect on inter-hemispheric asymmetry via EEG and thermographic characteristics. V. Problem 11(4): 405–416 (in Russian). Oradovskaya. Clinic. V. V. V. Zhavoronkova. 53(4): 410–419 (in Russian).2. Geochemical. (1996).).” Kiev): 144 pp. Cheban..A. Kuznetsova. Results and Problems of Medical Observation of Health Status of Liquidators Long after the Catastrophe (MONIKI.. V.S. M. Some eco-pathogenic problems seen in hair growth abnormalities in Byelorussian children.. Biol. 43(1): 39–41 (in Russian). L. Changes in homeostasis in liquidators. V. A. E. Vykulov.. Rad. 145–166 (in Russian). 2. Nesterenko. Radioecol. O. V. Grebelnik. Gerontol. et al. E. Chernobyl Catastrophe: Historiography. A. J. I. Medical and Biological Consequences (“Naukova Dumka. (Ed. Twenty Years after Chernobyl: Ecological and Social Lessons. (2006). A. Moscow): 247 pp. Endocrine system. Kiev): pp. Importance of bone-densimetry to evaluate the mineral content of liquidator’s vertebrae. N. Endogenous Infection in the Pathogenesis of Radiation Sickness (“Medicina. Geochemical. V. G. (2002). I. Tron’ko. G. & Eler Ayad. Clinic.” Kiev) (//www. (1997).. S. Clinic. Baluda. (2002). B. (1998). In: International Conference of Psychiatry. A. Gerontol.. Arlashchenko. 35(1): 105–115 (in Russian). A. & Zhavoronkova. Accelerated occurrence of age-related organ changes in Chernobyl workers: A radiation-induced progeroid syndrome? Exper. M. Economical. I.. N. Minsk): 72 pp. K. Civilization and Noosphera. Economical. Moscow (Materials. Moscow): pp. Klempartskaya. (in Russian). (Ed. V. D. June 30. & Malova. Long-term effects of low dose of ionizing radiation on the human anti-oxidant system. I. L. Herald Kazhakh. L. (1995). B. I. 87–88 (in Russian). L. A. Dolzhanov. Malygin. I. 454–456 (in Russian). A.. Tlepshukov. N. N. 57 2006. V. L.. Talalaeva.Yablokov: Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of Chernobyl Kharchenko. & Tsyb. Delayed medical consequences in liquidators: Results of 20 years of monitoring. S. F. G. I. Gurevich. (2003). E. & Voitenko. Scientific and Practical Conference. Kirke. Moscow): pp. V.. Vartanyan.kiev/1. A. V. P. Feoktystov. D. Nucl. Minsk): pp. 8(8): 86–88 (in Russian).. 38–39 (in Russian). N. 3: 21–23 (in Russian). Oleinik. V. Early development of some diseases in liquidators. (in Russian).. Age characteristics and correlation of cerebral hemodynamics in persons with high risk to develop cerebral vascular pathology. Transfusiol. (Ed. V. (in Russian). (2000). G. & Popov. (in Russian). (2002). M. Krasylenko. & Kovalenko. Sel’sky. E. Romanenko... (2003). Rassokhin. Scale and Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Belarus. Gres’. Minsk. V. Medical and Biological Consequences (“Naukova Dumka”. Ushakov.. Kobsar. I. Cent. M. Moscow): pp. Nagler. Diagnost. T. G. Results of immunological characters and blood pH in liquidators. V.. G. Chernobyl: Radiation Psychophysiology and Ecology of the Person (Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. Pyatak. & Epshtein. A. High Nervous Activit. N. Kholodova. & Burlakova. June 5. V. Laborat. P. Polymorbidity as syndrome of premature aging after low dose irradiation. In: Lyubchenko. E. I. & Pasechnik. V. A. Gerontol. E. Liquidators’ health. G. Kh. Arynchyn. A. Aging abnormalities in liquidators.. A. Morozevich. International Conference. A. P. Gabova. (1998). A. & Petrova. I. In: Bar’yakhtar. S. Gerontol. 8(8): 83–84 (in Russian).

4-fold higher for inhabitants of the contaminated territories than for all of the population of Belarus. tooth and mouth abnormalities. a marked increase after the catastrophe. 1999. Leninsky Prospect 33. urologic. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral.1. lymphatic.CHERNOBYL 5. In 1995.1. for the Belarus liquidators. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. 5. Endocrine dysfunction. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Yablokov. 58 . respectively.1. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. 3.4-fold higher than for corresponding groups in the general population (304 and 69 per 10.ru among evacuees 9 years after the catastrophe.1. gastrointestinal. 119071 Moscow. as well as in their offspring.8-fold higher Address for correspondence: Alexey V. bone. It was 2.1. 2. Diseases of the Blood and Blood-Forming Organs 5. Blood and Lymphatic System Diseases For both children and adults. and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. heart. and skin diseases afflict and impair people. and blood. Yablokov This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. lung. diseases of the blood and the circulatory and lymphatic systems are among the most widespread consequences of the Chernobyl radioactive contamination and are a leading cause of morbidity and death for individuals who worked as liquidators.424 newborns in the territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels above 1 Ci/km2 (Busuet et al. Kudryashov. with some 1.220. and 74 per 10. The incidence of hematological abnormalities was significantly higher among 1. 1998). young and old alike. Russia. Russian Academy of Sciences.to five-fold higher in the most contaminated Stolinsk and Luninetsk districts in Brest Province in 1996 than in less contaminated districts (Gordeiko. 5. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed—liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories. 1999).. is far more common than might be expected. Premature cataracts.000 (Matsko. For more than 20 years. these rates were. Incidence of diseases of the blood and the lymphatic system was three. Nonmalignant Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people. The incidence of diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs was 3. 175.000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer. 279. overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl.000. incidence of diseases of the blood and bloodforming organs was 4. 4. 2002). One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. Matsko. Yablokov@ecopolicy. particularly thyroid disease.1. Office 319. Belarus 1. 2001). bacterial.

09 1. 1999a.to 2. 2002). The levels of irreplaceable bioantioxidants (BAO) were twoto threefold lower than norms for the corresponding age ranges.to tenfold higher than the age norms (Baleva et al. and Vitebsk (Ushachy District) provinces contaminated with Cs-137 statistically significantly declined from 1991 to 1994.1. Children in the heavily contaminated territories have a level of free oxidizing radicals in their blood that is significantly higher than in those in the less contaminated territories: 1. In the contaminated areas of Mogilev Province the number of people with leukopenia and anemia increased sevenfold from 1986 to 1988 compared to 1985 (Gofman. Myelotoxic activity of the blood (MTA) and the number of T lymphocytes were significantly lower in multiple sclerosis patients from areas with Cs-137 contamination from 5–15 Ci/km2 (Fyllypovich. 9. 1995).73∗ p < 0. 12.. Nesterenko. which have expressed pan-D cellular marker CD3 (Baeva and Sokolenko.3 Cases per 10.. 10. in more contaminated areas (>15 Ci/km2 ) there was a significantly lower level of C3 component cells (Zafranskaya et al.0. 5. 2005).7-fold (Voznenko et al..Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. 6.1.00 ∗ 59 14. 1996).2. 1998). The activity of serum complement and the number of effective C4 component cells was significantly lower among 350 children from the Belarus area contaminated by Cs-137. The number of cases of preleukemic conditions (myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia) increased significantly during the first 11 years after the catastrophe (Table 5. 1994. 5. 7.1. 1994)..6 0. Evacuees and those still living in heavily contaminated territories have a significantly lower percent of leukocytes.000 0.1∗ 1..1). The leukocyte count was significantly higher among inhabitants of Vitebsk and Gomel provinces who developed infectious diseases in the first 3 years after the catastrophe compared with those who already were suffering from these diseases (Matveenko et al. 1995).0 15. 14. 1999). 11.46∗ 1. Gomel (Kormyansk District).to sixfold higher. . Statistics of the Annual Cases of Belarussian Children with Depression of the Blood-Forming Organs after the Catastrophe (Gapanovich et al. For boys irradiated in utero there was a reduction in direct and an increase in free bilirubin in blood serum over 10 years. 8. Contaminated children have rates of metabolism of BAO two. For girls there was a reduced concentration of both direct and indirect bilirubin (Sychik and Stozharov. as a percent of basophilic cells were significantly higher among adults and teenagers living in Gomel Province territories with a level of Cs-137 contamination from 15–40 Ci/km2 (Miksha and Danylov. Primary products of lipid oxidation in the plasma of children’s blood (0 to 12 months) from Mogilev (Krasnopolsk District).b). The amount of vitamins A and E in babies’ blood from the more contaminated territories (up to 40 Ci/km2 ) decreased 2. Significant changes in the structure of the albumin layer of erythrocyte membranes (increased cell fragility) occurred in liquida- tors’ children born in 1987 (Arynchin et al. 1996). Russia) with levels of 1–15 Ci/km2 have lipid oxidation products that are two.71 ± 0. 2001) 1979–1985 1986–1992 1993–1997 Number of cases 9. 1997).05. 2001a). 13.278 ± 80 compared with 445 ± 36 measured as impulses per minute (Horishna.. Absolute and relative numbers of lymphocytes. Ukraine 1.60 ± 0. Children from Chechersk District (Gomel Province) with levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 of Cs-137 and from Mtzensk and Bolkhovsk districts (Oryol Province. There is a correlation between increased Fe-deficient anemia in Belarus and the level of radioactive contamination in the territory (Dzykovich et al.. 15.

anemia was found in 11.1. 1995). 6.000. 2005). 9. For a decade after the catastrophe. decreased concentration of cellular substances. 7. During the acute iodic period (the first months after the catastrophe) abnormal blood cell morphology was found in more than 92% of 7. 2001). For liquidators. 2002). 7.5 per 10. For the remaining population of Ukraine this level remained at the precatastrophe level (Grodzinsky.1. 3.4-fold: from 12. Individuals living in the contaminated areas have fewer lymphocytes with adaptive reaction. pathological changes in cell surfaces. Prysyazhnyuk et al. The number of large granulocytic lymphocytes decreased by 60–80% 1 month after the liquidators began work and . 8. 8. The last is an indication of damage to the cellular membranes (Stepanova and Davydenko.5-fold between 1986 and 1993 (Baleva et al. 1995). 3. morbidity of the blood-forming organs in the contaminated territories was 2. 2000). 1995)... 4. During 1987–1988 qualitative changes in blood cells were found in 78. In almost half of the children. 2000).2 up to 11... 5. In the contaminated territories.to 15-fold for the first 12 years after the catastrophe (1988–1999. 1996). Diseases of the blood and circulatory system for people living in the contaminated territories increased 11. Russia 1. In 1996. erythrocytes. 1998). 1999a).6 and 3. 2. 5. and increase in the volume of water. Abnormalities included mitochondrial swelling and stratification of nuclear membranes. In 1998 the annual general morbidity from blood. Grodzinsky.3% of children from zones with radiation levels of 5–15 Ci/km2 (Stepanova and Davydenko.7 per 1.926 children examined in 1986–1998 (Bebeshko et al.000 in 1996. 1995). blood-forming organs. and thrombocytes in liquidators’ peripheral blood were markedly different (Tukov et al. 2003). Children of liquidators living in the contaminated territories had two.60 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2.000. and the number of people with higher lymphocytes radiosensitivity increased (Burlakova et al. lymphocytes. Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs caused much greater general morbidity in children from contaminated areas (Kulakov et al. expansion of the perinuclear spaces. 5.. 1997).4fold higher than for the rest of Ukraine (12. 6. The numbers of leukocytes. 13.7 in 1987 to up to 30.5% of 1. morbidity of the blood and blood-forming organs in adults and teenagers living in contaminated territories increased 2...200 surveyed children living in the area. Morbidity owing to abnormalities of the blood and the circulatory system has more than doubled in children in the contaminated districts of Tula Province and has increased in all the contaminated districts in comparison with the period before the catastrophe (Sokolov. 4. and the circulatory system of children in the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province significantly exceeded the provincial level (19. 1999). blood hemoglobin levels exceeded 150 g/liter in the settlements of Bryansk Province that had high levels of Cs-137 soil contamination and a level of contamination from Sr-90 (Lenskaya et al.6 vs.5% (Nagornaya.2 per 10. the morbidity from blood and blood-forming organs grew 14.to threefold higher blood and blood-forming-organ morbidity compared to children from noncontaminated territories (Horishna. 1999). and 32% of them also had abnormal blood counts. Critically low lymphocyte counts were seen in children in the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province over a 10-year survey after the catastrophe (Luk’yanova and Lenskaya. For the first 10 years after the catastrophe the number of cases of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs among adults in the contaminated territories of Zhytomir Province increased more than 50-fold: from 0.3. Fetysov.

Imbalance of the intermediate-size molecules in thrombocytes. erythrocytes. See Text) in Russian Liquidators (Karamullin et al. 2005).4% of 468 children and teenagers examined (Bozhko. 2004). and in Chechersk District. 13. 2002). • Average duration of nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NPMR) of blood plasma (Popova et al.2. several more generations will develop blood-forming diseases as a result of the radiation. 2003). 2002). Receptor–leukotrene reaction of erythrocyte membranes (Karpova and Koretskaya. 1998).. and blood serum (Zagradskaya. 9.. Vasyna et al. Increased blood fibrinolyic activity and fibrinogen concentration in blood serum (Tlepshukov et al. 11. Increased intravascular thrombocyte aggregation (Tlepshukov et al. 10.2). 5.. .. Gomel Province.. 2002). 2001. Oryol Province. 2004). Among the liquidators. Belarus (Ivanenko et al. Dynamics of the Interrelation by Lymphopoietic Type (in %..1. even in the second and third generations (Furitsu et al. 2004). In the contaminated territories of Kursk Province changes in lymphocyte counts and functional activity and the number of circulating immune complexes were seen in the blood of children 10 to 13 years of age and in pregnant women (Alymov et al. Chronic tonsillitis and hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids were found in 45. It is known that Japanese juvenile atomic bomb victims suffer from diseases of the bloodforming organs 10 times more often than control groups. Palpable lymph nodes occurred with greater frequency and were more enlarged in the heavily contaminated territories. and increased toothlike projection of this zone (Aculich. Significant abnormal lymphocytes and lymphopenia was seen more often in children in the contaminated territories (Sharapov.2. 2001a). 12.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 61 TABLE 5. the following parameters of the blood and lymphatic system were significantly different from controls: • • • • • • Quantity of the POL by-products (by malonic aldehyde concentration) and by viscosity of membranes and on a degree of the lipids nonsaturation (Baleva et al.. Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular diseases are widespread in all the territories contaminated by Chernobyl emissions. 2004) Time after the catastrophe 0 to 5 years 5 to 9 years 10 to 15 years Control group Lymphopoietic types Quasi-normal 32 38 60 76 Hyperregeneratory 55 0 17 12 Hyporegeneratory 13 62 23 12 stayed at a lower level for at least 1 year (Antushevich and Legeza. 1992). Liquidators’ lymphopoesis remained nonfunctional 10 years after the catastrophe (Table 5.. Russia. following the Chernobyl catastrophe. 1998). Thus it can be expected that. Decreased scattering of the granular component of lymphocyte nuclei reduction of the area and perimeter of the perigranular zones. 2003). The glutathione level in blood proteins and cytogenic characteristics of lymphocytes were markedly different in children born 5 to 7 years after the catastrophe in the contaminated Mtsensk and Bolkhov districts..

changes in the cardiovascular system were found in more than 70% of surveyed children aged 3 to 7 years from contaminated territories of Gomel Province (Bandazhevskaya. and Khoiniky districts). Compared to healthy children. 1996. Both raised and lowered arterial blood pressure were found in children and adults in the contaminated areas (Sykorensky and Bagel.. In the observation period 1992–1997 there was a 22. 2006). 2002. 1992. 2006). Krasnopol’sk..860 and 1. including in the young working group (National Belarussian Report. was significantly abnormal for girls age 10 to 15 years who lived in areas with a level of Cs-137 contamination higher than 1–5 Ci/km2 compared with those in the less contaminated territories (Khomich and Lysenko.. and Brest provinces (Arynchin et al. 1997). which increased significantly in 1993–2003. Belarus 1.1. 2003). and Slavgorodsk districts). Braginsk. 2002. 5. Increased arterial pressure occurred significantly more often in adults in the Mogilev Province. 10. The volume of blood loss during Caesarean birth was significantly higher for women from Gomel Province living in the territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels of 1– 5 Ci/km2 compared to those from uncontaminated areas (Savchenko et al... 2003.. 1994). There were significantly higher incidence and persistence of abnormalities of cardiac rhythm in patients with ischemic heart disease in contaminated territories (Arynchyna and Mil’kmanovich. as indicated by vasomotor reactions of the large vessels. 1996). El’sk. Morbidity of the circulatory system among children born to irradiated parents was significantly higher from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report. Kienya and Ermolitsky. 11. acute heart attacks. Mogilev (Tchernikovsk. The primary morbidity of both male and female liquidators was high blood pressure. and others). and atherosclerosis in of the arms and legs. 1997).. 1995. Zabolotny et al. Impaired cardiovascular homeostasis is characteristic for more newborns in the first 4 days of life in districts with contamination levels higher than 15–40 Ci/km2 (Voskresenskaya et al. 1992). Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and conductivity correlated with the quantity of incorporated radionuclides (Bandazhevsky et al. Bandazhevsky.5% in the general population (Pflugbeil et al. 1992. 7. Higher arterial pressure in children correlated with the quantity of the incorporated Cs-137 (Bandazhevskaya. 8. cardiovascular system morbidity among the population in the contaminated territories and evacuees was threefold higher than for Belarus as a whole (4.. cerebrovascular diseases. 1994. In 1995. 2006). 13. 1998). 2. Incidence of hemorrhages in newborns in the contaminated Chechersky District of the Gomel Province is more than double than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. 1996. Bandazhevsky 1999). . More than 70% of newborn to 1-yearold children in territories with Cs-137 soil contamination of 5–20 Ci/km2 have had cardiac rhythm abnormalities (Tsybul’skaya et al. 2001. 1996). Goncharik.to fourfold in 10 years compared to the pre-Chernobyl period and to an even greater degree in the more heavily contaminated areas (Manak et al. Matsko. 6. 1994). 9. 1992. brain arterial vessels in children 4 to 16 years old were more brittle among children in contaminated areas in Gomel (Narovlyansky. 1997).630 per 100. 3. Cardiovascular disease increased nationwide three. Correlated with levels of radiation.2..1. Nedvetskaya and Lyalykov. 12. 4. Blood supply to the legs. 1996).62 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5.000. Savanevsky and Gamshey.1% increase in the incidence of fatal cardiovascular disease among liquidators compared to 2. Arynchin. Nesterenko. where contamination was above 30 Ci/km2 (Podpalov. 1999).

mm∗ Overburdening heredity. For liquidators.5∗ 9. The health of liquidators differs significantly from that of control groups. 2006). Some 13 years after the catastrophe cardiovascular morbidity among liquidators was fourfold higher than in corresponding groups of the population (National Russian Report. 31.2. 294 per 10. 2004).000.5 ± 1. hyperthyroidism. Oryol Province. for 1991–1998 morbidity increased 1. morbidity from circulatory disease increased 23-fold between 1986 and 1994 (Baleva et al.. Ten years after the catastrophe there was an increase in the incidence of high arterial blood pressure among a large group of liquidators who worked from April to June 1986 (Kuznetsova et al.2 33.3.1.3 0 0.3).9 ± 1. Liquidators’ morbidity from vegetalvascular dystonia (tachycardia.6 ± 2. 5. Incidence of hemorrhage in newborns in the contaminated Polessk District. Ukraine 1.2% of children in territories contaminated at a level of 5–15 kBq \ m2 (Burlak et al.8 46... is double what it was prior to the catastrophe (Kulakov et al.. Grodzinsky.2 ± 2.2.. 1997). 2006). 5. Cardiovascular Characteristics of Male Liquidators in Voronezh Province (Babkin et al. % Insult.3 ± 3.1∗ 0. Symptoms of early atherosclerosis were observed in 55. more ischemic heart disease. 2001). 5.2-fold (Fetysov.. 2. and increased cardiac wall thickness characteristic of atherosclerosis. For the three heavily contaminated districts in Bryansk Province.04 27. The morbidity from circulatory diseases in 1996 in the contaminated territories was 1. 1999b). 2002).8∗ 91.90∗ 25 Inhabitants of contaminated territory (n = 60) 129. 3.6-fold (Byryukov et al. The liquidators living in contaminated territories of Voronezh Province differed from control groups also in the number of strokes (cerebral vascular accidents) and the cases of ischemic heart disease (Table 5.05.8 vs. 1998).82 ± 0.3 Parameter AP–a systole AP–diastole IBH. 4. Russia 1. 2. 1999). According to other data.8%. has more than doubled since the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. and neuropathy) was 16-fold higher than the average for Ukraine in the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Serdyuk and Bobyleva. 2003). Atherosclerosis and ischemic disease of the heart are seen significantly more often in young evacuees and in those living in contaminated territories (Prokopenko. 3.1∗ 4.5∗ 1.1 83. morbidity in children from circulatory system problems is three. Diseases of the cardiovascular system occurred significantly more often in children irradiated in utero (57.. 1999). 5.71 ± 0.81 ± 0. 2002) Liquidators (n = 56) 151.2 ± 1. 4. Prysyazhnyuk et al.4 16. The incidence of hemorrhages among newborns in the contaminated Mtsensk and Volkovsk districts. Kiev Province.3. Increased systolic . 2001). the former having higher arterial blood pressure.2. p < 0.2 82. 1997).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 63 TABLE 5.5fold higher than in the rest of Ukraine (430 vs.20 25 Control (n = 44) 126.to fivefold higher than the average (Komogortseva. % ∗ Statistically significant differences from control group. In 1995–1998 morbidity in Bryansk Province liquidators increased 2. % Thickness of carotid wall.1.

and 22% have left ventricular hypertrophy (Kirkae. Kuznetsova et al. 8.. Hypertension morbidity in a group of liquidators increased from 18. 2002.. Ischemic heart disease developed in one-third of 118 liquidators under observation for 15 years (Noskov. Hypertension is seen markedly more often among both liquidators and people living in the contaminated territories. Abnormal vascular circulation of the eye was found in all of the liquidators examined (Rud’ et al. 2001.. This pathological condition is specific for the impact caused by small doses of Chernobyl radioactivity and is not listed in the international classification of illnesses (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. 1997). a chronic cerebral vascular pathology leading to functional and organic destruction of the central nervous system. 2001). Morbidity and the frequency of occurrence of ischemic heart disease in liquidators and in the general population of the contaminated territories continue to grow (Khrysanfov and Meskikh..8% in 1996 (Strukov. High blood pressure accounted for 25% of the cases of pathology in liquidators in 2000 (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. 5. Impairment of blood circulation in the brain (neurocirculatory dystonia) was found in a majority of the liquidators examined in 1986– 1987. 7. 2001). 2004). blood-forming organs..6 to 23. it was typical to find lowered tonus of arterial vessels in the circle of Willis in the brain (Kovaleva et al. 1998). 2004) and occurred more frequently in young liquidators (Kuznetsova et al. 2004). 2003).. Liquidators with ischemic heart disease differ significantly in many homodynamic parameters compared with other patients of the same age (Talalaeva. and others). 2001. and the number of such cases is increasing (Romanova. 10. 2003). 12. 2001). Left-heart ventricular mass was significantly larger in liquidators although arterial pressures were normal (Shal’nova et al. 2004)..1. 2001.. For all the liquidators examined.3. From 1993 to 1996 another group of liquidators demonstrated a significant increase in ischemic heart disease. Liquidators were also found to suffer from diminished antimicrobial properties of vessel walls (Tlepshukov et al. Other Countries MOLDOVA. Hypertension is seen even more often in children of liquidators (Kulakov et al. atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries was found in several members of the same large group of the liquidators originally examined in 1993–1994 (Shamaryn et al.5% in 1993 to 24. Khrysanfov and Meskikh. undoubtedly.. 5. 14. Bazarov et al.64 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences blood pressure was characteristic for all the liquidators examined (Zabolotny et al. 2004). After a second evaluation in 2000– 2001. 2001). Antushevich and Legeza. These changes occur mainly owing to disease of small arteries and arterioles (Troshyna.0% (Strukov. From 1991 to 1998 the incidence of ischemic heart disease in liquidators increased threefold. 2001). major components of the general morbidity of inhabitants of the territories contaminated by . Conclusion Diseases of blood. 2002). Impairment of blood circulation in the brain among liquidators is sometimes defined as dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DCE). Petrova. Liquidators from Chisinau evidence a triple increase in cardiovascular diseases over the last years and the incidence among them is now double that of control groups. and the circulatory system are. 11.1. 13.. Typically abnormalities persisted in liquidators for a long time after the catastrophe (Shamaryn et al.4.. 2003).2. DCE was found in 40% of the cases of structural brain circulatory disease in Russian liquidators in 2000. 2000). 2004. 9. Some 25% of the liquidators examined developed thickening of the aortic wall. 1998). 2001. 2001.. from 20 to 58. 6. Kuznetsova et al.9% (Zubovsky and Smirnova. from 14. 2002).

The incidence of chromosomal aberrations is significantly higher in all of the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear fallout (Lazyuk et al. centric rings. 1993. the children born to irradiated parents (Section 5. migrants. Ionizing radiation causes damage to hereditary structures.1.2. and also impaired reproductive cells. insertions. including changes in the structure and normal number of chromosomes in those radiated by Chernobyl fallout. The huge collective dose from the Chernobyl catastrophe (127–150 million persons/rad) has resulted in damage that will span several generations. reflects the general status of chromosomes throughout the body. Twenty-two years after the catastrophe data concerning genetic damage linked to additional Chernobyl irradiation was released. and others.2.1. 5. and stable aberrations (different types of translocations at separate chromosomal sites).2. 1999). which are rather quickly eliminated in subsequent cell generations. Occurrence of a chromosomal aberration does not necessarily mean development of disease. Histological analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes reveals structural and chromosomal number aberrations. The severe impact of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl resulting in increasing morbidity of the blood and circulatory system cannot be doubted.1. which are retained for many years. deletions. Sevan’kaev et al. and liquidators and their children. Chromosomal Mutations Ionizing radiation causes various changes in the general structure of chromosomes: nonstable aberrations (dicentrics. An additional parameter of genetic variability is the so-called mitosis index. This section presents data not only on the various types of mutations that have resulted from the catastrophe (Section 5.. it is clear that one of the common reasons for these functional impairments is radioactive destruction of the endothelium. obtained by studying lymphocytes. Stepanova and Vanyurikhyna. but also on genetically caused congenital developmental anomalies (Section 5. 1995a. including evacuees. 5. including increasing dicentric and ring chromosome abnormalities in mothers and their newborns in the contaminated territories (Matsko. Vorobtsova et al. Mikhalevich. In spite of the fact that the general picture of the blood and circulatory systems is still far from complete. and small (point) mutations.2.. 1995. Altered structure of generative chromosomes (in sperm and ova) indicates genetic predisposition to various diseases in the next generation. Presence of cells with several aberrations (multiaberrant cells) may indicate the level of the impact of Pu (Il’inskikh et al. The Chernobyl fallout caused a further increase in the already elevated number of . chromosomal mutations (damage to the structure of chromosomes—translocations. the number of mitoses per 100 cells..2. owing to somatic cell impairment (e. 5.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 65 the Chernobyl radiation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells. noncentric fragments). 2002). and inversions). Accumulated data show genetic polymorphism of proteins and changes in satellite DNA. Changes in the Frequency of Mutations There are many convincing studies showing increased frequency of chromosomal and genomic mutations. but it does signal both the likely emergence of various tumors.2.4) and the health of the subsequent generation. Table 5. 1999. in blood cells). causing changes in genetic structures and various types of mutations: genomic mutations (change in the number of chromosomes).. 1994.4).. Genetic Changes Changes in genetic structures in both reproductive and somatic cells determine and define the occurrence of many diseases.5). the covering surface of vessels.1). Pilinskaya. 1990.g.

Bezdrobna et al.4 ± 2. 1998–1999 n/a 1. The genetic changes are especially common among individuals who were younger than 6 years of age at the time of the catastrophe (Ushakov et al. 1998–1999 30-km Chernobyl zone.1 108. 40..1.0 ± 16.43 ± 0. micronuclei numbers in peripheral lymphocytes increased many years after their exposure to the radiation (Table 5.0 149.16 2.21 ± 0. 2004). 1999).51 ± 0. 5.97 5.10 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences chromosomal mutations observed worldwide that is associated with the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that was carried out until the 1980s.4 + 3.2 ± 12.5 ∗ Liquidators. Kiev. early 1970s Ukraine. and biochemical changes in peripheral blood (Mel’nov and Lebedeva. 1994).6 ± 10.1.0 69.32 ± 2..4% in 1988).2.06 1.84 5.0 All distinctions are statistically significant. There was a sixfold increase in dicentrics and centric ring frequencies in the blood cells of the same individual before and after the catastrophe (Matsko.2 + 0. 1996.01 0. Goncharova.8 ± 1.. 2000).19 ± 0. The same children examined 1 year and 2 years after the catastrophe had significant increases in the number of chromosomal aberrations (5. Number of Micronuclei in Lymphocytes of Belarussian Liquidators 15 Years after the Catastrophe (Mel’nov. 47.2 67.1 0.47 ± 0. Elevated chromosomal aberrations are found in children born 5 to 7 years after the catastrophe in the contaminated Chechersk City.5. This was more than twice that in the DNA of children from 105 controls (families in Great Britain) and has been correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the district where the parents lived (Dubrova et al. Incidence of (%.6 ± 1.3 years old 2. The average incidence of DNA mutations was twice as high in 79 children born in 1994 in Belarus to parents who continued to live in contaminated territories after the catastrophe..3% in 1987 and 27.2 ± 2. 2.1 Controls. 1997). M ± m) Aberrant Cells and Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) before and after the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Bochkov et al. 1997.14 3.1 ± 15. before 1986 Average in the world.3 0.0 + 3.66 TABLE 5.4 47.6 47. Gy 0.. 3. Pilinskaya. 1992. have a significantly higher number of chromosomal aberrations.9 ± 4. cytological. 1972.95 Chromosomal aberrations. 4.2 0.0 ± 26.4 45. 5. For liquidators. Gomel Province (Ivanenko et al.5). n Ukraine.4 ± 5. The occurrence of cells with three to four aberrations was especially higher in children from the more contaminated Khoiniky and Braginsk districts (Mikhalevich.3 108. 2004).4 0. n 1. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) in women and newborns from the contaminated areas of Mogilev Province are significantly higher than in a control group. 2002) Frequency of micronuclei (per 1.000 cells)∗ Dose. 2002). where the Cs-137 levels are 5–15 Ci/km2 . 6.1 24.02 ± 1. During the same evaluation.13 ± 0.19 2. and the frequency of such abnormal chromosomes is more than double in schoolboys from the contaminated areas of Brest Province compared with those from less contaminated Minsk (Lazyuk et al.08 3.6% in 1988). TABLE 5.1.20 ± 0.4.2 ± 14. These cytogenic changes are accompanied by molecular-genetic.7 + 0. 2001. 2000 Ukraine. Belarus 1. 1996. .. a significant increase in the number of multiaberrant cells with two to four aberrations was found (16. The number of chromosomal aberrations is higher than the norms among children living in areas with elevated levels of radiation (Nesterenko.3 29.7 ± 1. Some 52% of surveyed children from the contaminated territories of Brest Province.5% in 1987 and 8.7 years old 15.9 ± 21. 2002) Aberrant cells. 1999).

25 ± 0.6 ± 0.01 2.5 per 100 cells) and as a group (1. Incidence of Various Types of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) among “Samosels” (Self-Settlers) and in the Kiev Area (Bezdrobna et al.0 8. 5. 2.1 0.7 ± 0.3 0.23 ± 0.06 1.2 ± 0. 3.. Incidence of this cytogenic damage was not sexdependent. low linear-energy-transfer of radiation (so-call low-LET radiation).7.18 ± 0. the number of aberrant cells and stable and nonstable chromosomal aberrations was higher (Stepanova and Skvarskaya. 1986–1988 (Bezdrobna et al.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. 2002) Incidence.13 ± 0. Comparison of the Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) from a 30-km Zone of Kiev Province.12 ± 0.33 ± 0. Mikhalevich.04 0. 2002a.02 0.16 ± 0.5–5. The incidence of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations is significantly higher in children radiated in utero (Stepanova et al.02 ± 0. Belarus..03 0.2– 2.13 ± 0.32 ± 0.6.7 .2 Kiev area 2.03 0.8.05 2.09 0.7. 5. 2007).07 1. whereas that of stable chromosomal aberrations increased (Pilinskaya et al.2 0. In 12 to 15 years after the catastrophe.3 ± 0. per 100 cells Type of aberrations Breaks and exchanges Insertions Deletions Without fragments Total abnormal Monocentrics Total ∗ “Samosels” 3.1 3.10 ± 0.789 5.6) demonstrate the prolonged effect of low dose.03 0. 2002a.29 ± 0..0 ± 2.6 per 100 cells. 2003a). both as individuals (0.6.08 ± 0.2 ± 0.4 ± 0.2∗ Differences are statistically significant.04 3.08 2.2.0 12. n n 5.3 ± 2.6 ± 0. n Aberrant Aberrations.1 ± 0. and 5.8 ± 0. the level of chromosomal aberrations and the number of multiaberrant cells significantly in- creased in “samosels” (self-settlers—the people who moved into the prohibited 30-km zone. per 100 cells Type of aberration Dicentrics + centric rings Breaks Exchanges∗ Fragments Insertions Deletions with fragments Deletions without fragments Total abnormal Monocentrics Total ∗ 67 TABLE 5.1∗ 0.025 ± 0. the frequency of occurrence of nonstable chromosomal aberrations was maintained at a more-or-less constant level for more than 10 years. Stepanova et al.3 ± 0.03 1. 6. n 30-km zone Kiev Gomel area 33 31 56 Cells.8 ± 0.4 2001 0. Tables 5.b). 2005).02 0.152 6. In a survey of more than 5.45 ± 0. Stepanova et al. 2004). Ukraine. 2002.2.07 0. Frequency of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) of the Same 20 “Samosels” (Self-Settlers) in 1998–1999 and 2001 Surveys (Bezdrobna et al.. cells. and from the Heavily Contaminated Territories of Gomel Province.8 12.02 0.273 3. the level of nonstable chromosomal aberrations among evacuees significantly exceeded control values and gradually decreased during the next 14 years.025 0.6 11.05 ± 0.9 ± 0. The frequency of occurrence of single-hit acentrics and the presence of two-hit dicentrics and circular rings (see Table 5. TABLE 5.22 ± 0. Ukraine 1. 2002) Incidence..06 0.09 0.03 0. 4.02 ± 0.0 ± 0.1 1998–1999 0.1. and the frequency of occurrence of dicentrics and rings correlated with duration of residence in a contaminated zone (Maznik.000 children radiated at age 0 to 3 years. 1999). 1999) Person.07 ± 0.04 ± 0.1.2 1. Children evacuated from Pripyat City had higher incidences of chromatid aberration 10 years after the catastrophe.1..6 ± 0. Pilinskaya.1 0.5 ± 1. where the Cs-137 contamination was 15 Ci/km2 .8). For children from the village of Narodichi.39 ± 0. 2002.. The children of liquidators have an increased incidence of chromosomal aberrations (Horishna.2 0. Pre-Chernobyl level: 1. 5.05 0.b.10 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.1 0. During the first year after their evacuation from the 30-km zone.

The number of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations (pair fragments and rings) and the size of index chromosome breaks in newborns correlated with dose levels and dose rates at the time of the births (Kulakov et al.40 0.5–1 per 100 cells.22 0.3.. The index of genomic DNA repair is lower in the majority of children in the contaminated regions (Bondarenko et al. 9. Seventeen years after the catastrophe there was an increased number of chromosomal aberrations in 30–60% of children and teenagers from territories contaminated by Cs137 to a level of 111–200 kBq/m2 (Table 5. Pilinskaya et al. 4. In 1989–1994 a higher incidence of nonstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and circular rings) was found in 1. 6. 2002). 10. with Cs-137 levels in soil of 110–860 kBq/m2 . 8. Russia 1. 1991–1997) and a delay in psychomotor development. with controls at 0.1.. There was stabilization of the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes at a level of 0.. The level of stable chromosomal aberrations in liquidators increased for 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe (Mel’nikov et al. An increased level of chromosomal aberrations is found in children of the Novozybkov District of Bryansk Province (Kuz’myna and Suskov.to fourfold among those individuals in Chernobyl territories with Cs-137 levels of contamination above 3 Ci/km2 (Bochkov. the incidence of stable aberrations was significantly higher (Maznik and Vinnykov... and Kaluga provinces. 2004). Oryol Province (Ivanenko et al.9) (Sevan’kaev et al.1. 2003).9. The frequency of occurrence of these aberrations correlated with the level of contamination of the territory (Sevan’kaev et al. with controls at 0. congenital defects. An increased incidence of chromosomal aberrations is found in children born 5 to 7 years after the catastrophe in the contaminated Mtsensk District and Bolkhov City. 1998.. 2005). 1993). and among evacuated young men.03 7. 3. 5. The level of chromosomal aberrations among children radiated in utero was significantly higher than in children who were born longer after the meltdown (Bondarenko et al. 9. Radiation-induced cytogenic effects were maintained in 30–45% of surveyed liquidators for 10 to 12 years after the catastrophe. 2002..200 children from the contaminated areas of Bryansk and Kaluga provinces with Cs-137 levels from 100–1. 7.b. Tula.1 (Pilinskaya. DNA repair activity (tested by reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine viruses) was impaired in children born after the catastrophe in territories with Cs-137 contamination levels above 5 Ci/km2 (Unzhakov et al. 2000). 2004). . 2006). 2. 2003b).. There was a correlation between living in the contaminated territories (Bryansk.68 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.2 and increased incidence of stable cytogenetic changes at 0. For the majority surveyed in the contaminated territories. The frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations increased two. and/or microanomalies and extremely elevated amount of near-centromer Cheterochromatin (Vorsanova et al. 1995a.. Maznik et al.5 per 100 cells.000 kBq/m2 . 1999).. 2004).19 Control 0.. 1993). 8. 5. Level of Chromosomal Aberrations in Children and Teenagers from the Contaminated Territories 17 Years after the Catastrophe (Cs-137: 111–200 kBq/m2 ) (Sevan’kaev et al..04–0.5–4.. 10.2. 1995). The phenomenon of genetic instability is found in children of liquidators (Stepanova et al. 2005) Aberration (per 100 cells) Contaminated areas Acentric fragments Dicentrics and centric rings 0. 1998).

the frequency of occurrence of such aberrations is fivefold higher than in controls (Sevan’kaev et al. Among those radiated in utero..Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 69 TABLE 5.. Deomyna et al.1 Contamination. n No data 4. 2006) Individuals. Tula Province. 14. .66 ± 0. 2006) Metaphases.07 compared to controls.6 ± 0. The number of chromosomal aberrations among inhabitants of the contaminated territories in Bryansk Province is higher than among people living in less contaminated areas (Table 5.3∗ 2. 2003.43 + 0.. Bryansk Province.. 2002.03 and 0. 2002.10).11. 2002. 1998.6 ± 0.3 4. Inhabitants of the heavily contaminated Klintsy and Vyshkov districts of Bryansk Province demonstrate a significantly higher mitotic index in comparison with controls (Pelevina et al. 2002. 1996. n Bryansk Province Control ∗ Cells. Bryansk Province.11).12) (Shevchenko et al. n Novozybkovsky District (n = 22) Klintsovsky District (n = 97) Uzlovaya Station (n = 100) Obninsk (n = 42) ∗ Mutant cells.. 12. The number of nonstable (dicentrics. n 1. 16. The number of lymphocytes with mutations of T-locus (TCR) and the number of chromosomal aberrations correlated with a level of radiation contamination in women with uterine tumors (myomas) who continued to live in the heavily contaminated Novozybkov and Klintsy districts.04 Including dicentrics 0. Number of Mutant Cells and Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Metaphases) among Women with Uterine Myoma in the Contaminated Territories of Tula and Bryansk Provinces (Tsyb et al. n 21.01 80 114 Differences from control are significant. 2006). Bezhenar’. 17. 1995. Svirnovsky et al. Figure 5. Oganesyan et al.5∗ 4. Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations among Inhabitants of the Contaminated Territories of Bryansk Province (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.. and Klintsy District. and centric rings) and stable aberrations (translocations and insertions) in liquidators was significantly higher in the first year after the catastrophe (Shevchenko et al.12 ± 0.10 + 0. 15.02 ± 0.027 51. Among 248 individuals aged 15 to 28 years surveyed. Shykalov et al. Tula Province (Table 5. acentric fragments. Ivanova et al.to fourfold higher than among control groups. which was two. the incidence of gene mutations on locus T-cellular receptor (TCR) and on locus glycophorin (GPA) is higher than in controls (Sevan’kaev et al. Among 336 surveyed fertile women from the contaminated Uzlovaya Station.08∗ 0. 18. Bq/m2 708 322 171 Control No data 18. 1999..1 2.600 12.1). Slozina and Neronova.02∗ 0. and others.. n 6. the incidence of dicentrics and centric rings is two.0 ± 0. the incidence of chromosomal exchange aberrations was 0.703 19.2 Aberrations. 1996).30 ± 0. Maznik. 1995. Shevchenko and Snegyreva. 13.27 ± 0..3 ± 0.. 2006). and in Uzlovaya Station. TABLE 5. 2006).13 ± 0..2 ± 0.3∗ 5.430 Aberrations. 11.10. and others). The number of lymphocytic and marrow chromosomal mutations correlated with the radiation dose among liquidators and inhabitants of Pripyat City within 3 months after the catastrophe and were manifestly higher than among controls (Table 5.04. Among inhabitants of four contaminated districts of Oryol Province.779 Differences from the control are significant.to sixfold less (0.37 ± 0.

15). the number of chromosomal aberrations increased from 4. Chromosomal Mutations among Various Groups of Liquidators within the First 3 Months after the Catastrophe (Shevchenko and Snegyreva.1 ± 2. 1998).605 Aberrations. n 4.937 1.2 ± 0. In the first 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe the number of cells with translocations among liquidators was more than twice that in controls (Table 5.7 ± 2. there was an 11-fold increase (Pohl-R¨ ling et al. 2002).7 ± 1.1. AUSTRIA.1..7 Including dicentric and centric rings 4.3 23.2. Among newborns conceived in the months postcatastrophe.015 5.500 liquidators were examined and even after 15 years the frequency of occurrence of dicentrics was considerably higher than in control groups (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.4. 1999) Group Construction crew for the sarcophagus∗∗ (n = 71) Radiation supervisors (n = 23) NPP staff (n = 83) Drivers (n = 60) Pripyat City civilians (n = 35) Doctors (n = 37) Control (n = 19) ∗ ∗∗ Cells.8 1. 5. and in two individuals. In 1987 among 17 adults examined there was a four.300 2. GERMANY (southern areas). 2002).590 3. u 3.0 For all groups differences with controls are significant.9∗ 4. 21. Sarcophagus is the huge concrete construct that covers the exposed Chernobyl reactor.9 ± 0. Figure 5.to sixfold increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations. In the first 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe the number of chromosomal aberrations in liquidators from the Russian Federal Nuclear Center in Sarov City was significantly higher than in controls (Table 5.5% (1976–1985 average) to 7.4 ± 0. 23. n 32.to sixfold increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations (Stephan and Oestreicher. 1991).4 13.7 5..7 ± 1.0 14. The incidence of dicentrics in liquidators rose during the first 8 to 12 years after the catastrophe (Slozina and Neronova.14). 1988). YUGOSLAVIA. 1993).000 liquidators had a significantly higher average frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations (especially high in liquidators from 1986) (Sevan’kaev et al. 20.7 14. Other Countries 1..0 0. 22.593 2. . More than 1.1.8 2. Ten years after the catastrophe 1.13). examined before and 1 year after the catastrophe.70 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.8 ± 1.5∗ 31.1% (Lukic et al. Among 29 children and adults examined in 1987–1991 there was a two.12.3 ± 2.0 3. Average frequency of dicentrics in a group of 1986 liquidators examined within 18 years after the catastrophe (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.641 6.4 ± 2.3 1. The number of translocations in liquidators was significantly higher than in controls (Table 5.9 ± 0.1 ± 4.8 ± 1. 19. 2. 2006).

There was a doubling in the number of newborns with Down syndrome TABLE 5.3∗ 18. have been found in the contaminated territories.4 ± 0. 18.8 ± 1.000 18.02∗ 0.953 Translocations 1. Sperling et al.3∗ 0. ..77 ± 0.4∗ 31. Detailed analysis revealed a sharp increase in the incidence of Down syndrome in December 1986 and a peak in January 1987 (Figure 5.14.927 4.. 1994)..20 ± 0.6 Including dicentrics and central rings 0.01 All differences with the control are significant (p < 0.2. Genomic Mutations Trisomies of chromosomes 13. 2.1. Smitz-Fuerhake.. 4.8 ± 1. 2006).01∗ 1.2∗ 0. and others. BELARUS.1.47 ± 0. 1994.786 cases) revealed an annual increase in 1987 for the whole country and monthly increases in January 1987 in Minsk City and in Gomel and Minsk provinces (Lazjuk et al.2∗ 1. 1996. Snegyreva and Shevchenko.2).02 ± 0.0∗ 34.23 Controls (n = 10) 0.93 ± 0.16) and an increase of 17% for the whole country for the period from 1987 to 1994 TABLE 5. n 41.268 20.30 0 0 Cells. Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) 1. 5.283 21.5 ± 0. 1990. n 44. In West Berlin.2.. 1999) Liquidators (n = 40) All aberrations. per 100 cells Dicentrics % Polyploidy cells 4. Analysis of annual and monthly incidences of Down syndrome in 1981–1999 (2. 1999. Number of Chromosomal Aberrations among Liquidator Personnel of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center in Sarov (Khaimovich et al. 5. In southern Germany an increase in the number of trisomy 21 cases was determined by amniocentesis (Sperling et al.179 12.13. 2006) Individuals.2∗ 1.2 ± ∗ 14.43 ± 0. the number of newborns with Down syndrome increased 2.16∗ 0.4 ± 0.849 Aberrations.160 26.09 52 15 p < 0.0 ± 0.8 ± 1.5fold (Wals and Dolk.3).9 ± 0.05.01–0.9 ± 0.5∗ 0. There was a 30% increase in the number of newborns with Down syndrome in the northeast of the country.0∗ 31. 1991. 2006) Year 1986 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Control ∗ Number of individuals.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 71 TABLE 5.9∗ 19. 1990–1995 (Shevchenko and Snegyreva. Number of Chromosomal Aberrations in Lymphocytes of Liquidators. 2006). SWEDEN. GERMANY.15.077 32.05).9 ± 1. 1997). 3.8 ± 1. 1991. among babies conceived in May 1986.8 ± 0. see review by Schmitz-Feuerhake. There was also a 49% increase in the most contaminated 17 districts in 1987–1988 (Table 5. NORWAY (northern areas). Figure 5. which was the area most contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides (Ericson and Kallen. n 443 23 110 136 75 60 41 82 Cells.2.19 1.90 ± 0.7 ± 1.2. 4. n Liquidators Control ∗ (Lazjuk et al. In 1991. Frequency of Translocations (per 100 Cells) among Liquidators (Snegyreva and Shevchenko. 2002). a 10fold increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations was found in 56 adults compared to controls (Brogger et al. and 21. n 23.42 0.. GREAT BRITAIN. which are genomic mutations showing change in the number of chromosomes.2∗ 10.581 18.1.33 ± 0.

lymphadenopathies. etc.030.2.. 1997). Statistics regarding such cases are not available.1. Statistics regarding such cases are not available. From clinical descriptions of children born in the contaminated territories there are known cases of other genomic mutations: Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18). Genetic Polymorphism of Proteins and Other Genetic Disorders Genetic polymorphism of proteins is an important parameter of intrapopulation genetic variability.2. This lower level of genetic polymorphism in structural proteins is negatively correlated with levels of congenital malformations and allergies. 2. 2006) 1987–1988 Heavily contaminated Less contaminated 0. Proliferation was sharply reduced in HeLa cell culture 6 days after the explosion in the 30-km zone (beginning with a total dose up to 0. defects of the nose. cleft lip and palate.2. 1991). the level of genetic polymorphism of proteins is lower compared with children born before the catastrophe.791) and change-point model (see text) allowing for a significant (p < 0. n = 1. Children born after the catastrophe who were irradiated in utero have a lower level of genetic polymorphism of proteins compared to children born before the catastrophe from the same territories (Kulakov et al. one of territories contaminated by Chernobyl (Ramsey et al. Trisomy 13 and Other Genomic Mutations 1. Scotland. 1987–2004 (National Belarussian Report.. with this effect continuing for seven in Lothian.08 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences mosomes in males.01 1. . and XYY chro- Figure 5. 2004). Incidence of Down Syndrome (per 1. Photos from the contaminated areas of Belarus and Ukraine indicated that there are many cases of newborns with characteristics of Patau syndrome (trisomy 13). They also had significantly lower levels of DNA repair both in the short and the long term after the catastrophe (Bondarenko et al.2. 5. 5. and may be a factor in the persistent current background of anemia... Kleinfelter syndrome (additional X-chromosome).59 0.0001) jump and a “broken stick” in December 1986 and a peak in January 1987 (Sperling et al. XXX chromosomes in females. 1993. and infections (Kulakov et al.720.72 TABLE 5. In children radiated in utero and born after Chernobyl. 1993). Turner’s syndrome (absence of the X-chromosome).. developmental anomalies of the eyes (microphthalmia. 2008).16. trigonocephaly.2. Prevalence of trisomy 21 in Belarus from 1982 to 1992 (N = 1. coloboma of the iris).88 1990–2004 1. congenital cataracts.08 Gr).2.000 Newborns) in 17 Heavily and 30 Less Contaminated Districts of Belarus. The anomalies included: polydactly.

They are evidence of mutations that are not eliminated at previous stages of individual development in gametes (spermatozoa and ova).497. but also in germ cells. and in the process of embryonic development.2.. 1995). 1998).4. DNA repair activity (tested by reactivation and induced mutagenesis of small-pox vaccine viruses) was impaired in children born after the catastrophe in territories with contamination levels of Cs-137 above 5 Ci/km2 (Unzhakov et al. 2005). 5.2. 2003). Thus it is reasonable to assume that the increase in the frequency of occurrence of genetically caused CDAs reflects an increase in tens (if not in hundreds) of times the rate of mutations at the gamete stage. The level of small mutations in minisatellite DNA in children born to irradiated parents and living in the contaminated territories of Belarus and Ukraine is almost twice that of children from Great Britain (Dubrova. change in the size of arms or legs. among impregnated ova up to and during implantation. where levels are higher than 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al..0001) jump in December 1986 and a peak in January 1987 (Sperling et al. Most mutations result in termination of embryonic development at an early stage (Nykytin. Numbers of large cells arising persisted for more than 20 cell generations after irradiation and clonogenicity was lower for 24 generations (Nazarov et al. which reflects increased embryonic . cell generations after the irradiation. 2007)..000 genetically caused developmental anomalies are known (McKusick. n = 237) and change-point model allowing for a significant (p < 0. More than 6. (b) an increase in the incidence of spontaneous abortions. Prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin from 1982 to 1992 (N = 218.3. That these processes occur in the radiation contaminated territories is testified to by: (a) an increase in the number abnormal spermatozoids.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 73 Figure 5. Therefore the birth of newborns with anomalies can reveal the presence of genetic disorders. These CDAs occur more often in the heavily contaminated Belarussian territories. and so-called plural CDAs. Changes in Satellite DNA The number of mutations due to Chernobyl radiation has increased not only in somatic. Medical statistics consider only about 30 of the commonest CDAs. 2008). Some CDAs have appeared anew in a population as mutations de novo. including the influence of addi- tional irradiation. Genetically caused CDAs in newborns are but the tip of the iceberg. 1999a).3. De novo mutations determine such CDAs as polydactyly.. Genetically Caused Congenital Developmental Anomalies It is estimated that from 50 to 90% of all congenital malformations (CMs) and congenital developmental anomalies (CDAs) result from mutations. 5.

and dental anomalies (Marapova and Khytrov. Broken line: level of CDA by UNSCEAR (1988).367 per 10. and more sick newborns in comparison with children whose fathers received a dose less than 5 cSv (Lyaginskaya et al. 2002. g/liter ∗ mortality.. A survey of a group of 11-year-old children born in 1987 to families of 1986 Belarus liquidators revealed significant differences in the incidence of blood disease and immune status (Table 5. 18..6–24.500 g. double the occurrence of circulatory system diseases...6% in the control group.200). ..7%) 6 (15%) 0 8 (20%) 2 (4.9 16.1 28. delays in intrauterine development.. a larger number of CDAs (Figure 5. CDAs. 8. 2006).000 vs. Control group (n = 48) 17 (42. birth weights below 2. blood circulation. 2006a).9 ± 1. Children of Irradiated Parents There are more and more data showing poorer health status in children born to irradiated parents. CDAs (fourfold above the provincial level). 1. plus urogenital tract.6 9. functional impairment of the nervous system. and digestive system diseases (Tsyb et al.4 ± 1. that occur in the most contaminated territories (Lazjuk et al.3 ± 1. 2007). Among the children of liquidators in the Ryazan area there was an increased incidence of sick newborns. National Ukrainian Report.17. a fourfold increase in mental disorders.5.2 ± 0.4. 2006). Figure 5. red blood cell changes. 2007). There are more congenital malformations and developmental anomalies among children born to irradiated fathers (National Ukrainian Report. 2002. and (d) the greater proportion of CDAs. there is a higher level of morbidity.1 ± 0.2. 7. Health Statistics in 1987 for 11Year-Old Children Born to Belarussian Liquidators Exposed in 1986 (Arynchin et al. 4. chronic catarrhal gingivitis. 6. a triple increase in CDAs. and a high incidence of chronic diseases (Tsyb et al.4 14. 2007). (c) an increase in de novo mutations in aborted fetuses and those with CDAs. 1999)∗ Children of liquidators (n = 40) Chronic gastroduodenitis Dysbacteriosis Impaired development Number of B lymphocytes Number of T lymphocytes Concentration of IgG.135– 1. Among these children only 2. 2006). 2001).6– 9.74 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.4). Children irradiated in utero in the Kaluga Province have a significantly higher level of general morbidity.2% were considered “practically healthy” (vs. higher morbidity. 2. 3..7 All differences are significant. including thyroid gland diseases (sixfold above the provincial level). defined by mutations de novo.5%) 13 (21.4 ± 0. and impaired immunity (Lyaginskaya et al.17). Among children of the Belarus liquidators irradiated during 1986–1987 who received 5 cSv or more. Prevalence of congenital developmental anomalies (CDAs) among infants born to families of liquidator (1986–1987) fathers who worked for the Russian nuclear industry from 1988 to 1994 (Lyaginskaya et al.2%) 14. Liquidators’ children up to 10 years of age in Kaluga Province had an incidence of thyroid gland disease that was fivefold higher that the provincial level.7 23. the Ukraine average of 960–1. 5. multiple tooth caries. The annual general morbidity among children born to irradiated fathers from 2000 to 2005 was higher in Ukraine as a whole (1. 1999). Children of liquidators have a high incidence of chronic laryngeal diseases. 5.

7 12. It is likely that the health problems experienced by children born to parents irradiated by Chernobyl will continue in subsequent generations.1 83.6 3. more CDAs and hereditary diseases. They have a relative increase in cellular immunity (higher numbers of CD4 cells. icant difference between children of liquidators and children from the Bryansk area as a whole. 11.6. nervous.7 83.” (Khvorostenko.6 19..19. 2002).2 3. respiratory.2 93. and endocrine system diseases. There is lowered cellular immunity in children of Russian liquidators. Children of liquidators have more chromosomal aberrations (deletions. 2001). 1992).7 43.3 12.19 presents data showing a signifTABLE 5. 2005) Children of liquidators 9. They cry. rings.041 93.18. 12..5 71.2 16. .000) among Children of Bryansk Liquidators and All the Children in Bryansk Province.2 14. .7 75. 2005)∗ Number of cases Illness Blood and blood-forming organs Mental disorders Neoplasms Respiratory system Digestive system Muscle and bone Urogenital tract Infectious and parasitic diseases Total 1988– 1990 52. “.6 1..2 3. Even more apparent is the morbidity of children of liquidators of Bryansk Province compared to other children in the area. . and 3. . and increased incidence of infectious diseases (Ponomarenko et al.009 59.3 68. . Kholodova et al.6 5.9 0 1. Children of liquidators and children irradiated in utero have a higher frequency of stable chromosomal aberrations.. Primary Morbidity (per 1.. 2003).0 45.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 75 TABLE 5.667 Illnesses Circulatory system Mental disorders Digestive system Muscle and bone Congenital anomalies ∗ Children Bryansk Russia of Bryansk Province (RSMDR)∗ Province 6. moderately lower levels of immunoglobulin-A. single fragments. 10.5 1.3 0 5. and gaps) and more polyploid cells (Ibragymova.5 3. Chromosomal Aberrations as Indicators of Health Status The response of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health ∗ Listed illnesses are those for which there are obvious trends over time.8 12.9 11. From the table it is obvious that there has been a reduction in the occurrence of diseases of the blood and bloodforming organs and a significant increase in all other illnesses.3-fold more respiratory system illness than a control group (Furitsu et al. 13.7 25.2 0 0 790 5.3 1. First Reports Concerning Illnesses (per 1. and increased basal neutrophilic activity. inversions. and a decrease in individual heterozygosis (Sypyagyna. isochromatids. 1996–2000 (Matveenko et al.9 20. 1999).. In families of liquidation participants [in the Tula Province] there were 473 children born after the Chernobyl catastrophe. demonstrated by decreases in both absolute and relative cell parameters. At first sight they differed from other kids in hyperexcitability.000) among Children of Liquidators in Bryansk Province (Matveenko et al. Children of liquidators have higher levels of digestive. Table 5. The second and the third generations of children whose parents were irradiated by the atomic bomb explosions in Japan in 1945 suffered 10-fold more circulatory system diseases and impaired liver function. neither from that nor from this. Among 455 children of liquidators from Bryansk Province who were born between 1987 and 1999 general morbidity increased from 1988 to 2000 (Table 5.18).2.7 75.3 15.0 Russian State Medical Dosimetric Register. 2002).9 1.343 1996– 2000 8. and do not sit easily in place.052 1991– 1995 30. lower levels of repair activity. 5.

and incidence of spot mutations are considerably higher in children with thyroid cancer (Mel’nov et al. The level of antioxidant activity for various groups of liquidators correlates with the number of chromosomal aberrations (Table 5. 2. and mutations in minisatellite DNA are only some of the genetic changes resulting from radionuclides released from Chernobyl. Today it is obvious that changes in the genetic structure of cells were the first dangerous signs of the Chernobyl catastrophe. 13. 1999... 1993. There are correlations between the level of chromosomal aberrations and a number of pathological conditions. 8. 4. 1997). which is observable everywhere in the contaminated territories. 7. 1999b). 9. 1997.. 1997). The incidence of spermatozoid structure abnormalities correlates with the frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations (Kurilo et al. A fuller account of other genetic changes will come with progress in scientific methods.. is a measure of high genetic risk. 1997). The frequency of occurrence of aberrant cells. The overwhelming majority of Chernobyl-induced genetic changes will not become apparent for several generations. 2006). Chromosomal changes observed in peripheral blood cells can reflect general damage to genetic and ontogenetic processes. There are many examples of such links in the Chernobyl territories. 2001). The number of chromosome breaks correlates with hypothyroidism and a number of stigma associated with embryogenesis (Kulakov et al. The number of chromosomal aberrations. 6. The incidence of congenital malformations defined by mutations de novo is significantly higher in territories with contamination levels of 15 Ci/km2 or higher (Lazjuk et al. 1996). 2005) to the occurrence of chromosomal changes induced by the catastrophe is that these changes do not in any way affect the state of health—which is scientifically untrue. 5... Evdokymov et al. and chromosomal breaks coincides with the level of immunoregulatory system imbalance in newborns (Kulakov et al. Among them are the following. The changes occurred in the first days after the .. 2001). 11. In the contaminated territories of Bryansk and Tula provinces there is a correlation between number of aberrant and multiaberrant cells and the development of uterine myoma (Ivanova et al... genetic polymorphism of proteins. 3. The number of dicentrics and chromatid exchanges correlates with congenital developmental anomalies (Kulakov et al. Derzhitskaya et al. 2006)..2.7. mutations causing congenital malformations. and the number of chromatid aberrations is noticeably higher in individuals with asthenia and obsessive–phobic syndromes (Kut’ko et al.... 1. The frequency of occurrence of aberrations is higher in both tumor cells and in “normal” tissue in individuals who live in the contaminated territories (Polonetskaya et al. The frequency of cardiovascular and gastroenteric diseases in liquidators correlates with the level of chromosomal aberrations (Vorobtsova and Semenov. The number of chromosomal aberrations in 88% of liquidators coincides with the level of psychopathological illnesses and the expression of secondary immunosuppression (Kut’ko et al. 5. 10. 1996). 2001). 12. The number of chromosomal aberrations is noticeably higher in those with psycho-organic syndromes.20). 1997. rings. Conclusion Somatic chromosomal mutations. The prevalence of febrile infections correlates with the level of chromosomal aberrations (Degutene.76 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Organization (WHO) (Chernobyl Forum. Vozylova et al. 2002). number of micronuclei. as well as the risk of developing many illnesses. pair fragments. All these correlations demonstrate that the increase in chromosomal damage. Domrachova et al..

which spread worldwide (see Chapter 1 for details). All physiological functions such as the onset of puberty and the closing of bone epiphyses that are dependent on the organs of internal secretion—the pancreas.. MDA 2: malondialdehyde in erythrocytes after POL-initiation. 1993). These two major portions of the endocrine system were overirradiated during the “iodine” period.74∗ 2.5 7. FR: free radicals with the g-factor 2. .99∗ 2.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 77 TABLE 5.76 6.23 7.18 0. according to the laws of genetics. and adrenal glands and the ovaries and the testes—which control multiple functions must coordinate to sustain normal development. The genetic consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe will impact hundreds of millions of people. Hem 2: hematopoietic proteins.14∗ 10.88∗ 1. would affect some generations of humans (Shevchenko.69 0.07 1.27 2. 5. SOD: superoxide-dismutase. the thyroid gland concentrates up to 40% of a radioactive iodine dose.86 2.17 1. its consequences.67∗ 2.59 5. The Chernobyl radiation is genetically much more dangerous than that released in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the quantity of radionuclides emitted from the Chernobyl meltdown was several-hundred-fold higher and there were more different kinds of radionuclides. Diseases of the Endocrine System Radioactive fallout from Chernobyl has had serious adverse effects on every part of the endocrine system of irradiated individuals. t 1 : time of rotary correlation of spin probe N 1 in erythrocyte membranes.20 1. the first weeks after the catastrophe.15 1.70 113.22 2.18 823. as millennia will pass before that deadly radioactivity decays.01∗ 1. Dedov et al.16 0. and in children up to 70% (Il’in et al. 2006).08∗ 5. Thus Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination has adversely impacted the function of the entire endocrine system. Average Value of Antioxidant Characteristics among Groups of Russian Liquidators with Various Levels of Chromosomal Aberrations (Baleva et al.70 8.08 2.83 1.98∗ 136.64 25. n GT SOD Hem 1 Hem 2 MDA 1 MDA 2 t1 CP FR 0.85 1. ∗ p < 0.92 2.05.66 21.66∗ 107. (c) those who will live in the territories contaminated by Pu and Am.88 2.92∗ 1.05 1..57 120.37∗ 1.10 1. The hypophysis (pituitary gland) actively incorporates radioactive iodine at levels 5 to 12 times higher than normal (Zubovsky and Tararukhina.24 0. Among adults.02 1.58∗ 1. (b) those who live and will continue to live in the territories contaminated by Sr-90 and Cs-137. release of radiation and increased the occurrence of various diseases.09 11.82 115.3. and (d) children of irradiated parents for as many as seven generations (even if they live in areas free from Chernobyl radionuclide fallout).20∗ Groups of liquidators with various numbers of aberrations 0.0. Hem 1.78 7.74 6.28∗ 1.. 1989.86 9.. CP: ceruloplasmin. as it will take no fewer than 300 years for the radioactive level to decrease to background.01 1.20.15 1.41 2. 1991). Even if the Chernobyl radiation persisted only a short time (as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki).88 1. 2002). 2001)a Control Aberrations.15 824. MDA 1: malondialdehyde in erythrocytes.11 16.50∗ 1.04 a GT: restored glucation. including: (a) those who were exposed to the first release of short-lived radionuclides in 1986.68 17.12 6.39∗ 1.50 101. thyroid. Only 10% of all expected Chernobyl genetic damage occurred in the first generation (Pflugbeil et al. parathyroids.

In pregnant women. 1998. The number of children with impaired hormone secretion (cortisol.3.78 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Adequate and timely thyroid function is necessary for physical and intellectual development. 1996). 1993). 13 to 14 years. Many girls of pubertal age.1. 5.1). Review of Endocrine System Disease Data Endocrine system diseases are widespread in all of the territories that were exposed to the Chernobyl radioactive fallout (Baleva et al. a hormone associated with physical development. 1997). Children from heavily contaminated territories had lower levels of testosterone. and many others). 1993). 4. Damage to the thyroid gland of the fetus or the neonate may doom that individual to a life of diminished mental capacity. But what is the scale of such impacts? Concrete examples are presented in this section to answer some of these questions. A sharp increase in endocrine diseases in all Belarussian contaminated territories was observed some years after the catastrophe (Lomat’ et al.. 5. Children in the contaminated territories had significantly lower cortisol blood levels (Petrenko et al. Cortisol is an adrenal hormone that is released under stress (Petrenko et al. and testosterone correlated with the level of internal irradiation (Duda and Kharkevich. from the contaminated territories with autoimmune thyroiditis had accelerated sexual development with significantly increased blood serum concentrations of gonadotropic hormones in the lutein phase of their menstrual cycles (Leonova.. Leonova and Astakhova. 1996.851 per 100. 6. 5. synthesis of cortisol. 1995). 1996. Children from heavily contaminated territories had blood cortisol levels that were significantly lower than the norm.3. Review of many similar examples clearly shows that Chernobyl radiation dangerously impacted the endocrine system. we deal with the central problem of endocrine illnesses linked to the Chernobyl catastrophe— functional impairment of the thyroid gland (Section 5. Belarus 1. with low levels linked to impaired reproductive function (Lyalykov et al. the levels of umbilical blood cortisol and estriol in areas having Cs-137 contamination of less than 1–15 Ci/km2 were significantly higher than the level from heavily contaminated territories (15–40 Ci/km2 . After a brief review of material about endocrine system diseases (Section 5. thyroxin. Children aged 10 to 14 years born to irradiated parents diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 showed significantly more morbidity from goiter and thyroiditis (National Belarussian Report... 1996). 1996). individuals living in the contaminated territories have 50% lower sympathetic activity and 36% lower adrenal cortical activity. 1993). 2006). 2001). 3. during the end of the first and the beginning of the second week of life ultimately resulted in hypothyroidism with its attendant mental and physiological abnormalities (Kulakov et al... an adrenal hormone. Measurements of immunity in children and teenagers with Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis correlated with the level of environmental radioactive contamination (Kuchinskaya.1. In 28% of surveyed newborns in contaminated areas. In some areas where congenital diabetes had not been seen at all before the catastrophe. disorders in the hypophyseal–thyroid system.. expressed as thyroid dysfunction. According to the State Register.. in 1994 endocrine system morbidity reached 4. and many others). Danil’chik et al. Overtly healthy newborns in Gomel and Mogilev provinces had elevated cortisol levels where contamination was less than 15 Ci/km2 and decreased levels in heavily contaminated areas (Danil’chik et al.3. 2. and progesterone) was significantly higher in heavily contaminated territories (Sharapov.1.000 (Antypova et al.. In Gomel and Mogilev provinces.3.2). . Compared with data from normal people. 2001). 2001).

4. TABLE 5. Nine years after the catastrophe.21.98 ± 0. Belarus liquidators had decreased function of the hypophyseal/thyroid axis. 583) even 9 years after the catastrophe (Matsko.046 nursing mothers examined.05.4 142.125 vs. and renin (Table 5. 7.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 79 there were occurrences afterward and the number of cases has increased since 1986 (Marples. 1997).. women from more contaminated territories of Gomel and Vitebsk provinces had significantly higher concentrations of T4 and TCG hormones TABLE 5.6 52.2 ± 15. 8. 9.18 1980–1986 3.7 ± 12. From 1993 to 2003 in the contaminated territories.026. There was a correlation between the level of incorporated Cs-137 and prolactin concentration in the serum of young women continuing to live in an area with radioactive contamination of 1–5 Ci/km2 (Gomel City) during the first and second phases of their menstrual cycles.6 ± 1. and higher levels of progesterone.8 ± 11. 13.. Ten years after the catastrophe.2 ± 0. 2002). 16. as well as a correlation between levels of incorporated Cs-137 and progesterone concentrations during the second menstrual cycle phase (Yagovdik.3-fold increase in hyperinsulinemia (Aderikho.to 2. 10. 1996). 2003) and to an even greater degree in the heavily contaminated territories (Table 5.43 ± 0. among men younger than 50 years of age and women of all ages. 1999). 11.2 0. 12.9 ± 0. depression of insulin function.18 1.3 ± 37.5 ± 2.9 ± 45. with the highest incidence in the most contaminated districts of Gomel Province (Borysevich and Poplyko. Endocrine pathology was the number one illness diagnosed in a survey of more than 8. .8 ± 2.. 1993). 1999). Six years after the catastrophe incidence of endocrine organ illnesses was threefold higher in the heavily contaminated territories (Shilko et al.4 724. 1999) Liquidators Aldosterone Cortisol Insulin ACTH Prolactin Progesterone Renin ∗ Controls 142. 15. prolactin. endocrine organ morbidity among evacuees and in those from heavily contaminated territories was double that of the general population of Belarus (Matsko.2 28.1 ± 10. exhaustion of the pituitary/adrenal system. 2006).3 2. Occurrence of Type-I diabetes increased significantly in all of Belarus after the catastrophe (Mokhort. the incidence of diabetes was significantly higher in the women from territories with Cs-137 contamination above 1 Ci/km2 (Busuet et al. In Gomel and Minsk provinces the frequency off occurrence of Type-I diabetes rose significantly after the catastrophe.000 children in 1993–1994 in the Slavgorod District of Mogilev Province (Suslov et al. Hormone Concentrations in Male Belarussian Liquidators∗ (Bliznyuk. 14.3 ± 0. 2002). 2004) Years Heavily contaminated (Gomel Province) Less contaminated (Minsk Province) ∗ and lower concentrations of T3 hormone (Dudinskaya and Suryna. Belarus liquidators and evacuees had a 2. there was a significant increase in morbidity owing to nontoxic single-node and multinode goiters and autoimmune thyroiditis (National Belarussian Report. 1998).52 ± 0.22.4 1987–2002 7.5.4 18. Occurrence of Type-I Diabetes per 100.6 510.6 203.5 193.8 ± 5.3 2.14 p < 0. At the time of delivery. 17.02 ± 0.6∗ 3.to 3-fold increase in the number of individuals with Type-II diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance and a 1.22).0 12. 2001).3 ± 0. Among 1.21).000 Children and Teenagers before and after the Catastrophe in Heavily and Less Contaminated Territories in Belarus (Zalutskaya et al. Endocrine morbidity among evacuees was double that of the general population of Belarus (1. All differences are significant.20 1. 2003).

A significant impairment of the pituitary–adrenal system was seen in a majority of 500 surveyed liquidators in the first years after the catastrophe..3. diabetes) began in 1992 in all the contaminated territories (Tron’ko et al. 10. A significant increase in diabetes mellitus was observed in the contaminated territories some years after the catastrophe (Gridjyuk et al. progesterone. and girls developed elevated testosterone levels (Antipkin and Arabskaya... 2002).80 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5.2. and obesity (Tron’ko et al.. In the territories contaminated with Sr90 and Pu. Babich and Lypchanskaya.. 2001).1. calcitonin. 2003). luteotrophin.000 pregnant women from 1986 to 1993 in the contaminated territories revealed significantly higher levels of thyrotrophic hormone and thyroxin (TSH and T-4) 2 years after the catastrophe. 2003). 12. 1994).05) owing to damage to the endocrine system (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Dashkevich and Janyuta. Liquidators with generalized periodontal disease had significantly lower levels of calcium metabolic hormones. 4. T-4.. 8. 1995). Evaluation of more that 16. there was a 2-year delay in puberty for boys and a 1-year delay for girls. From 1988 to 1990 levels of the principal thyroid hormones were close to normal. 5. hormonal system normalization occurred 5 to 6 years after they were irradiated..5% among controls..3. 2001). 6 years later there was normalization of the relevant measurements in the others at rest. thyrotoxicosis. 2002). Ukraine 1.. In 1993 hyperthyroidism in pregnant women and newborns was observed for the first time (Dashkevich et al. p < 0.1. 9. diabetes mellitus. 1995. Some 30% of women older than 50 years of age living in contaminated territories are subclinically hypothyroid (Panenko et al. 1994. Some 32% of girls irradiated in utero became infertile (10. and calcitriol (Matchenko et al. 1993). 1996). and T-3 were reduced. 1995). 2. 2002).. The level of endocrine morbidity among adult evacuees is considerably higher than for the overall population of Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk et al.. Hormonal imbalance (estradiol. In 1996 endocrine illnesses in areas contaminated at levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 occurred markedly more often than within the general Ukrainian population (Grodzinsky.. 1995). 1998). testosterone) became widespread in the contaminated territories 5 to 6 years after the catastrophe (Gorptchenko et al. but not in the functional levels (Mytryaeva. Within the first 2 years after the catastrophe hormonal imbalance became typical among people in heavily contaminated territories. 1997). Both boys and girls in contaminated areas developed increased insulin synthesis. 1995). The incidence of endocrine disorders in irradiated children increased markedly after 1988 (Luk’yanova et al. 7. 1999). From 1988 to 1999 endocrine system morbidity in contaminated territories increased up to eightfold (Prysyazhnyuk et al. At the same time more than 52% of those examined still had an increased frequency of occurrence of autoimmune endocrine diseases including thyroiditis.3. including parathormone. whereas sexual development was accelerated in territories contaminated by Cs-137 (Paramonova and Nedvetskaya. 1995). 5. Russia 1. 6. Endocrine illnesses were the main cause of medical disability among children in the contaminated territories (Romanenko et al.. . 11. The noticeable increase in endocrine diseases (autoimmune thyroiditis. For some. 3. but in 1991– 1992 the levels of the TSH. Practically all liquidators had characteristic hormonal system changes expressed first as impaired cortisone and insulin secretion (Tron’ko et al. In the contaminated territories onset of puberty in girls was late and menstrual cycles among the women were disrupted (Vovk and Mysurgyna.

3 n/a All heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province.25). (2) children.0 34.5 55.1 per 1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 81 2. 1996).5). The number of children with endocrine diseases increased in the heavily contaminated zones (Sharapov. inated than Bryansk Province. 1995 21. (3) children.5 31. Endocrine diseases increased in the contaminated territories during the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsymlyakova and Lavrent’eva. in Areas with Cs-137 Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 (Fetysov.2 25.4 1996 29.8 347.6 133.5 97.4 69.5. Twelve years after the catastrophe overall adult endocrine system morbidity in the heavily contaminated southwest districts of Bryansk Province and liquidators’ morbidity both significantly exceeded the provincial norms (Table 5. Endocrine morbidity in children born to liquidators in Kaluga Province sharply increased in the first 12 years after the catastrophe (Figure 5.000) among Children of Bryansk Province. In the contaminated districts of the Kaluga Province.4 28. At the same time in the heavily contaminated Gordeevka. endocrine morbidity was fivefold higher in 2002 compared to the period before the catastrophe (Sokolov.6 1998 83. 9. In spite of some decrease in the level of endocrine morbidity from 1995 to 1998. Novozybkov. Russia.2 47. 8.1 74. 1999b: table 6.23.2 23.2-fold more than that of districts with less contamination (Borovykova et al.8 to 16.6-fold (Sergeeva et al. juvenile endocrine morbidity was 5. 2001). 2005). it remained twice as high as for Russia as a whole.9 158.4 65. and Klymovo districts it remained highly elevated in 1998 (Table 5.23).1) Number of cases District Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province total Russia ∗ Figure 5. and in most of the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province was noticeably higher than for the province and for Russia as a whole (Table 5.9 54.3 49. For children in the contaminated areas of Tula Province. 1995– 1998.3 24. 1996). A total of 17.6 41. .4 102.5 68.000) among children of liquidators (1) in Obninsk City..5 47. The rate of increase in overall endocrine illnesses in adults in the heavily contaminated territories was higher than that of children from 1995 to 1998. The provincial morbidity for liquidators was noticeably higher than the Russian average.2 43. 2003)..0 67. 4.6 28. 3.3 109.7 245. 2003).000. Kaluga Province (Borovykova. 5. Incidence of endocrine and metabolic diseases (per 1.9 31.2 21.24).9 25. 6.4 1997 25. Fifteen years after the catastrophe overall endocrine system morbidity in the contaminated territories exceeded the provincial level 2.to 3. Overall Endocrine Morbidity (per 1. City. which as a whole was less contamTABLE 5. which was 1. 2004). 7.0 410.7% of pregnant women in the contaminated territories had significantly increased levels of prolactin with associated termination of menstruation and loss of fertility (Strukov.2 104. 10. In 1995 the number of children with endocrine morbidity peaked as a whole in the contaminated areas of Bryansk Province.4.

1993).5 31.8 28. By 1999. but among these 300 girls there was one who had no internal reproductive organs at all.8 54.9 32. this sanatorium has been a place to rehabilitate children from the most contaminated areas of Belarus .1 57.1 35. . Vvedensky and a group of colleagues went to the “chemical filaments” state factory sanatorium.2 27. and thyroxine (Bezhenar. Since the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power station.82 TABLE 5.2) Number of cases 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Southwestern districts∗ Liquidators Province as a whole Russia ∗ 49.8 31.3 58.1 28.9 74. endocrine system morbidity among Russian liquidators was 10-fold higher TABLE 5.5 years of the survey doctors saw surprising results.6 35. Vvedensky said.8 1997 109. which includes low testosterone plasma levels. Women liquidators have had consistent and significantly higher levels of gonadotropic and steroidal sex hormones than controls.3 58. shoulders. .9 53. testosterone.5 92.2 n/A than in corresponding groups of the population (National Russian Report. Endocrine system morbidity of Russian liquidators increased sharply from 1986 to 1993 (Table 5. at the age of 12–13 years girls begin to menstruate. Vvedensky’s group has come to the conclusion that the reason for the changes is hormonal imbalance. 2000).000) among Adults in Bryansk Province in Territories with Cs-137 Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .0 38. . Not one of the 300 girls in the study had done so.0 38. then it would be possible to speak about a terrible physiological catastrophe.2 1998 112.. “Our results could be wildly accidental. While we have no right to draw any scientific conclusions—if we had found at least three out of 10. 1999a: tables 5. Anthropometrical research: measurements of growth.5 77. Last summer Dr.2 1996 95. volume of thorax.5 54.000 girls with the same developmental anomaly. Under the 11.” However. Other scientists have come up against more serious pathologies.8 43.0 195. For 1.2 33. General Endocrine Morbidity (per 1.0 31. 16. hips. Doctors chose to study 300 girls who were born in 1986–1990 . the width of shoulders exceeded the norm and their forearms. . 12.4 66.4 92.2 38.2 29.2) Number of cases District Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province as a whole Russia ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 70. 2002). 1995–1998 (Fetysov.0 52. There is an association between Chernobyl irradiation and impaired exocrine and endocrine testicular function. 13. 14.3 67. and legs were very hairy. . 1999. Byryukov et al. Severe changes in hypophyseal function and changes in hormonal levels were found in liquidators (Drygyna. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.6 41.1 and 4. Bezhenar et al. 1999).9 83.5 75.2 40.000) among Adults and Liquidators in Territories with Cs-137 Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 in Bryansk Province. “ . . and decreased luteinizing hormone (LH. However.. thyrotrophic hormone (TGH). levels typically observed only in young women (Strukov. 2003). located several hundred kilometers from Gomel City.5 41.2 147. 1999a: tables 4.1 153. an increased level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).1 and 5. weights.5 48. .6 64.7 124. . General Endocrine Morbidity (per 1. .25. Ultrasound examinations showed that their uteruses and ovaries were underdeveloped .7 72.2 40. .6 32. Dr. and legs have shown that among girls from a Chernobyl zone all the parameters were below the norms.0 29. High levels of prolactin were found in 22% of surveyed male liquidators. All heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province. As a rule.1 81. we doctors do not have money for more detailed and extensive studies.0 57. .26). as well as abnormal levels of cortisol.4 51.2 32.24. .6 64.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. 15. triiodothyronine (T-3).4 46.

urolithiasis. Associated illnesses include: delayed healing of wounds and ulcers. Testosterone is a male hormone that is normally present only in very small quantities in females.. dry.. Many symptoms attributed to parathyroid impairment were observed in the Chernobyl territories. Damage to the thyroid gland of the unborn or the neonate may result in diminished mental capacity for life. Annually some 3.2.000) (Baleva et al. Among hypothyroid symptoms that are not necessarily recorded as illnesses. tongue swelling. Dedov and Dedov. increased bleeding (including menstrual menorrhagia). 1990. myxedema. night blindness. slowed speech. delayed growth in children. stomach and duodenal ulcers. rough. but when a woman has too much of it she can lose her female characteristics. Autoimmune thyroiditis is one of the first functional consequences of irradiation (Mozzhukhyna.26. and calcium cholecystitis (Dedov and Dedov. for example.. joint stiffness. hypophyseal tumors.. pale. 1997). Ushakov et al. delay in growth of hair.850 1992 3.020 1991 2. . fatigue and lack of energy. impaired normal somatic and sexual development. and calcitonin—which control. 2000) 5.740 83 1993 4. . vertebral compression fractures. difficult respiration (dyspnoea). lack of gas- tric hydrochloric acid (achlorhydria). fragility. muscular pains and weakness and impaired muscle coordination. poor memory and slowed thinking. Belarus 1.” (Ulevich.340 1990 2. but are seen with increased frequency in the contaminated territories.300 influence of irradiation a large amount of testosterone develops in the female organism. increased susceptibility to respiratory infections.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.1. decreased perspiration. and others). 2002). headaches. and calcium exchange. 2001) Year Number of cases. Parathyroid function was destroyed in 16% of the individuals that underwent thyroid gland surgery (Demedchik et al. and rough and hoarse voice. 2004). Pathological changes in the thyroid gland are closely linked to those in the parathyroid glands. Impairment of Thyroid Gland Function Adequate and timely thyroid function is necessary for physical and intellectual development of the fetus. and mild anemia.and hyperthyroidism. 1996). n 1986 96 1987 335 1988 764 1989 1. and nonmalignant and malignant tumors.2. which is demonstrated by nodular formations. and deafness (Gofman. By the year 2000 several hundred thousand people had been registered as having thyroid pathologies (nodular goiter. increased sensitivity to cold. 2. triiodothyronine. 5. 1996). Among the subsequent thyroid illnesses are hypo. thermoregulation. Among them: hypogonadism in men and women. 1994. osteoporosis. Radiation from I-131 and other radionuclides damages the glandular epithelium. thyroiditis). thyroid cancer. are: facial and eyelid swelling. ringing in the ears. dryness. male impotence. Morbidity among children owing to autoimmune thyroiditis increased almost threefold during the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Leonova and Astakhova. growth and development. In all of the contaminated territories.3. Endocrine Morbidity among Russian Liquidators (per 10. By 1995 there was an apparent increase in the number .000 people require thyroid surgery (Borysevich and Poplyko. frequent dizziness. drowsiness. lack of appetite (anorexia). hair loss. 1998).3. there is a marked increase in nonmalignant thyroid diseases (Gofman. 1996. Thyroid gland impairment leads to decreased production of the glands’ three hormones—thyroxin. and cold skin.

3. 2001). 13. 17. From 1993 to 2003 primary nontoxic multinodular and uninodular goiters and autoimmune thyroiditis significantly increased among female evacuees (National Belarussian Report. 5.27). Thyroid gland pathology in the Chernobyl-contaminated territories correlated with diseases of the gums and teeth (Konoplya. Among 119. more than 40% of the children examined in 1993 had enlarged thyroid glands. which had levels of Cs-137 contamination up to 15 Ci/km2 .. 2000) 1992 Nodular Hyperplasia Thyroiditis 13. Belarus. increased production of thyroglobulin in girls. Children irradiated in utero from the Stolinsk District.1 1994 19. 15. and Brest provinces (Khmara et al.. Here endemic goiter increased sevenfold from 1985 to 1993..84 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences of cases of autoimmune thyroiditis in the less contaminated Vitebsk. increased production of triiodothyronine. had thyroid gland impairment even after more than 10 years. 1997). Enlarged thyroid glands were found in 47% of 3. 1997a. 1994). 9.9-fold more often among liquidators than in the general adult population (Antypova et al. 2002). Brest Province (Belyaeva et al. Gomel Province (Vaskevitch and Tchernysheva. 2001). in 1998 revealed that 30% had enlarged thyroid glands (Drozd. Levels of immunity in children and teenagers with autoimmune thyroiditis have been correlated with a district’s level of radioactive contamination (Kuchinskaya. 1996).. 1995. Screening of 328 children ages 11 to 14 years in Khoiniky City. Children irradiated in utero during the first trimester have small thyroid glands and are frequently diagnosed with latent hypothyroidism (Drozd. The incidence of thyroid gland anatomic changes in male liquidators who worked in 1986–1987 was noticeably higher in 1994 compared with 1992 (Table 5. 2002). 1998).5 0. there were 62 cases of thyroid cancer and 45. 6.178 children from Ukraine. Minsk. 1996). 2006). which included: lowered production of thyroxin-binding globulin (T-4)..437 children examined in Mozyr District.046 pregnant women (Busuet et al. 1999a). Thyroid Gland Structural Changes (% of a Total of 1. There was a significant correlation between environmental Cs-137 contamination and the incidence of thyroid diseases among 1.6 1. 10. From 1993 to 1995 thyroid gland hyperplasia was found in 48% of juvenile immigrants from the Bragin District and in 17% of juvenile immigrants from the Stolinsk District. Early sexual maturation was observed in girls from contaminated territories who had autoimmune thyroiditis and was associated with a significant increase in gonadotropic hormone concentration in the luteil phase of their menstrual cycles (Leonova. 2002).to 5-month-old embryos from mothers from areas contaminated with Cs-137 at levels of 1–15 Ci/km2 (Kapytonova et al. 8. and lowered production of thyroxin in boys (Sychik and Stozharov. Surveys disclosed thyroid gland pathology in 43% of 4. 1994)..9 . 12.873 cases of other thyroid pathology (Yamashita and Shibata.752 Cases Examined Annually) in Belarussian Male Liquidators (1986–1987) (Lyasko et al. which was one of the most contaminated. In 1996 thyroid gland illnesses were observed 11. and Russia under 10 years of age at the time of catastrophe who were examined within the framework of the “Sasakava” project. 1993). 14.27. 7.. 4.7 10. 11.5 3. In Gomel Province. Brest Province. Byryukova and Tulupova. Gomel Province. and autoimmune thyroiditis increased more than 600-fold from 1988 to 1993 (Astakhova et al. 16.b). TABLE 5.026.

6.2.6. 15% have thyroid gland pathology (Contis. Ukraine 1.6 vs. Among 1. From 1992 to 2000 the incidence of chronic thyroiditis increased in teenagers and adults. 14 years following the catastrophe (Syvachenko et al. the incidence of goiter was found to be sharply higher compared with the preChernobyl period (Horishna. blood vessel pathology.3 9.2 12.7 45. 4.019 teenagers living in Vinnitsa and Zhytomir provinces who had been 6 to 8 years old at the time of the catastrophe (Fedyk.7 Caries 32. Eight years after in utero irradiation. 2006: fig..8 12.3 35.7% of 3. 3.9 Intestinal 20. there were 740 abnormal thyroid pathologies for each case of thyroid cancer (Yamashita and Shibata. 5. especially among liquidators and evacuees (Figure 5. caries.412 children were examined. Children with secondary thyroid hyperplasia have two to three times more incidence of allergies.6). 2. 2002). 7.6 Circulation 3.8 Vegetocircular dystonia (autonomic nervous system dysfunction). 1999.8 7.000 children with psychological problems who were evaluated.825 children and teenagers living in Kiev Province who were born before the catastrophe (1984–1986) the frequency of thyroid gland pathology did not decrease in 11 to Figure 5.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 85 5.4 29.10).4% (Stepanova.0 5. . 1995) VSD∗ 0 I degree II degree ∗ Allergies 1. Among 119. 2002). 1. 1999.28). and since 1990–1991 there has been an increase in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Stepanova. thyroid gland hormone production was low. 1997).5 4. In another study in which 51. 15. but it was also low in children irradiated during the first weeks after birth (Gorobets. 5.178 children of Ukraine. intestinal illnesses. and high blood pressure (Table 5. and Russia who were younger than 10 years of age at the time of the catastrophe examined within the framework of the “Sasakava” project. immune disorders. 2002). 9. 2005). Thyroid gland changes were found in 35.3. Occurrence of chronic thyroiditis among teenagers and adults from Ukraine from 1992 to 2000 (National Ukrainian Report.125 thyroid pathologies were found for each case of cancer (Foly.2. 1999). Thyroid gland dysfunction has been observed in the contaminated territories since 1986–1987.4 Infections 5. Cheban. 11. 2004). 2000).8 14.28. Among more than 50. 8.8 63.4 27. Thyroid gland pathology is twice as common in children from heavily contaminated territories compared to those from less contaminated areas: 32.4 4. In thyroid surgical pathology specimens in 1989. 10.. Incidence (%) of Somatic Pathology among Children with Various Degrees of Thyroid Hyperplasia (Luk’yanova et al. Belarus. Chronic thyroiditis morbidity significantly increased among Ukrainian liquidators TABLE 5. 2003).

0 487.9 449.3.3 140.2.7 All heavily contaminated districts. 1995 600.0 1997 115.000) in Heavily Contaminated (Cs-137 > 5 Ci/km2 ) Districts of Bryansk Province. located in the heavily industrialized Ural area that was exposed to Chernobyl fallout. In the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province up to 60% of children have thyroid gland hyperplasia (Table 5.000 Ukrainians developed thyroid gland diseases in 10 years that were related to the catastrophe (ITAR–TASS.1 423. where eight districts were officially registered as being contaminated with radioactivity. Cases of First and Second Degree Thyroid Gland Hyperplasia in Children (per 1. Every second child in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province has had some thyroid gland pathology (Kashyryna. 6. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. 1998). we hope that such contradictions can be resolved. At first sight some changes in endocrine function in those subjected to Chernobyl radiation were considered controversial. At age 11. Some 150.000 individuals living in the southeast part of the country contaminated by Chernobyl fallout who were examined. 2005). In Voronezh Province.. thyroid gland pathology was found in 70% of the inhabitants (Associated Press. 5. combinations of different radioisotopes. 5. 1998).7 298.0 242. had abnormal thyroid gland development (Dobrynina. 1998). There is a correlation between the level of incorporated radionuclides and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland (Adamovich et al. 2. Diseases of the same organ may lead to opposing signs and symptoms depending upon the timing and extent of the damage. Children in territories with high levels of radioactive contamination have a significantly higher incidence of second-degree thyroid gland hyperplasia and nodular and diffuse forms of goiter (Sharapov.86 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences between 1992 and 2001 (Moskalenko. that hormone function may be depressed in a territory with a low level of radioactive contamination and increased owing to an increasing dose rate in a neighboring contaminated area. From 1998 to 2004 in Bryansk Province. or factors still to be uncovered.3. however.0 306. Russia 1. We have learned.2) Number of cases District Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ ∗ boys who were born in Voronezh Province in 1986 were significantly shorter than boys of the same age who were born in 1983.3..6 348.5 449. 2000).4 1996 295. Careful research may uncover the explanation as to whether the differences are due to past influences of different isotopes.7 1998 52. With the collection of new data. 3.3.4. most probably owing to thyroid hormone imbalance (Ulanova et al. 2005).6 162. 1999b: table 6. 7. adaptation of various organs.2.5 493.1 195. 2003). the incidence of enlarged thyroids increased in children in the first 10 years after the catastrophe.3. . 2001).2 245.3 329.0 224.601 cases of other types of thyroid pathology (Karevskaya et al. In 1998 every third child in the city of Yekaterinburg.29). 2002).9 413. 5.3 341.8 549. Conclusion Despite information presented so far. every second woman and every tenth child had an enlarged thyroid. 5. Of the 21.1 385. Other Countries POLAND. In some settlements.29. there were 284 cases of thyroid cancer and 7. TABLE 5. 12.. 4. we still do not have a total global picture of all of the people whose hormone function was impaired by radiation from the Chernobyl catastrophe because medical statistics do not deal with such illnesses in a uniform way. timing of exposures.4 394.

which was similar to that from Chernobyl. A total of 40. Seven months after the catastrophe there was a normalization of most of the immune parameters. Children from areas heavily contaminated with Cs-137 had significantly more eosinophils. Lypyk. decades-old data. This was especially prominent in children from the heavily contaminated areas.8 ± 2.200 children who were examined from 1986 to 1999 there was a significant decrease in B lymphocytes and subsequently in T lymphocytes. The ultimate consequences of destruction of the immune system is immunodeficiency and an increase in the frequency and seriousness of acute and chronic diseases and infections. may cause impairment of neuroendocrine and neurohumoral regulation. From 1987 to 1995 immunosuppression was unchanged and a decrease in the number of T cells indicators was seen.. Some examples of adverse effects of Chernobyl contamination on the immune system as well as data showing the scale of damage to the health of the different populations are described in what follows. lymph nodes. thymus. and others). the quantity and activity of various groups of lymphocytes and thus the production of antibodies. From 1996 to 1999 T cell system changes showed increased CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes and significantly decreased CD22 and HLA-DR lymphocytes. as is widely observed in the Chernobyl-irradiated territories (Bortkevich et al. spleen. experts estimate that up to 1. Using those data. In the first 1. An important finding to date is that for every case of thyroid cancer there are about 1.1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 87 The analysis of remote. including various immunoglobulins. except for the CIC and IgM. and Russia is the clear finding that Chernobyl radiation suppresses immunity—a person’s or organism’s natural protective system against infection and most diseases. In Belarus alone. The suppression of immunity as a result of this radioactive contamination is known as “Chernobyl AIDS. As a result. researchers reported vertebral osteochondrosis. Among 3.5 million people are at risk of thyroid disease (Gofman. and antibodies to thyroglobulin. 1996. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a). R-proteins. atrophic gastritis. 2004).. Belarus 1. and other problems in the exposed population (Ostroumova. are altered. and thrombocytes. 2004). the spectrum and the scale of endocrine pathology associated with radioactive contamination are far greater than had been suspected. 1999.5 months. rheumatoid factor. 5. Immune System Diseases One result of many studies conducted during the last few years in Ukraine.” On the basis of review of some 150 scientific publications the conclusion is that depression of thymus function plays the leading role in postradiation pathology of the immune system (Savyna and Khoptynskaya.4.000 cases of other kinds of thyroid gland pathology. From the data collected from many different areas by many independent researchers. Lenskaya et al. the level of the G-immunoglobulin (IgG) significantly decreased and the concentration of IgA and IgM as circulating immune complexes (CIC) increased. osteoarthritic deformities of the extremities. from the southern Ural area contaminated by radioactive accidents in the 1950s and 1960s indicates that low-dose irradiation in utero. It is now clear that multiple endocrine illnesses caused by Chernobyl have adversely affected millions of people. eosinophilic .4.4% of children from the contaminated territories had high levels of IgE. which occurred within the first 45 days after the catastrophe. Belarus. The lymphatic system—the bone marrow. and Peyer’s patches—has been impacted by both large and small doses of ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl fallout. CIC. and decreased complement activity. The children also had increased titers of serum interferon. 1995). stem cells. 5. 1994.

Significant changes in cellular immunity were documented in 146 children and teenagers operated on for thyroid cancer in Minsk. 1995).. 17. acute intestinal infections. Antitumor immunity in children and evacuees was significantly lower in heavily contaminated territories (Nesterenko et al. 1993). and anemia were manifoldly higher in breast-fed babies from the contaminated areas (Zubovich et al. 1993). 15... decreased levels of B lymphocytes (42 and 68%). as well as concentration-specific IgE antibodies to grass and birch pollen (Tytov. 1997). 1990). These changes included: decrease in the number of T lymphocytes (in 30% of children and 39% of teens).88 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences protein X concentration in urine. IgG. and neutrophilic leukocytosis in 60% of the children (Derzhitskaya et al. 16. 2001). IgM. 7. Allergy to cow’s milk proteins was found in more children living in territories more heav- ily contaminated by Sr-90 than in children from less contaminated areas: 36. 1995).5% of “practically healthy” children and teenagers living in Khoiniky District. Bandazhevsky. Acute respiratory virus infections (ARV). 2002.0% (Bandazhevsky et al... There are significant competing differences in the immune status of children from territories with different Cs-137 contamination loads (Table 5.8 vs. 8. 13. Antibody formation and neutrophilic activity were significantly lower for the first year of life in newborns in areas with Cs-137 levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 (Petrova et al. 9. 1993). 2000). 2. acute bronchitis. There was correlation among children and adults between the level of radioactive contamination in an area and the expression of the antigen APO-1/FAS (Mel’nikov et al. The number of B lymphocytes and the level of serum IgG began to increase in children from the contaminated areas of the Mogilev and Gomel provinces a year after the catastrophe. 11. Levels of immunoglobulins IgA. 2002)..30). Immune system depression occurred in healthy children in the Braginsk District near the 30-km zone immediately after the catastrophe with normalization of some parameters not occurring until 1993 (Kharytonik et al. 15. The children were 2 to 6 years of age at the time of the catastrophe (Galitskaya et al. The children and teenagers with thyroid autoimmune antibodies living in the contaminated territories have more serious and more persistent changes in their immune status (Kuchinskaya. and A(sA) in mother’s milk were significantly lower in the contaminated areas. 6. There was an increasing concentration of the thyroid autoantibodies in 19. 4. 1993). high titers of antibodies to thyroglobulin (ATG). 1996). 10. 12... and increased clumping of erythrocytes (Bandazhevsky et al. and eosinophilic cation protein concentration in serum (Tytov.. 14. Gomel Province. The level of T lymphocytes in children who were 7 to 14 years of age at the time of the catastrophe correlated with radiation levels (Khmara et al. reduced IgA and IgM. 1999)... decreased T lymphocytes (58 and 67%).313 children examined from an area contaminated by Cs-137 at a level of 1–5 Ci/km2 some developed immune system problems. There was a strong correlation between the level of Cs-137 contamination in the territories and the quantity of the D25+ lymphocytes. 1995. Among 1. Changes in both cellular and humoral immunity were found in healthy adults living in territories with a high level of contamination (Soloshenko. which included lowered neutrophil phagocytic activity. 1998). 5.. 3. 1998). The immune changes in children of Gomel Province are dependent upon the spectrum of radionuclides: identical levels of Sr90 and Cs-137 radiation had different consequences (Evets et al. In children from the territories of Mogilev Province contaminated by Cs-137 at levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 there was a significant decrease in cellular membrane stability and impaired immunity (Voronkin et al. . Kyril’chik. 2000).

4∗ 272.0% in the control group.. . 1999). Significant changes in all parameters of cellular immunity (in the absence of humoral ones) were found in children born to liquidators in 1987 (Arynchin et al. A survey of 150 Belarus liquidators 10 years after the catastrophe showed a significant decrease in the number of T lymphocyte.2. T suppressor.. Mogilev Province. and to thyroglobulin. absolute and relative number of B lymphocytes.5 ± 37. The levels of IgA. 2. and levels of IgG and IgA phagocyte activity lowered. T suppressors (older children). CIC levels raised. All of these pathologies were expressed more in the areas with higher levels of contamination (Bozhko.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 89 TABLE 5. Quantitative and functional parameters of the immune status of children correlated with the level of background radiation in areas of permanent residency. Periodic changes in humoral and cellular immunity were found in healthy children from the Komarin settlement. These shifts in immune system function are harbingers of pathology of the thyroid gland and crystalline lens of the eye (Kyseleva et al. 1998). Brest Province. stimulation of Th[2]-cells and increased IgE. and levels of immunoglobulins in blood and saliva (Kyril’chik.401.6 215. up to 120 Ci/km2 (n = 57) Parameters of immunity Number of T lymphocytes. 1999). A total of 45. The level of the CIC. 5. to CIC. The number of T and B lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophilic leukocytes was significantly reduced in adults from the contaminated areas (Bandazhevsky. 1999). Ukraine 1.5% of children radiated in utero (vs. 1995) District/radiation level Pinsk. 22. Immune deficiency was seen in 43. 55%. Number of T lymphocytes is raised (all groups).30. 1–5 Ci/km2 (n = 67) Bragin. In a group of 72 liquidators from 1986. 2000). near TABLE 5.05) within the first 2 years after the catastrophe (Stepanova. increased T suppressors (in oldest children). complement overactive. Numbers of T and B Lymphocytes in 150 Belarussian Male Liquidators in 1996 (Bliznyuk. 28. IgG.31. Braginsk District. 1995). and IgM immunoglobulins and secretory immunoglobulin A(sA) were reduced in women in the contaminated territories when they began lactating (Zubovich et al. 19.9 Differences are significant. 4. Gomel Province. 20.4% of 468 children and teenagers who were examined had chronic tonsillitis.3∗ 723. IgG. 40–80 Ci/km2 (n = 33) Krasnopolsk. Immune Status of Children with Frequent and Prolonged Illnesses from the Contaminated Territories of Belarus (Gurmanchuk et al. 3. 2004).and B-cellular immunity. Autoantibodies to lens antigen were increased 44%. suppression index..7 ± 13. and T helper cells (Table 5. All children have humoral cellular depression.31).5 ± 50. 1999) Liquidators T lymphocytes B lymphocytes ∗ Controls 1. and IgA (children up to 6 years of age) is raised. These included impaired T.0 ± 107. and IgM immunoglobulins were increased in the postpartum period in women from districts in Gomel and Mogilev provinces contaminated with Cs137 at a level higher than 5 Ci/km2 and the immune quality of their milk was lowered (Iskrytskyi. fewer T-lymphocyte helpers (older children). 2000). serum levels for autoantibodies to thyroid antigens (thyroglobulin and microsomal fraction of thyrocytes) were raised 48%. The quantity of IgA. T helpers (all groups) is lowered. 21. and increased frequency of neck lymphadenopathies.. IgM (all groups). 18. fewer B lymphocytes. 60%. hypertrophy of the adenoid glands and tonsils.4. P <0.

4. and IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic pyelonephritis living in the contaminated areas of Polessk and Ivankov districts of Kiev Province (Vozianov et al. Matveenko et al. hypersegmentation of nuclei.. The number of T and B lymphocytes (36 ± 3. 2002).. In the 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe many liquidators had quantitative changes in cellular and humoral immunity and altered immune status (Korobko et al.4%).. 2001). Mel’nov et al. immune-regulating index Tx:Tc (2. 1996). 2003). 11. which included destruction of cell contents.19 vs. as were those of T lymphocytes and T helper cells. Significant impairment of cellular and humoral immunity.8 ± 6. 1996. 1995). 2002. Tymoshevsky et al. Children living in heavily contaminated territories have generalized and specific immunity suppression and malfunction of their antioxidant and sympathetic adrenal systems (Terletskaya. and IgA and IgG globulins and an increased index of T helpers/ T suppressors. Impaired production of cytokines. 6. The greatest immune system depression involved a decrease in EAC-POK.9 ± 0. 2003..90 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences the 30-km Chernobyl zone. Liquidators from 1986–1987 had impaired immunity expressed as depressed humoral and cellular immunity and poor resistance to infection 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Chumak and Bazyka. Bazyka et al. The influences of internal and external radiation on the character of neurohumoral reactions are sharply different: with internal radiation there is a gradual development of autoimmune reactions.2% of children was significantly below the level of controls. Russia 1. In 1988 the levels of IgM and CIC remained raised. Malyuk and Bogdantsova. development is rapid (Lysyany and Lyubich. 13. Levels of T suppressor cells significantly decreased. Decrease in the level of serum IgA. 5. Gazheeva et al. changes in membrane contour. whereas with external radiation. a decreased level of T lymphocytes. and an index of suppression (IS) especially for children aged 11 to 14 years.. 1998. abnormal polymorphic forms and lymphocytes with increased segmentation. 2001.. Shubik.and B-rosette forming cells. was found in areas with higher levels of radionuclides (Soloshenko. . 2003). 2001. 1998). 5. 1996). 1999. T helpers. Potapnev et al. In 1986 the level of interferon in 40. These parameters stabilized only 5 years later (Romanenko et al. A total of 45% of more than 450. 1996).5% and 24 ± 1. 1997. 8. Grebenjuk et al. By 1993 there was a normalization of a number of immune parameters.. whereas interferon activity increased. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes in evacuees remained significantly lower even 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Baeva and Sokolenko. 12.14).. These changes are expressed as: • • • • • Changes in the ratio of subpopulations of T lymphocytes—T helpers/T suppressors. especially in children aged 4 to 6 years.. expressed by decreased numbers of T. 9. T suppressors. but for children 7 to 14 years of age T lymphocytes and T helper cells were decreased (Kharytonik et al. Novykova. 2002. 1998). 1.3. were found in a majority of 400 liquidators examined (Zak et al. Activation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Pathological changes in neutrophil ultra structure. Decrease in the general number of T and B lymphocytes.4 ± 0. IgG.000 children living in contaminated territories had lowered immune status 10 years after the catastrophe (TASS. and chromatin and nuclei segmentation.. and IgM immunoglobulins.. 1995a. 7. 2001. 10..b). Immunological status of evacuees’ children in the first 2 years was characterized by impaired humoral and cellular immunity.

. 1997). with Cs-137 levels up to 101.5 mSv annually (Luk’yanova and Lenskaya. In territories of Krasnogorsk District with higher radioactive contamination there was significantly less activity of nonspecific esterase (a marker of immature T cells) and a significant increase in the number of medium-size lymphocytes with intensive granular reaction (Lenskaya et al. children and teenagers had markedly lowered relative and absolute numbers of T cells. decreased almost to their norms in 1992– 1993. A survey of 144 children and teenagers of Krasnogorsk District. which indicated that these children had both absolute and relative deficiencies in their cellular immunity. Bryansk Province. 2003). and reduced relative numbers of lymphocytes. T helpers (CD4+ ). 10. In the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province. 2004). 1995). This combination was observed in varying degrees in 80% of cases with bacterial intestinal disease. infections prevailed: frequent acute respiratory virus infections (ARV). increased immune-regulatory index (T4/T8). 7. By 2002 the frequency of occurrence of impaired immunity and metabolism in children had increased fivefold in the contaminated districts of Tula Province compared to pre-Chernobyl levels. 9. Alymov et al. This index correlated significantly with the dose level in utero (Kulakov et al. a markedly reduced subpopulation of active lymphocytes. There were correlations between an intensive granular reaction in children and additional internal radiation of more than 0. The number of children with critically low lymphocyte counts also rose in 1994–1995. a relative measure of cellular immunity had a tendency to increase owing to an increase in the number of CD4+ cells and there was a decrease in the subpopulation T cells and an increase in basophilic activity. The clinical picture of the second group comprised allergies. . Luk’yanova and Lenskaya. 4. 2002). otitis. and increased again in 1994–1995. and purulent infections of the mucous membranes and skin. sensitivity to pollens. and a raised immune-regulatory index (T4 helpers/T8 suppressors). and T suppressors (CD8+ ). significantly lowered relative numbers of lymphocytes. After 3 to 4 years liquidators had persistent changes in T system immunity with a decrease in T cells and T helpers and a reduction in the helper/suppressor index. At the same time.. During a survey of 113 children from the Krasnogorsk District. pneumonia.. T helpers (CD4+ ).. from 1987 to 1995. Clinically. 1998). After 5 years and then 13 to 15 years most of the parameters of cellular and humoral immunity in liquidators did not differ from normal. 6. 3. Children 11 to 13 years of age and pregnant women living in districts of Kursk Province with high levels of contamination had functional and quantitative lymphocyte changes and significantly increased circulating serum immune complexes (CICs. and relative and absolute numbers of T suppressors (CD8+ . In the contaminated territories the number of individuals with adaptive reaction lymphocytes is lower and the number of people with elevated lymphocyte radiosensitivity is higher (Burlakova et al. morbidity not related to radiation remained the same in both the clean and contaminated territories (Sokolov. 5. 2001). bronchitis. parameters of intensive granular reaction in lymphocytes peaked in 1991. The number of large granulocytic lymphocytes (NK cells) decreased 60 to 80% in liquidators 1 month after beginning work in the contaminated zone and persisted at a low level for not less than 1 year (Antushevich and Legeza.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 91 2. Bryansk Province.. and a substantial increase in abnormal erythrocytic forms (Antushevich and Legeza. For others. 2002). 8. 1996). 1996). and food allergies (Kholodova et al.6 Ci/km2 have decreased relative and absolute numbers of T cells. asthmatic bronchitis. although there were changes in natural immunity with decreased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophils. Absolute levels of all lymphocyte populations were lower in all liquidators’ children examined at 10 to 13 years of age.

IAEA. and 15% of those examined had a significantly reduced number of circulating T-suppressor cells. 14. The level of the CIC increased in all surveyed liquidators. whose health was supervised more carefully than that of the general population. and trachea in adults were basically linked to the gaseous–aerosol forms of radionuclides. Respiratory System Diseases There is a marked increase in respiratory system morbidity everywhere in the territories contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. Despite the fragmentary data. developed marked restrictive lung disease due to a functional decrease in lung elasticity (Kuznetsova et al.. soil. Respiratory system diseases. 1994). 5. or “Chernobyl dust.4. In the 7 to 9 years after the catastrophe. etc. 2001). and was also a consequence of changes in the immune and hormonal systems. These persist for long periods in pulmonary tissue because of the low solubility of uranium oxides.. Chernobyl dust was found in liquidators’ bronchial tubes. and alveoli for many years. Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils was lower in 80% and macrophage activity was lower in 85% of those examined (Kut’ko et al. Tereshenko et al. throat. During this initial period I131. In the first days after the catastrophe. 2003. 1997. Ivanov et al. trachea. while larger particles were trapped in the upper respiratory tract (Khrushch et al. Chuchalin et al.). Kut’kov et al. The syndrome of “acute inhalation depression of the upper respiratory 5.5.. Apparently. Four years after their participation in emergency work the normal levels of dermorphin was restored in only 17% of the liquidators examined. were among the first apparent consequences of the irradiation and ranged from nose bleeds and tickling in the throat to lung cancer.to 17-fold) and nettle rash (4to 15-fold) compared to the local population (Tataurtchykova et al.. Bronchopulmonary morbidity increased quickly among liquidators in the contaminated territories (Kogan. Ru-106. (see Chapter 1 for details). 1990. 1992.4. Further damage to the respiratory system was caused by hot particles and external irradiation. 1996). The smallest hot particles... In these groups changes took place that were opposite in nature to changes in the immune-regulatory index CD4/CD8). loss of balance of subpopulations of T cells with impaired T helper/T suppressor ratios. 13. Trakhtenberg and Chissov. 1988. and Ce-144 had the most serious impact on the respiratory system (IAEA. Yakushin and Smirnova. 1998. respiratory problems in the mouth. 2001. throat. 1993. and lungs. Hot particles. which include those of the nasal cavity.. 1996). who were subjected to any additional radiation. 1998. liquidators from Obninsk City. 2004). without exception.. etc.and methionine-encephalin) exceeded norms for more than 50% of the liquidators examined (Sushkevich et al. impaired immunity triggered by Chernobyl radionuclides adversely affected all of the individuals. 2004). had a higher incidence of allergic diseases: rhinitis (6.” consist of particles containing radionuclides derived from nuclear fuel melted together with particles from metal construction.. and others). Provotvorov and Romashov. The immune index of liquidators correlated with the dose of radiation calculated by the level of chromosomal aberrations (Baleva et al. Tseloval’nykova et al. it is clear that the scale of the impacts is enormous. Conclusion Data in this section demonstrate the powerful effects of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout on the immune system and its functions. 12.. 1995). Liquidators. Kaluga Province. bronchioles. 2002. .. easily reached the deepest parts of lungs. bronchial tubes. Liquidators with neuropsychological disorders developed secondary immunedeficiency conditions (T lymphopenia. The number of T helpers (CD4+ ) decreased in 90% of surveyed liquidators. up to 5 μm.92 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11. The levels of two other neuropeptides (leu.

The number of children hospitalized for bronchial asthma was higher in the more contaminated territories and chronic nasopharyngeal pathology was seen twice as often compared to children from less contaminated areas (Sitnykov et al. Children born to mothers in the Chernobyl contaminated territories who were pregnant at the time of the catastrophe have twice the incidence of acute respiratory diseases (Nesterenko. 1999). 2001..2. Respiratory morbidity among children from the Luninetsk District. was 72.5-fold more illnesses (Gudkovsky et al. which had contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 . 2. 2003). In the first months after the catastrophe. Dzykovich et al. 54. 4.9% from 1986 to 1988. In 1995 respiratory illnesses in children from the heavily contaminated territories were reported twice as often as from less . In the first 3 years after the catastrophe respiratory illnesses in children from territories contaminated at a level of 15–40 Ci/km2 were 3.1. 4. 1998. Romanova.566 cases per 10. Among evacuees. Among 4.1% had latent bronchospasms (controls. Stepanova et al. Brest Province. 1995). 1993.6% and among adults and teenagers it reached 35.000 compared to the country average of 1..6% had bronchial obstruction mainly of the small bronchial tubes (controls.000 (Syvolobova et al. 1993. 1996). and others). 3.. 5. 6.. 8. 18. 13. Older children irradiated in utero had respiratory system pathologies significantly more often than controls: 26. 1995)... 2002).9%) and (b) 69. nearly 10.. Kul’kova et al. 7. 5. 5. 2. 1997). and 39. and chronic tonsillitis (Voronetsky et al. respiratory system morbidity was significantly higher than among children from areas with contamination levels of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Blet’ko et al. In 1994 respiratory system morbidity among children from contaminated territories and among evacuees was as high as 61. 1996). 1997)... Asphyxia was observed in half of 345 newborns irradiated in utero in 1986–1987 (Zakrevsky et al. From 1990 to 1993 children from heavily contaminated territories had 2. Among 2.4% from 1992 to 1994. 1995.660 (Matsko. Respiratory morbidity in children born at the time of the catastrophe in territories with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 was significantly higher than in children of the same age from territories with contamination of 5–15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al. Gudkovsky et al. 1996). Gomel Province. tickling in the throat. 29. 9.5-fold more common than in less contaminated territories.. dry cough..5%.0 vs. 5. and difficulty breathing (Chuchalin et al. 1999). Belarus 1. 1993). In 1986–1987. respiratory morbidity in 1995 was 2.5.. In older children 60% had documented respiratory diseases (Synyakova et al. 3. Ukraine 1..335 surveyed evacuees’ teenagers. Respiratory diseases were found in 19% of liquidators’ children up to 1 year of age.. 2003). bronchitis.7% (Prysyazhnyuk et al.1% from 1989 to 1991. Chykyna et al.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 93 system” presents as a combination of a rhinitis. and 10% of the children had exudative-mucoid disease. 1998. Among the most common illnesses were ARV infection.598 children newborn to 4 years old at the time of the meltdown from Kormyansk and Chechersk districts.. 1995). 1994.5.000 children from contaminated territories that were examined had breathing problems: (a) 53. Kut’kov. more than 30% of children in the contaminated territories had breathing difficulties defined as a respiratory syndrome (Stepanova et al. respiratory morbidity was the third cause of overall morbidity 10 years after the catastrophe: 286 per 1..6% (Grodzinsky.

.5 per 10.7).94 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 5. Some 84% of 873 surveyed liquidators had tracheobronchial mucous membrane thinning and vascular atrophy. symptoms of chronic obstructive lung disease were observed: cough.4 per 10. 2007). and bronchial asthma more than doubled (25. 2003a. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity among Ukrainian liquidators from 1996 to 2004 (Sushko et al.000.4 and 528. Sushko. Subsequently. contaminated areas (Baida and Zhirnosekova. impairment. bronchitis and emphysema among teenagers. 12% had opposite changes in bronchial fiberscopic pathology. 1995a). going from 84 to 181 cases per 1.5 years showed chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchitis in 79%. 2006). Tereshchenko et al. 1998.. and dyspnoea in combination with obstructive. as well as ciliary flattening and epithelial metaplasia (Romanenko et al. 11. Sushko and Shvayko. 2003. Chronic bronchitis in liquidators more than doubled between 1996 and 2004. restrictive. Dzyublik et al.476 male liquidators ages 36. usually accompanied by bronchial tree deformities (Shvayko and Sushko. According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Health. and asthma in 8% (Tereshchenko et al.8)... From 1988 to 2006 clinical observation of 2. 2000). and mortality among liquidators. The occurrence of obstructive disease and bronchitis almost doubled in the second decade after the catastrophe (Figure 5. adults. The subsequent development of disease was characterized by progressive obstruction and dyspnoea with shortness of breath and difficulty or pain in breathing. 2001.8. which consisted of Figure 5. . Chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma are two of the main reasons for morbidity. 84% had mucous membrane atrophy. Sushko and Shvayko. 2003a).7-fold from 1990 to 2004 (316.7 ± 8. and mixed ventilation disorders (Tereshchenko et al.7. including hyperplasia. 10. The majority of liquidators during their stay in the contaminated zone and immediately afterward suffered from a dry cough complicated by painful breathing. and evacuees in the contaminated territories increased 1. 2004. In 80% of the cases of chronic nonspecific pulmonary disease among liquidators. sputum production. 2004.000). 6.000 (Figure 5. 12. 7. atrophy of the mucous membrane covering of the trachea and bronchus was found. 9.. 2004). Bronchopulmonary illnesses in Ukrainian male liquidators over a 20-year period (Tereshchenko et al... 1998). 8.7 and 55. chronic nonobstructive bronchitis in 13%.b). National Ukrainian Report. Of 873 male liquidators examined 15 years after the catastrophe. 1991.

0 481.743.435. In the contaminated territories there is a marked increase in the incidence of both acute pneumonia and chronic broncopulmonary pathology.. 6. and 4% were observed to have both types of pathology—atrophic changes proximally and hyperplasia distally. 2004).1 767. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.288.023.281.582. 13.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 95 TABLE 5. A majority of the surveyed Russian liquidators who were exposed in 1986–1987 have developed progressive pulmonary function impairment (Chykyna et al.. Respiratory Morbidity among Children of Bryansk Province Districts with a Level of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . 1997).. 1999b: table.34). Radionuclides were found in their pulmonary systems 6 to 10 years after the catastrophe. Years after the catastrophe three liquidators were found to have sclerotic pulmonary mucous membrane changes and bronchial deformities (Sushko et al.080.9 728.. The incidence of asphyxia and complicated breathing problems in newborns correlated with the level of contamination in the territory (Kulakov et al.6 1.32.6 1.8 774.3 1. Kiev Province (20–60 Ci/km2 ). and fetal lung dysplasia was more common in 1992–1993 compared with controls and compared with the number of cases observed in 1995 (Romanova et al.3.3 1. 2. asthma and chronic bronchitis. 2002. Noninfectious respiratory disorders in neonates born to mothers from the contaminated territories were encountered 9. expressed as bronchial 1996 897.4 936.0 1. 4.1) Number of cases 1995 Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ thickening of the mucous membranes and narrowing of primary and secondary bronchial tubes.750.006. Incidence of this respiratory abnormality increased continuously for the first 8 years after the catastrophe (Table 5.267. 5.0 342.. In the first years after the catastrophe broncopulmonary illnesses were accompanied by moderate immunological changes and latent functional impairment.1 1997 1.072.9 927. and Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10– 15 Ci/km2 ) districts.2 All contaminated districts. 10 to 15 years later the findings are pneumonia and lung scarring (Terletskaya.33).4 1.001. In 80% of the group examined mucoid-sclerotic changes in the bronchial mucosa were accompanied by tracheobronchial tree deformity.5.5 1.510.3 918. except in one district (Table 5. A group of 440 liquidators with chronic bronchopulmonary pathology were examined at the Moscow Institute of Pulmonology.6 790. For adults in the more contaminated territories of Bryansk Province the general respiratory morbidity is much below that of children.7 n/a 781.3 1. 2003). Oryol Province (Kulakov et al.0 1.7 855. 2002). Broncopulmonary dysplasia was seen in premature newborns from Novozybkov City. 1997). Gomel Province (5–70 Ci/km2 ).3 303.5 771. 2004).. 8. Isolated sclerotic changes of bronchial mucosa were reported in 16% and mucoid changes in 4% (Tereshchenko et al.9 1998 1. The prevalence of mucoid-sclerotic changes correlates with endobronchial atrophy.0 1. The areas and contamination levels were: Polessk District. 6. Bryansk Province. 2007). Children’s overall respiratory morbidity was much higher in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province 9 to 12 years after the catastrophe than in the rest of the province and in Russia as a whole (Table 5.6 1. .5 1. but the same tendency toward increase was observed from 1995 to 1998.32).2 936. Russia 1. 3. 7.426. Chechersk District. 5.8 715.398.5 2. Children in the contaminated territories currently have more bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis owing to irreversible structural lung changes.6 times more often than before the catastrophe.

but the severity increased.6.5. If such an increase is observed after a single short-term irradiation. 2003).6 194. it is possible to assume that the Chernobyl irradiation will cause increased respiratory system illnesses over the next several generations.5 168.2 192.010 1993 7. Although there have been some studies of the functional changes in the urogenital tract as a consequence of Chernobyl radiation.5 183.1) Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest Province Russia 1995 195. and urinary tract. For children of the Japanese hibakusha who were not irradiated directly.6 1996 211. for example. with an increase up to 10-fold for some illnesses. The incidence of 3p14. Chizhykov and Chizhykov. These include: K-ras (codon 12) mutation. and Russia remained significantly higher in the contaminated territories.2 197. there is still not enough information to explain all of the serious changes. to find increased levels of male hormones Combined external radiation and incorporated radionuclide effects were expressed in a new form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease syndrome (Chuchalin et al.4 213. 1998). TABLE 5.950 1992 7.1 474. bladder.6 n/a Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5. 2002..0 237.2 219. Urogenital Tract Diseases and Reproductive Disorders Irradiation directly damages the kidneys.. 5. as well as the ovaries and testicles.. 3p22–24 (hMLH1).2 allelic loss was associated with decreased expression of the FHIT mRNA in the bronchial epithelium as compared with a control group of smokers (Chuchalin.8 167.9 302. microsatellite alterations at seven chromosomal regions.0 192.2 163.3 233. 1992). In some years the incidence of bronchopulmonary illnesses decreased. Respiratory Morbidity (per 10. 3p14. The diseases developed more rapidly and were more serious (Tseloval’nykova et al.8 182.0 134. which not only are subject to direct radiation effects.770 1988 3. Prolonged persistence of radioactive particles is associated with the appearance of cancer-related molecular abnormalities in the bronchial epithelium of former Chernobyl cleanup workers. These disorders in structure and function result in damage to the reproductive process.0 209..6 192.6 1997 259.110 . 9.34. reflecting significant impairment of the immune and hormonal systems. the incidence of respiratory system illnesses was higher compared to controls some decades after the bombardments (Furitsu et al. 3p21.630 1990 6.6 199.0 242. 1999a: table 5. and 9p21 (p16INK4A).3 196.730 1989 5.0 298.33.2 (FHIT).3 142. and allelic loss at 3p12.4. Conclusion Illnesses of the upper respiratory system (nasopharynx and bronchial tubes) were the initial consequences of Chernobyl irradiation for the general population and the liquidators in the first days and weeks after the catastrophe. p16 (INK4A) promoter hypermethylation.4 309.6 238. It was unexpected. but are indirectly affected through hormonal disruption.0 336. respiratory morbidity in Belarus.390 1991 6.9 288.1 237. Some 10 to 15 years later. The frequency of the chronic bronchopulmonary illnesses in liquidators increased significantly over the first 15 years after the catastrophe. 1995– 1998 (Fetysov.000) among Russian Liquidators for the First 8 Years after the Catastrophe (Baleva et al.5 196. 2001) Year Morbidity 1986 645 1987 1. Ukraine. 2002).2 1998 326. 10.96 TABLE 5.6 230. Respiratory Morbidity among the Adult Population of Bryansk Province in Areas with a Level of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .9 126.

. In territories with heavy Chernobyl contamination. Gomel Province (5– 70 Ci/km2 . 1997).. the incidence of gynecologic diseases in fertile women in the contaminated territories was considerably increased. 4.6. From 1991 to 2001. 1993).. Experts can argue about the effects of small doses of radiation.. 2002). 5. 1996). Primary infertility in the contaminated areas increased 5. 1997). 2000).. Frequent gynecologic problems and delay in the onset of menarche correlated with the levels of radioactive contamination in the area (Kulakov et al. The doctors reminisce: ‘In one village we found twelve lactating∗ elderly women. and Vitebsk cities from 1981 to 1995 (surgical treatment for 1. 5. the level of urogenital tract disease was significantly higher in the more contaminated territories (Busuet et al. In the contaminated territories. 1999) and also unexpected to observe contrary effects of various radionuclides on the rate of sexual maturation (Paramonova and Nedvetskaya.254 women). 2000b). Abnormalities of menstrual function in nonparous women in areas with contamination of 1–5 Ci/km2 (Gomel City) was linked to ovarian cystic-degenerative changes and increased endometrial proliferation.’ ” (Aleksievich. 6. that is. 1997). 1993).046 pregnant women examined. 1993). 10. Gomel Province (5– 70 Ci/km2 . “. Impotence in young men (ages 25 to 30 years) correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in a territory (Shilko et al. 2006). Among the irrefutable reasons for infertility are sperm pathologies. 1993)... with the disease expressed most often in the first 5 years after the catastrophe.1.6-fold. 11. Among women who developed endometriosis. Ovarian size correlated with testosterone concentration in blood serum (Yagovdik.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 97 in females as a result of internally incorporated radionuclides (for a review see Bandazhevsky. Belarus 1.026. thyroxin. and a threefold increase in endocrine disorders (Shilko et al. . Mogilev.5-fold in 1991 compared with 1986. . those in the more contaminated areas were 4 to 5 years younger than those from less contaminated areas (Al-Shubul and Suprun. From 1993 to 2003. 8. there are increased numbers of children with sexual and physical developmental disorders related to hormone dysfunction— cortisol. failed pregnancies and medical abortions increased (Golovko and Izhevsky. and progesterone (Sharapov. 1998). Of 1. women 70 years of age had milk in their breasts. 1997). Abnormal development of genitalia and delay in sexual development correlated with the levels of radioactive contamination in the Chechersk District. as though they were nursing. there was a significant delay in sexual maturation among girls from 10 to 14 years of age born to irradiated parents (National Belarussian Report. 9. 12. Reuters.. twice the incidence of sclerocystic ovaries. 13. 2001. Soon after the catastrophe the majority of fertile women from the contaminated territories developed menstrual disorders (Nesterenko et al. as were the number of complication during pregnancy and birth (Belookaya et al. Kulakov et al. . Kulakov et al.. 7. 2. The incidence of endometriosis increased almost 2. _________ ∗ Lactation in the absence of pregnancy (termed galactoria or hyperprolactinemia) is an expression of pituitary gland dysfunction.. 2002). which increased 6. .5-fold in Gomel. 1993). 3. Increased gynecologic morbidity (including anemia during pregnancy and postnatal anemia) and birth anomalies correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the Chechersky District. but the ordinary person cannot even begin to imagine such a thing. . Up until 2000 children born after the catastrophe in heavily contaminated territories had more reproductive organ disorders than those born in less contaminated areas: fivefold higher for girls and threefold higher for boys (Nesterenko et al.

. . Abnormal genital development and delay in sexual development in the Polessk District. Occurrence of chronic pyelonephritis. Child-Bearing Data Concerning Women Irradiated as Children in 1986 in Contaminated Territories (Nyagy. Earlier onset and prolonged puberty and disorders of secondary sexual characteristics were found in girls born to liquidator fathers (Teretchenko. Dashkevich and Janyuta. 1995). The number of menstrual disorders in the contaminated territories tripled compared with the precatastrophe period.. Ukraine 1. 2003). Kiev Province.3% 12. 2004). 1997).. From 1988 to 1999 the incidence of urogenital diseases in the population of contaminated territories more than doubled (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2006). 2006) Irradiated Normal delivery Hypogalactia Hypocalcemia 25.017 girls examined who had been exposed to irradiation.35). A survey of 16. correlated with the level of radioactive contamination (20–60 Ci/km2 ) (Kulakov et al. 5.8% 33.8 per 1. Urogenital diseases increased in children in the contaminated territories: 0. 14. 10. In the territories contaminated by Sr-90 and Pu. 2. 13. 15. 12. in the contaminated territories increased significantly for 5 to 6 years after the catastrophe (Gorptchenko et al. 1994).. 1995). newborn respiratory disease increased 2. 11. oligohydramnios increased 48%.8% 74.2. correlated with the level of radioactive contamination (20–60 Ci/km2 . 2005).98 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5.2% Control 63. puberty was delayed by 2 years in boys and by 1 year in girls. Kulakov et al.6. Sexual maturity was retarded in 11% of a group of 1.. and late menarche). and urinary tract diseases in teenagers correlated with the level of contamination in the territories (Karpenko et al. Kiev Province. Girls have delayed puberty in the contaminated territories (Vovk and Mysurgyna.017 female children of evacuees (aged 8 to 18 years) examined after the catastrophe.5% 12.017 girls and teenagers from contaminated territories (Lukyanova. uterine hypoplasia. The incidence of female genital disorders. 1995). 8. 4.000 in 2004 (Horishna.35. 2003.000 pregnant women in the contaminated territories over an 8-year period after the catastrophe revealed the follow- TABLE 5. 2002). 1997). 6. Neonates born to women who were irradiated as girls in 1986 have up to twice the incidence of physical disorders (Nyagy. and 14% had disturbed menstrual function (Vovk. 1995). 3. Increased gynecologic morbidity (including anemia during and after pregnancy) and birth anomalies in the Polessk District. Women who were irradiated as girls in 1986 have markedly more problems during childbirth (Table 5. Among 1.. and after 5 to 6 years menstruation decreased or stopped (Gorptychenko et al. In the first years after the catastrophe there was heavier menstruation. The level of alpha-radionuclides is significantly higher in bone tissue of aborted fetuses from mothers from the contaminated territories (Luk’yanova. and there was early placental aging at 30–32 weeks gestation (Dashkevich et al. Accelerated rates of sexual development were observed in territories contaminated by Cs-137 (Paramonova and Nedvetskaya. 2003). 1994). 2003). 11% had delayed sexual development (underdevelopment of secondary sex characteristics. 9.. 1993). including ovarian cysts and uterine fibromas.000 in 1987 to 22. Among 1. the number of premature deliveries increased up to twofold.8 per 1. Menstrual cycle disorders are commonly diagnosed in the contaminated territories (Babich and Lypchanskaya. 7. kidney stones.8-fold. 1997). 14% had impaired menstruation (Luk’yanova.5% ing: renal morbidity increased from 12 to 51%.

Sergienko. 25% in controls (Gorptchenko et al. 19% had mammary fibroadenomatosis. 77. 26.2% had birth complications and excess bleeding (2. 2000.. Risks of spontaneous abortions are higher in the contaminated territories (Lipchak et al. 19. 1997. For 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe the incidence of menstrual disorders was significantly increased in female liquidators. premature birth. anemia. 18. Golubchykov et al. the proportion of mobile sperm was lower (35–40% vs. calcium inclusions.. Luk’yanova. 59 ± 5% have experienced sexual dysfunction caused by irradiation and 19 ± 3% owing to radiophobia. 1999). late gestation. 2005. One had aspermia. These changes included uneven thickness of the placenta. Dystrophic and degenerate changes of the placenta in liquidators and in other women living in the contaminated territories correlated with the level of Cs-137 incorporated in the placenta.2fold higher than controls. A total of 84% of young women (average age 30. 17. aplastic anemia.1% of pregnant women from the contaminated territories had preclampsia...Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 99 16. 1999. Among 12 men with chronic radiation dermatitis caused by beta. and other pathologies of pregnancy occurred significantly more often in evacuees and in the contaminated territories 8 to 10 years after the catastrophe (Grodzinsky.1 ± 0. and 98. 2006). In 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe. 2003). 1999). In 42% of surveyed liquidators sperm counts were reduced by 53%.. 78.. presence of fibrous scaring. 24. and premature births (Horishna. 1993). Female liquidators of perimenopausal age during the catastrophe had an early menopause (46. and the number of dead sperm increased up to 70% vs. Luk’yanova et al. 2002). 21. In three samples there was an increase in abnormal forms of spermatozoa and in three samples sperm motility was decreased (Byryukov et al. Women in the heavily contaminated areas have more frequent miscarriages. Ivanyuta and Dubchak.3%). 2002.000 in 2003 (Baloga. 1995)..2% had uterine fibromyoma.. 70– 75% in controls). 2003).8 per 1. 2005). cysts. Some 96% of individuals in the contaminated territories with prostatic adenoma were found to have precancerous changes in the bladder urothelium (Romanenko et al. A total of 54.4 per 1. about 30% of liquidators had functional sexual disorders and sperm abnormalities (Romanenko et al. and resulted in lower weight of newborns (Luk’yanova. 2000). and 16% had oliogomenses accompanied by persistent hyperprolactinemia (Bezhenar’ et al. In an other study. 27.000 in 1999. 2003.000 in 1988. Miscarriages occurred especially often in the heavily contaminated territories of Kiev Province (Gerasymova and Romanenko.5 years in 1986–1987) developed hypermenstrual syndrome within 2 to 5 years after being exposed (41.and gammairradiation during and after the Chernobyl catastrophe two had erectile dysfunction and the others reported various impairments of sexual function. From 1988 to 2003 urogenital morbidity among male liquidators who worked in 1986– 1987 increased 10-fold: 9.. 23. 2003. 20. 28. Zadorozhnaya et al. and about 75% had climacteric syndrome and declining libido (Bezhenar et al. Among 250 married couples of liquidators observed in Donetsk City. complications of pregnancy. Spontaneous interruption of pregnancy. 1995b). 25. one had oligospermia. 1999). and four had normal sperm counts..9 years). and destruction of the placenta (controls 10. 1993). 22. two had azoospermia. 41% of 467 male liquidators (age 21 to 45 years) had sexual abnormalities: decreased testicular androgen function and increased estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (Bero.4 per 1. Kyra et al.. 1998). and undifferentiated and undeveloped fibroblasts in the terminal stromal villi. .

from 1995 to 1998.1 19.8 34.6 29.5 40.8 88.1 53.2 114.7 72. Urogenital Morbidity (per 1.2 53..000) in Bryansk Province Districts with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .3 10.7 1998 60.9) and was fourfold higher (18. Increased gynecologic morbidity (including anemia during pregnancy.4 60.200) 322 kBq/m2 Novozybkov City (n = 1.1 68. The urogenital morbidity among women in some of the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk and Tula provinces correlated with the levels of contamination (Table 5.0 22.3 79.8 24. and abnormal delivery) correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10–15 Ci/km2 ) districts of Oryol Province (Kulakov et al.1 26. 4.4 38.2 66.2 95. 5.8 1997 51. The 1986 liquidators from Ryazan Province and other nuclear industry personnel went through a prolonged period of sterility. polyps. postnatal anemia.4 1997 64.1 72.36.7 26.2 44. 2007). 3.5 78.8 36.8 52.9 78. Overall. %∗ illnesses.3 45.7 33.7 75.000) among Adults in Bryansk Province Districts Contaminated above 5 Ci/km2 .8 76. Occurrence of Reproductive System Illness and Precancer Pathologies among Women in Some Territories of the Tula and Bryansk Provinces Contaminated by Cs-137 (Tsyb et al.4 All heavily contaminated districts. From 1995 to 1998 the overall urogenital morbidity in adults in Bryansk Province noticeably increased in all but one of the contaminated areas (Table 5.5 25.9 57.100 TABLE 5.2 75. etc.9 60. 6.7 80. which was not revealed until recently (Lyaginskaya et al. 7.38).000) 708 kBq/m2 Uzlovaya Station (n = 1. 1995– 1998 (Fetysov.36).7 66.1 10. 8. Impaired genital and delayed sexual development correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10–15 Ci/km2 ) districts of Oryol Province (Kulakov et al.4 ± 2.38..7 43.6 ± 1. 1997).2 34. % Klintsy District (n = 1.8 30. displasias.1) Number of cases 1998 79.7 67..7 44.0 46.2 41.1) Number of cases 1995 Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Klintsy City Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ Province ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 5. 9.2 Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Klintsy City Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province ∗ 1996 48.6 1.3 91. 1999b: table 6.37.4 1996 71.2 78.8 11.1 34.9 78.6.6 44.1 27. 2006) Precancer All pathologies.2%.4 70. The frequency of occurrence of spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) in liquidator (1986–1987) families in Ryazan Province was significantly higher during the first 7 years after the catastrophe (Figure 5.1 22..4 56.8 58.000) 171 kBq/m2 ∗ 21.3.1 82.6 44. urogenital morbidity in children was higher in the majority of the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province than in the province as a whole (Table 5. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. A total of 18% of all pregnancies registered among liquidators’ families terminated in miscarriages (Lyaginskaya et al.8 1995 72. 2.2 Leukoplacias. Russia 1..3 54. 2007). All heavily contaminated districts. 2007). Four years after the catastrophe up to 15% of liquidators (from 94 evaluated) had TABLE 5.2%) than that of the general population (4.3 51. Lyaginskaya et al. ..3 60.0 75.2 8.7 60.6 51.37). 1997). Urogenital Morbidity among Children (per 1. 1999a: table 5.1 81.

Liquidators’ virility was noticeably lower in the year after the catastrophe: up to 42% of sperm tests did not meet quantitative norms and up to 52. 19. Among 80 children of liquidators who were examined there was increased incidence of pyelonephritis (Hovhannisyan and Asryan.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 101 Figure 5. 2003).. Sclerosis in 50% of seminiferous tubules and foci of Leydig cell regeneration was seen after the catastrophe (Cheburakov et al. 2001).410 . Sexual potency was low in half of the male liquidators who were examined (Dubivko and Karatay. 15.. The number of boys born monthly in Bohemia and Moravia.39). and increased acidic phosphatase levels in ejaculate compared with other males of the same age (Ukhal et al. 16. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 34 1987 112 1988 253 1989 424 1990 646 1991 903 1992 1. Incidence (%) of spontaneous abortions in liquidators’ families (black rectangles) and in Ryazan’ Province (white rectangles) from 1987 to 1994 (Lyaginskaya et al... 1989. Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. an increase in maternal toxemia was associated with increased irradiation (Tabacova. Evdokymov et al. A third of 116 liquidators examined had intercourse disorders (Evdokymov et al. 11. A total of 21% of surveyed liquidators had sperm with reduced mobility and morphologic changes. 5. 2002. 1997. 18.. 17. 2001). 2002). CZECH REPUBLIC. Domrachova et al. The level of abnormal spermatozoids in liquidators correlated with the level of chromosome aberrations (Kondrusev. 2... 2004). lower sperm mobility. Vozylova et al.. The incidence of urogenital illnesses in male liquidators grew from 1. 1991).4... 3. 13. 12. 1997). 14. and autoimmune orchitis affecting spermatogenesis occurred soon after irradiation. Pathomorphological alterations occurred in testicular tissue of liquidators in Krasnodar Province. Other Countries 1.000). Sperm of some liquidators contained 6–8% immature cells (the norm is 1–2%.6. 2001).39.9.. There were spermatogenesis disorders in the majority of the surveyed liquidators 10 years after the catastrophe (Oganesyan et al. 1997). ARMENIA. 10. Urogenital morbidity in liquidators increased more than 40-fold from 1986 to 1993 (Table 5. 2007). Stepanova and Skvarskaya. BULGARIA. Fifty liquidators who were examined had sperm counts significantly lower than the norms (Tsyb et al. 2002).180 1993 1.8 to 4% from 1991 to 1998 (Byryukov et al. Lymphoid infiltration developed in the seminiferous tubules 5 years after the catastrophe and in the interstitial tissue after 10 to 15 years. significantly more dead sperm. 2001). 1986–1993 (Baleva et al.. 2002). the Czech Republic territories that suffered most TABLE 5. Dynamics of Urogenital Morbidity among Liquidators (per 10.6% did not meet qualitative norms (Mikulinsky et al.

5. The adverse influence of Chernobyl irradiation upon urogenital morbidity and reproductive function for liquidators and for millions of people living in the contaminated territories will continue in coming generations. 4. . 5. 1999). 4.0145 per mSv/year (95% CI: 1. A positive association for the male proportion in Germany between 1986 and 1991 with radioactive exposure at the district level is reflected in a sex odds ratio of 1. Such imbalance results from either hormonal disorders or direct damage by irradiation to the cellular predecessors of osteoclasts and osteoblasts (Ushakov et al. reproductive failures.05).1. 2005). and children from the territories contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. 2006). and a change in the osteoblast/osteoclast ratio (Luk’yanova. There were long-term chronic effects of the catastrophe on sex ratios at birth in Denmark. 2.4-fold higher than for the general population (Matsko. there were 457 fewer boys born than expected based on a long-term demographic trend (Perez. Belarus 1. Although some claim that poor reproductive function is due solely to psychological factors (stressful conditions). The bones of dead newborns demonstrate morphological defects: reduction in the number and size of osteoblasts. women.40). Germany. In 1995. Elevated placental radionuclide concentrations may be a factor in the death of newborns in contaminated territories (Table 5. In the contaminated territories there have been cases of children born practically without bones (“jellyfish-children”). Ukraine 1. 5.0021 – 1. The change occurred among babies who were 7–9 weeks in utero at the time of the catastrophe. 2005). stillbirths from the heavily contaminated territories had increased levels of alpha-radionuclides incorporated in bone tissue (Horishna. and birth abnormalities in children.0013–1. 5... 2. Hungary.2. Liquidators and inhabitants of contaminated territories often complain of bone and joint pain—the indirect indicators of the processes of osteoporosis. 1997). dystrophic changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. p < 0. In November 1986. 3. Norway. 1997). osteomuscular morbidity in evacuees and inhabitants of the contaminated territories was 1. 1997). 5. 1997a).05) (Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb.9–3. 2004).0271.7. p < 0.0081. 5. 2007).102 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences from Chernobyl fallout changed only once over 600 months of observation (1950–1999). 3. Osteomuscular illnesses were widespread among liquidators under 30 years of age (Antypova et al. Significant differences in quantitative ultramorphological parameters of sperm heads were observed in liquidators who had emigrated compared with men of similar age who were not irradiated (Fischbein et al. ISRAEL.7. In recent years. and Sweden between 1982 and 1992.0047 (95% CI: 1. Poland. Luk’yanova et al. Bone and Muscle Diseases Osteoporosis (decreasing density of bone tissue) results from an imbalance between the formation of bone and the natural reabsorption process. The number of newborns with developmental osteomuscular anomalies has increased in the contaminated territories (Kulakov et al. OTHER COUNTRIES.25 Bq/kg leads to weakness of the tubular bone structures and destruction of spinal cartilage (Arabskaya et al..6. 5... 2003. Finland. Cs-137 incorporated in the placenta at a level of 0. Conclusion Clearly there is an increasingly wide spectrum of urogenital illnesses in men. a condition seen previously only in the Marshall Islands after the nuclear tests of the 1950s. The proportion of males increased in 1987 with a sex odds ratio of 1..7. it is difficult to blame stress for abnormalities in spermatozoa.

3 15. 2002.3.8 129. 8.2 0.1 110.0 29.1 ± 0. From 1988 to 1999 osteomuscular morbidity in the contaminated territories more than doubled (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Radionuclide Concentration (Bq/kg) in the Bodies of Pregnant Women and in Organs of Stillborns Horishna.4 ± 0.2 94. From 1995 to 1998 primary osteomuscular morbidity in children of Bryansk Province was higher in the contaminated areas (Table 5. 1996).7 82.1 111. Up to 62% of liquidators complain of back pain and pain in the bones of their hands.1 217. 2002). Osteoporosis in liquidators also affects the dental bone tissue (Matchenko et al.7 All heavily contaminated districts. legs.3 89. In the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province.0 104. 2005 Radionuclides Mother’s body Placenta Liver Spleen Thymus Vertebrae Teeth Ribs Tubular bones 0. 2002.6 141. General osteomuscular morbidity of adults is higher in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province than in the province as a whole (Table 5. Kirkae.6 151.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ Province ∗ 1995 146.2 ± 0.02 0.9 120.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest Province 1995 173.3 67.05 0.8 0. Russia 1.7 101.4 ± 0.7 – 1.5% of cases the osteoporosis was accompanied by pathological bone fractures.9 0. 1999b: table 6.3-fold from 1991 to 2001 (Borysevich and Poplyko.02 Cs-137 Cs-137 Alpha Cs-137 Cs-137 Cs-137 Cs-137 Alpha Cs-137 Cs-137 103 TABLE 5.43). 3.41. The most frequently occurring osteomuscular pathologies among 600 liquidators who were examined were osteochondrosis of various parts of vertebrae and diffuse osteoporosis. 6. 8.8 111.41).9 25. 2.02 0. TABLE 5... Lukyanova 2005 et al.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.4 .8 150. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.42). 5.3 109.9 7.7 103. 7. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.02 1.7 102.1 29. 2002). 7..5 12.6 63.0 159.24 0.7 27. 5. In 3.3 100.4 17.7 82.9 69.9 22.5 0. 2002).0 105. Osteoporosis develops more often in liquidators than in comparable groups of the population (Nykytyna.3 58.3 ± 0.0 136. children’s general osteomuscular morbidity was noticeably higher than that of the province as a whole (Table 5.2 0.. 9.8 40.0 94. 1999a: table 5.4 1997 90.. 2001).2 162.000) among Children in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .4 1998 236. In 1996 osteomuscular morbidity in territories with contamination of 5–15 Ci/km2 was higher than for the population of the country as a whole (Grodzinsky.40.5 1996 118.7 ± 0. Osteoporosis was found in 30–88% of liquidators who were examined (Nykytyna. 2005).2 31.6 1997 216.3 3. and joints (Dedov and Dedov.3 37.0 174.2 217. 2004).0 1998 143. Osteomuscular Morbidity (per 1.7 109.7.4 49.9 11.2 129.4 81.7 41. 4.4 No data No data No data No data No data 0. Osteomuscular morbidity among adult evacuees is higher than in the general population of the country (Prysyazhnyuk et al.42. Shkrobot et al. Druzhynyna. 1999). Muscular system and connective tissue diseases in liquidators increased 2.6 1996 124.0 ± 0.9 76.03 0.2 67.3 40.0 110. Osteomuscular Morbidity among Adults in Bryansk Province Territories with Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .7 32. 6. 2003.

there will be new data on the effects of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination on bone and muscle.1) Number of cases 1994 1995 99. in addition.5 82.5 1996 39. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.3% also had osteoporosis of a vertebral body (Druzhynyna. Primary Osteomuscular Morbidity (per 1.000. The mineral density of bone in many liquidators is 16–37% lower than the age norms (Kholodova et al.6 87.2 1998 272.8 111. but this is apparently true only in respect to large doses (see.000) among Children in Bryansk Province. Chronic bone and muscle pain leads to loss of function and curtailment of activities needed to sustain life.2% had diffuse osteoporosis of the jaw. The loss of teeth leads to deterioration in a person’s ability to eat and secondary adverse dietary effects. Gus’kova and Baisogolov.. but also of many residents of the contaminated territories.43. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. 5.000) among Liquidators and the Adult Population of Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . and fractures) are characteristic not only of the majority of liquidators.6 76. Diseases of the Nervous System and the Sense Organs and Their Impact on Mental Health Thirty-plus years ago..44).3 All heavily contaminated districts.0 109.4 n/a compression of nerve roots. Since the Chernobyl catastrophe it is clear that low doses and low dose rates of . 1996... 1998). Undoubtedly. Conclusion Data concerning the influence of Chernobyl contamination on the osteomuscular system are scarce. 12.b). osteoporosis. 1999b: table 6..7. Havenaar et al. 11. 1995). The effects are especially serious for children when osteomuscular defects impede growth and activity.1 90.9 1997 24. 33. 10. e.5 80.5 1996 207.8. According to National Registry data. 1998). 1997a. Periodontal disease markers were found in all surveyed liquidators: 88.g. It is now clear that structural bone disorders (osteopenia. from 1991 to 1998 the osteomuscular morbidity of liquidators was significantly higher than for the population as a whole (650 vs. 2001). 5. and osteoalgia and arthralgias (Kholodova et al.4 87.4 1998 42. 2004).4. eases are not insignificant.0 80. there was less loss among liquidators who worked in 1987–1988 (Khartchenko et al.2 1997 221. Skeletal mineral losses in liquidators who worked in 1986 reached 42% (compared with peak age and weight). Accordingly. the report of the Chernobyl Forum (2005) attributed all neurological illnesses. 1998).. including children. and mental problems to posttraumatic stress (Havenaar.3 93. 9. 37.2 13.7 82. osteomuscular morbidity in liquidators in Bryansk Province was noticeably higher than that of the general population of the heavily contaminated districts and differed considerably from of the population of the province and Russia as a whole (Table 5.104 TABLE 5.9 238.2) Year Southwest Province 1995 19. 562 per 10.5 11. Bone and muscle dis- Liquidators Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 114.4 18.5 81. Osteomuscular Morbidity (per 1. 1999a: table 4. Some 62% of liquidators among the 274 who were examined had decreased skeletal mineralization and 8% had osteoporosis (Khartchenko et al. From 1994 to 1998.5 16. 1971). the nervous system was considered the system most resistant to ionizing radiation. not because these diseases are insignificant but because they attract little attention in terms of survival.3% had thinning of the compact plate of the mandible.4 81.5 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. as new material is published.. Byryukov et al.44. increased levels of depression.

Ushakov et al. 9.. From 2000 to 2005 there was a tendency toward an increasing incidence of mental disorders among children in this district (Dudinskaya et al. Ten years after the catastrophe nervous system disorders were the second cause of morbidity among teenagers evacuated from contaminated territories.170 individuals examined from the less contaminated districts of Vitebsk Province (Lukomsky et al. 4. the incidence of perinatal encephalopathy after 1986 was two to three times higher than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. Together with the ongoing changes in the way that the countries of the Former Soviet Union deal with psychiatric problems. 1999). 3. According to a longitudinal survey of pregnant women. with 331 cases per 1. Neurological morbidity of 1. 2. 2002). 18. 8. 2006). 4.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 105 radiation have enormous impact on the fine structures of the nervous system. 1997). 1997). it is apparent that low levels of ionizing radiation cause changes in both the central and the autonomic nervous systems and can precipitate radiogenic encephalopathy (for a review see Loganovsky. 1996). The first part of this section is devoted to the nervous system itself and the second to the sense organs. From 1993 to 2003 primary morbidity from nervous system disease and diseases of the eye and its appendages increased markedly among children aged 10 to 14 years born to irradiated parents (National Belarussian Report. 1996). which was contaminated with Cs-137 at levels higher than 1..8.. 2001). 5.. with radiation levels of 185–2.1 vs. 6. newborns. Mental health assessment in the Former Soviet Union dealt primarily with mental disorders as recorded in the national healthcare system. The number of cases of congenital convulsive syndrome (epilepsy) grew significantly in the contaminated territories in the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsymlyakova and Lavrent’eva. There is a growing body of evidence supporting radiosensitivity of the brain (Nyagu and Loganovsky. Belarus 1.1. on higher nervous system activities. . and ocular structures. the first group exhibited a sixfold higher incidence of vascularbrain pathology (27.1.. Nervous system morbidity in children increased in one of the most contaminated areas—the Luninetsk District of Brest Province (Voronetsky et al. Mogilev Province.0%). 5. and children in the contaminated territories of the Chechersk District. Diseases of Nervous System Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl catastrophe.8.708 adults in the Kostjukovichi District. Impaired short-term memory and attention lapse were observed among high school students aged 16 to 17 and the seriousness of these conditions correlated directly with the levels of contamination (Ushakov et al.1.. and a similar group of 202 individuals from the vicinity of less contaminated Minsk.110 kBq/m2 (30 Ci/km2 ).335 teens that were examined (Syvolobova et al. Morbidity from diseases of the nervous system and sense organs noticeably increased in all the contaminated territories (Lomat et al. not with data obtained from welldesigned psychiatric studies using standardized diagnostic procedures.000 out of the 2. Neurological and psychiatric disorders among adults were significantly higher in the contaminated territories (31. this approach may have led to dramatic underestimation of mental disorders (Loganovsky. maternity patients.. 1998). 1995). Gomel Province.2 vs. 1993). as well as on neuropsychiatric disorders that are widespread in all the contaminated territories.590 kBq/m2 (5–70 Ci/km2 ). 2006). Some parts of the central nervous system (CNS) are especially susceptible to radiation damage.5%. 5. 1997). In a comparison between 340 agricultural machine operators from the heavily contaminated Narovlya District. 7. was noticeably higher than in 9. Gomel Province.

Children irradiated in utero have more nervous system illnesses and mental disorders (Igumnov et al.2-fold increase in the incidence of nervous system and sense organ diseases among Belarussian liquidators (Borysevich and Poplyko. stress.8.4 2. 2002).369 to 4. Other data between 1988 and 1999 indicated that the incidence of neurological disease grew 1. Kiev Province.106 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.5 46. 1998). From 1991 to 2000 there was a 2. 2004) Irradiated.6 3. 1995).3 2. 5. and somatoform disorders (F40-F48) Physiological developmental disorders (F80-F89) Emotional disorders (F90-F98) Learning disorders 60. Intellectual development scores (IQs) for a group of heavily irradiated evacuee children from Pripyat City and for children from less irradiated Kiev (National Ukrainian Report. The number of children with mental illness in the contaminated territories increased: in 1987 the incidence was 2.0 0 11. the incidence of perinatal encephalopathy after 1986 was observed to be two to three times higher than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al.200 kBq/m2 (20– 60 Ci/km2 ).7 16. Figure 5. 1999).. 6. and children in contaminated territories of Polessk District. 5. 4.45.10..7 3. whereas by 2004 it was 5.8-fold during the 10-year period: from 2.3 0 13.1.. n = 121 n = 77 Neurologically healthy Predisposition to epilepsy (G40) Migraine (G43) Other headaches (G44) Sleep disturbances (G47) Other disorders of vegetative nervous system (G90) Neurological complications Intellectual health Organic mental disorders (F06 and F07) Neurotic.350 per 10. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) for 97% of 70 surveyed evacuees’ children indicated structural and functional immaturity of subcortical and cortical brain structures.000 (Horishna. Controls.000.5 25.2. that is. . Greater fatigue and lowered intellectual capacity was found in middle and high school age children in the contaminated villages of the Chernygov Province 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Bondar et al.3 7..6 17.5 1. 2001). The incidence of nervous system disease in children grew markedly in the contaminated territories 2 years after the catastrophe (Stepanova..9 10.7 1.0 0 0 0 58.2 85. The incidence of nervous system asthenia and vegetative (autonomic) regulation disorders was more that fivefold higher in evac- uees’ children compared with a control group (Romanenko et al. 1995a).000 children (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2005). 7. only two out of these 70 children had normal EEGs (Horishna. 8. newborns.10). 2004. By 1998 nervous system and sense organ diseases in children had increased sixfold compared to 1986 (TASS.6 15.4 25. 2. Irradiated children have lower IQs (Figure 5.4 3.3 7. 2002). 2006). 3. Occurrence (%) of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders among Children Irradiated In Utero (Nyagu et al. maternity patients. 2005). According to a longitudinal survey of pregnant women. which had radiation levels of 740–2..9 26. Ukraine 1.45).6 per 1.3 per 1. Table 5.

Nervous System Morbidity (per 10.8. 2003). Quantitative parameters of intellectual development (IQ) of the heavily irradiated evacuees’ children from Pripyat City were worse than those of the less heavily irradiated children from Kiev City (Table 5. and CFS can transform into MSX neurodegeneration.4 242 43 356 32 563 1. 10. n = 73 116 2. with predominantly organic symptomatic mental disorders (F00—F09) (Loganovsky. 2002). 1999... 2000b. organic. CFS may therefore be one of the most widespread consequences of the catastrophe for liquidators (Loganovsky.5% in 1996–2001). Nervous system and sense organ morbidity in the contaminated territories increased 3.8) using a composite international diagnostic interview.46). Somatoform autonomic dysfunction (F45. including: • In Russian-language literature often named “vegetative vascular dystonia. Behavioral and emotional disorders of childhood (F90–F99). F07).” also known as autonomic nervous system dysfunction. migraine.5% in 1990–1995 to 10. G43. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative cohort of liquidators within the frame of the Franco-German Chernobyl Initiative (Subproject 3.001) during the same period (from 15 to 48.504 1. 2000). 2005).000 Adults) in the Contaminated Territories of Ukraine. 2002). Moreover. From 93 to 100% of the liquidators have neuropsychiatric disorders. n = 108 Verbal intelligence Distinctions pIQ-vIQ ∗ 107 TABLE 5.1% of the overall morbidity in the contaminated territories (Grodzinsky.46. although CFS incidence decreased significantly (p < 0. In 1994. Children exposed in utero at 16 to 25 weeks of gestation developed a range of conditions. 1995a) Number of cases 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 All nervous 264 system diseases Vasomotor 128 dyscrasia∗ ∗ Controls. 11.47). 13.05. and neuropsychiatric disorders (Kovalenko and Loganovsky. A total of 26 out of 100 randomly selected liquidators who suffered from fatigue met the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) diagnostic criteria. The results .3). Disorders of psychological development (F80–F89).001) (from 65. • • • • Increased incidence of mental and personality disorders owing to brain injury or brain dysfunction (F06. 1987–1992 (Nyagu.9∗ 107 10. 1999). 12. psychosomatic.2%).to 5-fold between 1988 and 1999. nervous system illnesses in adults and teenagers and among evacuees accounted for 10. G40)..402 372 391 312 p < 0. 2006) Irradiated. Volovik et al. and abnormal schizoid personality development were documented according to local psychiatric classifications and ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria (Loganovsky. A marked growth of adult nervous system morbidity was observed in the contaminated territories during the first 6 years after the catastrophe. Quantitative Parameters of Intellectual Development of Heavily Irradiated Evacuees’ Children from Pripyat City and Less Exposed Children from Kiev City (Yablokov et al. the frequency of occurrence of metabolic syndrome X (MSX—a group of risk factors for heart disease) increased significantly (p < 0. Paroxysmal states (headache syndromes. CFS and MSX are considered to be the first stages in the development of other pathologies.47. 15. 2001. 14. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). epileptiform syndromes. G44.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. Among adult evacuees these illnesses occurred significantly more often than in the population as a whole (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 9. especially after 1990 (Table 5. cognitive impairment.

At the same time. 2005)... 7. The average age of both male and female Ukrainian liquidators with encephalopathy was 41. In 1986. and neuroimaging methods (Loganovsky et al. 2004a. 21. 1992. 25. and a dramatic increase in the incidence of depression (24. 2005b). Irradiation occurring in the contaminated territories causes brain damage.. 1994. nervous system and sense organ morbidity among liquidators was more than triple the country’s average (Serdyuk and Bobyleva. A longitudinal study of the cognitive effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe on the liquidators and forestry and agricultural . Autonomic nervous system disorders are closely connected to disorders of neuropsychiatric behavior such as asthenia. some 80 male Ukrainian liquidators with encephalopathy had both structural changes and functional impairment in the frontal and left temporal brain areas (Antipchuk. neuropsychological. Loganovsky and Loganovskaya.2 ± 0. 2001).83 years.5%). 22.000 in the Ukraine in 1990. 2003). 2004. and focal brain lesions (Loganovsky et al. 2002. Romanenko et al. attention deficits. 2003.4 vs. ruling out a major contribution from this factor (Demyttenaere et al. organic brain damage was verified by clinical neuropsychiatric. 2004). 1999). with cortical–limbic system dysfunction and impairment of informative processes at the molecular level that can trigger schizophrenia in predisposed individuals or cause schizophrenia-like disorders (Loganovsky et al. Loganovsky and Yuryev. 2004). 2002. The EEG patterns and topographical distribution of spontaneous and evoked brain bioelectrical activity of liquidators differed significantly from those of the control groups (Nyagu et al.5 vs. 19.. emotional disturbance. From 1990 there were reports of a significant increase in the incidence of schizophrenia among the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel compared to the general population (5.4%).1%). noticeably younger than for the population as a whole (Stepanenko et al. Among liquidators the typical structural brain disorder involves the frontal and left temporal lobes with their cortical–subcortical connections and the deep structures of the brain. hypochondriasis. 9.1%). 2000). paroxysmal variants.6 vs. 1. enlargement of cerebral ventricles. Loganovsky and Bomko. there is a high incidence of stenotic processes. 17. The cerebral basis for deterioration of higher mental activity causing such disorders following a limited period of irradiation is pathology in the frontal and temporal cortex of the dominant hemisphere and the midline structures with their cortical–subcortical connections (Loganovsky. 1998). 2003. presence of vestibular I–III dysfunction. 23. In some cases. neurophysiological. Anxiety (panic disorder) was also increased in liquidators (12. Autonomic nervous system disorders among liquidators who worked in 1986–1987 differed from disorders in liquidators from 1988–1989 in stability. alcohol dependence among liquidators was not much higher than that in the total population (8. 18. Pathologic radiographic changes in brain structure include atrophy.. neuroses. Noshchenko and Loganovsky. and peripheral hemodynamic disturbances. 20. Nyagu and Loganovsky. Increased rates of neuropsychiatric disorders and somatic pathology (F00–F09) were observed among liquidators who worked in 1986–1987. and depression (Romamenko et al. 6. cerebral hemisphere asymmetry. The cerebral homodynamic disorders are caused by atherosclerotic changes. In 1996. especially in those who spent several years working within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (Loganovsky. and poor circulation on the left. Nervous system morbidity among liquidators in 1986–1987 was twice as high as in 1988–1990 (Moskalenko. 2003). 1995)..1 per 10. 2003). With hypertonic vascular tone.6 vs.108 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences indicated an almost twofold increase in the incidence of all mental disorders (36%) in liquidators compared with the general Ukrainian population (20... expressiveness. 16. 24. disturbed memory. 1998).

9 212.8 1996 111.8 79. Children irradiated in utero had the highest indices of mental disability and were more likely to display borderline intelligence and mental retardation linked to their prenatal irradiation (Ermolyna et al. 2001).6 107. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of children of different ages from heavily contaminated territories revealed increased functional activity of the diencephalic structures. passes that of the province and the rest of Russia by a significant margin..” which includes disorders of memory. caused by destruction of brain cells in adults (Sokolovskaya.2 155. nervous system and sense organ morbidity in liquidators exceeded the country’s average 6. These findings strongly indicate impairment of brain function resulting from both acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation (Gamache et al.2 173.8 102. convulsions.2 140. as well as psychomotor slowing. There are increasing instances of a phenomenon termed “Chernobyl dementia.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.3.48).7 158.6 143. 11. 10.1 134. The occurrence of an encephalopathy in liquidators increased 25% from 1991 to 1998. for all exposed groups over the 4-year period. Over 40% of the more than 2. maternity patients. 1997).8 71. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.7 128.5 125. Ultrasound studies of babies’ brains from these territories revealed ventricular hypertrophy in almost one-third (Kulakov et al. 2001).2 143. 18%.0 59. 9. 2005).6 154.49). Although data on children’s neurological morbidity in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province are contradictive (Table 5. 1997).0 131.2 134.4-fold (Russian Security Council.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Klintsy City Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gorgdeevo Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ workers living within 150 km of Chernobyl was conducted in 1995–1998..48. 2006). 7. In the contaminated territories a lower level of nonverbal intelligence is found in children radiated in the 15th week of intrauterine development (Rumyantseva et al. Orel Province. newborns.. 1996). and pulsing headaches.1 242.8. 8. Borderline adult neuropsychological disorders occurred noticeably more often in the contaminated territories (31 vs.4 159.. 6. According to a longitudinal survey of pregnant women. The 4-year averaged levels of accuracy and efficiency of cognitive performance of the exposed groups (especially the liquidators) were significantly lower than those of the controls (healthy Ukrainians residing several hundred kilometers away from Chernobyl).. and by 2004 the increase was up to 34% (Zubovsky and Tararukhyna. 1997).000 liquidators that have been observed over many .2 213.1 187.8 64.2 124. 2.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 109 TABLE 5. the level of this morbidity in Klintsy City and Krasnogorsk District sur- 1995 109. 1999b: table 6. 5. 4.3 275. In 1995.6 133.0 1997 109.3 237..0 49.4 135..0 178. From 1986 to 1993 neurological morbidity in liquidators increased 42-fold (Table 5.0 1998 125. the incidence of perinatal encephalopathy observed after 1986 was double that prior to the catastrophe (Kulakov et al.1.2 71. Ushakov et al.8 144. 3.0 70. 12. and children in the contaminated territories of the Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10–15 Ci/km2 ) districts. Impaired short-term memory and attention deficit in pupils 16 to 17 years of age in the contaminated territories correlated with the level of contamination (Ushakov et al.0 54. 2002).0 123. 2007). 5. Russia 1. General Nervous System and Sense Organ Morbidity among Children in Bryansk Province Districts with Contamination above 5 Ci/ km2 . Longitudinal analyses of performance revealed significant declines in accuracy and efficiency. writing.

7% had mental impairment caused by damage or dysfunction of the brain or somatic illness (F06. 1986–1993 (Baleva et al. 17. neuropsychological illnesses were the second cause of overall morbidity in 18% of 1. Dynamics of Nervous System and Sense Organ Morbidity (per 1.5 129. 2001). These disorders became clearly apparent 10 to 12 years after the catastrophe. 1998). 19. expressed as excruciating TABLE 5. 2003). A total of 12% of surveyed liquidators had polyneuropathy.9 124. In 150 male liquidators 44.7 1996 372. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 23 1987 79 1988 181 1989 288 1990 410 1991 585 1992 811 1993 989 years suffer from organic brain diseases of vascular or mixed origin.6 134.1) Group/ Territory Liquidators Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ Number of cases 1994 312.6 1995 312.. 16.5 ± 3 years of age there was an increase in slow forms of EEG activity.6 136. 14.6 314.5 1998 467.50). Neuropsychological pathology among Russian liquidators in 1999–2000 included: 34% encephalopathy. 2006). some 53. are more significant with every passing year. disruption of central regulatory functions. Of more than 1.3 126. 2001).50. Autoimmune and metabolic thyroid gland pathologies are also major factors in the mental disorders found among liquidators (Rumyantseva et al. .000 liquidators evaluated up until 2005. and 17% neurocirculatory dystonia (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. and are characteristic of diffuse organic brain lesions with localization mainly in the frontal area (Rumyantseva et al. decreased quality of performance on all cognitive tests. 2006). 18.6 136. intercerebral asymmetry. Nervous system and sense organ morbidity among liquidators of Bryansk Province was noticeably higher than for the general population (Table 5.5 1997 376. The EEG findings suggested subcortical disorders at different levels (diencephalic or brainstem) and functional failure of either the right or left hemispheres long after radiation exposure had ceased (Zhavoronkova et al. 1999a: table 4. 2000).2 131. Observations on liquidators revealed that changes in brain asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction can be produced not only by a dysfunction of subcortical limbic– reticular and mediobasal brain structures. These illnesses are the result of long-lasting cerebral-ischemia. and possibly of damage to the endothelium of small blood vessels (Rumyantseva et al.. 1998). According to data from the Russian Interdepartmental Expert Council for the years 1999–2000..9 118. impaired memory. 17% vegetative vascular dystonia (vasomotor dyscrasia). burning pains.5 130. 1994–1998 (Fetysov. The incidence of encephalopathy and proven organic pathology increased from 20 to 34% as compared with 1991–1997 and 2000.. Nervous System and Sense Organ Morbidity among Liquidators and the Adult Population of Bryansk Province Territories with Contamination Levels above 5 Ci/km2 . including the corpus callosum (Zhavoronkova et al. 2002). and limb atrophy (Kholodova et al. and neurological diagnoses became more serious by diagnostic criteria (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. 15... 17% organic disorders of the central nervous system. 13.000) among Russian Liquidators. 2001). but also by damage to the white matter. F07).110 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. and other functional disorders (Zhavoronkova et al..5 134.49..000 surveyed liquidators (Khrysanfov and Meskikh.6 127.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.5 104.2 136.

deep frontal and temporal lobes. 1997). 2003). Tsygan. LITHUANIA. 1998. a shortening of attention span. 2003. 26. 1995. Kholodova et al. the presence of pathological reflexes.. Voloshyna. Vyatleva et al. 1997). sporadic loss of consciousness... not relieved by medications. 1997. and common hyperhydrosis. sensation of fever or heat. 2006). sponginess and puffiness of soft tissues. and (f) diffuse singular or multiple localized space-occupying lesions of the brain tissue (Kholodova et al.. Khomskaja. flashes. There were many reports concerning neurophysiological. 1995. Typical complaints from liquidators include severe headaches.to 11-year-old children and cannot be attributed to social factors—they clearly testify to radiation-induced brain damage (Kholodova. 1993. and diffuse decreases in bioelectric activity. 2000. 21. Nyagy and Loganovsky. 23. 2001... 28. Napreyenko and Loganovsky. Loganovsky. diminished capacity for work. 24. Other Countries 1. Many liquidators had complex organic disorders of the brain. 2006). and the connections in the cortex–subcortex (Khartchenko et al.. acrohyperhydrosis. reflecting pathology of the visceral brain. These features correspond to skill levels typical of 10.. Zhavoronkova et al. Morozov and Kryzhanovskaya. After Chernobyl. and depressive syndromes. 1994.. 2006). 2002. and neuroimaging abnormalities in liquidators (Danylov and Pozdeev. impaired memory of current events. (c) expansion of the arachnoid cavity. 1992. 1997. Antipchuk. 2006)..1. Revenok. loss of vision. Other organic nervous system impairments include cranial nerve abnormalities. Krasnov et al. 2006). (e) thinning of the corpus callosum. and occipitoparietal parts of the cerebral hemispheres (Kholodova. the left temporal area. Four hundred liquidators 24 to 59 years of age with organic disorders of the central nervous system have irreversible structural brain defects: structural changes in the frontal lobe.. palpitations. 25. (d) decreased density of the white brain substance. 1995. general weakness.8. difficulty in thinking. 1993. 2000. 1995. generalized sweating.. diffuse dermographism. The neurological damage suffered by liquidators includes well-marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction expressed as acrocyanosis.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 111 20. marked hyperreflexia. 1998. Characteristic dysfunction in liquidators involves deep parts of the brain: diencephalic areas.and theta-wave bands. heart seizures. Ushakov et al. 2003. 2002. and numbness in hands and feet (Sokolova. asthenia. and others). These data strongly support clinical findings of organic brain damage caused by radiation (Chuprykov et al. 1996. 5. 2006). and problems with short-term memory and operative thinking. suicide was the leading cause of death among liquidators living in Estonia (Rahu et al. The seriousness of brain pathology in liquidators correlates with impaired blood circulation in various cortical white substance sites and deep subcortical formations (Kholodova. 2. 22. and abnormal Romberg test scores (Kholodova. 1998).. neuropsychological. fatigue. Khartchenko et al. 2002. Liquidators demonstrate impaired task performance. reflecting diffuse cortex and subcortical area damage (Kholodova. facial redness. Zozulya and Polischuyk. Antonov et al. Age-adjusted mortality from suicide increased among the Chernobyl liquidators compared to the general Lithuanian population (Kesminiene et al. Zhavoronkova et al. including: (a) hypometabolic centers localized in white and gray matter and in deep subcortical formations. Kholodova. 1995. (b) ventricular enlargement. Romodanov and Vynnyts’ky. ESTONIA. bone and joint pains and aches that interfere with their sleep. often asymmetric. . 27. 1994.4. 1998. EEG brain activity demonstrates two types of pathologies: high-amplitude slowed alpha. 2006).

1..1. and dreaming. have resulted in marked organic damage. 5. more damage was found among students born in regions that received more fallout. Children under 5 years of age who were exposed have more problems with eye accommodation and more overall eye diseases than controls (Serduchenko and Nostopyrena. Retinal pathology in children in the Khoiniky and Vetka districts.2. vitreous degeneration.6 percentage points) less likely to qualify for high school (Almond et al. attention span. Clearly. 2001). 4. and temporal lobes. 1999). Gomel Province (4. including perception. Belarus 1. Gomel Province. are deteriorating. Moreover. considered harmless by former measures of radiation protection. conjunctivitis. 7.797 people examined). students from the eight most affected municipalities were significantly (3.637 Swedes born from 1983 to 1988 revealed that the cohort in utero during the catastrophe had poorer school outcomes than those born shortly before and shortly after this period. refraction errors. increased about threefold: from 6 to 17% in the first 3 years after the catastrophe compared to 1985 (Byrich et al. newborns. 2007). short-term memory.5.8. nervous system functions. Clouding of the lens..4%. with Cs137 contamination of the soil at levels of 5– 70 Ci/km2 showed an increase in the number of sensory organ development abnormalities. malpositioned ears.9% in controls (Avkhacheva et al. Conclusion Previous views claiming resistance of the nervous system to radiation damage are refuted by the mounting collective data that demonstrate nervous system illnesses among the populations of the contaminated territories. especially persons that were radiated in utero and liquidators. visual and hearing abnormalities occur with greater frequency than in the less contaminated areas: premature cataracts. 2001). 1999). 2001). Diseases of Sense Organs Throughout the more contaminated territories. . 5. In heavily contaminated territories there is a noticeably higher incidence of congenital malformations. 1984).6% of exposed children compared with 2. microphthalmia.112 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 3. From 1988 to 1989 the incidence of congenital eye malformation in children (3 to 4 years after the catastrophe) was fourfold higher in the heavily contaminated Gomel Province (1.. 5. and children in the Chechersk District. and occipitoparietal parts of the cerebral hemisphere. Byrich et al. the existing radiation levels in the contaminated territories have harmed the central nervous system of countless people. maternity patients. uvitis. Edwards. Even rather small amounts of nuclear radiation. A comprehensive analysis of a data set of 562. 2001). These conditions are associated with deep cerebral hemispheric damage: diencephalic areas... 2000). The fact that intellectual retardation is found in 45% of children born to mothers who went through the Hiroshima and Nagasakai nuclear bombardment is a very troubling concern (Bulanova. 1995. including cataracts.2. These findings correspond to those concerning reduced IQ hibakusha who were irradiated 8 to 25 weeks after ovulation (Otake and Schull. was found in 24. 3..8. 6. 2. operative thinking. including congenital cataracts in neonates (Kulakov et al..8. deep frontal. and hearing loss.63%) than from 1961 to 1972 in Minsk (0. Low-dose radiation damages the vegetative (autonomic) nervous system. especially liquidators. 1996). 1993. Cataracts in children are common in the territories with contamination levels above 15 Ci/km2 (Paramey et al. Goncharova. an early symptom of cataracts. This impairment was greatest for those exposed 8 to 25 weeks postconception. A survey of pregnant women. and extra ear tissue (Kulakov et al. SWEDEN. For many inhabitants of the contaminated territories. 5.

.2. 15. From 1993 to 2003 cataract morbidity increased 6% annually among male liquidators (National Belarussian Report.52. 5. cataracts were markedly more common in the more contaminated territories and among evacuees than in the general population (Table 5. 2001). A survey of pregnant women. usually combined with neurovascular disease. newborns. was found in 227 surveyed liquidators and in the population of contaminated territories (Petrunya et al.11. Incidence of Cataracts (per 1. 3.6 >10 6. 29% in controls. Crystalline lens opacities occur more frequently in the more radioactive contaminated territories (Table 5.9 113 TABLE 5.3 compared to 14. vitreous degeneration. % 6–10 17. 1999). Ukraine 1. 14. 1999). Figure 5. 2006).. Increased incidence of vascular and crystalline lens pathology. Hearing disorders are found in more than 54% of inhabitants of the contaminated territories..7 1. a level noticeably higher than that of the general population (Zabolotny et al. maternity patients. 1999.51.2. including congenital cataracts in neonates (Kulakov et al.8. 2.000 (Matsko. 1999). Gomel Province (Bandazhevsky. Ci/km2 Year 1993 1994 1995 Belarus 136 146 147 1–15 190 196 n/a >15 226 366 n/a Evacuees 355 425 443 1–5 Brest Province. 1999). incidence of cataracts among Belarussian evacuees from the 30-km zone was more than threefold that in the population as a whole: 44. 13. 16. 2006). Kiev Province (soil Cs-137 contamination 20– 60 Ci/km2 ) showed an increase in the number of sensory organ development defects. 137–377 kBq/m2 (n = 77) Vitebsk Province. 1993–1995 (Matsko.11). 9. 1999). Eye disease significantly increased from 1993 to 2003 among children 10 to 14 years of age born to irradiated parents (National Belarussian Report. 2000) Contaminated territories. Number of bilateral lens opacities and level of incorporated Cs-137 in Belarussian children (Arynchin and Ospennikova. Arynchin and Ospennikova.52) and correlate with the level of incorporated Cs-137 (Figure 5. 12.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. 1999).5 60. Eye diseases were more common in the more contaminated districts of Gomel Province and included cataracts.51). 10. Bilateral cataracts occurred more frequently in the more contaminated territories (54 vs.9 7.. and children in contaminated territories in the Polessk District.7 per 1.000) in Belarus. Incidence (%) of Opacities in Both Crystalline Lenses among Children Living in Territories with Various Levels of Contamination. Goncharova. 2001).7 kBq/m2 (n = 56) 57. and refraction abnormalities (Bandazhevsky. 11. From 1993 to 1995. The level of absorbed Cs-137 correlates with the incidence of cataracts in children from the Vetka District. In 1996. 1999) Incidence of opacities. 1992 (Arynchin and Ospennikova.1 8.

The occurrence of involutional cataracts in the contaminated territories increased 2. and cataracts were seen in persons younger than 30 years of age.9 per 1. 90% of the territory.7 ± 35. Kiev Province. Individuals from contaminated territories and liquidators had premature involutional and dystrophic changes in the eyes. of 461 examined) than children from Boyarka City (soil Cs-137 contamination 37–184. In Ovruch the incidence of myopia and astigmatism was significantly higher (Fedirko and Kadoshnykova. 90% of the territory. 11. 4.7 per 1. 8.7 Ci/km2 .26 Ci/km2 (maximum 4. Two new syndromes have been seen in liquidators and in those from the contaminated territories: • Diffraction grating syndrome. Individuals from contaminated territories and liquidators had a marked decrease in ocular accommodation (Sergienko and Fedirko.000 in 1993 to 766.0 to 766.4 Ci/km2 ). This was observed in liquidators who were within direct sight . Two girls (who had early changes of cortical layer density in 1991) were diagnosed with dim vision.000. Involutional cataracts increased from 294.3 ± 32. 90% of the territory. 2002).5 ± 10. Among 5. One cataract occurred for every four cases of other eye pathologies (Buzunov et al. The villages differed only in the degree of Cs-137 contamination of the soil: (a) First village: average 12.89 Ci/km2 (maximum 2.7 ± 23. 2007). Fedirko and Kadoshnykova.1 Ci/km2 ). In 1992–1998 children from Ovruch City (soil Cs-137 contamination 185–555 kBq/m2 ) had significantly higher subclinical lens changes (234 per 1. chronic conjunctivitis. eye pathology was diagnosed in 1.992) correlated with the average and maximum levels of soil contamination. In 1991 a group of 512 children 7 to 16 years of age from four villages in the Ivankiv District. 7. and the incidence of lens pathology was higher in villages with higher levels of soil contamination.87 Ci/km2 ). and vitreous destruction were observed more often than in the less contaminated areas. Children who were exposed before they were 5 years of age have more problems with eye accommodation (Burlak et al. in which spots of exudate are scattered on the central part of the retina.301 evacuees examined. (c) Third village: average 1.9 per 1. involutional cataracts.62 Ci/km2 ).405. 2007). retinal pathologies. (d) Fourth village: average 0. 1999).0 per 1. 2007).. 2007). In 1995 the incidence of atypical lens pathologies in the first and second villages (with average soil contamination over 2 Ci/km2 ) increased significantly to 34. 5. 5. and benign neoplasm of the eyelids. was examined.000 in 2004.6fold from 1993 to 2004: from 294. 2002. Atypical lens pathologies were observed in 61 children (density of the posterior subcapsular layers.9%. of 1. 2006). among 841 adults examined from 1991 to 1997.8 per 1..000 in 1993 and 585. and vacuoles) and were highly (r = 0. increasing incidence of chorioretinal degeneration such as age-dependent macular degeneration (AMD).11 Ci/km2 (maximum 13.000 (Fedirko. 1999). dimness in the form of small spots and points between the posterior capsule and the core. 6. 10. (b) Second village: average 3. Central chorioretinal degeneration with clinical symptoms of AMD was the most frequently occurring form of delayed retinal pathology: 136. 9. 1.0 Ci/km2 . 2. development of ocular vascular diseases.000 in 2004 (Fedirko. 90% of the territory. 4.114 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 3. Typical lens pathologies were detected in 51% of those examined.9 kBq/m2 or 149 per 1.4 Ci/km2 (maximum 8. which has never been observed in less contaminated areas (Fedirko and Kadochnykova.000.7 ± 35.8 Ci/km2 .7 Ci/km2 .3 ± 32. In the heavily contaminated territories. suggesting the development of involutional cataracts (Fedirko and Kadoshnykova.487 examined).

Russia 1. The incidence of cataracts was significantly higher for male liquidators compared with female liquidators (Ruban. In differing degrees. 5. 13.8. an incidence 47-fold that in a similar age group of the general population. combined with psychological stress. named for the shape of a chestnut leaf. Liquidators suf- .5 ± 10. 1997). including congenital cataracts in neonates (Kulakov et al. expressed as new chorioretinopathy.. High-frequency audiometry revealed that the most abnormalities occurred in liquidators with vocal problems (Kureneva and Shidlovskaya. Incipient chestnut syndrome. 4. neuropsychological. 2000). 4.8 per 1. 12.. 1991). newborns. 2007). manifested as left frontotemporal limbic dysfunction. Some 3% of liquidators under 40 years of age had cataracts. contaminated with Cs-137 levels of 1–5 and 10–15 Ci/km2 showed an increase in the number of sensory organ developmental deficiencies. 2.4.7 ± 23. Retinal pathology was markedly higher than the norm among 2002 liquidators’ children who were born after the catastrophe and examined between 1999 and 2006 (Fedirko and Kadoshnykova.8. 2001). 1996). dilations. 6..3-fold from 1993 to 2004: from 136. ISRAEL.. fer from defects in different parts of the auditory system resulting in progressive hearing loss and a stuffy sensation and noise in the ears (Zabolotny et al. 1999). 1998). Orel Province. Cwikel et al.3. and children in the Mtsensk and Volkhovsk districts. 2005). Among the consequences of the damage to the nervous system caused by the Chernobyl catastrophe are cognitive. 2001. 1998). Klymenko et al.. 3. 2. and neuroimaging abnormalities in liquidators. chronic fatigue syndrome.6% of 182 surveyed liquidators had cataracts (Lyubchenko and Agal’tsev. A 2-year follow-up study of immigrants to Israel from the Former Soviet Union revealed that the proportion of those reporting chronic visual and hearing problems was statistically higher for immigrants from contaminated territories (304 individuals) compared with immigrants from noncontaminated (217 individuals) and other areas (216 individuals. Between 46 and 69% of surveyed liquidators had some hearing disorder (Zabolotny et al. and sacs in the retinal veins around the macula (Fedirko. Adverse effects also include neurophysiological abnormalities in the prenatally exposed and neurophysiological. indications of schizophrenia and related disorders. Conclusion There is little doubt that specific organic central and peripheral nervous system damage affecting various cognitive endpoints. A survey of pregnant women. The frequency of central chorioretinal degradation increased among the liquidators 4.2. emotional. changes of retinal vessels with multiple microaneurisms. 2000). 14. A total of 6. Cataracts in newborns occurred twice as often 1 year after the catastrophe (Irgens et al. 5.2.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 115 • of the exposed core of the fourth reactor (Fedirko. NORWAY.7% had glaucoma (Nykyforov and Eskin.000 (Buzunov and Fedirko. is directly related to Chernobyl’s ionizing radiation. and.3..7 to 585. 5. 2002). these conditions affect all liquidators and practically every person living in the contaminated territories. 2001). and behavioral disorders. More than 52% of 500 surveyed liquidators had retinal vascular abnormalities (Nykyforov and Eskin.8. 2001). maternity patients. schizophreniform syndrome. as observed in both individuals from the contaminated territories and liquidators. Other Countries 1. 5.

40% had gastrointestinal tract illnesses (Belyaeva et al. and 1. 5.3. In 1995. Digestive diseases in adults and liquidators are more common in the contaminated territories. chronic hepatitis-C.000. 10. Digestive system morbidity increased from 4.000 (Matsko. Syvolobova et al.5% in 1994 and was the second cause of overall morbidity of children in the Luninetsk District. Belarus 1. In the Stolinsk District in 1996 the incidence of this disease was more than fourfold that seen in 1991 (Gordeiko. the incidence of acute hepatitis-B.. Gastrointestinal tract pathology is connected to morphologic and functional thyroid gland changes in children from territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels of 1–15 Ci/km2 (Kapytonova et al. 13.535 individuals examined in 1996. In 1996 the occurrence of chronic gastritis in children was up to threefold higher in the heavily contaminated territories than in the less contaminated areas. Of 135 surveyed juvenile evacuees from Bragin City and the highly contaminated territories of Stolinsk District. and hepatic cirrhosis diseases was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated territories of Gomel Province than in the less contaminated Vitebsk Province. 4. Brest Province. 1995).1. 1996).653 adults and teenagers examined. The number of digestive organ malformations in newborns increased in the contaminated territories (Kulakov et al. There was a twofold general increase in chronic gastritis in Brest Province in 1996 compared to 1991.033 children examined in the heavily contaminated territories from 1991 to 1993 there was a significantly higher incidence of serious caries and lowered acid resistance of tooth enamel (Mel’nichenko and Cheshko. Ten years after the catastrophe digestive illnesses were fourfold more common among liquidators than in the general adult population of the country (Antypova et al. 2002).8-fold higher than in the general population of the country: respectively.784. Official recognition occurred 10 years (!) after doctors began to sound the alarm and 13 years after the problem was first registered.9. Of 2. while among liquidators the increase was 46.116 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Only after 2000 did medical authorities begin to recognize the radiogenic origin of a universal increase in cataracts among liquidators and evacuees from the Chernobyl territories. 1997a). the collected data from the contaminated territories point to a solid basis for such a conclusion. however. 1997). 2001).298.. 5. From 1991 to 2001 digestive system illnesses among liquidators increased 1. 1996). Brest Province (Voronetsky et al. 1996).. Of 1..817 per 100. Of 2. 12... 6. it is more difficult to classify these with certainty as being caused by a radiogenic component.65-fold (Borisevich and Poplyko.6% in 1986 to 83.9. 2. 1997).6%. 11. 1998). 7. From 1991 to 1996 stomach ulcers among the population increased 9. with chronic hepatitis in liquidators 1. 7. . Digestive System and Visceral Organ Diseases Digestive system diseases are among the leading causes of illness in the contaminated territories. 1999).6-fold higher than in 1988–1995 (Transaction. the incidence of diseases of the digestive system among liquidators and evacuees in the contaminated territories was 4. 9. 1999). 3. 1998). digestive system illnesses were the first cause of general morbidity in teenage evacuees (556 per 1.. 8. Compared to other illnesses.7% (Kondratenko.and 1. By 1996 the incidence of these diseases had increased significantly. Chronic upper gastrointestinal disease was common in children of liquidators (Arynchin et al. 5. 3.

122 per 10..9 vs. 16. 1995). In 1996 digestive system morbidity of inhabitants in territories with contamination greater than 15 Ci/km2 was noticeably higher than for the country as a whole (281 vs. and others). gallbladder. 8. 1999. 11. 2002).. Peptic ulcer. Ukraine 1.. 1995). and biliary problems were rampant (Romanenko et al.. There were significantly increased levels of hepatic.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 117 5. 1995). 2.9.9% of liquidators (Yakymenko. Digestive system morbidity in adult evacuees considerably exceeds that of the general population of the country (Prysyazhnyuk et al..4 (2002) . In 1990 ulcers and gastric erosion were found in 60. dyspeptic syndromes. 8. 12. TABLE 5. 1995). 17. and from 1989 to 1990 allergies.5 to 3 years inflammation was the most prevalent symptom. 1999. which included structural. 1995. 2006). Tooth caries in boys and girls as young as 1 year are more common in the contaminated territories (Tolkach et al. Premature tooth eruption was observed in girls born to mothers irradiated during childhood (Tolkach et al. Romanenko et al. 2001). 1999). Pancreatic Echogram Abnormalities in Male Ukrainian Liquidators (% of Those Examined) (Komarenko et al.000.000 (Korol et al. The number of digestive system diseases in children rose markedly within the first 2 years after the catastrophe (Stepanova. 1999). Komarenko and Polyakov. 7. 14. 2002.5-fold higher than the country average (Serdyuk and Bobyleva. 1998). In 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe up to 60% of the liquidators examined had chronic digestive system pathology. and functional secretory disorders of the stomach. gallstone disease. 9. and pancreatitis occurred noticeably more often in inhabitants of territories with higher levels of contamination (Yakymenko. After the catastrophe pancreatic abnormalities in liquidators were diagnosed through echograms (Table 5. 2003). 18.. 4.659 compared to 1. 1995).53). 2003).53. and pancreatic diseases in 1993 and 1994 in the heavily contaminated territories (Antypova et al. Atrophy of the stomach mucosa occurred five times more often. Only 9% of the liquidators evaluated in 1989 and 1990 had normal stomach and duodenal mucous membranes (Yakymenko. motor... 1995). Komarenko et al. 1998). Children irradiated in utero had significantly higher incidence of gastrointestinal tract pathology than controls—18. 6. In 1987 and 1988 functional digestive tract illnesses were prevalent in evacuees’ children. and intestinal metaplasia twice as often in children living in areas contaminated at a level of 5–15 kBq/m2 than in a control group (Burlak et al. 3. 1995). followed by indolent erosive hemorrhagic ulcers (Romanenko et al. Grodzinsky.. 210 cases per 1. From 1993 to 1994 digestive system diseases were second among overall morbidity (Antypova et al.6 (1987) 1996–2002 67 81 32 26 14 10 87.9% (Stepanova. For the first 2. The incidence of stomach ulcers among Ukrainian liquidators in 1996 was 3. Digestive system morbidity in children more than doubled from 1988 to 1999—4... The incidence of digestive diseases in children correlated with the level of contamination of the area (Baida and Zhirnosekova.2. 5.. chronic cholecystitis. 13. 10. 15. 2003) 1987–1991 Thickening Increased echo density Structural change Contour change Capsular change Pancreatic duct dilatation All echogram abnormalities 31 54 14 7 6 4 37.

6 2. 2006).55 and 5.0 2. 1995). Of 236 examined who were born before the catastrophe 32. Digestive system morbidity in liquidators increased 7.000) among Children in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . 8. 2005).9. 7. Children and the teenagers living in the contaminated territories have a significantly higher incidence of dental caries (Sevbytov.6 0. 4.7 2. 9. 1999) <5 5–15 15–45 Ci/km2 Ci/km2 Ci/km2 Tooth anomalies 3.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 1995 182. 2005). The incidence of general and primary digestive system diseases in children in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province is noticeably higher than the average for the province and for Russia as a whole (Tables 5.56).118 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. fatty liver. In Voronez Province there was an increased number of odontomas in children who were born after 1986. 2.58).5 114. Overall Digestive System Morbidity (per 1.4-fold over a 9-year period (Table 5.7 91. . Tula Province (n = 183). TABLE 5.7 2.4 5.000 (Byryukov et al. and chronic hepatitis (Romamenko et al.3.2 Dentition deformities 0. In general.2 6.9 114. persistent active hepatitis.1% had normal structure (Table 5. In 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe liquidators had increasing numbers of hepatobiliary illnesses.6% had normal dentition.55.5 88.6 1.3 2.6 Occlusion 2. Children who were irradiated in utero in the contaminated territories are significantly more likely to develop dental anomalies (Sevbytov. digestive system morbidity in adults increased in the majority of the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province (except in the Krasnogorsk District).6 4.3 0. Tula Province (n = 183).9 115.9 1996 163..0 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.54. 6.. Bryansk Province (n = 178). ∗ 5 Ci/km2 : Donskoy City. Tumors were found more often in girls and the complex form was most common (Vorobyovskaya et al. Incidence of Dental Anomalies (%) among Children Born before and after the Catastrophe Exposed to Different Levels of Contamination in Tula and Bryansk Provinces∗ (Sevbytov et al.1 0.. 5. Russia 1. 2005). 2001).4 4.8 6.2 5.9 94. 15–45 Ci/km2 : Novozybkov City. This increase occurred against a background of reduced morbidity in the province and across Russia (Table 5.3 3.7 4.54).6 90. 1999b: table 6. 5–15 Ci/km2 : Uzlovaya Station. 501 per 10.4 Age norm 5.. including chronic cholecystitis.6 2.6 0. 3. The Russian National Register reported that digestive system morbidity among liquidators from 1991 to 1998 was markedly higher than in corresponding age groups in the country: 737 vs.6 Time of birth Before 1986 (n = 48) After 1986 (n = 82) Before 1986 (n = 8) After 1986 (n = 15) Before 1986 (n = 39) After 1986 (n = 86) Before 1986 (n = 77) After 1986 (n = 28) 19. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. Periodontal pathology was more common in children from contaminated territories and occurred more often in children born after the catastrophe (Sevbytov. The frequency of the occurrence of dental anomalies is markedly higher in children in the more contaminated territories.4 0.6 1997 153. 5.57).9 1998 154. whereas of 308 examined who were born in the same territories after the catastrophe only 9.

56.0 63.2 91. Of 118 surveyed liquidators.7 65. Ivanova. an incidence much more common than in corresponding age groups in the country as a whole (Druzhynyna. it was accompanied by Sr-90. together with circulatory. which is six.9 79. Conclusion The increase in the incidence of digestive system diseases as a result of Chernobyl irradiation cannot be doubted. which is harmful to the developing teeth.4 155.0 72. Ten years after the catastrophe a rapid increase in digestive organ diseases in liquidators began. Pathologic ultrastructural digestive tract changes were observed in liquidators: decreased activity and undifferentiated epithelial cells in the duodenum. 13. 1999b: table 6.8 95. Chronic catarrhal gingivitis was present in 18% of 98 surveyed liquidators (Druzhynyna.5 51.9 88.3 78. 2005). 1999a: table 6.to eightfold higher than the norm (Lyubchenko and Agal’tsev. digestive system morbidity accounted for 28.2) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 119 1995 103.7 42.7 143.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 12.7 56.6 79. 17.0 64. the erosive type). and muscular diseases (Figure 5.1 1996 81. and fibrosis of the gastric mucous membrane (Sosyutkin et al.0 97.3 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.6 65.0 46.8 1997 84. 2001). 2001)..000) among Adults in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .4% have superficial destruction of the mucous covering of the gastroduodenal junction. 60. 11. and the resultant decay All heavily contaminated districts.0 105. 18.9 60. 2001). Among 98 surveyed liquidators 82% have chronic periodontal disease.4.2 74. 40.000) among Children in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .3 1996 98. Pathological tooth enamel erosion is widespread among liquidators (Pymenov.0 90.8 74. 15. where Cs-137 was easily detected. Primary Digestive System Morbidity (per 1.2 1997 84. 14. General Digestive System Morbidity (per 1.4 n/a 5. Digestive system morbidity among both liquidators and the population of the contaminated territories of Bryansk Province noticeably increased from 1994 to 1998.2 46. In contaminated territories. 2004). and 29% have thickening of the gallbladder wall (Noskov.5 76. Of 901 pathologies found in 182 liquidators.9 82.5 1998 157.59). 1995–1998 (Fetysov.1 42.6 118. TABLE 5.8 92.8 58. 2004.6 93.1 91. bone.12).6% have liver changes.8 52.9.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. 1995 88. 33.9% of the liquidators have had chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis (often.2%.57.2 88.2% have structural pancreatic changes. 2003). endotheliocytes in stomach microvessels.. 2004. 2004).6 89. 16.7 69.. Matchenko et al.9 57.4 1998 83. Making fewer diagnoses of vegetovascular dystonia has turned this constellation of diseases into a more serious organic illness—discirculatory pathology.3 92. 10. Sr-90 decays to Y-90 via release of a beta particle. A total of 87. The expression of chronic pancreatitis in liquidators correlated with the level of irradiation and the degree of the lipid peroxidation (Onitchenko et al. which is taken up during intrauterine development and deposited in teeth and bones. . which is especially significant against the background of a decrease in the province and in Russia as a whole (Table 5.

3 346. (4) ischemic heart disease.4 78.350 1990 3.5 n/a The skin.. circulatory. a multilayered organ with multiple functions. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 82 1987 487 1988 1.5 52.100 isotope. it is logical to assume that similar consequences from Chernobyl irradiation will have a prolonged effect in territories where radioactive conditions persist. 5. (2) bone and muscle.8 69. The skin is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. (5) circulatory encephalopathy.12.0 65. and in the southern Ural mountain area owing to radiation contamination (Ostroumova. plus melanocytes. 1999a: table 4. Considering the significantly increased digestive system morbidity among children of irradiated parents in Japan (Furitsu et al. Digestive.10.. as is demonstrated by the research cited in this section. The assumption appears proven that low-level irradiation acts in some way to directly affect the function of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium—and not only during intrauterine development. weakens the structural integrity of the teeth. but also diseases of internal organs and the effects of organic and inorganic agents that are absorbed internally.58.000) among Russian Liquidators (Baleva et al. Figure 5.0 88.1) Group/ Territory Liquidators All of the Southwest Province Russia Number of cases 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 24. By 1994 skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases had increased among children in all of the heavily contaminated territories compared with 1988 (Lomat’ et al.3 91. Digestive System Morbidity (per 10. and the sebaceous and sweat (eccrine) glands. 2004).1. bone.10. the dermis. 2006.120 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. General Digestive System Morbidity among Liquidators and the Adult Population of Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .210 1991 4. 1994–1998 (Fetysov.7 45. and muscle diseases among liquidators from Moscow City and Moscow Province: (1) digestive system. is made up of the epidermis.4 91. and (6) autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Oradovskaya et al.0 54. Belarus 1.6 95.. There was an immediate increase in the incidence of digestive tract diseases among liquidators and a rise in the number of congenital digestive system malformations in babies born in the contaminated territories.270 1989 2. 5.59. including the keratinaceous structures that form nails and hair.7 71. and various cells. 1992). Y-90.. TABLE 5.7 63. (3) hypertension. Thus the skin and all of its subcutaneous components reflect internal damage to blood vessels and other tissues of the body.4 269. 2007). Skin Diseases Associated with the Chernobyl Catastrophe Diseases of the skin reflect not only the effect of external irritants. 1996). .2 64.2 523.0 63.8 97.200 1992 5.290 1993 6.

6. the incidence of children’s skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases increased 1. Russia 1. 4.3 76.5 71.0 1998 83.62 and 5. 1995).3 86. Incidence of diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues among liquidators increased 6 years after the catastrophe and in 1992 exceeded the level of 1986 more than 16-fold (Table 5. From 1995 to 1998 the incidence of overall and primary skin diseases in children in the heavily contaminated territories was noticeably 1995 88. Ukraine 1.1 78... Exudative diathesis (lymphotoxemia) in preschool children in the contaminated territories occurred up to four times more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al... 1997). which is one of the most contaminated districts (Kyseleva and Mozzherova..000) in Southwestern Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.7fold from 2000 to 2005 (Dudinskaya et al. where Cs-137 contamination was 15–40 Ci/km2 . more than 70% came from the heavily contaminated territories (Morozevich et al. Overall Skin Diseases among Children (per 1. 6. 1995).61). The incidence of skin disease among children who were newborn to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe is significantly higher in territories with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 than in children of the same age from territories with contamination of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al. 1996). 2001). 4.61. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. 2.3 83. In 1996 overall skin morbidity in adults in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province corresponded to parameters in the province as a whole (Tables 5. 2006).3 68.1 1996 89.7 73. 5.63). Gomel Province.7 65.60. In Senkevichi Village.6 1998 74. skin and subcutaneous morbidity was a maximum in 1993 (Blet’ko et al.598 children examined in Kormyansk and Chechersk districts. was significantly higher compared to less contaminated districts (Gudkovsky et al. 5.8 84. Dermatological pathology was found in 60% of children and teenagers in Gordeevka. 1999b: table 6.6 1997 102...10. . Skin diseases among evacuees living in the heavily contaminated territories from 1988 to 1999 was more than fourfold higher than in the less contaminated areas (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Of 69 children and teenagers admitted to hospitals with various forms of alopecia. 3. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. 3.2 69. Primary Skin Diseases among Children (per 1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 121 TABLE 5.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 2.10.6 71. 5.60 and 5.2. 1995 111. Bryansk Province.4 81.9 80.3 1997 95. 1999b: table 6.8 63. endothelial TABLE 5. Luninets District. Skin pathology found among liquidators included thickening of the cornified and subcellular layers of the epidermis. higher than in the province and in Russia as a whole (Tables 5. Brest Province.64). 2002).3. Out of the first 9 years after the catastrophe. From 1986 to 1993 the incidence of skin disease among 4. 2003).2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.9 1996 105.2) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 5.000) in the Southwest Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .

Luninets District. 7.0 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.1.54fold from 2000 to 2005 (Dudinskaya et al. 3. 1993).000) in the Southwestern Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . viral hepatitis. 5.2 36.. Data for 1. and respiratory viruses in areas contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides (Batyan and Kozharskaya. 2002). Brest Province. Undoubtedly the post-Chernobyl period has seen an increase in diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues in children and liquidators.6 54.7 1997 51. 1995 50. Chernobyl radionuclide contamination impacted microbial flora and fauna and other of our symbionts (parasites and commensals) and changed our biological community (see Chapter 11). 2001). and others).2 38. gastroenteritis.. 1993. swelling.3 68.4 48. Infections and Parasitic Infestations Ionizing radiation is a powerful mutagenic factor (see Section 5.000) in the Southwestern Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .2 above for details). 2002.4 62.0 46. 2.11. 1995).4 45.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 60. 1999a: table 6. 1999a: table 6..62. An increased incidence of whipworm (Trichocephalus trichiurus) infestation (trichocephalosis) correlated with the density of radioactive contamination in Gomel and Mogilev provinces (Stepanov. findings correlated with the level of the radiation load (Porovsky et al.9 1997 61. the psoriasis was always combined with functional impairment of the nervous system and with gastrointestinal disorders (Malyuk and Bogdantsova. There is evidence of increased incidence and severity of diseases characterized by intestinal toxicoses. Clouds from Chernobyl dropped a powerTABLE 5.4 53. Genetic instability markedly increased in the contaminated territories and has resulted in increased sensitivity to viral and other types of infections (Vorobtsova et al. 2006).9 54.. 1994. 1996). Busuet at al. 5. Kapytonova and Kryvitskaya.122 TABLE 5.4 1996 67. the occurrence of infectious and parasitic illnesses in children increased 1. In Senkevichi Village. 5. inflammatory lymphocytic infiltration accompanied by active panvasculitis of most of the small arteries. Overall Skin Diseases among Adults (per 1.0 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. 1993. 2005). Nesterenko et al. 4.046 pregnant women from territories with contamination above 1 Ci/km2 showed that incidence of the puerperal sepsis in heavily contaminated territories was significantly higher than in areas with less contamination (Busuet et al.. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. bacterial sepsis.7 1998 45. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. . Among the 97% of liquidators who developed psoriasis after the catastrophe. Among 135 children living in the contaminated territories of Stolinsk District and Bragin City who were examined in 1993–1995.6 1996 52.3 1998 58.. Primary Skin Diseases among Adults (per 1.. a total of 20% had chronic urogenital infections (Belyaeva et al.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ ful cocktail of radionuclides over the entire Northern Hemisphere (see Chapter 1 for details).026. 1995). Herpes virus activation in the heavily contaminated territories of Gomel Province resulted in increased intrauterine and infant death rates (Matveev et al.63.5 50..5 42. Belarus 1.5 50.1 40.11.

653 individuals examined.. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Abnormalities among Russian Liquidators (per 10. 1995). 15. Gomel Province. infections and infestations were significantly higher than in children from territories with contamination levels of 5–15 Ci/km2 .. the incidence increased from 17.. 1993. In Gomel Province hepatitis B and C infections in adults and teenagers rose significantly after 1986. Tuberculosis was more virulent in the more contaminated areas (Chernetsky and Osynovsky. 1995.. During 1991–1995 there was a serious increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in the heavily contaminated areas of Gomel Province.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 123 TABLE 5..000 in 1986 to 35. 1993). where there were drug-resistant forms and “rejuvenation” of the disease (Borschevsky et al.. Among 2. . 1996). Kiev Province. Herpes viral diseases doubled in the heavily contaminated territories of Gomel and Mogilev provinces 6 to 7 years after the catas- trophe compared with the rest of the country (Matveev. By 1995. Ukraine 1. 5. 1993).. 1998a). anti-HBc. 1996). where 1. Among 784 preschool children examined from 1986 to 1991 in territories having contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 . 2. 1995). infectious and parasitic diseases in children were over five times more common in the heavily contaminated territories compared with less contaminated areas. Neonates born to mothers from territories in the Chechersk District.. 14. women with gestational herpes in Gomel Province with a Cs-137 contamination higher than 15 Ci/km2 experienced 8. occurred 2. 1998a).626 individuals examined) increased from 221 to 349 per 100. contaminated at a level of 5–70 Ci/km2 had congenital infections 2.814 individuals examined the incidence of specific markers of viral hepatitis HbsAg. 1993). 7. 17. contaminated at a level of 20–60 Ci/km2 . 10. Belookaya. 13. 12.. In 1993.000) (Baleva et al.6-fold more infant deaths compared to less contaminated territories (Matveev et al. 9. Activation of cytomegalovirus infections in pregnant women was found in the heavily contaminated districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces (Matveev. From 1993 to 1997 in Vitebsk Province the persistence of infectious hepatitis among adults and teenagers was noticeably higher than in control groups (Zhavoronok et al. 1998b).000 (Zhavoronok et al. 18. 11. In 1988 these territories did not differ in terms of the occurrence of such diseases (Baida and Zhirnosekova..9-fold more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al.057 children were examined (Gutkovsky et al. 1996). 1997). 1997). 1998b). In all the heavily contaminated territories there was activation of herpes viruses (Voropaev et al. In the Mogilev and Gomel provinces.11. Blet’ko et al..1 vs.. 8. From 1988 to 1995 chronic hepatitis in liquidators (1.64.2. and anti-HCV was significantly higher in liquidators and evacuees than in inhabitants of less contaminated districts of Vitebsk Province (Zhavoronok et al. 2. there was a noticeably higher level of cryptosporidium infestation: 4.0 cases per 100. 16.8% in controls (Lavdovskaya et al.9-fold more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. Congenital infections in neonates born to mothers in the Polessk District. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 46 1987 160 1988 365 1989 556 1990 686 1991 747 1992 756 1993 726 6.0 in 1990 (Zhavoronok et al. 1998). Among 2..

.7 . Conclusion The above data concerning infectious and parasitic diseases in liquidators and those living in contaminated territories reflect activation and dispersion of dangerous infections.9 34.66). Infectious disease deaths among infants were significantly correlated with irradiation in utero (Ostroumova. occurred 2. impaired immunological defenses in the populations.1) Number of cases 3. 1996). One year after the catastrophe.6 1996 112. 1995–1998 (Fetysov..66.124 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 2006).6 52. The prevalence and severity of Gruby’s disease (ringworm).8 45. 4% in controls) occurred in Bryansk Province (Lavdovskaya et al.4. Congenital infections in neonates born to mothers from heavily contaminated territories of the Mtsensk and Volkhovsk districts..0 68. Lavdovskaya et al.6 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. 1999b: table 6. The incidence of kidney infections in teenagers significantly increased after the catastrophe and correlated with the level of contamination (Karpenko et al. 2001). 2004). The incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases in children. or a combination of both is not TABLE 5. The number of cases of pneumocystis was noticeably higher in children in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province (56 vs. Gruby’s Disease (Ringworm) Incidence (per 100.1 121. 8. Oryol Province.000) in Bryansk Province. 10.0 107. 2. 2003) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Heavily contaminated districts 56. 2004).0 68. 2003). 5. 1996). 30% in controls. The overall incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province from 1995 to 1998 was highest in 1995.9-fold more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. caused by the fungus microsporia Microsporum sp. 3.3 104. Infantile infections are noticeably higher in three of the more contaminated districts of Kaluga Province (Tsyb et al. A significantly higher level of cryptosporidium infestation (8 vs.3 58.3.6 23. Territories Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 1995 128. 1997). Herpes and cytomegalovirus viruses were found in 20% of ejaculate samples from 116 liquidators who were examined (Evdokymov et al.2 78.7 1998 94.000) in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . contaminated at levels of 1–5 and 10–15 Ci/km2 .. 1998– 2002 (Rudnitsky et al. infectious and parasitic diseases were the primary cause of illness among military men who were liquidators (Nedoborsky et al. 5.11. 0 to 4 years of age at the time of the catastrophe was significantly higher in the years 1986–1993 in territories with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 than in children the same age from territories with contamination of 5–15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al. The incidence of infections resulting in the death of children in the heavily contaminated districts of Kaluga Province has tripled in the 15 years since the catastrophe (Tsyb et al.8 Less contaminated districts 32.. Whether this is due to mutational changes in the disease organisms rendering them more virulent.65. 4.. 7. and higher than the incidence in the province as a whole (Table 5.65). 11.. 1996).4 1997 99.5 64.. was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated areas of Bryansk Province (Table 5. Childhood Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (per 1... 9. 5.8 102.8 71. 6. Russia 1.. 2006a).11.3 79.

62 4.09∗ <1 Ci/km2 5. 2003. Ibragymova.000 before the catastrophe to 9.76 5.3)..62 6. in districts with Cs-137 contamination levels of 1–5 Ci/km2 the figure was 30%.76 3. and in the districts with contamination levels above 15 Ci/km2 the number reached 83% (Table 5. 1998). but was especially significant in areas in Gomel and Mogilev provinces with Cs-137 levels of contamination higher than 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al. which are often the only ones officially registered as anomalies.61 6. there was an increase in the number of children with hereditary anomalies and congenital malformations.05.3 above for details) and the second type includes developmental anomalies resulting from impacts during embryonal development. including the less contaminated Vitebsk Province (Nykolaev and Khmel’.. 2005: table 1. caused by toxic external influences.46 4.000 Births) of the Officially Accounted for Congenital Malformations in Belarussian Districts with Different Levels of Contamination.12. Tsymlyakova and Lavrent’eva. 1997) Level of contamination Year 1982 1983 1984 1985 1982–1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1987–1992 ∗ fully answered. 1996a.85∗ 1982–1985 compared with 1987–1992.80 6. There was a higher incidence of CM morbidity in the more contaminated areas than in less contaminated ones (Table 5. Analysis of more than 31.22 6. significant increases in CM morbidity were registered for the whole country. and others).61 5.38 for the years from 2001 to 2004 (National Belarussian Report.01∗ >15 Ci/km2 3.77 7.32 4.12. . increased noticeably after the catastrophe. In 1990 the primary.32 7. Hoffmann. 4. and body (Tsaregorodtsev. or teratogenic. 5. 1982–1992 (Lazjuk et al.87 8. This section presents data concerning congenital malformations and developmental anomalies. Goncharova. Incidence (per 1.98 5. caused by mutations.67). head.94 5. 2006). 5. Although the increase in CMs is marked mainly in the heavily contaminated territories.14 8. The incidence of CMs increased significantly from 5.68).52 5. The frequency of the occurrence of CMs. 5.96 4.89 5.74 3.06 3. Goncharova. 3. 6.00 4.58 4. 1996. The other developmental anomalies arise as a result of damage during prenatal development and can be genetic.000 abortuses revealed that the incidence of officially registered CMs increased in all of the contaminated territories.65 6.50 6. One type has a strong genetic background (see Section 5. 1–5 Ci/km2 5.72 5. 2.58 3. 1999b). Among them are the so-called “large” congenital malformations (CMs). 2000. These included previously rare multiple structural impairments of the limbs.88 7.94 4.54 4.67. Congenital Malformations There are several thousand large and small congenital malformations or anomalies. It is clear that continued detailed observations are needed to document the spread and virulence of infectious and parasitic diseases among people in all of the contaminated territories.52 4.17 4. Some 24% of the children in the socalled “clean” regions (<1 Ci/km2 ) were born with CMs. Belarus 1. which was stable up to 1986.58 per 1. usually occurring up to the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. 1996. but by 2001 it was fourfold higher (UNICEF.1. Wherever there was Chernobyl radioactive contamination.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 125 TABLE 5. 2001. initial diagnosis of CM in children was twice that of the illnesses in adolescents 15 to 17 years of age.25 5. p < 0.

08 4. 13.91 1. ∗ A compared to B (1987–1988).99∗ 7.32 0.128 237 1987–1989 7.35 98. Eventually. Since 1992 a program to interrupt pregnancy in accordance with medical and genetic parameters (500 to 600 cases in a year) has stabilized the birth of children with CMs (Lazjuk et al.7 in 1994.6.88∗ 0. Incidence of Officially Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1.877 239 1990–2004 8.972 1. 1996a). with most of the cases in territories with Cs-137 contamination of above 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al.000 Live Births) in Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas of Belarus before and after the Catastrophe (National Belarussian Report. Heavily contaminated B.5 per 1. 7. In Gomel Province congenital anomalies of the eye increased more than fourfold: from 0..69).000 newborns in 1985 to 17. The incidence was higher in Gomel Province (4. In 1994.) Heavily contaminated areas Years Incidence of all CMs Anencephaly Spinal hernia Polydactyly Down syndrome Multiple CMs Newborn and stillborn total Children and stillbirths with CMs ∗ Less contaminated areas 1981–1986 4.97∗ 23.126 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 11. whereas others increased from 1990 to 2004. 9. ∗∗ p < 0.. There was an increased incidence of 26 officially registered CMs after the catastrophe.22 0.33 0. 1997).05..278 601 p < 0. there was less TABLE 5. Annually in the country there are no fewer than 2.01 2.00∗∗ ∗ p < 0. 1996).36 0.27 58.10 1. 1999).9% for the country as a whole (Bogdanovich.15 1.59 2. 10.0%).08 0.36 0.82∗ 0.4 to 1.82 4.69.05. heavily and less heavily contaminated areas differed with some CMs increasing from 1987 to 1988.28 0.89 1.36 7. The incidence of CMs increased significantly in 17 heavily contaminated districts (>5 Ci/km2 ) and in 30 less contaminated dis- tricts (<1 Ci/km2 ) compared to 5 years before and 5 years after the catastrophe. Heavily contaminated districts had increased frequency of occurrence of CMs compared with less contaminated ones only from 1987 to 1988 (Table 5. Incidence of Congenital Malformations (per 1.88 1.41 0.71 1.000 Live Born + Fetuses) in 17 Heavily and 30 Less Contaminated Districts of Belarus (National Belarussian Report.50 0. 8.88 1.57 0.500 newborns with CMs.1%) than in the least contaminated Vitebsk Province (3.05.88∗∗ 8.64 1. CM incidence increased in the whole of the country from 12. Less contaminated 1981–1986 1987–1988 1990–2004 4.31 76.23 47.99 0. Nine years after the catastrophe the number of newborns who died because of nervous system developmental anomalies was statistically significant (Dzykovich et al.25∗ 0.00∗ 0. 2006: table 4. 12. .96 0. Polydactly and limbreduction defects were significantly different in the heavier and less contaminated districts in 1987 and 1988.b).08 2. and averaged 3. CMs were the second cause of infant mortality.925 187 1990–2004 7.522 430 1987–1989 4.69 0.75 1.. 1981–1986 compared with 1990–2004.295 1981–1986 4.63% from 1961–1972 to 1988–1989 (Byrich et al.68.29 0. 1996a.32 161. 2006) Districts A.

3 ± 2.3 ± 1.3 ± 1. 1996a) Number of cases District Gomel area Bragin Buda—Koshelevo Vetka Dobrush El’sk Korma Lel’chitsy Loev Khoiniky Chechersk Mogilev area Bykhov Klymovychy Kostyukovychy Krasnopol’e Slavgorod Cherykov Total ∗ 1982–1985 4.5 2.6∗ 6.4 12.84 1.71.7 ± 1. 15.62) 4.1 ± 1.08 1.3∗ 6.0 3.27 2. 1999).57 0.17 0.2 3.6 6.88 0. 2006) 1981–1986 1987–1988 1990–2004 Anencephaly Spinal hernias (Spina bifida) Lip defects Polydactyly Limb reduction Esophageal and anal atresia Multiple CMs ∗ 127 TABLE 5.000 Live Births) and Different Levels of Contamination (Lazjuk et al.98) 7. The frequency of occurrence of CMs from 1986 to 1996 in areas contaminated at a level greater than 15 Ci/km2 was significantly higher than in Minsk.72).0 3.9 ± 2.7 4.22 0.28 0. Ukraine 1. .000 Live Births + Fetuses) in Gomel and Mogilev Provinces of Belarus before and after the Catastrophe (Lazjuk et al.17 – 5.2 1.2 1.0 9. 18.32 p < 0. Matsko.2.97∗ 1.4 3.2 ± 0.32 0. Compared with Minsk.4 4.1 6. 14.3 ± 1.1 10.01 (4.96 – 5.8 ± 1.64 0.41 1. The occurrence of CMs in Gomel Province was sixfold higher in 1994 (Goncharova. 1996b. Occurrence of the officially registered CMs correlated with the level of radioactive contamination of the territory (Table 5.19 1.10 0.23 1..35 0.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.65 0.12.6 ± 2.6∗ 0.29 0.6 ± 2.96 1.25 – 6.0 7. In five districts the increase was significant compared with precatastrophe data (Table 5.85 (5.06 – 4.6 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 0.61 (3.2 ± 1.91 0.70).21 0.21 0..71). 16.73).0 ± 2. 2000).31 2.70. with the highest incidence of 9.4 3.0 ± 3.9 7.23 2.6 ± 1. Incidence of Officially Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1.14 0.27 1.1 ± 1.25∗ 0. The incidence of registered CMs noticeably increased in 14 out of 16 districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces 1 to 2 years after the catastrophe. tuses in the contaminated areas of Mogilev and Gomel provinces was significantly higher in the first decade after the catastrophe (Table 5.7 12.71 1. Before the Chernobyl catastrophe only one case of severe CMs in a newborn was seen TABLE 5.88 – 8.36 0.49 0.7 3.05.7 ± 2.15 1. Incidence of Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1.6 ± 2. distinction between heavily and less contaminated districts and the incidence of CMs in the former decreased in comparison to that in the latter (Table 5.62 – 7.6 ± 2.69 0.87 occurring in 1992 (Lazjuk et al.8 7.72.05.0 ± 0.9 ± 2.74) 3.5 ± 1.2 2.2 3.0 ± 1.61) All differences are significant.1 4. 1999) Level of contamination <1 Ci/km2 1–5 Ci/km2 >15 Ci/km2 ∗ Number of cases 1982–1985 4.76) 6.0 ± 1.35 0.4 ± 2.50 0.0∗ 9.4 ± 1.76) 1987–1992 5.8 ± 1.87 (3.33 0. Occurrence of Officially Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1. Top Line: Data for 17 Districts with Levels above 5 Ci/km2 .59∗ 0.4 5. 1996a.6 ± 2.2 ± 1. Bottom Line: Data for 30 Districts with Levels below 1 Ci/km2 (National Belarussian Report.1 4.72 (4.22 0.7 4.13 0.6 3.09 (4. 5.6 ± 2. 17.9∗ 7.000 Live Births + Fetuses) in Contaminated Districts in Belarus.5 ± 1.23 0.75 0.3 1987–1989 9.09 0..2 ± 2. the incidence of CMs among medical abortuses and fe- p < 0.

.7-fold during the first 12 years after the catastrophe (Grodzinsky. absent or deformed limbs.136 children born to 1986–1987 liquidators. 000) of Strictly Registered Congenital Malformations. From 1987 to 2004 the incidence of brain tumors in children up to 3 years of age doubled (Figure 5. 1995). 2005). abnormally thin.21∗∗ CNS anomalies 0. 2002a).000 neonates). 1998). deformed internal organs. Occurrence of officially registered CMs increased 5.52 ± 0. 2002). Medical Abortuses. 1999).8-fold more frequently than in less contaminated areas (Horishna. 7. and retarded growth increased significantly in the contaminated districts (Horishna. Horishna. 13. and 24–60 in 1993–1997 (Figure 5.001) and the spectrum of CMs changed (Stepanova. Ten years after the catastrophe. 5.209 registered cases in the period from 1981 to 1985 compared with 4.60 4.05.22 vs. 8.128 TABLE 5.95 ± 0. after the catastrophe 98% of central nervous system anomalies were due to hydrocephalus. 10. rough. The highest incidence of maxillofacial CMs (mostly cleft upper lip and palate) occurred in children born within 9 months after April 26.79 Multiple limb 0.63 0.. Common developmental anomalies include scoliosis. Thereafter the ratio began to decrease: 83–102 children in 1989–1991. The peak incidence of CMs in the period from 1987 to 1994 occurred in 1990 (Orlov.73. and leathery skin.. tightly clustered hair. The number of the small congenital malformations (anomalies of development) correlated with the level of in utero irradiation (Stepanova et al.168 n = 20. and Fetuses in Minsk Compared with Gomel and Mogilev Provinces Contaminated at Levels above 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al. Comparison of the Incidence (per 1. ∗∗ p < 0. the occurrence of CMs increased significantly (5.54 Polydactyly 0. According to the Neurosurgery Institute. The incidence of CMs is twice as high in contaminated districts (Horishna.5). dry.14) and in infants it increased 7.07 0. early tooth decay. 2. when there were up to 117 per 1.507 n = 2. 11. 9. and was six.28 defects ∗ Second half 1986. 67 in 1992.53 0. For children irradiated in utero. afterward there were several cases a year (Horishna. 1999). 2005). 2005). in a 5-year period. Among the 13.5-fold (Orlov et al. 1999. National Ukrainian Medical Academy in Kiev. The highest incidence of CMs among children born to liquidator families was observed in 1987–1988.90 7. 2001. 15. the level of congenital malformations in Rivne Province increased from 15. throat and tooth deformities. 1986∗ –1996. 2004.18 in controls. most noticeably in the heavily contaminated northern districts (Evtushok.. 2006). .6% had officially registered CMs. 3. 6. Disability owing to congenital defects in children newborn to 15 years of age increased more than threefold in the Ukraine from 1992– 1993 to 2000–2001: from 10 to 31 per 10. p < 0.53 0. 12..to tenfold more common in the more contaminated areas of Kiev City and Kiev and Zhytomir provinces compared with the less contaminated provinces of Vinnitsa and Khmelnitsk (Nyagu et al. 4. 14. After 1986 the number of children with CMs increased in the contaminated territories (TASS. Golubchykov et al.701 All CMs 5. 1986.000. malformations n = 10. 2005).000 (UNISEF. 2005).32 0. and alopecia (Stepanova.3 to 37.925 cases from 1987 to 1994. 1999) Territories/period Minsk Contaminated districts Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Congenital 1980–1985.10 0. 9. Previously rare multiple CMs and severe CMs such as polydactyly. 1986∗ –1995.3 (per 1. 2005: table 1. Developmental anomalies in children from heavily contaminated districts occur up to 2. 1998.13).. 2. 1999). The average annual increase in central nervous system defects was about 39% among 2.

Number of cases of central nervous system tumors in children under 3 years of age from 1981 to 2002. .to fivefold in 1991 and 1992 compared with the precatastrophe level. which resulted in a twofold increase in children’s deaths in these districts 15 years later (Tsyb et al. 1999).13.14. 16. The heavily contaminated districts of Kaluga Province had an increase in the number of CMs after the catastrophe. 1998. Lyaginskaya et al.. Urogenital tract CMs accounted for more than 20% of all officially registered anomalies and were more frequent for the period from 1998 to 2001 (Sorokman. 2003). 2006). CMs in contaminated regions increased three.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 129 Figure 5. The number of CMs noticeably increased for several years after the catastrophe (Lyaginskaya and Osypov.3. 3. 4. Russia 1. 5.. 2007). Sorokman et al.12. 2.. 1995.000) of congenital malformations in children born to families of Ukrainian liquidators who worked in 1986–1987 (Stepanova. 2002). with a noticeable increase in anomalies of the genitals. nervous Figure 5. Incidence (per 1. 2006). taken from Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery data (Orlov and Shaversky. The number of CMs increased markedly for several years after the catastrophe in the heavily contaminated districts of Tula Province (Khvorostenko.

9 8.6-fold higher than corresponding Russian parameters (Sypyagyna et al. More cases of central nervous system defects in newborns were observed in Austria after Chernobyl (Hoffmann.000 Live Births) in Bryansk Province Districts with Contamination Levels above 5 Ci/km2 . 46. 1999). 1988) collectively cover only about 10% of the European population (Hoffmann. Other Countries Official European registries of CMs (EUROCAT Registry. calculation by A.000 (UNICEF..1 8. Infant mortality in Bryansk Province due to structural CMs was fivefold the Russian average (Zhylenko and Fedorova. GEORGIA. especially in what were probably the most contaminated areas of Ajaria Republic and Racha Province (Vepkhvadze et al. The increase was most pronounced for malformations of the central nervous system and anomalies of the abdominal wall. The number of CM cases diagnosed as “harelip” and “wolf mouth” increased after the catastrophe..1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 14.. The occurrence of officially registered CMs in the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province was significantly higher from 1995 to 1998 than for the province as a whole (Table 5. 8. respectively. 2002). Y. by Schmitz-Feuerhake.. 7. From 1986 to 1987 the rate of CMs increased significantly— about 26%.12.000 children born to liquidators.3 (per 1. 2001). Subgroups with higher incidence included malformations of the central nervous system and limb-reduction anomalies (Harjuletho et al. 2001). AUSTRIA.7 8.9 1996 13. 1996.. 6. by Hoffmann. According to the Russian State Registry. 1. Most European countries do not routinely register prenatally diagnosed malformations that lead to induced abortions (Hoffmann. the rate of registered CMs was about 16. Occurrence of CMs among children of liquidators was 3. 2001). 1991). 1995– 1998 (Fetysov. as well as multiple anomalies following the Chernobyl contamination (Moumdjiev et al.6 1998 11. 2005: from table 1. 4. An analysis of the nationwide GDR Malformation Registry for the prevalence of cleft lip/palate revealed a . 1998. BULGARIA. 1993.541 autopsies at the University Clinic of Zagreb between 1980 and 1993 showed a significantly increased incidence of central nervous system anomalies during the post-Chernobyl period (Kruslin et al. 1998).000 total births) and 18.7 had congenital developmental anomalies and “genetic syndromes” with a prevalence of bone and muscular abnormalities.9 All heavily contaminated districts.4. CROATIA. For three preChernobyl years. GERMANY. muscular and digestive systems. Czeizel et al.74. Underestimates are thought to be up to 30% for minor malformations and 15–20% for Down syndrome (Dolk and Lechat. 2002). 2006). CZECH REPUBLIC.1 1997 12. Between February 1987 and December 1987.74). which included more than 30. 10 and 6% above expectation in the moderately and highly contaminated regions. 5. 2001. The Jena Regional Malformation Registry recorded an increase in CMs in 1986 and 1987 compared with 1985. SchmitzFeuerhake.3 for three post-Chernobyl years. In Pleven Province there was a significant increase in CMs of the heart and central nervous system.. system. 5.. 7. sense organs.. 2. from 15 to 19 per 1.2 7. FINLAND. 3. Congenital Malformation Morbidity (per 1.) 5. Analysis of 3. DENMARK. 2001). the number of cases of CMs were.2. isolated malformations leveled off during subsequent years (Lotz et al. More children in Denmark were born with central nervous system defects after Chernobyl (Hoffmann. 2001). 1992 by Hoffmann. 2001). 1999b: table 6. bone. 1991).130 TABLE 5. 6. 1989. and congenital cataracts (Kulakov et al.

34 4.. TABLE 5. multiple CMs CMs among stillbirths and neonatal deaths (including CNS anomalies) Neural tube defects (NTD) Malformations of the CNS and limb-reduction anomalies Congenital malformations Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Cleft lip and/or palate. 1998 EUROCAT. 2003).75. Ukraine.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. 2003 Hoffmann. More cases of central nervous system defects in newborns were observed in Hungary after Chernobyl (Hoffmann. 9..1989. 8 1987–1988. 2 Jan. 1992. NORWAY. 1988. 2001 Akar et al. MOLDOVA. 2006) Country. 1992 Kruslin et al.... Caglayan et al. SchmitzFeuerhake. Schmitz-Feuerhake. 6 1987–Oct. other CMs In 7 months after the catastrophe CM incidence increased 4% CMs among stillbirths noticeably increased in 1987 Increase in CMs (including malformations of the CNS and anomalies of the abdominal wall) In 1987 CM incidence increased significantly Reference Hoffmann.. those most affected by the Chernobyl fallout (Hoffmann. 2002).81 2. Pflugbeil et al. 2003a. territory Austria Turkey (Bursa. 2001. 1994 Zieglowski and Hemprich. 5 1981–1986. 1992 Czeizel. Schmitz-Feuerhake. Congenital Developmental Anomalies in Children Irradiated In Utero as a Result of the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Countries Other than Belarus.. 1990. 2004 Korblein 2002.–June 1987. 2006. 10. structural limb deformities.63 –20.02 6.09 1 1983–1986.396 2. and embryonic hernias) were in the most contaminated southeast territories (Grygory et al.. Incidence (per 1. Jan. 2001. 2004. 2006) Location Bursa.509 registered cases of CMs for the period from 1989 to 1996 the highest frequencies of occurrence of malformations (including Down syndrome. 9.125 1. Castronovo.000 Births) of Neural Tube Defects in Turkey before and after the Catastrophe (Hoffmann. Guvenc et al. 1991 Ericson and Kallen.2 –12. 1999). 2001). Scherb and Weigelt.. 1997 Ramsay et al. 1999..76.. 3 July–Dec. 1987. 1993. Out of 8. Mocan et al. CNS defects. 2000 . 2001 Lotz et al. 2001.77 After 12. 9 1989. Izmir. 1988 Harjuletho-Mervaala et al. 11. 1996 Korblein. There was a negative correlation with Down syndrome (Terje Lie et al. Western Turkey Trabzon Elazig 4 131 Before 5. Black Sea coast) Bulgaria (Pleven) Croatia (Zagreb) Denmark (Odense) Finland Hungary Scotland Sweden East Germany Bavaria West Berlin Jena Germany total Congenital malformations CMs Incidence of CNS among the newborns conceived in the second half of 1986 Cardiac anomalies. 1989. Data on all newborns conceived between May 1983 and April 1989 revealed a positive correlation between calculated total irradiation from Chernobyl and CMs such as hydrocephaly. and European Russia (Hoffmann. Scherb and Weigelt. 7 1985–1986. This increase was most pronounced in three northern provinces of the GDR. 1999).–June 1988.4% increase in 1987 compared with the country’s average for 1980 and 1986 (Zieglowski and Hemprich.. 1990 Moumdjiev et al.58 10. HUNGARY.

u Mocan et al. 1994. and anencephaly) in Turkey before and after the catastrophe. Tshepotkin from Moscow Times (April 26. 1993. TURKEY..76. Akar et al.humus).progetto. 1990. Caglayan et al. 12. 1990).75 is a summary of data on the prevalence of neural tube de- fects (including spina bifida occulta and aperta. which was particularly badly affected (Akar.. encephalocele. Table 5. Typical examples of Chernobyl-induced congenital malformations with multiple structural deformities of the limbs and body (drawing by D. 13. . an increased incidence of CMs was reported in western Turkey. Information on CMs in newborns irradiated in utero as a result of the catastrophe in various countries is presented in Table 5. 1988. 1991) and from www.132 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 5. G¨ venc et al.. 1989. At the beginning of 1987.15.

Incidence (per 100.108 4.1-fold 10. The occur- rence of congenital malformations continues to increase in several of the contaminated territories and correlates with the levels of irradiation.810 1.771 54 32 3.567 122 323 1995 127. Thus the link between congenital and genetic defects and Chernobyl irradiation is no longer an assumption. ∗∗ 1985 only malignant neuroplasms.013 11.270 365 197 180 40 1990 191 2.450 2.2-fold 13. Belarus (Pflugbeil et al. Incidence (per 10. metabolic.529 6.180 8.7-fold 21. but is proven.7 760 25 13 95 645 26 159 4.150 764 3.580 1.111 82.5-fold 31. Extrapolating available data on congenital malformations and the total number of children born in the territories contaminated by Chernobyl.77.548 7.282 961 847 908 7.12.110 4.768 859 358 3.1-fold 14.9-fold 213.390 646 4.199 1.5-fold 23.730 253 1.3-fold 300.649 5.8-fold 6.689 1.4-fold 44.110 1.740 7.000) of Juvenile Morbidity in Gomel Province. including previously rare multiple structural deformities of the limbs.2-fold 45.4 1990 73. and body (Figure 5.8-fold 48.000) of 12 Disease Groups among Liquidators (Pflugbeil et al.6-fold 7.7-fold 9.895 555 266 664 2.300 7.4-fold 15. 2006) Illness/organ group Blood and blood-forming organs Circulation Endocrine sytem Respiratory system Urogenital tract Nervous system and sense organs Psychological changes Digestive System Skin and subcutaneous tissue Infections and parasites Tumors Malignant growths 1986 15 183 96 645 34 232 621 82 46 36 20 13 1988 96 1.754 502 158 116 49.78.7-fold 95.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 133 TABLE 5.549 81. head.7-fold High estimation of unreported cases through abortions.8-fold 11.359 3.694 340 134 Increase 12.0-fold 79.879 7.9-fold 74.890 4.020 6. we must assume that each year several thousand newborns in Europe will also bear the greater and smaller hereditary TABLE 5.210 686 325 393 85 1992 226 3.410 9.930 6.380 3. increased numbers of children have been born with hereditary anomalies and congenital developmental malformations. Simplified) Morbidity group/Organ Total primary diagnoses Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory diseases Endocrinological.100 726 414 621 184 Increase 14. Everywhere in areas contaminated by Chernobyl radioactivity.2-fold 5.5.250 4.540 5.4-fold 42...146 425 1.040 5.036 867 7.15).923 210 144 1997 124. Conclusion The appreciable increase in newborns with both major and minor developmental anomalies is one of the undeniable consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe.7-fold 1.1-fold 11.290 756 388 564 159 1993 218 4. and immune systems Respiratory system Urogenital tract Muscle and bones/connective tissue Mental disorders Neural and sense organs Digestive system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Infectious and parasitic illnesses Congenital malformations∗ Neoplasm∗∗ ∗ 1985 9.100 3.770 3.440 1.100 8. .010 1. 2006 Based on Official Gomel Health Center Data.761 51 1.0-fold 41.0-fold 108.

. V.262 2. Liquidators were the most comprehensively observed group after the catastrophe. These disorders cannot be attributed to socioeconomic or be- havioral stress factors. Epidemiol.641 2. Hydrocarbons as risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiac ischemia after irradiation.268 9.79. 2002). 5. N. Perinat. 43(2): 36–42 (in Russian). Hematolog.986 2.746 1992 16.13.14. 8: 456–457 (cited by Schmitz-Feuerhake. .78 and 5.101 98. 2006). A.77 presents dramatic data on the incidence of 12 groups of illnesses suffered by Russian liquidators. & Romanova. 5. vitamin A levels were noticeably higher than normal and concentrations of vitamin E were significantly lower—up to eightfold (Zaitsev et al. Mogilev): pp.486 4.000) of Morbidity among Adults and Adolescents in Northern Ukraine.550 5.0-fold 60.9-fold anomalies caused by Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout. Nearly all physiological systems were adversely affected. It is reasonable to suggest that the state of public health in the affected territories may be even worse than that of the liquidators.518 29. P.4-fold 50. 2006) Illness/Organ Endocrine system Psychological disturbances Neural system Circulatory system Digestive system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Muscles and bones 1987 631 249 2. (2003). V. resulting in consequences ranging from impairment to death. Age-related changes found in liquidators included anoxic. Tables 5.559 4. References Aculich.440 Increase 25.194 768 1989 886 576 3. In: Selected Scientific Papers (Mogilev University. Leucocytes and lymphocytes reaction as characters of population resistance.8-fold 5. 3.. 2.363 62.304 13..271 73. Akar. Other Diseases 1. N.920 60.. Lymphocytes in people after low level irradiation. 1996).8-fold 52. Paediat. Med. They are real and documented. Adamovich.769 15. News 9: 80–84 (in Russian). Incidence (per 100.236 1.5-fold 96. Existing data presented in this chapter are irrefutable proof that the frequency of occurrence of nonmalignant illnesses is obviously and significantly higher in the contaminated territories. Further notes on neural tube defects and Chernobyl. Table 5.145 15. Transfusiol. V.249 1. Mikhalev. (1994). (1998). blood vitamin E levels were significantly lower than normal and were especially low in territories contaminated at a level above 6 Ci/km2 (Zaitsev et al..041 1. In 153 pregnant women from the Bragin District. N. fermentation-type metabolism and formation of pro-oxidation conditions (Vartanyan et al. Conclusion Only when we know the full scope of the Chernobyl catastrophe can we prevent such a tragedy from ever happening again. K.134 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.79 provide a comprehensive view of the deterioration in public health in the affected territories of Belarus and Ukraine. 204–207 (in Russian). G.7-fold 44. L. Aderikho. In 58 children ages 7 to 14 from Stolinsk and Narovlya districts without clinical pathology. 1996). There was widespread damage to the people living in the contaminated territories.100 1991 4.503 14. (2003). 1987–1992 (Pflugbeil et al.

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Remote cytogenetic effects of chronic irradiation. France (Selected Papers. 65–66 (in Russian). J. In: Chernobyl: Ecology and Health. V. Y. V. O. A. F. & Yablokov. 27(2): 166–172. 560 pp. October 14–15.. Yablokov. Vovk.. Ecological and medical aspects of radionuclide lung pathology. Akleev. 2–3 (in Russian).. A. V. M. (1998). A. Minsk): pp. Doc. Zadorozhnaya. M. Yeschenko. & Rimar. Souchkevitch. April 15–17. Perm): 24 pp. 1 (Minsk): pp. A. G. V. D. Labunska. Pt. M. (1997). In: All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference for Studies Young Science Specialist.

The state of a hypophyseal-thyroid system during treatment with I-131.. immune and molecular genetics: Monitoring of liquidators 1991–1996.. V.portalus. Zhylenko. Pyliptsevich. (1999). (1994). B. Nervous Activit. A.. A. I.and left-handed subjects: A sequel of the Chernobyl accident. Remote Consequences of Irradiation for Immune and Blood Forming Systems.. A. Herald Rus. Sel’sky. N. A. Nervous Activit. Koptelov. N. Nykulyna. V. Zubovsky. Z. Obstetric. V. (1998b). (1998a). Publ.. Barmakova. A. (1996). N. Gynecol. P. I. G. G... Safety 43(5): cc. N. G. S.. L. G. A. D. High. Human milk characters and babies’ health in radioactive contaminated areas of Belarus. Gogytidze. S.. Zhavoronkova. M. & Smirnova. (1993). & Kholodova.. T. . (2004). Radiat. (2000).ru/modules/ecology/print. High. L. S. G markers in those suffering from the Chernobyl catastrophe. A.. Chernobyl and Public Health.. Publ. C. I. 116–117 (in Russian). O. A. A. (2007). Publ. Zhavoronkova. Amsterdam): pp. 3–4: 26–28 (in Russian). A. N.. O. R. G. B. Kalynin. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 3: 195199 (in German). A.. Analysis of chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis morbidity in populations suffering after Chernobyl accident in Belarus. L.. & Hemprich. L. J. N. K. V. 44(2): 229–238 (in Russian).. L. Nervous Activit. V. N. Kiev): pp. L. N. 12–13 (in Russian). B. Sci. Health 5: 28–30 (in Russian). B.. & Mikhailovskaya. Early postnatal adaptation of newborns whose mothers were impacted by radiation. 1: 20–22 (in Russian). A.. (Eds.. High. 53(4): 410–419 (in Russian). & Tararukhyna. D. Radiolog. A.. Facial cleft birth defect rate in former East Germany before and after the reactor accident in Chernobyl. Ae. Mokhort. Med. Kalynin.. V. Grimbaum. 147–151.). (1996). 1 (Abstracts. Zhavoronok. N. I. M. V. & Polischuyk. E. A. V. Scientific and Practical Conference. Okeanov. A.. Morbidity among persons exposed to radiation as result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. (2003). 386(3): 418–422 (in Russian). A. G. Zhavoronok. N. Hematological. N. K. I. et al. V. 18–24 (in Russian). (1999). I. A. Kiev): pp. E. Smirnov. D.. V. & Garmaev.. M.. & Baranovskaya. A. Kholodova. Acad. Med. Butenko. Zak. Zubovich. G. Gabova. et al. Zieglowski. B. Petrenko. I. N. et al. A. J. Yu. G. B. M. May 7–10. 47: 147– 148. A. M.. S. O. A. M. Characteristics of cerebrovascular disorders in persons who suffered ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. L. 1996. (2000). Beresten’. V. Zhavoronkova. & Fedorova. O. Russian Chernobyl (www. (1998). Babarykyna. Radiol. Pasechnik.. Grimbaum. & Ryzhov. Yu. Zozulya. S. Kuznetsova. Kiev (Abstracts. J. S. (1995).. A. Zubovsky. L. Health status of pregnant and lying-in women and newborns under low dose impacts. & Martynenko. A. Zubovsky. A. Electroencephalographic correlates of neurological disorders in the late periods of exposure to ionizing radiation: The after-effects of the Chernobyl accident. 50(1): 68–79 (in Russian). Chernovetskyi. Petrov. Post-radiation changes in brain asymmetry and higher mental function of right. N. Ryzhov. & Tararukhyna. & Ospovat. & Zemskov. Zubovsky. Doctor Pract. A. E. F. Zakrevsky. Liver viruses B. (1991). Bornstein. Zhavoronkova. Abnormalities of EGG and cognitive functional disorders after radioactive Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences impact.. Health 4: 44–45 (in Russian).160 Zaitsev. Z. Content of vitamins A and E in blood of children and pregnant women living in radioactive contaminated territories.. Chernobyl catastrophe and your health. & Kholodova. Did the Chernobyl incident cause an increase in Type 1 diabetes mellitus incidence in children and adolescents? Diabetolog. In: Blokov. The Health Effects on the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. Kil’chevskaya. 3: 32–35 (in Russian). V. (2002). Postradiation effect on inter-hemispheric asymmetry in EEG and thermography findings. Zalutskaya. V.php? subaction=snowfull&id) (in Russian). Scientific and Practical Conference. Health 8: 46–48 (in Russian).

Each five years. High levels of Te-132. Russia. the ongoing irradiation in the wake of the meltdown is responsible for an increase in malignant diseases. fax: +7-495-952-80-19.000 fatal cancers between 1986 and 2056. skin.” published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The initial forecasts insisted that there would be no significant increase in the occurrence of cancer after the catastrophe.CHERNOBYL 6. containing data for 1983–1987 and 1988–1992. . On the basis of I-131 and Cs-137 radioisotope doses to which populations were exposed and a comparison of cancer mortality in the heavily and the less contaminated territories and pre. Nevertheless. obviously underestimating the risk factors and the collective doses. the main source of data for international statistics for cancer morbidity is the collection of papers “Cancer Disease on Five Continents. . Yablokov. In the first editions across the USSR . Yablokov The most recent forecast by international agencies predicted there would be between 9. In last two editions of the collection. Leninsky Prospect 33. Pu. and Cs-134 persisted months after the Chernobyl catastrophe and the continuing radiation from Cs-137. since 1960 . Russian Academy of Sciences. It is officially accepted that: . The oncological diseases include neoplasms and malignant (cancerous) and nonmalignant tumors as common consequences of ionizing radiation.000 deaths in Europe and 19. Petersburg and Kirghizia. Estonia and Latvia.000 in the rest of the world. these editions publish only those data which correspond to the established quality standards. the Russian and Ukrainian oncological statistics were low and grossly underestimated the cancer morbidity. Sr-90. a more realistic figure is 212.000 and 28. data are included for Belarus. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. this means that Chernobyl radiation will engender new neoplasms for hundreds of years. . Data collected from the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki show radiation-induced malignancies becoming clinically apparent as follows: • • • • Leukemia (various blood cancers)—within 5 years Thyroid cancer—within 10 years Breast and lung cancers—in 20 years Stomach. Although there was not a single case due to direct exposure from the explosion that occurred in April Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Oncological Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. the first of these two collections also contained information from St.000 to 245. and Am will generate new neoplasms for hundreds of years. .ru 161 . information has not been included. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. Ru-106. . Ru-103.and post-Chernobyl cancer levels. and rectal cancer—in 30 years 1986. As is demonstrated by data in this chapter. Office 319 119071 Moscow. There are varying periods of latency between the exposure and the appearance of a tumor. . the authors of the collection warn For people living in the areas contaminated by Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout the cancer situation is much more complicated. Given the ten half-lives that have to occur before many of the isotopes decay to safe levels.

162 that all data from former republics of the USSR (except for Estonia) underestimate the occurrence of disease.6 ± 8. respectively (Okeanov et al.1 deals with general oncological morbidity. 6. 6.3% TABLE 6.1. 33.2 ± 18. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences This chapter is divided into sections on the various cancers that have been found in territories contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides. and 32%.1. 1999) Contamination. 2. 6. The increase was a maximum in the most highly contaminated Gomel Province and lower in the less contaminated Brest and Mogilev provinces: 52. 4. 2002). (UNSCEAR. The relative risk for cancer is 3– 13 Sv−1 . Cancer mortality in the Narovlia District.9 ± 5.000) in Belarussian Territories Contaminated by Cs-137 before and after the Catastrophe (Konoplya and Rolevich.8 ± 14. 48). who received lower doses (Table 6.000 cases of radiation-induced malignant neoplasms (including leukemia) were registered.05. .5∗ 304.0 ± 26.1. Belarus 1.1 ± 16. 2006). . Increase in General Oncological Morbidity There are two ways to define the scale of cancer morbidity associated with the Chernobyl catastrophe: (1) on the basis of calculated received doses (with application of appropriate risk factors) and (2) by direct comparison of cancer morbidity in the heavily and less contaminated territories. p.0 to 26.6 1986–1994 306. A significant increase in morbidity for malignant and benign neoplasms occurred in girls aged 10 to 14 years born to irradiated parents in the years from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report. The level of the cancer morbidity in Gomel and Mogilev provinces correlated with the level of contamination of the areas (Table 6. and 6.4 with all of the other malignant neoplasms. Imanaka.3). 2004). 1996.400 women officially registered) sharply and significantly increased from 1993 to 2003 compared to individuals exposed to less contamination (Table 6. is not an all-inclusive review. . 3.5 241.2). Occurrence of Cancers (per 100.4 221.2∗ 303. 7.2 with thyroid cancer. item 234.1.1∗ P < 0. as well as others in this book. but does reflect the scope and the scale of the problem.0∗ 334.9 ± 9.440 men and 14. 6.000 person/Sv. increased from 0. The average annual absolute risk of malignant disease calculated from these data is 434 per 10.7 176. 8. Cancer morbidity among liquidators who worked in May–June 1986 (maximal doses and dose rate) is above that of liquidators who worked in July–December 1986. 5. Cancer morbidity among liquidators (57.0 194.0 ± 6. 2000.0 ± 8. Gomel Province. 6.. 2002).8 248. The highest level of general oncological morbidity among persons 0 to 17 years of age from 1986 to 2000 occurred in the most contaminated Gomel Province.6 1986–1994 238.1).6 ± 12.8 ± 15. Section 6. Ci/km2 <5 5–15 >15 ∗ Gomel Province 1977–1985 181. This chapter.4 ± 12.3 with leukemia. the lowest was in the least contaminated areas of the Vitebsk and Grodno provinces (Borysevich and Poplyko.5∗ Mogilev Province 1977–1985 248. From 1987 to 1999 some 26. For the period 1990–2000 cancer morbidity in Belarus increased 40%. an order of magnitude higher that of Hiroshima (Malko.

7 67.2 Stomach 50. and rose by 12% in the entire country (Omelyanets et al..23 1. In the heavily contaminated territories cancer morbidity increased 18–22% in the 12 years following the catastrophe. 6. Calculated on the basis of official data for the years 1990 to 2004.29∗ 1. 1993–2003 (Okeanov et al.4 15.3∗ 437.1 ± 1.1.1.1∗ Controls∗∗ 366. Deviation from the trend after 1986 is very likely associated with additional Chernobyl-related cancers (Malko.1∗ ∗ p < 0. 2004) Liquidators May–June 1986 Liquidators July–December 1986 Controls All cancers 456.89 ± 0. ∗∗ From the less contaminated Vitebsk Province (excluding liquidators and those who migrated to the province from the contaminated regions).59∗ 3.25 to 0. For adults in the contaminated districts of Zhytomir Province cancer morbidity increased nearly threefold in 1986–1994: from 1.26 to 0.4 ± 3.10 −0.3∗ 366. 1995).69 ± 1.31 0.. Cancer Morbidity (per 10.05 from controls.7 ± 1.6 ± 1.78 ± 0. 1995). TABLE 6.42% (up 68%). 10.03 Controls∗∗ 4.6 ± 2. 2007).4 ∗ 16.2∗ 25.1 25.8 ± 0. and in Gomel Province. in the years from 1986 to 1994 (Zborovsky et al.2.0 Regression coefficient Liquidators 13.2 ± 20.8 ± 0.500 radiation-induced cancers are predicted to occur in Belarus over a period of 70 years after the catastrophe (Malko. Figure 6. 2001).28 ± 0.14 ± 0.12 0. 2002). from 0.8 Bladder 20.5∗ 53.4 ± 4.4 ± 5. The cancer morbidity of evacuees from the heavily contaminated territories is noticeably higher than in the rest of the country (Tsimliakova and Lavrent’eva.9 ± 1.0 Thyroid 40. 1993–2003 (Okeanov et al.68 ± 0.91% (Nagornaya.2∗ 28.2 ± 2.38 ± 0.000).15 ± 5.2 42.8 ± 10.7 ± 2.12 −0.0∗ 20.9 ± 3.18 ∗ p < 0.3 42.9 ± 1.1 ± 0.8 ± 0.4 53.4 ± 5.1).0 ± 3. 2004) Morbidity Liquidators All cancers Stomach Rectal Lung Kidney Bladder Thyroid 422.8 ± 0.7 ± 1.5 ± 2.08 ± 1.. 2001.3.26∗ 1.9∗ 16.4 Kidney 20.4 19.1 ± 3.19 0.92 1.2 Lung 57. . 2007).6 ± 5.34 to 3.24 ± 0.1 ± 10. Belarussian patients diagnosed with cancer for the first time has increased from 0.6 ± 1.27∗ 0.38% (up 46%).2.1 ± 2. Ukraine 1.2∗ 10.1 ± 4. 1996.2 16.3 42...99 ± 0.1 ± 1. Up to 62.6 ± 3.8 ± 0.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 163 TABLE 6.5 13.000) in Two Belarussian Liquidator Groups Exposed in Different Periods in 1986.6∗ 41.8 10. First-time-registered cases of cancer in Belarus from 1975 to 2005.3 ± 2. Omelyanets and Klement’ev.2 10.16 0. 3. 9.2∗ 16.6 ± 2. Cancer Morbidity of Belarussian Liquidators (per 10.1 55. 2.1 ± 0.0∗ 13.78 ± 1.99 ± 0.4 Rectal 18.05.5∗ 10.6 ± 2. Golubchykov et al. This marked deviation from the long-term trend of cancer mortality is very likely connected to the Chernobyl contamination (Figure 6.

Lipetsk. 2007). 6. which will account for about 1–9% of all cancer-related deaths in the country (Green Brigade. between 1986 and 1999 have been attributed to the Chernobyl fallout (Abdelrahman. 4. Tula.2). SWEDEN. 1997). 2. Nine years after the catastrophe general cancer morbidity in districts contaminated by Figure 6. 6.. Cancer morbidity in children from areas contaminated by Cs-137 of 3 Ci/km2 or more in Tula Province increased 1..4). 2007). Sweden. 2002). Russia 1.. A multifaceted epidemiological study based on a comparison of hundreds of administrative units with different levels of Chernobyl Cs-137 contamination revealed unequivocally an increased incidence of all malignancies in northern Sweden. In 1995 cancer morbidity in the heavily contaminated districts of Kaluga.396 cases of cancer from 1986 to 2004. 2007).2.1. even according to official data (Figure 6.4.7-fold higher than in the less contaminated areas (Ushakov et al. Oryol. . Childhood Cancer Morbidity (per 100. 2. Tula. the most contaminated territory in that country (Tondel.000) in Tula Province under Various Levels of Contamination. Other Countries 1.2 18. 1994). 2006). 15 Ci/km2 or more in Bryansk Province was 2.3. According to official evaluations some 500 deaths were caused by Chernobyl-radiation-induced cancers (Dymitrova.8 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 4.4. 2001). 6. BULGARIA. Within 5 years after the catastrophe the number of malignant neoplasms diagnosed for the first time in Bryansk and Oryol provinces increased 30% compared with the pre-Chernobyl period (Parshkov et al.164 TABLE 6.7-fold from 1995 to 1997 and was noticeably higher than in less contaminated areas (Table 6. 2001) Districts “Clean” ≥3 Ci/km2 Morbidity 7. and Smolensk markedly exceeded that in all of Russia (Ushakova et al.. Among male liquidators there were 5. Oryol.000 for solid tumors) in heavily contaminated Bryansk Province to less contaminated Kaluga Province and to Russia (Ivanov and Tsyb. “More than 1. 1995–1997 (Ushakova et al.600 cancer-related deaths owing to the catastrophe.000” cancer deaths in Norrland Province. and Bryansk provinces was noticeably higher than in the less contaminated areas (Ushakov et al... Comparison of the general cancer morbidity (per 100. 3. General cancer morbidity for solid tumors in Bryansk Province has exceeded the country average since 1987. 5. whereas the expected number for that period was 793 (Prysyazhnyuk et al.1. In 1997 childhood cancer morbidity in the contaminated provinces of Bryansk. 5. It has been estimated that during the next 50 years there will be an annual additional 740 to 6. 3. Cancer morbidity for both men and women liquidators increased significantly from 1990 to 2004 (National Ukrainian Report. 2006). POLAND. 1997). 2007).

The incidence of thyroid cancer requires special attention.4.. Furthermore.000) for individuals who were children and adolescents in 1986 (Fairlie and Sumner. autoimmune thyroiditis. and many others). 2004. as it is the most prevalent of all malignant neoplasms caused by the catastrophe. Childhood thyroid cancer morbidity increased 43-fold (∼ 0.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 165 6.003–0. 3. . Belarus 1. but then no more than several thousand. then hundreds. Figure 6. the gland’s dysfunction results in many other serious illnesses.13 cases per 1. Chernobyl thyroid cancers virtually always occur in the papillary form. 2007). The actual count of the thyroid cancer cases differs from one report and source to another.. are more aggressive at presentation. and thyroid insufficiency. and have high rates of local and remote metastases (Williams et al. only several additional cases were predicted. After 20 years the incidence of thyroid cancer among individuals who were under 18 years 6.4). 1996). 2007). grow rapidly.2. reflecting mostly real time changes but may also be due to more accurate diagnoses of the disease (Figure 6.1. and are frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. There is one common conclusion: without exception. Thyroid Cancer The initial reports of a rise in the incidence of thyroid cancer in 1991–1992 were criticized and the figures attributed to such factors as increased screening. 2006). 2005. numerous official forecasts were optimistic—all underestimated the figures for Chernobyl-induced thyroid cancers (Economist.000) from 1989 to 1994 (Lomat’ et al. Prospective (by pre-Chernobyl data) and real data of thyroid cancer morbidity (per 100. 1996). and childhood morbidity reached a maximum in 1995–1996. 6. How Many People Have Thyroid Cancer? In the first months after the catastrophe.2.1. many have an unusual subtype with a large solid component..2. Thyroid cancer morbidity in children and adults began to increase sharply after 1989.5).3. and wrong diagnoses (for a review see Tondel.3). 4. Thyroid cancer morbidity in children and adults has increased sharply in the country since 1990 (Figure 6. As the thyroid is a critical part of the endocrine system. Annual thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus and Ukraine (per 100. whereas that for adults continued upward until 2003 (Figure 6. hypothyroidism.000) for children and adults in Belarus (Malko. Figure 6. The clinical and molecular features of thyroid cancers that developed following Chernobyl are unique.1. They also often precede or are accompanied by radiation-induced benign thyroid nodules. random variation. 2. Hatch et al.

and high lymphatic invasiveness. In these areas thyroid cancer morbidity reached 1. 5. the occurrence of thyroid cancer among children and adolescents was 0. Among 1.1.2).2.09 per 100.2.000. 2002). 4. and Rovno provinces (Komissarenko et al. 10. absence of general body signs or symptoms. 2006: fig. and in adults.1-fold from 2002 to 2004 (Tronko et al. 2006: fig. 100 had thyroid nodules and among them two or three had cancer (Krysenko. including more than 1.000 people who were children at the time of the catastrophe. Compared to the pre-Chernobyl period. Moreover. 9.9% of patients have their tumor spread beyond the thyroid.6). Komissarenko et al. 12.5.9-fold. Regression Figure 6.000 individuals undergo surgery for thyroid cancer (Borysevich and Poplyko. .57–0.5. Ukraine 1. Before the catastrophe. 8.32 per 100. more than 7.6-fold (Belookaya et al.000 people were registered as suffering from thyroid cancer. afterward.166 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6.. General thyroid cancer morbidity for Belarussian children and adults after the catastrophe (National Belarussian Report.. The prevalence of invasive forms of carcinoma (87. Summary data on some cases of thyroid cancer in Belarus are presented in Table 6. 2006). 2001).6% of patients developed remote lung metastases (Rybakov et al. of age at the time of the catastrophe increased more than 200-fold (Figure 6. There were more cases of thyroid cancer in provinces that had a higher level of I-131 contamination (Figure 6. 2002). Compared to the pre-Chernobyl period. Annually some 3. Primary thyroid cancer morbidity among those age 0 to 18 years in 1986 (National Belarussian Report. 4. in 1990.1). 11. 2. Zhytomir..5%) indicates very aggressive tumor development (Vtyurin et al.000 specially surveyed persons.. The greatest increase in morbidity was recorded in young people living in the most heavily contaminated districts of Kiev. Congenital thyroid cancers have been diagnosed in newborns (Busby. 3. the number of cases of thyroid cancer increased 5.000 persons. 7.. which was fivefold higher than in other areas. Some 46. Cherkassk. in teenagers.0% of patients and these required repeated operations to remove residual metastases that appeared shortly after the initial operation. 2002). By the year 2000. 1995). 4. and 19.8-fold from 1990 to 1995.8-fold from 1996 to 2001. 2000. 6. Chernygov. it was 0. Clinically this is expressed by a short latency period. 13.000. 6.63 per 100. 1995). Regional metastasis into neck lymph nodes occurred in 55.7). 2002).6.. by 2000 the number of cases of thyroid cancer in children had increased 88-fold.

2002 Postoyalko.136 1990–1998 1986–2000 1986–2000 1986–2000 1997–2000 Up to 2001 1986–2004 1990–2004 Jan. average about 5. respectively. n 5. Various estimations of the numbers of the thyroid cancer cases in Ukraine are presented in Table 6.430) (2.409) (674) “More than 8. 1987– Dec. 2004 Malko. other contaminated territories. and Zhytomir provinces from 1990 to 1999. 7. 2005).06.12 ± 0. Zhytomir Province.470 (3.05.41 ± 0.600 children In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown (1...055 new cases 2.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 167 TABLE 6.000 postsurgery cases annually (2. Demidchik. 2002: tab. In territories with contamination greater than 100 kBq/m2 the incidence was four and sixteen cases per 100.1. in males and females.03.000. evacuees from Pripyat City and the 30-km exclusion zone.. 6.07. From 1980 to 1990 instances of this cancer were not tabulated and registered in the areas under study (Prysyazhnyuk et al.670) 1. 2002 Comments Six most contaminated provinces (calculated by A. 2002 Belookaya et al. The first cases of thyroid cancer in children under 14 years of age living in contaminated territories were registered in 1990. 4.700) About 7. 2006). 0. .000 postsurgery (all ages) 12. 2005).22 ± 0.000. the incidence of thyroid cancer was dependent on the level of that fallout. 0.5.. and residents in the radioactively contaminated areas (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2000 Malko.41 ± 0.000 8.399) 9. 3. Kiev City.161 (1..000” “About 6. p. Truncated age-standardized incidence rates in territories with contamination less than 100 kBq/m2 did not exceed two and five cases per 100. Kiev. 3. 2002 1986–2004 1986–2001 2002 alone 1988–2004 1987–2004 1986–2004 National Belarussian Report. comm. According to the Ukrainian State Register for the period from 1982 to 2003 the incidence of thyroid cancer rose significantly after 1991 for three different cohorts studied: liquidators who worked 1986–1987. based on the pre-Chernobyl level) In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown Including 700 in children In children aged 0–14 years Including 1. Prysyazhnyuk et al.000 operated” “More than 7. A survey of 26.6. 0. 0.650 (4. Number of Thyroid Cancer Cases in Belarus from Various Sources (Radiogenic Cases in Parentheses) Number of cases. 2002 Demidchik et al.748) Period 1987–1998 Author Ivanov & Tsyb. 0. 2004.000” (1. pers. where I-131 fallout was recorded. respectively. 213 UNSCEAR. Kiev Province. 2002 Drozd. 2004 Lypik.52 ± 0.000 per year).601 children in 1998 revealed that for each case of thyroid cancer there were 29 other thyroid pathologies (Shybata et al.840.000)..560–6. 2006∗ Malko. 2004 Nesterenko. in males and females in 1998 and 1999 (Romanenko et al. 2001 Borysevich and Poplyko.067) (4. 5.200 postsurgery children More than 10. In the Chernygov..01 (per 100. 2007 Ostapenko. Yablokov. 2006 In persons 0–18 years at the time of the meltdown In persons 0–14 years at the time of the meltdown In persons 0–14 years at the time of the meltdown Belarussian Ministry of Health data Based on official data coefficients that reflect time trends are: all of Ukraine. 2002).

8). thyroid cancer morbidity was significantly higher in territories contaminated at a level higher than 100 kBq/m2 than in areas with levels of less than 100 kBq/m2 (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 10. From 1986 to 2000 thyroid cancer morbidity for the entire population of Bryansk . Incidence of thy- roid cancer in various provinces is illustrated in Figure 6.7. Thyroid cancer morbidity markedly increased in liquidators after 2001 (Law of Ukraine. Thyroid cancer morbidity in five contaminated provinces of Belarus and Minsk compared to the least contaminated Grodno Province. The increase in cancer cases in the rather less contaminated Vitebsk Province and the city of Minsk may reflect the inflow of evacuees and refugees (Malko. 2007). 2. 6. 11. 8. Thyroid cancer morbidity in the age group 0–30 years increased 1. 2002).9). In 1998–1999. Thyroid cancer morbidity for women in the heavily contaminated territories is more than fivefold higher than for men (Figure 6. Russia 1.1.168 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6.. A sharp increase in cases of thyroid cancer began after 1989 in persons who were 0 to 18 years of age at the time of the catastrophe (Figure 6. 2007).3.10. 9. 2006).2.5-fold from 1991 to 1998 (Ivanov and Tsyb.

The thyroid cancer morbidity in Lipetsk City increased 3. Since 1991.2 Comments 169 Persons aged 0 – 15 years at the time of the meltdown Including 422 children Referring to official data Referring to official data Referring to official data Children aged 0–14 years Children aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown Children Children aged 0–18 years at the time of the meltdown (11 died) Province increased 4.. 2004). The relative risk of the disease for adults is twice that for children.8 cases per 100. 2006: fig. 6. 1996 Interfax-Ukraine. 2000 Reuters..2-fold (3.000) and to 20. The real level of thyroid cancer in Bryansk Province might be up to four times higher than the official 13. The absolute number of cases in the province is shown in Figure 6. 2006: fig. 2004 Anonymous..4 times from 1989 to 1995 (Krapyvin. 2005).420 (585) 3. 5. 2001. Since 1995 thyroid cancer morbidity in the southwest districts contaminated at a level higher than 5 Ci/km2 has become significantly higher than the province’s average (Kukishev et al. 2005).8.6. 3.3–13. n 1.. 2000 Dobyshevskaya et al. 4. 2001)..371 postsurgery 2. Thyroid cancer morbidity in both children and adults in Oryol Province increased sharply in the 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Kovalenko. 2007 National Ukrainian Report.385 Years 1990–1997 1986–1996 1986–1997 1986–1999 1986–1999 1986–2000 1986–2002 1988–2004 1990–2004 1986–2004 Author UNSCEAR. 8. There has been noticeable growth of thyroid cancer morbidity in children in the Ural region provinces since 1990 (Dobrynyna. thyroid cancer morbidity in Oryol Province increased eightfold (Parshkov et al.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 6. 2005 Prysyazhnyuk..217) (1.2). 1997). Figure 6.7 cases in children in the heavily contaminated districts (Kukishev et al.. 1998). thyroid cancer morbidity in Bryansk Province began to increase sharply among individuals who were under 50 years of age at the time of the catastrophe. Thyroid cancer morbidity in children increased significantly in Tula Province from 1986 to 1997 compared with the years before the catastrophe (Ushakova et al. In the 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe.000 (Pylyukova. 5. 2004). 7.400) (572) 2.914 (937) (1.674 postsurgery (585) 3.11. and higher for women (Zvonova et al. 5. 10. Proshin et al. 2006). 2006). Number of Thyroid Cancer Cases in Ukraine (Radiogenic Cases Parentheses) Number of cases. Number of thyroid cancer cases in Ukraine among persons who were 0 to 18 years of age at the time of the meltdown (National Ukrainian Report. 2002 Tsheglova. 2000 Tronko et al. . 9.. 1998 Associated Press.8 cases per 100. Thyroid cancer morbidity in Bryansk Province was twice that in Russia from 1988 to 1998 and triple that from 1999 to 2004 (Malashenko. 2001).

1.4.000) in heavily contaminated Kiev Province and Kiev City and less contaminated Zhytomir Province (Prysyazhnyuk.2–4.2. in the Marne-Ardennes French provinces. An increase in the number of thyroid cancers began in 1990 and was especially high in the contaminated territories in 1995 (Weinisch. . 2006). Since Chernobyl there have been 426 Figure 6. which may be a reason for the increase. CZECH REPUBLIC. 2007). Other Countries Globally an increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in the last 20 years. Thyroid cancer morbidity (per 100. The values for women are markedly higher than those for men. 1. but this cannot account for most of the increase. the official view in France was that the I-131 contamination was primarily in the southeastern part of the county (Figure 6.0003).7.12). The incidence of thyroid cancer in European Russia is presented in Table 6. From 1976 to 1990 thyroid cancer morbidity grew 2% a year. For example.170 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. It is important to note that not only I-131. P = 0. including the Marne-Ardennes provinces. A common argument against the “Chernobyl effect” of increasing thyroid cancer morbidity is that it does not correlate with the most contaminated areas in 1986. However.. 6. At the same time cancer incidence increased 360% in women and 500% in men (Cherie-Challine et al.9. Thyroid cancer morbidity (per 100. but there are data showing that on some days there were heavier Chernobyl clouds over the northern part of the country. AUSTRIA. this ar- gument is flawed. but other radionuclides can cause thyroid cancer.6% a year (95% CI: 1.1. 2. 2007).. From 1990 there was a significant increase in the rate of this cancer for both sexes to 4. 11. Small tumors are discovered incidentally while exploring and treating benign thyroid diseases. the percentage of malignant thyroid tumors smaller than 5 mm at diagnosis has increased 20% (from 7 to 27%) from 1975 to 2005. where there was increasing incidence of thyroid cancer several years later. 2007).10.000) in Ukraine for men and women from 1962 to 2004 (Prysyazhnyuk et al. For example.

TABLE 6. 2005 Tsheglova.801) (205) 1. Yablokov based on the pre-Chernobyl level) Whole country.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 171 Figure 6.100 (1.071) (“Nearly 1.7.638 2. 2001 Malashenko.11. Absolute number of thyroid cancer cases in children and teenagers who were newborn to 18 years of age at the time of the meltdown (above) and among the adult population (below) in the Oryol Province from 1986 to 2000 (Golyvets. 2000 Comments Four most contaminated provinces (calculated by A. n 4. F.. 2000 Kukishev et al. Tsyb’s oral message . 2002 UNSCEAR.800”) Years 1987–2000 1990–1998 1986–2000 1986–2005 1991–2003 1986–1999 Author Ivanov and Tsyb. 2002). persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown Bryansk Province (more than 50 times higher than for 1975–1985) Bryansk Province Reference to A.173 (2. 2004 UNSCEAR.591 2. Number of Thyroid Cancer Cases in European Russia According to Various Sources (Radiogenic Cases in Parentheses) Number of cases.

2 in men and 2. more cases of thyroid cancer in the Czech Republic alone (95% CI: 187–688) than had been predicted prior to the meltdown (M¨ rbeth et al. 3. 2006). Upper curve – men. An increased incidence of papillary carcinomas was seen after 1995.7 in women (Verger et al..14).864 patients from the Israel National Cancer Figure 6. Total I-131 contamination of France originating from Chernobyl (CherieChalline et al. Analysis of records of 5. but an association with the nuclear catastrophe was officially denied. u 2004. too. 2007).. and MarneArdennes provinces (Annual Report. as well as mixed forms of cancer (Figure 6. lower curve – women.. the incidence of thyroid cancer increased by a factor of 5. 2006). GREECE. After the catastrophe. Isere. Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 2007). 6. for 1975–2004 (Cherie-Challine et al. France.000) in the Marne-Ardenne provinces. ISRAEL..13). From 1975 to 1995. especially. GREAT BRITAIN. By 1997–2001 the rate was significantly higher in Corsica for men and in Tarn for women. where it was up 12.12.. Marne-Ardennes’ data are especially interesting because they show the sharply increased incidence of thyroid cancer soon after the catastrophe (Figure 6. FRANCE.13. 2001). from 1987 to 1991. So. in the most contaminated areas of Cumbria. reaching the maximum value in the year 2000 and is likely associated with the Chernobyl fallout (Emmanuel et al.. . 2003). Thyroid cancer morbidity noticeably increased in northern England and. 2007). there was a significant increase in papillary thyroid cancer (more common in women). practically synchronous with the Belarussian data. the thyroid cancer incidence reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender (FrentzelBeyme and Scherb. was the rate noticeably higher for women in Calvados and for men in Douds. For three years after the catastrophe.2% (Cotterill et al. 4.172 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. The thyroid cancer incidence (per 100. 2006). 5.

POLAND. ROMANIA. 9.. There was a twofold increase in thyroid cancer morbidity from 1988 to 2002.” time trends.01. Thyroid cancer morbidity (cases per 10.000) for thyroid cancer. 2004). due primarily to papillary carcinoma diagnosed between 1992 and 1996 in comparison with patients diagnosed earlier: 1982–1986 (86 vs. It was claimed that this increased incidence was most likely due to improved and more powerful diagnostic techniques.5% of the Italian population. 78%.000) in contaminated areas after the catastrophe in eastern Romania and the whole of Romania from 1982 to 1998 (Davydescu.. 2002). Figure 6. 2001. 2004). Thyroid cancer morbidity increased in the most contaminated areas of eastern Romania. P < 0.14. There is a noticeable increase in thyroid cancer morbidity in contaminated territories among adolescents and adults (Szybinski et al. it is noted that this conclusion was based on a cancer registry that included only 25. Registry reveal a significant increase in the age-standardized incidence rate (per 100. 2005). is not envisaged at this moment” (Pacini. and by 1997–1998 was much higher than during the pre-Chernobyl years (Davydescu. This increase started in 1990. 8.. The incidence of the thyroid cancer by different histological types and by gender in Greece in 1963–2000 (Ilias et al.. Lubyna et al. ITALY. and ethnicity do not preclude Chernobyl influence. However.15.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 173 Figure 6. 1998. 1994). In spite of the author’s conclusion that the reasons for this rise “may relate partly to increased diagnostic vigilance and changes in clinical practice. gender.15). not to Chernobyl-related factors. 2007). . especially expressed after 1992. The maximum incidence rate for thyroid cancer in Cluj City was registered in 1996— 10 years after the catastrophe (Salagean et al. Owing to the Chernobyl catastrophe an additional 80–250 thyroid cancer deaths are estimated to occur annually (Green Brigade. which “although possible. Figure 6. 7. 2006).

. 11. Montanaro. it is predicted that the number of Chernobyl thyroid cancers will increase worldwide until 2011 (Tsyb. 2006) and that the risk factors that were used were not reliable (Busby.000).g. 1986).174 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. From 1988 there was a marked increase in papillary thyroid cancer incidence in women (Figure 6. SWITZERLAND. During the same period rates of thyroid cancer for all age groups jumped to 23% (from 3. e. a Chernobyl effect cannot be definitively excluded and continuous study of this topic should be encouraged” (Montanaro et al. official medical representatives from the Soviet Union indicated they expected 100 additional cases to be induced by the catastrophe’s radiation (e. As cautiously noted by F. In Connecticut there were two separate fallouts of Chernobyl radionuclides (in the middle of May and the second half of June. 10. but also by other isotopes of iodine including I129 and by Te-132. after 10 previous years without change (Figure 6.to 28-fold increased level of I131 in milk. 6. with cases appearing 40 to 50 years afterward (Demidchik et al. Ilyin et al. 2004).g. 2006). Within-country geographical comparisons for current incidence rates by the Swiss Cancer Registries Network detected an increase over time for papillary cancers and a decrease for other types. which may partly be explained by Chernobyl radiation. and it is entirely possible that the determinations of collective doses were seriously underestimated (see..46 to 4.2.29 per 100. when the serious increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in contaminated territories had already begun. 1990). Age-period-cohort analyses revealed that the youngest cohorts of men and women born after 1940 had an increased risk of all types of thyroid cancer. One also has to consider that the thyroid cancers were caused not only by I-131..2.16). as ..16.. The rate of thyroid cancer among Connecticut children under the age of 15 years rose sharply (from 0. 2000). Goncharova. Various forecasts for future additional radiogenic thyroid cancers are shown in Table 6. whereas the cohort of people born between 1920 and 1939 were at increased risk of the papillary subtype.8. On this basis.000) from 1985–1989 to 1990–1992.8 are based on the collective dose estimates and risk coefficients for I-131 by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Ru-103. 1996).16 to 0. and Ru-106.31 per 100. resulting in a 7. Fairlie and Sumner. How Many and When Will New Cases of Chernobyl Thyroid Cancer Occur? In 1990. 2006). The calculations in Table 6. “Assuming a higher sensitivity to ionizing radiation among the youngest people. United States from 1975 to 1997 (Wartofsky. Papillary thyroid cancer incidence in women. 1996. The added risk of thyroid cancer after Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation was highest 10 to 15 years later. UNITED STATES.17).

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Figure 6.17. Thyroid cancer incidence in children (per 1,000,000), age adjusted rate 1935–1992, and I-131 concentration in milk for Connecticut (Reid and Mangano, 1995). TABLE 6.8. Future Predicted Chernobyl-Induced Thyroid Cancers According to Various Sources Number of cases Belarus 1,100 in boys, 2,300 in girls (whole country); 730 in boys, 1,500 in girls (Gomel Province) 12,500 (whole country) 15,000 (whole country) 14,000–31,400 (whole country) 50,200 (Gomel province), “from above 5,000” (Mogilev Province) “Up to 50,000” (whole country) Russia 3,700 (Kaluga, Tula, and Oryol provinces) 659 (Bryansk, Tula, Kaluga, Oryol, Kursk, Ryazan, and Leningrad provinces) Belarus, Ukraine, Russia 50,330 93,00–131,000 Period Author Comments

Up to 2056

Demidchik et al., 1999

In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown

All time Up to 2053 Up to 2056 All time

Ostapenko, 2002; Fedorov, 2002 National Belarussian Report, 2003 Malko, 2007 Brown, 2000

Data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) In today’s adolescents and young people Data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

All time

Krysenko, 2002; Fedorov, 2002 Brown, 2000 Demidchik et al., 1996

All time All time

All time All time

Malko, 1998 Gofman, 1994b

Including 5,230 fatalities

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TABLE 6.9. Predicted Radiogenic Thyroid Cancer Cases and the Resultant Death Toll in Europe from 1986 to 2056 (Malko, 2007) Country Belarus Ukraine Russia Yugoslavia Italy Romania Poland Greece Germany Czech and Slovakia Bulgaria France Switzerland Austria Great Britain Finland The Netherlands Hungary Belgium Sweden Norway Ireland Spain Denmark Luxembourg Portugal European Total Included figures for Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia Number of cases, n 31,400 18,805 8,626 7,137 5,162 3,976 3,221 2,879 2,514 2,347 1,619 1,153 898 812 418 334 328 270 239 165 136 100 54 19 13 2 92,627 58,831 Included fatalities 9,012 5,397 2,476 2,048 1,481 1,141 924 826 721 674 465 331 258 233 120 96 94 78 69 47 39 29 15 5 4 1 26,584 16,885

well as being a result of the adverse effects of Cs-134 and Cs-137. Therefore, the forecasts in Table 6.8 should be considered minimal estimates. Based on real numbers of radiogenic cancers recorded for 1986–2000 in the contaminated territories of Belarus and Ukraine, V. Malko (2007) calculated a parity between the level of radiation and the number of additional cases due to the influence of that radiation (i.e., number of cancers vs. dose of radiation). This can also be done by comparing spontaneous, pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl instances of cancer. The post-Chernobyl number is 5.5fold higher than was predicted by most known international forecasts (Cardis et al., 2006). Malko also recalculated the relative number of cases of cancer per dose of Chernobyl radionuclide fallout on populations of European countries. The results of these calculations (as future instances of cancer and the related death toll) for the total lifetime of the “Chernobyl generation” (1986–2056) are presented in Table 6.9. The confidence interval for all of Europe is 46,313–138,936 cases of thyroid cancer and 13,292–39,875 deaths (Malko, 2007: table 3). These calculations do not include the liquidators, of which a significant number (830,000) do not live in the contaminated territories. Malko’s numbers could be lower owing to severe restrictions on the consumption of vegetables and milk in many European countries on the second and third days after the catastrophe. Conversely the number of cases may increase owing to exposure of several new generations to continuing Cs-137 radiation. The prevalence and appearance of Chernobyl thyroid cancers differ widely from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki reference data. The Chernobyl thyroid cancers: (1) appear much earlier (not in 10, but in 3–4 years after irradiation); (2) develop in a much more aggressive form; and (3) affect not only children, but also adults at the time of irradiation. It is mistaken to think that this cancer is easily treated surgically (Chernobyl Forum, 2006).

In spite of the fact that the majority of victims undergo surgery, cancer continues to develop in approximately one-third of the cases (Demidchik and Demidchik, 1999). Moreover, without exception, despite surgical treatment, the person remains impaired for the rest of his/her life, completely dependent upon pharmacological supplements. Lastly, thyroid cancer is only the tip of the iceberg for radiogenic thyroid gland disorders (see Section 5.3.2): for each case of cancer, one finds hundreds of cases of other organic thyroid gland diseases.

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TABLE 6.10. Acute and Chronic Leukosis (Leukemia) Morbidity in Adults (per 100,000) in Gomel Province, 1993–2003 (National Belarussian Report, 2006) Whole province Leukosis Acute lymphoblastic Acute nonlymphoblastic Red cell leukemia All chronic leukoses All leukoses

Heavily contaminated districts Before 0.35 ± 0.08 1.07 ± 0.132 0.36 ± 0.13 5.91 ± 0.21 9.45 ± 0.40 After 0.96 ± 0.28∗ 2.30 ± 0.31∗∗ 1.25 ± 0.14∗∗∗ 9.94 ± 0.75∗∗∗ 13.44 ± 0.69∗∗∗

Before 0.28 ± 0.07 1.23 ± 0.14 0.59 ± 0.11 5.72 ± 0.32 9.05 ± 0.22

After 0.78 ± 0.11∗∗ 1.83 ± 0.11∗∗ 0.93 ± 0.12 8.83 ± 0.42∗∗∗ 11.79 ± 0.42∗∗∗

P < 0.05; ∗∗ P < 0.01; ∗∗∗ P < 0.001.

6.3. Cancer of the Blood—Leukemia Radiogenic leukemia was detected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki a few months after the bombing and morbidity peaked in 5 years. The latency period for radiogenic leukemia is several months to years with the highest incidence occurring between 6 and 8 years after exposure (Sinclair, 1996). Owing to the secrecy and the official falsification of data that continued for 3 years after the catastrophe (see Chapter 3 for details), unknown numbers of leukemia cases in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were not included in any registry. These distortions should be kept in mind when analyzing the following data. 6.3.1. Belarus 1. There were 1,117 cases of leukemia in children 0 to 14 years old from 1990 to 2004 (National Belarussian Report, 2006). 2. Since 1992 (7 years after the catastrophe) there has been a significant increase in all forms of leukemia in the adult population. The higher rate of morbidity compared with the pre-Chernobyl data was observed in 1992– 1994 (Ivanov et al., 1996). 3. Primary lymphatic and blood-forming cancers significantly increased among male evacuees from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report, 2006). 4. Leukemia morbidity in Gomel Province adults increased significantly after the catastrophe (Table 6.10).

5. Since 1996 the number of preleukemia cases has increased. For the 1986–1987 liquidators there was a statistically significant additional number of instances of acute leukemia in 1990–1991 (Ivanov et al., 1997). 6. There was a noticeable increase in lymphoid and blood-forming cancers in men and women across Belarus in the first 5 years after the catastrophe (Figure 6.18). 7. The highest incidence rate for acute and chronic leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease occurred in the first 5 years after the catastrophe. The maximum increase in red cell leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and, especially, myelodysplastic syndrome occurred 10 years after the catastrophe. Incidence of all forms of leukemic disease was significantly higher after the catastrophe (Table 6.11). 8. There were nearly 2,300 cases of leukemia between 1986 and 2004 (Malko, 2007).

Figure 6.18. Lymphoid and blood-forming tumors in Belarus, 1985–1998: (upper curve) men, (middle) both sexes, (lower) women (Okeanov et al., 2004).

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TABLE 6.11. Leukemia Morbidity (per 100,000) among the Adult Population of Belarus, 1979–1997 (Gapanovich et al., 2001) Leukemia types Acute leukemia Chronic leukemia Erythremia Multiple myeloma Hodgkin’s disease Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Myelodysplastic syndrome

Number of cases, n 4,405 11,052 n/a 2,662 4,870 5,719 1,543∗∗

1979–1985 2.82 ± 0.10 6.09 ± 0.18 0.61 ± 0.05 1.45 ± 0.06 3.13 ± 0.10 2.85 ± 0.08 0.03 ± 0.01

1986–1992 3.17 ± 0.11∗ 8.14 ± 0.31∗ 0.8 ± 0.05∗ 1.86 ± 0.06∗ 3.48 ± 0.12∗ 4.09 ± 0.16∗ 0.12 ± 0.05∗

1993–1997 2.92 ± 0.10 8.11 ± 0.26∗ 0.98 ± 0.05∗ 2.19 ± 0.14∗ 3.18 ± 0.06 4.87 ± 0.15∗ 0.82 ± 0.16∗

P < 0.05 from pre-Chernobyl status; ∗∗ all cases of bone marrow depression.

9. There was a significant increase in leukemia morbidity for the elderly 15 years after the catastrophe (Medical Consequences, 2003). 10. After the catastrophe many forms of leukemic disease in adults significantly increased in Mogilev and Gomel provinces (Tables 6.12 and 6.13). 6.3.2. Ukraine 1. There was an increase in acute leukemia in children from the contaminated regions compared with clean areas 10 to 14 years after the catastrophe (Moroz, 1998; Moroz et al., 1999; Moroz and Drozdova, 2000). 2. For children, leukemia morbidity began to increase in 1987 and peaked in 1996 (Horishna, 2005). 3. Leukemia incidence in 1986–1996 among Ukrainian children born in 1986 and thus ex-

posed in utero in the contaminated areas of Zhytomir Province was compared with children born in the less contaminated Poltava Province. Risk ratios based on cumulative incidence show significant increases for all leukemia (rate ratio: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.9–3.8) and for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (rate ratio: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1–10.4; Noshchenko et al., 2001, 2002). 4. From 1993 to 1997 there were 652 cases of acute leukemia (AL) in Kiev City and Kiev Province, including 247 cases in children (Gluzman et al., 1998). 5. Morbidity from leukemia in the heavily contaminated provinces was significantly elevated among children born in 1986 and the high morbidity continued for 10 years postexposure. Rates of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were dramatically elevated for males and to a lesser extent for females. For both genders combined, the morbidity for ALL was

TABLE 6.12. Leukosis (Leukemia) (per 100,000) among the Adult Population in Mogilev and Gomel Provinces before and after the Catastrophe∗ (National Belarussian Report, 2006: tables 4.2 and 4.3) Mogilev Province 1979–1985 Acute lymphoblastic leukosis Acute nonlymphoblastic leukosis Erythremia Others chronic leukoses All leukoses

Gomel Province 1979–1985 0.2 ± 0.07 1.2 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.05 9.1 ± 0.2 1993–2003 0.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 11.8 ± 0.4

1993–2003 0.8 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1 12.1 ± 0.4

0.5 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 9.8 ± 0.6

All differences are significant.

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TABLE 6.13. Multiple Myeloma, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s Disease Morbidity in Adults in Gomel and Mogilev Provinces before and after the Catastrophe (National Belarussian Report, 2006: table 4.4.) Mogilev Province 1979–1985 Multiple myeloma Hodgkin’s disease Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Gomel Province 1979–1985 1.24 ± 0.12 2.95 ± 0.19 2.83 ± 0.20 1993–2003 2.22 ± 0.14∗∗ 3.21 ± 0.23 5.57 ± 0.30∗∗

1993–2003 2.39 ± 0.20∗ 3.06 ± 0.11∗∗ 5.73 ± 0.25∗∗

1.68 ± 0.15 3.90 ± 0.14 2.99 ± 0.21

P <0.05; ∗∗ P < 001.

more than threefold higher in the heavily contaminated provinces compared to those less contaminated (Noshchenko et al., 2001). 6. In the children born in 1986–1987 who developed acute leukemia, an increasing relative number of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases were reported (21.2 and 25.3% in 1986 and 1987, respectively; Gluzman et al., 2006). 7. During the first 4 years after the catastrophe, malignant blood diseases were significantly higher in the four most contaminated districts of Zhytomir and Kiev provinces compared with the pre-Chernobyl period and 1999–2000 (Figure 6.19). 8. Blood neoplasms were especially high in children during the first 5 years after the catastrophe, and among liquidators who worked in 1986–1987, the maximum incidence occurred 4 to 11 years after the catastrophe (Table 6.14). 9. During the first 4 years after the catastrophe there was an increase in myeloid leukemia in the first and third years; during the second 4 years there was a significant in-

crease in lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma (Table 6.15). 10. There was a significant increase in the number of leukemia cases in liquidators 15 years after the catastrophe (National Ukrainian Report, 2006; Law of Ukraine, 2006). 11. The incidence of multiple myeloma among liquidators was twice as high as in the general population (7.8 vs. 4.0%). Five 1986– 1987 liquidators were diagnosed with an unusual chronic lymphoproliferative disorder— large granular lymphocytic leukemia (Gluzman et al., 2006). 6.3.3. Russia 1. Childhood leukemia morbidity increased in the Tula Province after the catastrophe (Table 6.16) and significantly exceeded the Russian average. Acute leukemia in children was especially high (Ushakova et al., 2001). 2. In Bryansk Province all forms of leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were

Figure 6.19. Leukemia and lymphoma morbidity (age adjusted, per 100,000, men and women) in Ukraine, 1980–2000 (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002).

180 TABLE 6.14. Leukemia Morbidity (Standardized Data, per 100,000) in Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002) Person/ years Number of cases Observed Expected SIR (%)

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Years

Leukemia, children, contaminated districts of the Kiev and Zhytomir provinces 1980–1985 337,076 19 10.88 174.7 1986–1991 209,337 22 6.78 324.4 1992–1997 150,170 7 4.87 143.7 1998–2000 80,656 0 2.59 0.0 Leukemia and lymphoma, evacuees, men and women 1990–1993 208,805 43 30.0 143.4 1994–1997 200,077 31 29.6 104.7 Leukemia and lymphoma, liquidators (1986–1987), men 1990–1993 263,084 81 31.8 255.0 1994–1997 314,452 102 49.9 204.6

significantly higher 7 years after the catastrophe compared to the 6 years prior to the catastrophe (UNSCEAR, 2000). 3. A marked increase in acute lymphocyte leukemia occurred in the six most contaminated districts of Bryansk Province from 1986 to 1993 (Ivanov and Tsyb, 2002). 4. Since 1995 blood-related and lymphatic cancer morbidity in the southwest districts (contaminated by ≥5 Ci/km2 ) was significantly higher than the province’s average (Kukishev et al., 2001). 5. From 1990 to 1994, children in Tula Province became ill significantly more often with tumors of the bone, soft tissue, and the central nervous system (Ushakova et al., 2001).

6. In the city of Lipetsk, leukemia morbidity increased 4.5-fold from 1989 to 1995 (Krapyvin, 1997). 7. In 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe, lymphatic and blood-forming cancer morbidity doubled (Parshkov et al., 2006). 8. Among liquidators, the first case of leukemia was officially registered in 1986; by 1991 there were already 11 such cases (Ivanov et al., 2004: table 6.6). 9. In 10 to 12 years after the catastrophe the number of leukemia cases among 1986– 1987 liquidators was double the average for the country (Tsyb, 1996; Zubovsky and Smirnova, 2000). 10. By 2004, lymphatic and blood-forming cancer morbidity in liquidators was twice as high as the country average (Zubovsky and Tararukhyna, 2007). 6.3.4. Other Countries 1. GERMANY. There was 1.5-fold increase in the incidence of leukemia among infants born in West Germany between July 1, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Pflugbeil et al., 2006). 2. GREAT BRITAIN. In 1987 in Scotland leukemia in children under the age of 4 years rose by 37% (Gibson et al., 1988; Busby and Scot Cato, 2000; Busby, 2006). 3. GREECE. Infants born between July 1, 1986, and December 31, 1987, and exposed to Chernobyl fallout in utero had 2.6 times the incidence of leukemia compared to children

TABLE 6.15. Leukemia and Lymphoma Morbidity (per 10,000) in Five of the Most Contaminated Districts of Zhytomir and Kiev Provinces (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002) Occurrence 1980–1985 Leukemia and lymphoma Lympho- and reticulosarcoma Hodgkin’s disease Multiple myeloma Lymphoid leukemia Myeloid leukemia 10.12 ± 0.75 1.84 ± 0.33 1.82 ± 0.34 0.54 ± 0.16 3.08 ± 0.40 0.49 ± 0.17 1986–1991 15.63 ± 1.06 2.70 ± 0.41 2.47 ± 0.48 1.03 ± 0.25 4.93 ± 0.59 1.99 ± 0.41 1992–1997 13.41 ± 1.10 3.70 ± 0.58 2.10 ± 0.48 0.78 ± 0.22 2.97 ± 0.49 1.06 ± 0.30 1998–2000 13.82 ± 1.52 3.36 ± 0.90 1.23 ± 0.50 1.38 ± 0.40 4.11 ± 0.75 2.32 ± 0.62

From 1987 to 1999. 4. Approximately 11. n 3.6–4.17. 173.03).. Other Cancers There are many fragmentary reports about the increased occurrence of breast. EUROPE.800 2.000) in Children of Tula Province. 1979–1985 and 1986– 1997 (Ushakova et al.9 181 TABLE 6. 1990. and December 31. The most noticeable effect is in the newborn to 1-year-old age group (Davydescu et al.5%. 4. Leukemia Morbidity (per 10.3% because of lung cancer and 18. 2007) Country Ukraine Belarus Russia Germany Romania Austria Great Britain Czech Republic Italy Bulgaria Sweden Greece Poland Finland Switzerland Moldova France Slovenia Norway Slovakia Hungary Croatia Lithuania Ireland The Netherlands Belgium Spain Latvia Denmark Estonia Luxembourg European total Included figures for Belarus. From 1990 to 2003.4 4..801 2.5%. and between January 1. 3. From 1987 to 1990 (3 years after the catastrophe) there was a doubling of admissions to the Minsk Eye Microsurgery Center to treat retinal glioma (retinoblastoma. 6. 1988. approximately 26.761 born between January 1.1 95% CI 2. and Russia Number of cases. Belarus 1. and December 31. 6.000 people died. 2.7% of the cases. The incidence of leukemia in children born between July 1986 and March 1987 was significantly higher than for those born between April 1987 and December 1987 (386 vs. ROMANIA.988 1.4–4.4. Goncharova. Elevated rates were also reported for children born in regions of Greece with higher levels of radioactive fallout (Petridou et al. 2000). 1985.. 2001) Years 1979–1985 1986–1997 Number of cases.4% from stomach cancer (Okeanov et al. Byrich et al.17.” 1986–2056 (Malko. 1994). 2004). Realistic prognosis of blood cancer (all leukemias) morbidity and mortality is shown in Table 6. 1980.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 6.16.4.784 652 367 355 300 99 265 205 139 132 124 112 107 93 86 67 65 50 44 44 30 26 9 8 6 5 5 4 1 9. Ukraine.. 2006). and other tumors after the Chernobyl catastrophe.512 918 517 500 423 140 373 289 196 186 174 158 151 131 121 95 91 71 62 62 42 37 13 11 8 7 7 6 2 12. 1996. 1996). 1996).113 Including fatalities 1. P = 0. lung. Lung cancer morbidity among the evacuees (about 32. 20. and stomach cancer 9.989 1.000 examined) was fourfold higher than the country average (Marples.1.904 8. 5.. Predicted Incidence of Radiogenic Blood Cancer (Leukemia) and the Resultant Death Toll in Europe for the “Chernobyl Generation. breast cancer morbidity rates in the districts of Gomel Province .161 5. n 2. of which skin cancer accounted for 18. 5.000 cases of radiation-induced malignant neo- plasms (including leukemia) were registered in the country. Malignant and nonmalignant neoplasms in girls (0–14 years old) born to irradiated parents increased significantly from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report.4 3. lung cancer 10.

.000. The number of children admitted to the Ukrainian Institute of Neurosurgery in Kiev with brain tumors (data on 1. Figure 6.4. 30. p. 76 ± 12. 1996. whereas thyroid. 2006). and 23. 2003.2 ± 2. per 100. Primary malignant intestinal neoplasms significantly increased among woman evacuees from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report. National Belarussian Report. Figure 6.699 children.182 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. Kiev area. breast. 9.21). point 258. and lung cancers. and the occurrences correlated with the level of Chernobyl contamination (Okeanov et al. 1995. 2. 1999). In the more contaminated Mogilev Province breast cancer increased fourfold from 1993 to 1996 compared with the period from 1989 to 1992 (Putyrsky and Putyrsky.2 ± 1.6. bladder. In the heavily contaminated Gomel Province there was a marked increase in the number of cases of intestinal.4 per 100. and rectal cancers increased (Malko. The incidence of breast cancer in the most radioactively contaminated territories was almost stable from 1980 to 1992 and lower than in the large comparison areas (the whole of Ukraine. 1999). Ukraine 1. 8.2. From 1993 to 2003 there was a significant increase in morbidity due to malignancies of the intestines. Putyrsky.20). 2002). 6. kidney. 2006). By 2002 breast cancer morbidity in women 45 to 49 years of age increased 2. and urinary tracts in men and woman liquidators (National Belarussian Report. The number of children with central nervous system neoplasms (including malignant forms) increased from 1987 to 1994.4%.20. and Zhytomir Province). the rate increased .000) in Gomel Province with various levels of Cs-137 contamination (National Belarussian Report. 7. colon. from 1992 to 2004. 10. 2002). colon. 12. Breast cancer morbidity (women. contaminated by Cs-137 at a level of 185–555 kBq/m2 and above were significantly higher compared with districts contaminated at levels lower than 185 kBq/m2 (respectively. For the second quinquennium after the catastrophe there was a 10-fold increase in the number of cases of pancreatic cancer compared with the first quinquennium (UNCSEAR. 1993. urogenital system. aged 0 to 6 years) from 1987 to 1991 increased 63. lung. 6. The makeup of cancer morbidity changed markedly after the catastrophe: the proportion of stomach tumors decreased. The incidence of breast cancer increased significantly from 1986 to 1999 for the entire country (1. 3. 2006).6-fold for the whole country compared with 1982. After the catastrophe there were significant increases in bladder cancer in men in the contaminated territories (Romanenko et al. 52). From 1993 to 2003 general cancer morbidity increased significantly among men and women from heavily contaminated territories. respiratory organs. Orlov and Sharevsky. 2006).745 to 2. Then. 2000. with the annual rate of increase being higher for women (18%) than for men (4.7% compared with the period from 1981 to 1985 (Orlov. 2006).322 cases. Okeanov and Yakymovich. 11.. breast.

8. 2003. 2007).4. for which an almost threefold increase (from 11. 1999).3-fold (Omelyanets et al. In the period from 1987 to 1994.2-fold and across all of Ukraine 1. The Kiev Interdepartmental Expert Commission revealed that for liquidators. A significant increase in urinary tract and bladder cancers was found in the contaminated territories of Ukraine (Romanenko et al. 2003). 2002).3. 95% CI: 1. 5. 2003. 2001). Prysyazhnyuk et al.2 to 39.50. in the contaminated territories (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 6. 10. 3.27–1.2% during the period from 1987 to 2004. Melanoma of the skin increased fivefold and the incidence of brain cancer tripled in the first 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe (Parshkov et al. Morbidity due to breast cancer in women living in the contaminated areas and among those evacuated increased 1. Russia 1. The incidence of oral cavity.3%). National Ukrainian Report.. lung. Since 1990–1994 the incidence of tissue. and colon than the province average (Kukyshev et al.. cited by Hatch et al. 2006). pharyngeal. 2006). and tumors of the urogenital tract (13..5fold from 1993 to 1997 (Moskalenko. 2006). ... 4. The fastest increase in cancer pathology was for the urogenital tract.. bone. Infant mortality in the contaminated provinces differs from the country as a whole.. and central nervous system cancers in Tula Province children has been significantly higher (Ushakova et al.. 2002. there has been a significantly larger incidence of some cancers of the stomach. digestive system tumors were the most common type of cancer (33. with an increase in leukemia and brain tumors in both boys and girls (Fedorenko et al. There is an increase in breast cancer in premenopausal women from contaminated areas of Ukraine close to Chernobyl.000) in children under 3 years of age. rectum. 2007).6 to 25. followed by tumors of the respiratory system (25. Central nervous system tumor cases (per 10. 2001). 1995). 2006). 2. 1997).5%) was observed from 1993 to 1996 (Barylyak and Diomyna. 4.1%). 6. Ukrainian Institute of Neurosurgery data for the period 1980–2005 (Orlov et al.7%). Breast cancer morbidity in women in the contaminated territories and among liquidators and evacuees increased significantly from 1990 to 2004 (Moskalenko. an increase in the number of children suffering from tumors of the nervous system was observed (Orlov..Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 183 Figure 6. and adrenal cancers in Tula Province children increased more than twofold from 1986 to 1997 compared to the period from 1979 to 1985 (Table 6.73.18). 5. 2006. 7. Prysyazhnyuk et al. From 1999 to 2004 cancer mortality in liquidators exceeded similar parameters among the rest of the population (Law of Ukraine. 9. For Ukrainian adults in 2004 the rate was 9. 2005). breast. 2001).. Prysyazhnyuk et al. The rate of oncological illnesses in liquidators’ mortality increased from 9..9% (Horishna.. Prostate cancer mortality increased in the contaminated territories up to 2. 2005). compared with the general Ukrainian female population (standardized incidence ratio: 1.21. There was a noticeable increase in respiratory tract tumors in women in the most contaminated areas of Kaluga Province (Ivanov et al.. Since 1995 in southwest districts contaminated at levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 . 6.

21 presents the average data. 6. estimated the future number of fatal cancers owing to Chernobyl irradiation to be between 22. 2007). Tables 6. M.050 ∗ On the basis of an expected collective dose “indefinitely” of 127.17. Malko has made the most detailed prognosis of Chernobyl-related cancers in Europe and the consequent mortality over the lifespan of the “Chernobyl generation” (1986–2056). Table 6.19 and 6. The fact is that for some years after the catastrophe. Ukraine.500 persons. As of 2004. TABLE 6.18.4 million person/rad. 2003. ∗∗ Global death rate from Chernobyl leukemia by J. ch.184 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 6. Conclusions UNSCEAR.20.5..2).150 244. 2001. or even as few as 9. 2001) Cancer site 1986–1997 compared with 1979–1985.040 Ukraine 24.19. 2006). Predicted Cancer Morbidity and Mortality (Excluding Leukemia∗∗ ) Caused by the Chernobyl Cs-137 for Future Generations∗ (Gofman. Using the methodology described above for analyses of thyroid cancers (see Section 6. The confidence limits for the incidence of cancer are between 62.000 and 28.000 800 760 7.960 44. Predicted Additional Chernobyl Cancer Morbidity and Mortality in Belarus.206 and 196.21 and those for leukemia were shown earlier in Table 6. other than thyroid—mortality Total mortality ∗ Belarus 20. Brain and laryngeal tumors also were widespread (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. Pu-241. along with other international organizations loyal to the nuclear industry.400 1. Cl-36.000 lethal cancers.512 475.550 15. Ukraine.611.6% of all malignant neoplasms.786 18. At the time that report was issued. Prognoses for the solid cancers are given in Table 6. accounting for 17. but UNSCEAR unequivocally underestimated the number of deaths by basing its figures on false risk factors and understated collective doses (for details see Busby et al.000 2. double the country average of 7.512 475.300 2. 2006). Moldova Europe (without CIS) Other countries Total Lethal 212. Fairlie and Sumner. and the death toll is between 40.700 16.030 1. 2007). and Tc-99. there was a marked increase. 24. the number of deaths had already risen.300 12.000.150 244. Undoubtedly. 2.368 Nonlethal 212. and European Russia∗ (Malko.368 present the results of more realistic mortality and morbidity calculations for Europe and the world.100 19.786 18. 1994b: vol. 1998) Cancer Thyroid—morbidity Thyroid—mortality Leukemia—mortality Malignant tumors. Entire world: 90.427 and 121. p. Sr-90. the above forecasts are incomplete.20 TABLE 6. Gofman calculation as of 1994: 19. kidney and bladder cancers were the most prevalent malignancies among liquidators.000 (Chernobyl Forum. . Am-241.5%.030 Russia 8..277 (Malko. 5) Number of cases Region Belarus. These numbers could increase for many future generations because of continued radiation from the further release of Cs-137.400 8. Zubovsky and Tararukhyna. Increase in Morbidity owing to Various Cancers in Children of Tula Province after the Catastrophe (Ushakova et al. % Oral cavity and pharynx 225% Adrenal glands 225% Skin 188% Kidneys 164% Genitalia (male) 163% Bones and soft tissues 154% Bladder 150% All cancers 113% 7.

220 960 920 715 630 625 420 375 135 110 80 75 70 60 15 130. (2003). In Chernobyl’s contaminated territories the radioactive impact may be even greater because of its duration and character. April 26.000–120. Annual Report (2006). & Diomyna.654 2. Poland 12:39:09. Even nowadays they are doing their best to cover the truth of Chernobyl.000 extra Chernobyl cancers predicted. S.546 17.754 3.280 3. (2000). Koryt’ko.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 6. (//www. B. (2007).000 additional deaths from thyroid cancer. I. Associated Press (2000).280 5.000 deaths for the “Chernobyl generation” from 1986 to 2056. Brown.220 5.880 1. The number of illnesses and deaths determined by Malko’s (2007) calculations cannot be dismissed as grossly overestimated: 10. 2007) that Chernobyl’s radioactive influence on the incidence of malignant neoplasms will be much weaker than that of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation is very doubtful. The Local-Sweden’s News in English (//www.166 1. T..300 28.405 82. Surveillance of Thyroid Cancer: Twenty Years after Chernobyl.000 deaths from the other malignant tumors.000 Fatalities 17. Belookaya. as in Hiroshima and .sante.fr/presentations/edito_en_htm). Breeders 1: 107– 120 (in Ukrainian). Bull.088 992 949 874 818 756 595 570 443 391 388 260 233 84 68 50 47 43 37 9 89. S.000 to 174. Soc. and European Russia All 28.337 1. & Poplyko. Minsk): 44 pp. 24–25 (in Russian). R. (in Russian).org. A. Ukraine.000–14. and 5. Genet.980 1. The onset of many cancers began not after 20 years. Barylyak. P. E. Scientific solution of Chernobyl problems. for a total of 55.thelocal. where adequate studies have been carried out.770 2.000 deaths from leukemia. 50.050 4. April 26. St. November 26 (www.se/7200/20070504/).546 15.748 5. Morbidity analysis among the participants of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidation. in the incidence of various malignant neoplasms in all of the territories subjected to Chernobyl fallout—that is. The Guardian. Industrial Catastrophes and Long-Term Surveillance.851 50.530 1. & Mel’nov.g..320 1.228 1. I. Y. (2002).300 25.131 2.755 1.400 9.chernobyl-portal. Even the incomplete data now available indicate the specific character of cancers caused by Chernobyl.ua) (in Russian). Predicted Incidence of Cancer Caused by Chernobyl and the Resultant Death Toll in Europe from 1986 to 2056 (Malko. In: Fourth International Congress on Integrated Anthropology (Materials. References Abdelrahman.invs. but in only a few years after the explosion. Medical effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. Pryasyaznjuk et al. Warsaw. R. V. Borysevich. Study cites Chernobyl health effects in Poland.21.600 1.410 1. (2002). 40.000– 40. S. French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Y. Swedes still dying from Chernobyl radiation. Year 2001 results (Radiology Institute.236 3. Ukr..810 1. Petersburg): pp. which is still in evidence. Anonymous (2005). N.840 185 Nagasaki. The assumption (e. especially because of irradiation from internally absorbed radioisotopes.920 1. 2007) Number of cases Country Belarus Ukraine Russia Germany Romania Austria Great Britain Italy Bulgaria Sweden Greece Poland Finland Switzerland Czech Republic Moldova France Slovenia Norway Slovakia Croatia Hungary Lithuania Ireland The Netherlands Belgium Spain Latvia Denmark Estonia Luxembourg European total Included figures for Belarus.

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A. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook. Bogdanova. Italy. (2007). E.portalus. 143–146. (2002). Radioactive-induced risk of thyroid cancer among Bryansk province’s population after the Chernobyl accident. Russian Chernobyl 4. Buziak-Bereza. I. I. F. (www. A. O. Dynamics of mortality in populations of Narovlya area. A. (1995). Moscow) 1: pp. Wartofsky. Congr. A. & Bogdanova. Bugaeva. 41(6): 11–13 (in Russian). I. (Eds. Summary of the 15-year observation of thyroid cancers among Ukrainian children after the Chernobyl accident.. Thyroid can- 191 cers in France and the Chernobyl accident: Risk assessment and recommendations for improving epidemiological knowledge. Axel. S. T. Oncol. G. Tsyb.. Amsterdam): pp. November 9–10. Zvonova. Kiev): pp. Morbidity among persons exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. Chernobyl catastrophe and your health. In: Blokov. D. In: Blokov. The Health Effects on the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. (2006). Catelinois. I. G.. Brit. A. B. J. morphology and aggressiveness. M.iss. In: Chernobyl: Duty and Courage (Collected Papers. Pirard. G. E. Thyroid carcinoma after Chernobyl latent period.. April 24–26. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook. Rus. & Lavrent’eva. Zborovsky. A..unscear. et al. A.). 2: 4–8 (in Russian). “Tverskaya.).D. Williams. Siena. Ukraine (Abstracts. Link¨ ping University o M.pdf). Zubovsky. B. Abrosymov. P. 13” (Moscow) 17: p. A. The Health Effects on Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. L. Thesis.eurothyroid. A. 103–104 (in Russian).. & Likhtarev. International Conference. 147–151. May 30–31. 85(3): 323–329 (//www. V. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation.. Epidemiology of thyroid cancer. Tirmarche. & Smirnova. N. 11 (//www. 2007. M..com/Presentations/WartofskyL /01-Wartofsky. B. T. Durnoe.. A. Transfusiol. Report to GA. Williams. et al. Incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in selected areas in Poland (1990–2005). J. International Science Conference Dedicated to the 5th Anniversary.org/ diva/getDocument?urn_nbn_se_liu_diva-8886-1_ fulltext.org/docs/reports/annexj.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl Szybinski. Levels of Irradiation and Consequence of Chernobyl Accident (United Nations. & Volkov. L. 2006. Ukraine (Abstracts. Thomas. Weinisch. & Kozlov. (2001). 3 (in Russian). Tsheglova. A... Cancer 90: 2219–2224. Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in people living in Russian territories polluted as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. Labunska.. J. Ser.. (2003). (2007). Sadownichik.niiit/book-4/glav-2-26.. & Volkov. (1996). Tronko. Trofymuk.. Maykova. “Labor” (Moscow). & Popov.htm) (in Russian).org/4-publications/detail-1803-). 57 pp. Gomel): pp. (2005). 6. Tenyear cohort observation result of children affected by ionizing irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Jacob.. (2006). (Eds. Grakovich. I. Kiev): pp. Presentation (//www. A. I.. R. I. L. M. L. Gomel Medical Institute (Materials.. 56–57. I. & Tararukhyna. Labunska. New York).. E. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Austria. T. I. Tondel. Health Phys. p. N. A. M. Hematol. Amsterdam): pp. O. June 19. Ushakov. Sadownichik. I. International Conference. A. (2006). O. Bratylova.. Verger... D. (2007). Annex G. Vtyurin. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. (1996). Kiev. V. I. 1995. (2001). N. Chernobyl: Radiation Psychophysiology and Ecology of the Person (SSRI Aviation Space Medicine. & Rumyantsev. Bogdanova. F. Invest. Kiev.orspaca.pps+Italy+thyroid+cancer&hl= ru&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=ru). 26(2): 63–70.diva-portal. 5 (in Russian).php? subaction=snowfull&id) (in Russian). Z. M. 2006. E. E.. (2000). Liquidators and their children. 1234: 77–83. Arlashchenko.ru/modules/ecology/print. 2006. 1001. M. E. T. A. Tsyb. et al.pdf) accessed April 6. J. Endocr. Tronko. A Chernobyl trace in Russia. Przybylik-Mazurek.. (//www. A.. E. I. T. . D.. CherieChalline.. (1997). (2004). Dorotshenko. April 24–26. Tsimlyakova. D. F. Malignant neoplasm incidence and characteristics in children of Tula province after the Chernobyl accident. Dolzhanov. I.. & Pochtennaya. Moscow): 247 pp. In: International Congress on Thyroid Cancer Management. (2004). Malignancies in Sweden in 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. P. Zubovsky. (in Russian). Int. B. N. P. M. 26–30 (//www.. et al. N... 14–15 (in Russian). Ushakova.. Golkowski. G. T. P. Thyroid gland and radiation (20-year follow-up experience). UNSCEAR (2000). T. M.

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union. 119071 Moscow. Playford et al. Leninsky Prospect 33. Since 1990. life expectancy there has decreased significantly (Figure 7.1.000 to 125.. The incidence of stillbirths in highly contaminated territories increased (Golovko and Izhevsky. The number of Chernobyl victims will continue to grow over many future generations. at whole body doses as low as 5 mSv (Loganovsky.1. The analysis in this chapter is based on studies of territories with comparable ethnic. 1995. so a change in that rate can only be determined indirectly from a reduction in the birth rate. whereas the decline in infant mortality has leveled off. The calculations suggest that the Chernobyl catastrophe has already killed several hundred thousand human beings in a population of several hundred million that was unfortunate enough to live in territories affected by the fallout. 7. Twenty years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. 1996. The major observable components of antenatal mortality are spontaneous abortions or miscarriages (spontaneous interruption of pregnancy until the 27th week) and stillbirths (after 27 weeks). Yablokov. but even as early as 1987. Durakoviˇ . Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. with a delay of only some weeks or months after exposure.000 members of the Chernobyl cleanup teams. From 112.8–4. and A. 192 . Tchasnikov. there are no official publications on mortality in areas affected by the nuclear fallout. social. 2002. that is. mortality among liquidators has exceeded the mortality rate in corresponding population groups. 7. spontaneous abortions are not registered. Office 319. Long before the Chernobyl catastrophe. 2003). apart from several limited studies among specific groups and in isolated territories dealing primarily with the incidence of cancer (see Chapter 6). A.. 1996. Yablokov A detailed study reveals that 3. Increased numbers of stillbirths and miscarriages are among the first effects of irradiation. The lack of evidence of increased mortality in other affected countries is not proof of the absence of effects from the radioactive fallout. Yablokov@ecopolicy. 1972. but the reasons are not yet understood. for reviews see C. some 15% of the 830. 1992. A.ru 1. Whyte.1. and many others. 1996.0% of all deaths in the contaminated territories of Ukraine and Russia from 1990 to 2004 were caused by the Chernobyl catastrophe.2). Russian Academy of Sciences. Yablokov. Mortality after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. There is strong evidence of radiation effects on cancer and noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima data (Preston et al. Tkachev et al. Busby. and economic factors but with different levels of radioactive contamination. Figure 7. as well as on the embryo.1). 1992. K¨ rblein. c o 2004b). increases in antenatal mortality were found in the wake of the nuclear fallout from atmospheric weapons tests (Sternglass. Russia.CHERNOBYL 7. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. 2003..000 liquidators died before 2005—that is. Belarus Address for correspondence: Alexey V. As a rule. Increase in Antenatal Mortality Irradiation has an adverse effect on the ovum and the sperm. 2005). These effects can occur after exposure to very low doses.

a significant increase in spontaneous abortions was found in the more highly contaminated areas. Poland. 1961–2000. 2001). Russia 1. the estimated total number of miscarriages and stillbirths in Ukraine as a result of Chernobyl was about 50. The error bars show one standard deviation. The number of spontaneous abortions in the contaminated territories increased significantly after Chernobyl (Buldakov et al. 7.. Hungary. there was a significant increase in the incidence of stillbirths. and Belarus (K¨ rblein.. and Russia (//www.ru/weekly/ssp/geO. In Kaluga Province. which was associated with the level of Cs-137 ground contamination. 7. In 1987. In Kiev Province. 1993). a significant reduction in the birth rate was observed in Gomel Province. After 1986. Germany.000 (Lypic.000 pregnancies 3 years before and 5 years after Chernobyl (Kulakov et al.php?c2). the rate of spontaneous abortions increased significantly 5 years after Chernobyl in the three most contaminated districts (Medvedeva et al.. 1993). o 2000.9 (Auvinen et al. In the Ukrainian districts of Polessk and Cherkassk. Figure 7. The study was based on more than 7. the prevalence of ovarian hypofunction (one of the main causes of spontaneous abortion) increased by a factor of 2. 3. After Chernobyl.2. Ukraine 1. 2003).3). 5.3. Excess stillbirth rate in 1987 in Sweden.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 193 Figure 7.1. the most contaminated region of Belarus (Kulakov et al. 2006). 2. 3. In the three most contaminated districts of Kaluga Province the stillbirth rate increased significantly from 1986 to 1990 relative to the rate before Chernobyl.demoscope. Average life expectancy for newborn males. 2004). 4.1. 2001). Ukraine... the number of spontaneous abortions increased significantly in the Narodychy District (Buzhievskaya et al. and it continued to be higher than in less contaminated districts for the whole 15-year study period (Figure 7. and Greece combined (EAST). . 2. in Belarus.. Until 2004. 1996)..1. 2. The study was based on 66. 1995).2.379 pregnancies from 1999 to 2003 (Timchenko et al.

2 kBq/m2 ).2. when it was significantly reduced (Figure 7. there was a 45% increase in the proportion of stillbirths (P = 0. 1991–1995.4. and in Russia. GERMANY. and Garmisch Partenkirchen). K¨ rblein. Other Countries 1. In 1987 in the 10 most affected districts of Bavaria (average Cs-137 ground level.4. Stillbirth rate (per 1.. CZECH REPUBLIC. and Bavaria alone. respectively.5%.. 37.3.4).6. 1986– 1990. 2004). In 1988 in the German Democratic Republic plus West Berlin.4% (Figure 7.5). 2008). CROATIA. Deviation of stillbirth rates in Croatia 1985 to 1991 from the long-term trend in units of standard deviation (standardized residuals.4. 2. which was presumably a consequence of the consumption of contaminated canned beef imported from the Soviet Union (Scherb et al. in the three most contaminated Bavarian districts combined (Augsburg City.194 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. Berchtesgaden. and 8.016). o . the stillbirth proportion in that year was more than double relative Figure 7. during 1981–1986. The hypothesis is that there is a negative effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe on male fetuses during the third month of prenatal development (Peterka et al. except in November 1986.1..000 live births plus stillbirths) with higher and lower contamination in districts of the Kaluga Province. 2006).). 3. 2000). 7. the area of the former German Democratic Republic (including West Berlin). and 1996–2000 (Tsyb et al. In the former Federal Republic of Germany (excluding Bavaria and West Berlin). The second peak in 1988 may have resulted from the consumption of contaminated beef. the excess perinatal mortality in 1987 was 2. In the sex ratio of newborns the percentage of males was higher than 50% each month between 1950 and 1999. the perinatal mortality rate exceeded the expected figure by 7. 7. Stillbirth rates from 1985 to 1990 show significant peaks observed at the end of 1986 and the beginning of 1987 and around September 1988 (Figure 7.

. 7. the Federal Republic of Germany. and Sweden and visible but not statistically significant for Iceland (Figure 7.7). Italy. It should be noted that the reduction in birth rate in Sweden. Hungary. GREAT BRITAIN. A change point analysis of stillbirth odds ratios for gender.. Norway. NORWAY. Perinatal mortality in Germany. Literature on increased stillbirth rates after Chernobyl in several European countries is listed in Table 7. during a period in which pregnancies usually increase. GREECE. Germany. 6. Scherb et al. which. 2000). 1988). which was attributed to the Chernobyl fallout. 12. 11. FINLAND.” Pregnancies temporarily decreased in the second half of 1986. 2007).. 2001). 1989). 5. and Gwynedd (Figure 7. but rather was due to family planning (Auvinen et al. the ratio of stillbirth odds of males to the stillbirth odds for females.0004.1. and Bavaria (Scherb et al. however. Greece. that is. 10.. to the expected figure (P = 0. 1991). whereas there was no increase in induced abortions (Irgens et al. In Lombardia there was a 20% increase in first-trimester spontaneous abortions among fetuses conceived during the main fallout period (Semisa. uary 1987.. some 23% of early pregnancies were aborted for fear of an adverse pregnancy outcome (Trichopoulos et al. Findings of increased rates of spontaneous abortions after the Chernobyl catastrophe in several European countries are summarized in Table 7. Switzerland. Clwyd. A 10% reduction in the birth rate was observed from January to March 1987. . “but a causal relationship with the radiation exposure cannot be proved.2. 8. 4. and Finland in the first year after Chernobyl might not have been caused by radiation. Birth rates were reduced in February and March 1987 (Czeizel et al.. A significant increase in perinatal mortality occurred in March 1987.. Only in November 1986 is the figure less than 50% (Peterka et al. HUNGARY. In May 1986.5. 2001).8).. Changes in the sex ratio and the stillbirth odds ratio for gender were significant for Denmark. The observed increase for 36 months after Chernobyl is statistically significant. some 10 months after the catastrophe in the three most contaminated counties of England and Wales: Cumbria. found a change in 1986 or 1987 (P = 0. ITALY. A higher incidence of spontaneous abortions was observed for pregnancies conceived during the first 3 months after the catastrophe (Ulstein et al. Poland. There was a significant rise in preterm deliveries among infants who were exposed to radiation in utero during the first trimester of pregnancy (Harjulehto et al.01) in several European countries (Figure 7. 9.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 195 Figure 7. 1991)... The percentage of infant boys born in the Czech Republic each November from 1950 to 2005. There was an increase in stillbirth rates from December 1986 through Jan- Figure 7. Latvia. 1990). 13.9). 2000).6. 14. 1987). was not significant (Auvinen et al.

000.000 in Ukraine alone (Lypik. 1995. 2006). if the number of miscarriages and stillbirths resulting from the Chernobyl fallout was 50. Thus the total antenatal death toll from Chernobyl adds up to 200. 0–6 days). 1999). and Childhood Mortality Reports about the most probable adverse impacts of the Chernobyl contamination on childhood mortality include: perinatal mortality (stillbirths plus early neonatal deaths. the data for neonatal and infant mortality were Figure 7. and Ukraine up to 2003 is more than 100. 2004). it is likely that the total antenatal death toll from Chernobyl in Russia. As these three countries received only about 43% of the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl (see Chapter 1 for details) one can expect another 100.196 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7.2. In the Former Soviet Union. which presents a problem in timetrend analyses. Belarus. . infant mortality (0–364 days). 1991). based on Bentham. Infant. 7. Sex ratio and stillbirth odds ratio by gender in several European countries (male stillbirths/male live births)/(female stillbirths/female live births. In a number of European countries the definition of stillbirth changed around 1994.8.. Over an 18-year period after Chernobyl. and childhood mortality (0–14 years).000 cases (Rosen. neonatal mortality (0–27 days).7. Scherb et al. Trends of stillbirth rate and neonatal and perinatal mortality in England and Wales (Busby.000 additional antenatal deaths in other European countries and in the rest of the world. Increased Perinatal.

7.. o 2003).3. 7. stillbirth rate. infant mortality rates in 1986–1990 and 1991–1995 were higher than in less contaminated districts and in the Kaluga Province as a whole: 25.2. Latvia.12).11). and early neonatal mortality in Zhytomir and Kiev provinces were noticeably higher in the first year after the catastrophe and again 3 years later (Figure 7. and Hungary).2. Perinatal mortality in Gomel Province increased after 1988. Belarus 1.2. The additional mortality is o associated with the average calculated Sr-90 burden on pregnant women (Figure 7. Russia 1. the two most highly contaminated regions of Belarus (Petrova et al.1.000 live births. and Sweden).. and 17. The latter increase may be connected to consumption of locally contaminated food. respectively (Tsyb et al. determined with a spatial–temporal trend model by Scherb and Weigelt (2000).10). Comparison of perinatal mortality in the most contaminated regions of Ukraine (Zhytomir and Kiev provinces and Kiev City) with the mortality in the rest of Ukraine shows significantly higher figures 1991–1999 (Figure 7. 21. In the three most contaminated districts of Kaluga Province. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence limits) for change points for the stillbirth odds ratio in 1986 (Iceland.5.0 per 1.9. Perinatal mortality. 2. 2004). The increases in perinatal mortality in Ukraine and Belarus are associated with the Sr-90 burden on pregnant women (K¨ rblein. An analysis of pregnancy outcomes before and after the catastrophe (1982 to 1990) revealed that neonatal mortality increased in Gomel and Mogilev. 2002).2. Denmark. habitually underreported to “improve” health statistics. .1. 2006).1.2. which makes the figures unreliable (Losoto.2.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 197 Figure 7.1. in 1987 (Germany.1. Perinatal Mortality 7. and 1989 (Norway). During the 1990s there is a rise and fall relative to the expected trend with a maximum number from 1993 to 1994 (K¨ rblein. 7. Poland. 1997). 2. 3. Ukraine 1.

.5% (P = 0. 2. 2007 Ulstein et al. Even more pronounced levels of 8. 1990 Switzerland 7. 1980–1993. increased 3% Increased for whole country Author Auvinen et al.. 1991 Norway Sweden Italy 1986 July 1986 June. 1986 From 1986 1986–1988 1986 Comments Increased in the territories with high level of Cs-137 ground contamination Up to 20% In 1986 for conceptions during the first 3 months after Chernobyl in the contaminated territories Rate of spontaneous abortions increased from 7. 1999 From 1986 Up to 5% Up to 10%.. 2001 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb.198 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7. GERMANY. 1990 Irgens et al..2% (P < 0. including West Berlin. Associated with the Cs-137 ground contamination 13% decrease in birth rate in southern Bavaria Birth rate decreased by 50% in Ticino Canton Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. A highly significant association of perinatal mortality with the Cs-137 burden during pregnancy is found in the combined data from West and East Germany (K¨ rblein and o Kuchenhoff. POLAND. Sweden Poland Sweden Denmark Hungary Iceland Germany 1986 20% increase in first-trimester spontaneous abortions Increased compared to 1985 Ericson and Kallen. 2006 o Perucchi and Domenighetti. Sept. 1991. Perinatal mortality increased significantly in 1987 relative to the long-term trend of the data. 2001 and K¨ rblein. 1994 Bertollini et al.4.005) of the expected proportion of perinatal deaths. 1988 Scherb et al. Parazzini et al. 1986 1986 Greece. Increase of the Rate of Spontaneous Abortions after Chernobyl (from Reviews by Auvinen et al.0702) can be found in the more heavily contaminated areas of the former German Democratic Republic. 2006a) o Country Finland Period July to Dec. 1990 Spinelli and Osborn. Perinatal mortality was significantly increased in 1987 relative to the . 2000).2% before Chernobyl to 8. Other Countries 1. July.05) and 8.1. Spatial-temporal analyses of the proportion of stillbirths and perinatal deaths with Cs-137 deposition after the Chernobyl catastrophe in Bavaria on a district level reveal significant exposure–response relationships (Scherb et al. and Bavaria.8% (P < 0.. 1988 Semisa. Hungary.. 1987 June 1986 Scherb et al. 2000 K¨ rblein.2. 1997).1. respectively (Scherb and Weigelt.3% the year after in six contaminated counties Increased for fetuses under 17 weeks at the time of the Chernobyl catastrophe Lombardy.... Poland.. The 1987 increase was 4. 2000). in some parts of the country Up to 20% Up to 30% Up to 30% Increased in Bavaria. 2007 1987 Feb..

2006) Country Greece Sweden Poland Norway Hungary Finland Germany Comments Increased. Scherb and Weigelt. in some parts up ca. Figure 7. 20% England and Wales Denmark Iceland Hungary Increased twofold in February 1987 Increased 20% Increased 30% Increased 30% long-term trend.2.. Scherb and Weigelt. 2001). A significant increase in infant mortality was found in 1987–1988 in highly contaminated territories (Grodzinsky. o Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 10% Stillbirth rate increased ca.2. 1989. Busby. 2007 Increased ca. Schmitz-Feuerhake. o .7). 7. 2007. 2007 Bentham. Scherb and Weigelt. Infant Mortality Rates. Grosche et al. The columns show the average calculated Sr-90 burden in pregnant women (K¨ rblein. u Scherb et al.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 199 TABLE 7. Busby. 1991. The main causes of infant death were antenatal pathologies and congenital malformations (Table 7.10. 1995 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. Ulstein et al. 1995. Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb.2. 1991. 5% References Scherb and Weigelt. see Figure 7.1. GREAT BRITAIN.2. 1990 Czeizel and Billege. 2007 K¨ rblein and K¨ chenhoff. Deviation of perinatal mortality from the long-term trend in Gomel Province from 1985 to 1998.. Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 2003a. K¨ rblein. o 3. Infant mortality monthly data. 1997. 2003. 2006). and Low Birth Weight Associated with In Utero Exposure from Chernobyl (mostly by I.. 1989. Ukraine 1. 2006). 2003 Harjulehto et al. 1985–1991.3). 1988.. Ten months after the catastrophe. o Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 1999. 2003 Scherb and Weigelt. Omelyanets and Klement’ev. 2003. 1999. 2003. 2007 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb.. Scherb and Weigelt. 1997. 2003. Increased Stillbirth Rates. Infant Mortality 7. L¨ ning et al. 2007 K¨ rblein. o u 2003. a significant increase in perinatal mortality was found in the two most contaminated areas of the country—England and Wales (Bentham. 2003.2. 2007 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 1991. show a significant correlation with the Cs-137 burden during pregnancy (K¨ rblein.

. 2. GERMANY. 7.4).000. 1985–2004 (K¨ rblein and Omelyanets. and Belarus. Infant mortality increased immediately after the catastrophe and Figure 7. POLAND. and early neonatal mortality (per 1. 3. 1985–1991.2. SWEDEN.200 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. . at the beginning and at the end of 1987 (Figure 7.13 shows the deviation of infant mortality in 1987–1989 from a declining longterm trend in Ukraine. In the southwest districts of Bryansk Province with higher contamination.. stillbirth rate. FINLAND. Russia 1. Other Countries 1.16).15).2.3 per 1.2.2. Infant mortality increased significantly immediately after the catastrophe and continued to rise until 1993 (Figure 7.14).3. whereas in other districts it declined (Utka et al. infant mortality increased after 1986 (see Table 7. 7. 2004). In 1996 neonatal mortality in more highly contaminated districts of Bryansk Province was greater than in the province as a whole: 7. 2. Figure 7. 3. show two significant postChernobyl peaks. o 2008).000 live births and stillborns) in Zhytomir and Kiev provinces noticeably increased the first year and again after 3 years after the catastrophe (Dzykovich et al. Perinatal mortality. respectively (Baleva et al. Infant mortality monthly data. Infant mortality monthly data.12. 2005).. 1980–1994. Deviation of perinatal mortality from the expected long-term trend in the combined Zhytomir and Kiev provinces and Kiev City. 2001). show peaks at the beginning and at the end of 1987 (Figure 7.2.4 and 6.11. Russia.

based on the existing fragmentary data. Main Causes of Infant Death (per 1. Ukraine.0 9.2. 4. 1999) Cause Antenatal pathologies Congenital malformations Respiratory diseases Infections Rate per 1. Ukraine 1. and Russia. childhood cancers are registered twice as often in the mortality statistics as in Belarus as a whole and 20-fold more often than in the least contaminated Vitebsk Province (Bogdanovich. and Belarus (//www. Mortality among Liquidators The registration of deaths among liquidators in Ukraine. 2.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl TABLE 7. 1999).4.0 29. Childhood Mortality (0–14 Years of Age) 7.3.3.6 1997 17.12 % 33. In districts of Tula Province with higher levels of contamination.000 Live Births) in Ukraine.2). As a rule.3.5% (per 1. Infant mortality rose to some extent in 1988 and increased significantly in 1989 and 1990 (Figure 7. 7. The childhood death toll from the Chernobyl catastrophe will never be determined precisely. the liquidators were healthy young adults (average age 33 years) so a lower than . Belarus 1.2 1996 17. 1994.9 7. 1990–1995 (Grodzinsky. Komogortseva. Russia. SWITZERLAND.1. 1999.3.8 for details).7 Figure 7.2.3.84 4. Infant Mortality (per 1. childhood mortality in highly contaminated territories was 4. Russia 1. demoscope. 7.2.000 additional childhood deaths can be expected in Belarus.3. In Gomel Province. 1998).2. some 10.45 1. and Belarus was not complete in the first years after the Chernobyl catastrophe (see Chapter 1. Childhood mortality increased from 0.17). 1999). 7.7 1998 20.13. However. childhood mortality was higher than in less contaminated districts (Khvorostenko. According to official data. no study will be able to determine the exact number of added deaths because the putative trend without the Chernobyl catastrophe is unknown. Death from diseases of the nervous system and the sense organs increased by a factor of five and congenital malformations by more than a factor of two (Grodzinsky.6% among children born to parents who had been irradiated (TASS.2% in TABLE 7.3. 1997).2. Section 1.0 Province 1998 15. a total number of several thousand additional infant deaths might be expected following the Chernobyl catastrophe in Europe and other parts of the world. Trend of infant mortality (from top down) in Ukraine.2.000 Live Births) in Highly Contaminated Districts of Bryansk Province. Russia. As noted above (Section 7.7% in 1997 and 9. However.6 201 increased significantly in 1989–1992 (Figure 7. 2006) Highly contaminated districts Years Infant mortality 1995 17.18).000 4.ru/weekly/vote/fig_imr11png).000 live born) in 1987 up to 1. 7. Russia. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.26 1.

o . Based on official statistical data (K¨ rblein. 2008). Deviation of infant mortality from the long-term trend in Germany. 1985– 1991. o Figure 7. o Figure 7. The peaks of mortality follow peaks of the Cs-137 burden with a time lag of 7 months (K¨ rblein.15. The peaks of mortality follow peaks of the Cs-137 burden with a time lag of 7 months (K¨ rblein.202 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. 1980– 1994. Trend of infant mortality rates in Finland. and undisturbed trend line.14. Deviation of infant mortality from the long-term trend in Poland.16. 2006). 2006). 1980–2006.

o average mortality rate among them should be expected. Total mortality in contaminated territories and among liquidators increased significantly from 1987 to 2005 (Figure 7. and undisturbed trend line.3.000. The mortality rate of the Ukrainian liquidators from nonmalignant diseases increased steadily from 1988 to 2003 (Figure 7. Ukraine 1. The mortality among male Ukrainian liquidators increased more than fivefold from 1989 to 2004.0 per 1.18.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 203 Figure 7. and undisturbed trend line. Belarus 1. Figure 7. the mortality rate among liquidators employed in 1986 was significantly increased (Ecological Security.1. 2006). 7. Based on official statistical data (K¨ rblein.3. 7.17.3. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. 2005). 2002). Mortality of male liquidators who worked in 1986 is higher than liquidators who worked in 1987 (Borysevich and Poplyko.000 among other men of working age (Horishna.19). 7.3. 2008). 4. 3. 1980–2006.20). o .0 to 16.2. 2008). 2. Trend in infant mortality rates in Sweden. as compared to mortality rates of 4.6 per 1. from 3. Russia 1. Trend of infant mortality rates in Switzerland. 2002). After 1995. the mortality of liquidators exceeded the mortality of the corresponding population group (Law of Ukraine.1 to 6. Based on official statistical data (K¨ rblein. 1980–2006.

by 2005 more than 31.21 shows data obtained from the National Register on mortality of liquidators from nonmalignant causes. or 13%.000 liquidators” had died up until 2001 (National Russian Report.” and “traumas and poisonings” and does not differ from corresponding groups of the general population. Trend of mortality (per 1. According to the nongovernmental organization Chernobyl Union.78 and 0.204 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. Only 216 cases (not counting 24 deaths from leukemia from 1986 to 1998) are officially accepted as radiation induced (Ivanov et al. had died (V. 2004). In the Russian National Register. Similar results are reported for employ- ees of the Kurchatov Institute (Shykalov et al. Total mortality (from all causes. from nonmalignant diseases from1988 to 2003 (National Ukrainian Report. Figure 7. A significant increase in cancer mortality was found in 1991–1998 in a cohort of 66.).700 Russian liquidators.000) of Ukrainian liquidators employed in 1986–1987. 3. 2002). 4. 2001). 8. already “more than 10. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) among this cohort ranges between 0. Chernobyl Union Chairman. . 2006).7).. Grishin..21. 1986 to 2006 (Petruk.714 liquidators. 2004: fig. 2002).19.88 for the categories “all causes. 6. pers. 2. comm. V. Figure 7. According to official data.700 out of 244. 4.000) in contaminated territories of Ukraine and among liquidators.20. 5.000 liquidators who were exposed (according to official data) to radiation doses of about 100 mSv (Maksyutov. per 1. 1990–1999 (Ivanov et al. “all causes except malignant neoplasm.136 deaths were registered from 1991 to 1998 in a cohort of 52. Trend of standardized mortality ratios (SMR) from nonmalignant diseases in liquidators.. Figure 7. 2006).” malignant neoplasm.

7%) have died (source: letter from regional branch of the Chernobyl Union). and atomic scientific institutes) was 16. since 1990.4 to 2. According to data from the National Register.. The decline in life expectancy among the Chernobyl liquidators who were employees of the nuclear industrial complex (NPPs. In 1998.4. 7. or about 15% of a total cadre of 830. In the Voronezh Province. according to the National Register. In 1993.113 (34. Average Age of Deceased Liquidators Group Tolyatti City.000 to 125.827 men and 2. The increased mortality results in a comparatively low life expectancy for liquidators (Table 7.000. 13. 14. Ecological Security.5). 2001).3 times higher than in corresponding age groups of the general population (Gil’manov et al. In the Karelian Republic. The data from various sources for causes of liquidator mortality differ considerably. from 1987 to 1996 mortality from malignant neoplasm of the urogenital tract was significantly higher in liquidators under the age of 50 years than in the corresponding age group in the general population (Kochergyna et al.. which indicates that they are of questionable quality (Table 7. mortality in male liquidators was 1. 2001). and malignant neoplasm (13%. 25. Belarus 1. 17. The data presented above show that.Y. In Angarsk City (Irkutsk Province. among the Russian liquidators who were employees of the nuclear industrial complex (14. 11.000 liquidators had died.6% from trauma and poisonings (Ignatov et al. 2000) 1986–2008 (Stolitsa on Onego.825 women) a significantly increased mortality rate was only found in the groups with circulatory and vegetovascular (autonomic nervous system) diseases (Tukov. 1999).. mortality among liquidators exceeded the rate in corresponding population groups. 2007). 2000).208 liquidators 1. 7. calculations from Tymonin data (2005) 1986–1990 (Tukov. 16. Overall Mortality The Chernobyl contamination undoubtedly caused an increase in overall mortality in the contaminated areas. other nuclear installations.3% from malignant neoplasms. 2002). of 1. 2001). 2001). By 2005 some 112. 12. Siberia) up to the year 2007 only about 300 out of 1.5. 2008). 15. 8. A. and 39. the three main causes of death among liquidators were trauma and poisonings (46%).1.204 liquidators 644 had died (53%) by the year 2008 (Stolitsa on Onego.4. 2008) 7. the mortality from malignant neoplasms for inhabitants of the territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels higher than 555 kBq/m2 (15 Ci/km2 ) as well as for those who left such territories after the catastrophe started to exceed the mortality in the country as a whole (Antypova and Babichevskaya.9% from blood diseases. In 2001.6). 10. of 3. circulatory diseases (29%). Samara Province Workers in the nuclear industry Karelian Republic Number of deaths 163 169 644 Average age at death.300 liquidators were still alive (Rikhvanova. In Kaluga Province 87% of all liquidators who died in the first 12 years after the catastrophe were 30 to 39 years old (Lushnykov and Lantsov. .5 43 Comments 205 1995–2005. years 46.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl TABLE 7. 9.3 45. According to the 1999 Registry.

b Data of the Moscow branch of the nongovernmental organization “Widows of Chernobyl” (559 cases). the kidneys. After 1986. Kashyryna.4.3 5. by 43%. 2002b 45 32 – – 14 – 1 8 Gil’manov et al. 2003). Sergeeva et al. 1999. Golubchykov et al.22. According to official data. and the liver (Bandazhevsky. 3. 5.9 5. In contaminated territories and among evacuees. c Data of the official Russian National Registry of Liquidators. Mortality from prostate cancer increased by a factor Figure 7.22). some 28% higher than the national average of 14.3 per 1. 7. 2001). 2. The highest mortality rates are found in the most contaminated districts of Gomel Province. The general mortality rate in Belarus increased from 6. 1996. cancer mortality increased by 18 to 22% from 1986 to 1998 as compared to 12% in Ukraine as a whole (Omelyanets and Klement’ev. the general mortality rate in the heavily contaminated territories was 18. Causes of Death (%) of Russian Liquidators in 2000 According to Various Sources Percentage of the total deaths Causes of death Blood and circulatory system pathology Malignant neoplasm Gastrointestinal tract pathology Lung pathology Trauma and suicide Tuberculosis Radiation sickness Other a Khrysanfov and Meskikh. 1999).3 – 26. the general mortality increased significantly in the contaminated territories (IPHECA.3 per 1. mortality is significantly higher than in less contaminated areas and higher than in the rest of Belarus. 2000). 2001.206 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7.3 – – 12. Omelyanets and Klement’ev. 2005. Physical Disability and Death of Irradiated Persons.. 2005).2.8 per 1. Trends in mortality rates (per 1. Grodzinsky. 2001.000) in several regions of Belarus. 2001a 63 31 7 5 5 3 – – Loskutova. and the increase after 1989 was greatest in Gomel Province (Rubanova. . 2.000 (Reuters.5 to 9.6. The average life expectancy of populations living in territories with Cs-137 ground contamination above 555 kBq/m2 (15 Ci/km2 ) was 8 years less than the national average (Antypova and Babichevskaya... In highly contaminated districts of Gomel Province. 4. 2001c 50.000 in 1999. 2007). Ukraine 1.5 Data of the official Russian Interdepartmental Advisory Council on the Establishment of a Causal Relationship of Diseases. 3.000. The concentration of radionuclides in the bodies of most (98%) of the 285 persons who died suddenly in Gomel Province was significantly increased in the heart. that is. 2002). the mortality rate started to rise in 1989 (Figure 7. from 1990 to 2004 (Malko.

Sukal’skaya et al. 2005. The general mortality in Lipetsk City.7 2.000.9).7. Causes of Death in Contaminated Territories of Ukraine. was correTABLE 7. 2005.8 . of 2.5 to 12.8). 7.9 cover a range that spans two orders of magnitude.5.5%. where it increased by 87%.2 in contaminated territories and by a factor of 1. Sergeeva et al. Calculations of General Mortality An estimate of the additional mortality from Chernobyl is possible on the basis of a comparison of mortality rates in highly contaminated territories and in less contaminated ones— so called “clean” areas (Rubanova. primarily in the age group 45–49 years. 1996 (Grodzinsky. General Mortality (per 1.7)... 7. 2004). 1997).6. 3.3 1997 13. The socioeconomic and ethnic conditions in these areas are similar. 2. 7.7 mortality Province Russia 1998 16. This wide range far exceeds the usual scientific uncertainty. where Cs-137 ground contamination is less than 5 Ci/km2 . Table 7.000) in the Three Most Contaminated Districts of the Bryansk Province. the primary causes of death among inhabitants of contaminated territories were circulatory and oncological diseases (Table 7. and others).6 per 1. 2003. 1997 to 1999. 1999) Highly contaminated districts Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 General 16. the observed differences in mortality increase (16 to 22%) can be attributed to the Chernobyl radiation (Rubanova. Oryol. Khudoley et al.2 207 lated with Cs-137 ground contamination.3.. There are essentially six Russian provinces with considerable contamination from the Chernobyl fallout (Tula. The general mortality in highly contaminated districts was 23 to 34% higher than the province average (Kashyryna. the only difference is in the level of contamination. increased by 67% from 1986 to 1995 (from 7. The estimates presented in Table 7.2 9. From 1985 to 2001. Principal causes of the increased mortality were cardiovascular diseases (60%) and cancers (10. various authors have estimated the number of additional cancer deaths due to Chernobyl (Table 7. Krapyvin. the standardized mortality ratio increased in the less contaminated Grodno and Vitebsk provinces of Belarus by 37.2 17. Therefore. and in Russia. 2001).6%. 1999) Cause of death Blood diseases Oncological diseases Traumas Respiratory diseases Diseases of the digestive tract Percentage 61. 2006. Bryansk.4. 2003).1%. Calculations of General Mortality Based on the Carcinogenic Risks Based on different risk factors (excess risk per unit dose).Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl TABLE 7.6%.7 17. and in the heavily contaminated Gomel Province by 59. In 1996. Russia 1. General mortality in the Klintsy district of the Bryansk Province.4 to 43.0 18.2 13. 2005. From 1994 to 2004. 4.8. estimates of the damage to health from exposure to radiation should be interpreted with due caution given the existing state of knowledge (see Chapter 2 for details). Sergeeva et al.3 6.3 in Ukraine as a whole (Omelyanets and Klement’ev.. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. Therefore. the general mortality in highly contaminated districts of Bryansk Province increased by 22.

000–60.6 18. Both the observed and the age standardized mortality rates exceed the Russian average (Table 7. 1996) Fairlie and Sumner (2006) Malko (2007) Malko (2007) Gofman (1994a. and Vladimir provinces and the Republic of Mordova) with a total population of 7.10.7 .8 16.000∗ 17. Estimates of the Number of Cancer Deaths Resulting from the Radionuclides Cs-134. entire world 70 years.. as well as the increased rate in mortality. Cs-137.2).930 14. European part of Russia 90 years. The resulting number of about 60. all radionuclides. which had a total population of 7. entire world From J.1 19.2% for Ukraine given in the National Ukrainian Report for 2006. Table 7. entire world 50 years.657 ∗ Author Press release to the Chernobyl Forum (2005) Chernobyl Forum (2006) Nuclear Regulatory Commission.208 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7. Figure 7. Ukraine.000 899.23 the standardized mortality rates in the six contaminated provinces combined are compared with the mortality rates in the control region.3 18.000 30. This finding agrees well with the figure of 4. exceeded the Russian average.. A similar result is obtained when highly and less contaminated regions are compared.3 18.418.9. Ukraine. In the region under study the general mortality.2 Standardized 19. The mortality rates in these regions were compared with the Russian average and with the rate in six neighboring (officially) less contaminated provinces with similar geographical and socioeconomic status (Smolensk. Kursk. 2006) Mortality Region Tula Bryansk Oryol Ryazan Kursk Kaluga Total Observed 21. European part of Russia For all time.880 to 65. 2002 (Khudoley et al. 1987) UNSCEAR (Bennett.000) in the Six Most Contaminated Regions of Russia.000 in 2002 (study region). entire world 70 years. all Chernobyl causes For all time.0 18.000.786. Tambov.832. and Kaluga). corresponding to 34 persons per 1.6 19. is estimated at 60. Ryazan. calculated on the basis of the standardized mortality rates.080 180. more than 5% of this population lived in highly contaminated districts. reveals the true dimension of the death toll from the Chernobyl catastrophe. USA Anspaugh et al.400 28.400 (95% CI: 54.24 shows the standardized mortality rates for the neighboring Tula and Lipetsk provinces. entire world For all time.3 18. Sumner (2006: table 6.000 495. In 1999. Belarus.6 20. Belgorod. entire world For all time.400 additional deaths from 1990 to 2004 in the area under study.10).10 shows the raw and the age-standardized mortality rates in the six contaminated provinces. and Sr-90 Released from the Chernobyl Reactor Number of deaths 4. Belarus. The total number of additional deaths from Chernobyl in the area under study.310–1. From 1990 to 2004 the number of additional deaths represents 3.000∗ 30.b) Bertell (2006) Comments 90 years. TABLE 7.9 19. In Figure 7.5 17. Khudoley et al.S. Department of Energy (Goldman. 2006).000 8. Fairlie and D. Observed (Raw) and AgeStandardized Mortality Rates (per 1. entire world For all time.000 in 2002 (control region.75% of the entire population of the contaminated territories.000 93. entire world 50 years. Lipetsk. (1988) U.920).

2006).000 (2002. the less contaminated Lipetsk Province. that cancer is not the only and not even the most frequent lethal effect of radiation (see. Table 7. All projections are based on risk factors for cancer.7.24. “Zero” is the Russian average (Khudoley et al. the total number of extra deaths from Chernobyl in Belarus.. and the European part of Russia is estimated to be 212. in Belarus 1. in the more contaminated Tula Province. 1983–2003. What Is the Total Number of Chernobyl Victims? The Chernobyl Forum (WHO. e. (2006) might actually be more pronounced.75% determined in Russia.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 209 Figure 7.. Table 7. If so. 2006)). Khudoley et al. (2006). This means that the total death toll for Russia is higher than estimated by Khudoley et al.000 (1999).11).2% for the mortality rate may be more realistic than the 3.7).290. however. the Ukrainian figure of 4. and Russia that can be attributed to the Chernobyl catastrophe for a period of 90 years after the meltdown. It means that the differences in mortality between contaminated and noncontaminated populations that were found by Khudoley et al. . Standardized mortality rates. This calculation seems straightforward.000 cancer deaths in Belarus. All the calculations by Khudoley et al. Ukraine. 2006) calculated a total number of 9. but it might underestimate the real figures for several reasons: • • in the six regions mentioned above but also in 16 regions of the European part of Russia.. (2006) cover a 15-year period (1990–2004).9 showed forecasts of the expected number of additional instances of cancer owing to the Chernobyl catastrophe.571.g. It is well known (see Chapter 1 for details) that there was considerable contamination (sometimes more than 1 Ci/km2 ) not only 7.000 for the first 15 years after the catastrophe (Table 7. However.23.000 (2001)..789. and in Russia as a whole (Khudoley et al. and based on the additional rate in Russia. • Official data about the radioactive contamination for Belgorod and Lipetsk provinces do not correlate with corresponding changes in health statistics after Chernobyl. and in Ukraine 2. 2006). the radioactive contamination from Chernobyl had adverse health effects before 1990 and will continue for many years into the future. For the populations in all the contaminated territories together (in European Russia 1. It is well known. Figure 7. Difference in standardized mortality rates in the combined six most contaminated provinces and in the control region. Ukraine.

000 inhabitants (better food and better medical and socioeconomic situations). and Tc-99 will remain practically the same virtually forever (half-lives consequently more than 20. that Can Be Attributed to the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Khudoley et al.7 per 1.08 Ci/km2 ) and that the mortality risk is only half that determined in the Chernobyl region. we can expect an additional 170. Some counterdirected aspects of such prognoses are as follows: • Given the half-life of the two main radionuclides (Cs-137 and Sr-90) of approximately 30 years each. Cl-36. will increase over several generations.571.11. with a risk factor of 1.210 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7. and the European Part of Russia.000 and 200... Assuming that 20% of the radionuclides released from the Chernobyl reactor were deposited outside Europe (see Chapter 1) and that the exposed population was 190 million.290. 17 deaths per 1.000 deaths in Europe outside the Former Soviet Union owing to Chernobyl.000). 1990–2004. that is. A projection for a much longer period—for many future generations—is very difficult. 2006) Region/Country European Russia Population living in highly contaminated territories Number of additional deaths 1. which is a decay product of Pu-241. Based on data presented in Section 7.7 deaths per 1. and they are likely to be more realistic than calculations that only use individual and/or collective doses together with risk factors for fatal cancers. the radionuclide load in the contaminated territories will decrease about 50% for each human generation.000).000 The assumptions concerning nonmalignant radiation risks differ even more than for radiation-induced cancers. The concentrations of Pu. and the concentration of Am-241. Let us further assume that for the other 150 million Europeans living in territories with a Cs-137 ground contamination below 40 kBq/m2 (see Chapter 1 for details) the additional mortality will be 10-fold less (i. Number of Additional Deaths in Belarus.000 years). Ukraine.6.000 86.500 deaths in this period.000 in 1990– 2004). The overall number of Chernobyl-related deaths up until 2004 in Belarus.000 as before.000 59. to the evacuees and to people who moved away from contaminated areas (350. Thus the overall mortality for the period from April 1986 to the end of 2004 from the Chernobyl catastrophe was estimated at 985. live in territories with a Cs-137 ground contamination higher than 40 kBq/m2 (>1.7 or 255. outside the Former Soviet Union.000 more deaths in the rest of Europe.000 Ukraine 2. Assuming that 10 million people in Europe. .000 67. then we expect another 25. Ukraine.000 additional deaths.000 population within 15 years (1990–2004). 1.789.e.000 212.000 × 1. which was derived above.000 Belarus 1.000 cancer deaths outside Europe until 2004.650. up until 2004.000 Total 5. This estimate of the number of additional deaths is similar to those of Gofman (1994a) and Bertell (2006). we could have expected an additional 323. it is possible to estimate the total death toll from the Chernobyl catastrophe: • • • • When we apply the additional mortality of 34 extra deaths per 1. Then we can expect 150. and Russia was estimated to be 237. Risk projections based on observed increases in the general mortality are more meaningful. to the cohort of liquidators not living in contaminated zones (400.500.

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Bryansk): pp. Yablokov. (//www. (2002). V. Zh. E.pdf). Myth on the Safety of Low Doses of Radiation (Center for Russian Environmental Policy.. Moscow): 179 pp. (2005). WHO (2006). Repacholi.who. First day neonatal mortality since 1935: Re-examination of the Cross hypothesis. & Carr. International Science and Practical Conference. J. (1992). 201–203 (in Russian). Utka. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care Programmes. Chernobyl 20 Years After: Social and Economic Problems and Perspectives for Development of Affected Territories (Materials. & Sadretdynova. Gynecol. Report of Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “Health” (2006). A. Scorkyna.int/ ionizing_radiation/chernobyl/WHO%20Report% 20on%20Chernobyl%20Health%20Effects%20July %2006. Medical-demographic dynamics in SouthWestern districts of Bryansk area. Whyte. 6: 277– 280. G. V.216 to and 3 years subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. (Eds. K. Sh. Acta Obstet. Bennett. Brit. Geneva): 167 pp. Scand. Med. V. 304: 343–346.. L. B. R. . (in Russian). M.) (WHO.

There are tens of similarly contaminated territories in Belarus.000 Endocrine system diseases in children: Years 1985–1990: 10 per 1. and other systems as the result of the 217 . The syndrome known as “incorporated long-living radionuclides” (Bandazhevsky.5 per 1. 1999) that includes pathology of the cardiovascular.9 per 1.227 children). and 7 still do not give a complete picture of the state of public health in the territories affected by Chernobyl. (see Chapter II. Finland. nervous.000 Neonatal mortality (0–6 days after birth): Years 1984–1987: 25–75 per 1. 1999).000 live births General mortality: Year 1985: 10. Lugini is unique not only because the same medical staff used the same medical equipment and followed the same protocols that were used before and after the catastrophe. Among them there are abnormally poor increase in children’s weight.552 (including 4. parts 4. Sweden. children: Up to 1988: not found Years 1994–1995: 12–13 per 1. but also because the doctors collected and published these facts (Godlevsky and Nasvit. Ukraine. The Chernobyl catastrophe has endowed world medicine with new terms. etc.000 Figure 1 presents data on the annual number of newborns with congenital malformations in Lugini districts. 5. in 1996: 22. Section 5.0 per 100.000 Years 1995–1996: 41. Norway. Austria. South Germany. delayed recovery after illnesses.CHERNOBYL Conclusion to Chapter II Morbidity and prevalence of the separate specific illnesses as documented in Chapter II. European Russia. endocrine. frequent fevers. reproductive.7 per 100.5. However. Cases of goiter. Out of 50 villages 22 were contaminated in 1986 at a level 1–5 Ci/km2 and 26 villages at a level under 1 Ci/km2 . The box below documents the health of the population in the small Ukrainian district of Lugini 10 years after the catastrophe.000 live births Years 1995–1996: 330–340 per 1.000 Years 1994–1995: 90–97 per 1.7–50.276 persons.000 Year 1991: 15.2–28. 6. Lifespan from the time of diagnosis of lung or stomach cancer: Years 1984–1985: 38–62 months Years 1995–1996: 2–7. Lugini is located about 110 km southwest of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Zhytomir Province and has radioactive contamination at a level above 5 Ci/km2 . Turkey. The population in 1986: 29.2). In the radioactive-contaminated territories there is a noticeable increase in the incidence of a number of illnesses and in signs and symptoms that are not in official medical statistics. There was an increase in the number of such cases seen despite a 25% decrease in the total of Lugini population from 1986 to 1996.000 Life expectancy: Years 1984–1985: 75 years Years 1990–1996: 65 years DETERIORATION IN PUBLIC HEALTH IN ONE UKRAINIAN DISTRICT 10 YEARS AFTER THE CATASTROPHE District Lugini (Ukraine). and other European countries.2 months Initial diagnosis of active tuberculosis (percentage of primary diagnosed tuberculosis): Years 1985–1986: 17. among them: • • The syndrome known as “vegetovascular dystonia” (autonomic nervous system dysfunction): functional disturbance of nervous regulation of the cardiovascular system with various clinical findings arising on a background of stress.

including “irradiation in utero. Pshenichnykov. called “incipient chestnut syndrome” and “diffraction grating syndrome” (Fedirko. 1999). Among conditions awaiting full medical description are other constellations of diseases. Reasonable extrapolation for additional mortality in the heavily contaminated territories of Russia. and Belarus brings the estimated death toll to about 900. impaired memory.3–0.” and “Chernobyl legs.218 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1.8–4.” Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination at levels in excess of 1 Ci/km2 (as of 1986–1987) is responsible for 3. which manifests as tiredness. the presence of multiple diseases in the same individual. trembling.. Among them is the syndrome known as “chronic fatigue” (Lloyd et al. and shortness of breath with physical activity connected to the impact of inhaled radionuclides. • accumulation of more than 50 Bq/kg of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in a person.7).000. changes in retinal vessels. disturbed dreams. from 1983 to 1996 (Godlevsky and Nasvit. and Belarus.5 Ci/km2 (as of 1986–1987).” “Chernobyl AIDs. The syndrome known as “sharp inhalation effect of the upper respiratory path” (Chuchalin. 1992. Absolute number of the congenital developmental anomalies in newborns in Lugini District. dry cough. It is postulated that these symptoms are a result of impaired immune system function in combination with disorders of the temporal–limbic parts of the central nervous system. frequent mood changes. 2002): a combination of a rhinitis. In several other European countries with contamination levels around 0. has become a common feature in the contaminated territories. shivering.” “Chernobyl dementia. scratchy throat. pains in the back. including “hot particles. diffuse muscular pains. and decreased body mass. 2002).4% of the overall mortality in areas of Russia. Polymorbidity. originally described in the hibakusha (survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (b) the syndromes comprising choreoretinopathy. Chernobyl’s contribution to the general morbidity is the determining factor in practically all territories with a level of contamination higher than 1 Ci/km2 . These include: (a) the syndrome called “lingering radiating illness” (Furitsu et al. fatigue without cause.” Some of the earlier known syndromes have an unprecedented wide incidence of occurrence. Zhytomir Province. the mortality is about 0. dizziness. and that is only for the first 15 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. periodic depression and dysphoria. cervical lymph node sensitivity. It appears that the Chernobyl cancer toll is one of the soundest reasons for the “cancer . pains in large joints.7% (see Chapter II..” “Chernobyl heart. a combination of unusual weariness. Ukraine. 1999. 1988). Ukraine. Ukraine. and a humeral belt. Chronic diseases of various etiologies became typical not only for liquidators but also for the affected populations and appear to be exacerbated by the radioactive contamination. 1996).

Different cancers have different latencies following exposure to various and differing carcinogenic exposures. Chernobyl accident and the eye: some results of a prolonged clinical investigation. and radiological studies. Juvenile victims are an obvious example. the Chernobyl-related diseases linked to contamination that began some 23 years ago will continue to increase. A need to end the demand for a 20-year latency period for the development of cancer (skin. Ophthalmology 2: 69–73. Ukraine. As a result of radio-induced chromosomal mutations a spectrum of congenital illnesses will become widespread. I. Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts. As a result of radiation damage to the central nervous system in general and to temporal–limbic structures in the brain there will be more and more people with problems of intellectual development that threatens to cause loss of intellect across the population. and Belarus. not only for the Former Soviet Union but also in Sweden. Moldova. as was recently done in Russia. medical. (2002). Increasing (instead of decreasing as was logically supposed) levels of individual irradiation for many people in the affected territories. Italy. Romania.: Conclusion to Chapter II 219 • epidemic” that has been afflicting humankind since the end of the 20th century. Pathology of incorporated ionizing radiation (Belarussian Technological University. (1999). Chernobyl Forum (2005). and have a mandatory requirement to determine correct doses based on chromosome and tooth enamel analysis. P. Turkey. and Russia: As a result of prolonged immune system suppression there will be an increase in many illnesses. not reduce. Fedirko. Despite the enormous quantity of data concerning the deterioration of public health in the affected territories. A noticeable growing contribution to a collective dose for individuals in zones with a low level of contamination. and other countries are not a cause for optimism (details in Chapter II. Germany. Obtain correct reconstruction of individual doses. (2002). lung. Highlights of the Chernobyl Forum Studies (IAEA. Clinical and epidemiological studies of eye occupational diseases in the Chernobyl accident victims (peculiarities and risks of eye . Fedirko. Chuchalin. (in Russian). Pulmonology 4: 66–71 (in Russian). etc. the full picture of the catastrophe’s health impact is still far from complete. France. Yu. Chernobyl’s Legacy: Health. The Czech Republic. differentiated by the contribution of various radionuclides from both internal and external irradiation levels. A. breast. Perform comparative analyses of monthly medical statistics before and after the catastrophe (especially for the first years after the catastrophe) for the administrative units (local and regional) that were contaminated with various levels of particular radionuclides. Finland.). ascertain personal behavior and habits. first of all: • • • • • Expand. G. not only in the contaminated territories but also with migration over many areas and over several generations. biological. P. Switzerland. Functional condition of liquidators’ pulmonary system: 7-years follow up study. References Bandazhevsky. The constantly growing volume of objective scientific data about the negative consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for public health. Vienna): 47 pp. Without special largescale programs of mitigation and prevention of morbidity and consequent mortality. parts 4–7). Ukraine. To ascertain the total complex picture of the health consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe we must. (1999).Yablokov et al. Minsk): 136 pp. • An absence of a correlation between current average annual doses with doses received in 1986–1987. There are several signals to alert public health personnel in territories that have been contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout in Belarus.

Inomata. Underestimated radiation risks and ignored injuries of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. & Murata S. Neurosurg.. J. The Investigative Committee of Hibakusha of Hannan Chuo Hospital: 24 pp. M. Thesis (Institute of Occupational Health.” Kiev): 40 pp. endurance and recovery in the postinfection fatigue syndrome. K. Recent Research Activities about the Chernobyl NPP Accident in Belarus. Low dose radioactive irradiation and radiation sclerosis (“Soborna Ukraina. Pshenichnykov.). KURRI-KR-79 (Kyoto University. C. M. K. Psychiat. (1992). & Gandevia S. & Nasvit. (Ed. Ukraine and Russia. .. 149–157. Kiev): 42 pp. Kyoto): pp. Lloyd. Godlevsky. Dynamics of Health Status of Residents in the Lugini District after the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Accident at the ChNPS. R.220 pathology formation. A. (1988). T. P. B. Hales. V. (in Ukrainian). O. Muscle strength. (in Russian). J. (1996).D. In: Imanaka. I. Furitsu. Neurol. (1999). 51(10): 1316–1322. prognosis). Sadamori..

doi: 10. 2006. V. Belarus a Key words: Chernobyl. 1181: 221–286 (2009). Ecological. (2006). & Grynevich. Sokolov and Kryvolutsky. radionuclides.04830. 1998. plants. Radioecology and Radiation Safety. April 10–14. & Rolevich.2009. air. (Eds. both directly and via the food chain.. and soil. Biological. (2006). transition ratio. N. 2006. Acad. We emphasize that like the consequences for public health. but only selected parts to reflect the many problems and to show the enormous scale of the contamination. and migrating animals. Kudryashov.x c 2009 New York Academy of Sciences. Nesterenkob b Russian Academy of Sciences. V. on water. 2000. Medical.g. E. the reviews by Konoplya and Rolevich. Patterns of radioactive contamination essentially change when the radionuclides are transferred by water. Radioecological. radiomorphosis The level of radioactivity in the atmosphere. Nesterenko. radiolysis. Moscow. Kutlachmedov and Polykarpov 1998. Moscow. which are not declining but rather increasing in scope and severity. the consequences for nature are neither fully documented nor completely understood and may also not decline.) (1996). P. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment Alexey V. F. as well as changes in concentration and bioaccumulation in soil and water affecting various animals and plants (see. water ecosystems. The influence of Chernobyl radionuclide fallout on ecosystems and populations of animals. Russia Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). Chernobyl: Ann. 221 . Chernobyl radioactive contamination has adversely affected all biological as well as nonliving components of the environment: the atmosphere. Formation of air radioactive contamination in Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe.. leading to unpredictable secondary emissions from some radionuclides. and soil.1749-6632. E. and soil in the contaminated territories will determine the eventual level of radiation of all living things. (Abstracts.. soil. S. 2006.b and Alexey V. Konoplya. I. Yablokov. surface and ground waters. Konoplya et al. water. Sci. 101–102 (in Russian).. Many Russian-language publications have documented such radionuclide transfers. bioaccumulation. “Hot” particles have disintegrated much more rapidly than expected.1111/j. V. Cs-137 is removed from ecological food chains a hundred times more slowly than was predicted right after the catastrophe (Smith et al.CHERNOBYL Chapter III. e. Kozubov and Taskaev. Minsk.a Vassily B. (in Russian). In: Fifth Congress of Radiation Research on Radiobiology. References Konoplya. F.Y. wind. International Scientific and Practical Conference. Land and bodies of water that were exposed to little or no contamination can become much more contaminated owing to secondary transfer. Moscow) 2: pp. Sr-90 and Am-241 are moving through the food chains much faster than predicted because they are so water soluble (Konoplya. 2002). E. In Chapters I and II we repeatedly emphasize that we do not present all of the available data on the consequences of Chernobyl. and others). 1996. and microorganisms is well documented. F. In Chapter III as well we have included only part of the material concerning the impact of the catastrophe on the biosphere—on fauna and flora. Konoplya. Sociological and Economic Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe in Belarus (Minsk): 281 pp. medical and biological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. and many others).

pdf) (in Russian). Nature 405: p. . (1998). R.ru/upload/File/conferencebook_2006. 141. W. G. I. G. & Kryvolutsky. T... M. A. 91–96 (//www. N.” Sofia/Moscow): 228 pp. & Taskaev. (2002). ecopolicy. 2006. A. Yu. J. Smith. Wright. G. Contamination: Chernobyl’s legacy in food and water. Moscow (Materials. (2000).222 Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Ecological and Sociological Lessons. A. B. (in Russian). D. J. S. Med- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ical and Biological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident (“Medecol. Change in Ecology and Biodiversity after a Nuclear Disaster in the Southern Urals (“Pentsoft. M. & Polykarpov. Kutlachmedov.” Kiev): 172 pp.” Moscow): 272 pp. Moscow): pp. C. June 5.. Beresford. (in Russian). N. & Camplin. Radiobiological Study of Conifers in a Chernobyl Catastrophic Area (“DIK. Howard.. Comans. Kozubov. J. E. Sokolov. V. (1998). A.

3. and gas structure of the surface air in the heavily contaminated territories.1). A year later. Concentrations of ionized surface air in the contaminated territories near the Chernobyl NPP repeatedly exceeded this level in Kaluga Province. As a result of this vertical migration of radionuclides in soil.CHERNOBYL 8. 1992). plants with deep root systems absorb them and carry the ones that are buried to the surface again. and Alexey V.1. is about 2–4 cm/year. Ukraine. 223 . Chernobyl’s Contamination of Surface Air Data below show the detection of surface air contamination practically over the entire Northern Hemisphere (see Chapter I for relevant maps). Many years after the catastrophe aerosols from forest fires have dispersed hundreds of kilometers away. by 130. lowland moors.ru April 26. The Chernobyl radionuclides concentrate in sediments. Office 319. Atmospheric. This transfer is one of the important mechanisms. Leninsky Prospect 33.2 indicates the dynamics of the average annual concentration of some radionuclides in the atmosphere near the Chernobyl NPP. Table 8. Nesterenko Air particulate activity over all of the Northern Hemisphere reached its highest levels since the termination of nuclear weapons testing—sometimes up to 1 million times higher than before the Chernobyl contamination.1. sometimes 100.to 200-fold (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. Water. Vassily B.000 times more than the local background level. 1986. and Russia There are many hundreds of publications about specific radionuclide levels in the Former Soviet Union territories—of which the data below are only examples. aerosol. as measured by electroconductivity and air radiolysis. Outside of the 30-km zone air radiolysis depressed the ecosystems. 2000). Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. plants. and Soil Contamination after Chernobyl Alexey V. within a 7-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP. and gas structure of the surface air in the catastrophe zone. Belarus. peat bogs. The consequences of such a shock on aquatic ecosystems is largely unclear. 8. Yablokov.1. Russian Academy of Sciences. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. water. Russia. that leads to increased doses of internal irradiation among people in the contaminated territories. 2. Russia. etc. Yablokov. and animals. observed in recent years. Ukraine. 119071 Moscow. aerosol. Yablokov@ecopolicy. 1. Nesterenko. and Zhytomir Province. the electroconductivity of the air at ground level was 240–570 times higher than in the less contaminated territories several hundred kilometers away (Smirnov. There were essential changes in the ionic. The speed of vertical migration of different radionuclides in floodplains. There were essential changes in the ionic. the concentrations of the primary radionuclides changed drastically from place to place and from day to day (Table 8. Secondary contamination of freshwater ecosystems occurs as a result of Cs-137 and Sr-90 washout by the high waters of spring. Immediately after the first explosion in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on Address for correspondence: Alexey V. 8..

1997). and in . 1986–1991 (Kryshev et al.000 12.g.) and other dust-creating activities. Kiev Province (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. agricultural activities). In the Berezinsk Nature Reserve (400 km from Chernobyl) on April 27–28. 2000) Minsk City. in Belarus (Minsk City) and Ukraine. July– December 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Sr-90 n/a n/a 430 130 52 52 Ru-106 13.. and for Cs-137 it took up to 40 months (Nesterenko.000 1. and in the far eastern sector (Khabarovsk and Vladivostok).224 TABLE 8. There is a tendency for radionuclide levels in surface air to increase during the spring and summer months.000 times higher than the precatastrophe concentrations. Voronezh. Concentration (Bq/m3 ) of Some Radionuclides on April 29–May 1. In 1986 in Khoinyki. vegetation) the hot air resulting from the fires caused radionuclides to be carried up to a height of 3 km and transported over hundreds of kilometers (Konoplia et al. 1986. 6. April 28–29 74 320 27 93 48 – – 3 16 Baryshevka.2 × 10−2 Bq/m3 and in Minsk it was 3. Levels of radioactive contamination of the surface air in Belarus has three dynamic components: (1) the general radioecological situation.3 × 10−6 Bq/m3 and for Minsk it was 1. as a consequence of numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. which were below 10−6 Bq/m3 . 1994) Year 1986. Their impact on the radioactive level in the atmosphere was so great that it led to a significant increase in the midyear concentration of radionuclides in surface air and most probably in human contamination via inhalation. respectively. and Nizhni Novgorod (Gor’ky). Surface atmospheric radioactivity rises markedly after some agricultural work (tilling. Smolensk. harrowing. The half-life period to cleanse the surface air of Pu-239 and Pu-240 was 14.000 4..300 300 230 78 52 26 26 24 24 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8.000 400 – – – Cs-137 5. also in Rostov. 1986.2 months.000 2.1). From April to May 1986 surface air radioactivity in Belarus increased up to 1 million times. 2005). In Russia beta-activity originating from Chernobyl was detected several days after April 26. especially during dry weather. Noticeably high levels of radionuclides in surface air were detected many years after the catastrophe (Figure 8. Dynamics of the Concentration of Some Radionuclides (Bq/m3 ) in the Chernobyl City Atmosphere. when there were raging forest fires over all of Belarus. Oryol. (2) cyclical. 1986. which were measured at less than 10−9 Bq/m3 (Gres’. Kiev Province. 5. The incidental component was strongly demonstrated in 1992. April 30–May 1 3.1 × 10−6 Bq/ m3 .000 to 10. and Penza provinces in the Karelia Republic in the European part of the county. connected with seasonal changes (e.000 600 90 80 100 Se-144 34. In territories with a high density of ground-level radioactive contamination (in soil.000 times higher than precatastrophe concentrations. 2006). 7. and (3) incidental. water. Tula.2. Tambov.400 160 – – Radionuclide Te-132 I-131 Ba-140 Cs-137 Cs-134 Se-141 Se-144 Zr-95 Ru-103 4.. Kaluga. in Ural (Sverdlovsk Province).1. the midyear concentration of Cs-137 in the surface air was 3. Midyear concentration of Pu-239 and Pu-240 in surface air in 1986 for Khoinyki was 8. etc. levels that were 1. levels that are 1. There was a subsequent gradual decrease until the end of 1986 and then the rate fell sharply.8 × 10−3 Bq/m3 . the concentrations of I131 and Cs-137 in the air reached 150– 200 Bq/m3 and 9.9 Bq/m3 . in Bryansk.

3. where the Cs137 concentration increased 100-fold (Ogorodnykov. secondary radioactive contamination from dust and aerosols became the important factor. and Ukraine. Other Countries Below are some examples of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination of the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere.880 2. 1988).2 μBq/m3 (Aarkrog.24 Bq/m3 . Lithuania (about 300 km away) in 5–7 h. 2002).000 4. The fallout included: Be-7. Zn65. Two Chernobyl radioactive clouds were detected over Japan: one at a height of about 1. 8. Nb-95.900 7.7 mBq/m3 . April 28. Mn-54. the second around May 14.2. 1990–2004 (Konoplya et al. I-131.Yablokov et al. Three Chernobyl clouds entered eastern Canada: the first on May 6. Pu-239 + Pu-240.700 1. Up to 20 radionuclides were detected in the surface air. Sr-90.1.3).1. Zr-95. the third on May 25–26. DENMARK.. On September 6. 1986 (Sinkko et al. 1987) Nuclide I-131 I-133 Te-132 Cs-137 Cs-134 Ba-140 Te-129m Ru-103 Mo-99 Cs-136 Np-239 Activity 223. Ru-106. 1988). including Cs-137. 2000). Russia.650 630 570 400 380 253 240 150 130 . Ce-141.3. some places was more than 10. 4.500 m in the first days of May 1986 and the other at a height of more than 6.000 33. 5..900 Nuclide Te-131m Sb-127 Ru-106 Ce-141 Cd-115 Zr-95 Sb-125 Ce-143 Nd-147 Ag-110m Activity 1. Water. Dynamics of the radionuclides Pu-239. and Am-241. 2006). Cs-137..000 m at the end of May (Higuchi et al. and Ru-103. 2. From April 27 to 28 the mean air concentration of Cs-137 was 0. Co-60. Fe-59. The same scale of radionuclide dispersion occurs in the wake of forest fires that at times rage over large areas of the contaminated territories of Belarus. Belarus. 5. 1992. and Ba-140 (Roy et al. and Soil Contamination 225 Figure 8. The most detailed accounting of the Chernobyl radionuclide fallout during the first days after the catastrophe was in Sweden and Finland (Table 8.000 times higher than the precatastrophe levels (Kryshev and Ryazantsev.000 11. Airborne Radioactivity (mBq/m3 ) of 19 Radionuclides in Finland. and Cs-137 in the surface air in Khoiniky.000 2. 1986.200 7. 8. JAPAN.440 2.: Atmospheric..000 48. Pu-240. Nurmijarvi. radioactive aerosols lifted by a strong wind from the 30-km Chernobyl zone reached the vicinity of Vilnius.740 1. Ce-144. TABLE 8. Ru-103. CANADA. 1988). FINLAND. La-141. I-131. 1. 51 Bq/m3 . Several years after the catastrophe.

. Don. Noticeable atmospheric Cs137 fallout was marked in Japan up through the end of 1988 (Aoyama et al.2. 1995). Table 8. The Chernobyl fallout on the evening of May 3 included Te-132. Cs-134. HI Barrow. Gebbie and Paris. and soon ended up in bodies of water—rivers.80 pCi/m3 218. the effects of the products of radiolysis from such huge atmospheric radiation fallout demands close attention. Sozha.6 fCi/m3 1.6 fCi/m3 22. 6.031 pCi/m3 14. the total activity in Pripyat River water near the Chernobyl NPP exceeded 3. was deposited via rain and snow. Neman. Russian.1. and the Zapadnaya/DvinaDaugava.000 Bq/liter.9 pCi/m3 0. and Cs-134 over the United States after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. ID Portland. ME Barrow. Ooe et al.2. and Ba-140/La140 (Martin et al.390 μBq/m3 2. I131. Cs-131. The term “atmospheric radiotoxins” appeared after the catastrophe (Gagarinsky et al.. May 1986 (Larsen and Juzdan. 1986. 5. 8. Vermont. 1988). and weeks after the catastrophe. 1988). Ru-103. 1986. Only by the end of May 1986 had it decreased to 200 Bq/liter. 1988). 1986) Radionuclide I-131 Location New York.720 μBq/m3 11. NY Rexburg.. In the first days after the catastrophe (the period of primary aerosol contamination). Feely et al. However. 1988. HI Mauna Loa.4. confirms that Chernobyl was the source (Mani-Kudra et al. and seas. The maximum concentration of Pu-239 in the Pripyat River was 0. The first measured radiation arrived in the United States on May 10. 1986). days. 1988. Pripyat. 1994). The increase in Pu-238/ P239-240 ratios in surface air at the VincaBelgrade site for May 1–15.5 fCi/m3 9. UNITED STATES.720 μBq/m3 27.2 fCi/m3 18. SCOTLAND. Modern science is far from understanding or even being able to register all of the specific radiogenic effects for each of the Chernobyl radionuclides. Bondietti and Brantley.9 fCi/m3 11. Many Belarussian. Chernobyl’s radioactive clouds were noted in the Bering Sea area of the north Pacific (Kusakabe and Ku. and Russia 1. NE Vermont Activity 20. 7. 1986. Cs-137. 1986). Volga..7 fCi/m3 28. US EPA. ME Augusta.000 times (Aoyama et al. As noted earlier. including the water basins of the Dnepr. The pathways of the Chernobyl plumes crossed the Arctic within the lower troposphere and the Pacific Ocean within the mid-troposphere. 1986. AL Mauna Loa. 1991).. YUGOSLAVIA.5 summarizes some examples of surface air contamination in several countries resulting from the Chernobyl catastrophe. AL Portland. The second phase yielded much higher Ru-103 and Ba-140 activity relative to Cs-137 (Bondietti et al. radionuclide air dispersion may occur secondarily as a result of forest fires. .4..113 pCi/m3 Concentrations of Cs-131/Cs-134/Cs-137 in the surface air northwest of Japan increased more than 1. Examples of Chernobyl’s atmospheric contamination are presented in Table 8.. Chernobyl’s Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems Chernobyl contamination traveled across the Northern Hemisphere for hours. Belarus. 1986. Examples of Surface Air Concentrations of I-131.3 pCi/m3 0. Latvian. The air particulate activity in the United States reached its highest level since the termination of nuclear weapons testing (US EPA.37 Bq/liter. and Lithuanian rivers were shown to be contaminated after the catastrophe.. NY Barrow. Ukrainian. lakes. Larsen et al. ME Lincoln. and reached North America. 1986. 1986.226 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8. and there was a second peak on May 20–23. I-132. Cs-137 Cs-134 Gross beta 8. Ukraine.. AL Mauna Loa. Cs-137. Toppan. HI New York.

the amount of radionuclides can be thousands of times higher in plants. and Zr-96 (19.300 Bq/liter and on May 4. and fishes compared with concentrations in water (Table 8. and less than 1% in plankton (Gudkov et al. 10–40% concentrated in aquatic plants.. 4. The Cs-137 and Sr-90 concentrations increased in underground water and correlated with the density of land contamination and zones of aeration. and about 1% in gastropod mollusks (Gudkov et al.6).. the primary dose-forming radionuclides in clay in the bodies of water near the Chernobyl NPP were Ni-98 (27 kBq/kg). 6. 2000.1 kBq/kg). Concentration of I-131 in surface water in Leningrad Province (Sosnovy Bor City) on May 2. 2002). During the first period after the catastrophe the littoral zone was heavily contaminated with radioactivity.8 Bq/m3 9.3 kBq/kg).000 times higher than the precatastrophe level (Ryabov. NY Japan Vienna Bulgaria Munich Vienna Paris Date Apr.. 7. 1993 Pourchet et al. 1986 Radionuclide I-131 Concentration 223 Bq/m3 251 Bq/m3 176 Bq/m3 20. 28 May 13 May 5–6 May May 5 Apr. 1–10% in gastropod mollusks. it was 740 Bq/liter (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. 2004)..Yablokov et al... 1992). 5. 30 May 1 Apr. The Cs-137 in the Dnepr River floodplain–lake ecosystem was distributed as follows: 85–97% in aquatic plants. 1998).. was 1. 1987 Irlweck et al.7 Bq/m3 0. 9. 10. Canada New York. 1986. Blynova.4 μBq/m3. 1986 Irlweck et al. 2008 Cs-137 Ru-103 Gross beta Pu-239 + Pu-240 ∗ Imanaka and Koide.7 Bq/liter) was observed in rivers that ran through the heavily contaminated territories.to 60-fold from year to year (Borysevich and Poplyko.2 Ci/km2 the rate of transfer from water into turf plants can vary 15. 1–8% in fish. 30 May Apr. Examples of Surface Air Concentrations of Some Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere after the Catastrophe. More than 90% of the Pu + Am in aquatic ecosystems is in the sediment (Borysevich and Poplyko. Canada Quebec. Water. 29–30 Reference RADNET. In March–April 1987 the concentration of Ni-95 in aquatic plants there reached 29 kBq/kg and Zr-95 levels in fowl were up to 146 kBq/kg (Kryshev et al. 2006). The Sr-90 contamination in the Dnepr River floodplain–lake ecosystem was concentrated primarily in bivalve mollusks. 1997 Hotzl et al.. 2004). The highest level of Sr-90 (up to 2. Owing to bioaccumulation.0 Bq/liter of Cs-137 and . Ce-144 (20. invertebrate. and Soil Contamination 227 TABLE 8. In the Pripyat River floodplains in the territories with land contamination greater than 1. In the years that followed bodies of water became secondarily contaminated as a result of the washout of Cs-137 and Sr-90 by spring high waters and from woodland fire fallout (Ryabov.C. 1986 During 1984. 3.7 Bq/m3 62. In July 1986. 1993 Thomas and Martin.5 Bq/m3 160 Bq/m3 100 Bq/m3 89 μBq/m3 0.: Atmospheric. 1–8% in zoobenthos. B.000-fold less (10–40 nBq/m3 ). 11. From May to July 1986 the level of radiation in the northern part of the Kiev water reservoir was 100.5.480 kBq/km2 ground water activity reached 3. total Pu-239 + Pu-240 activity was 1. 2002).∗ Location Nurmijarvi Revelstoke. 2006). 2. In contaminated territories with Cs-137 levels of 0. about 2% in fish. 1986. 8.

1988).7 Bq/liter. Te-132. silver bream) 500–900 120–130 100–1.12. 1996).7. GREAT BRITAIN (SCOTLAND).7 Bq/liter of S-90 (Konoplia and Rolevich.600 750–1. 1986–1989 (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. Gudkov et al.000–24.000 20. Cs-134. Cs-137 Zr-95 Ni-95 Sr-90 Pu Am I-131 ∗ Mollusks 3. 16. Ru-106 Cs-134. one of the Chernobyl clouds contaminated the sea with Te-132/I-132.000 178–500 2.8. Data on some radionuclide concentrations in rainfall and surface water in Finland. Coefficients of Accumulation for Some Live Organisms∗ of Chernobyl Radionuclides in the Dnepr River and the Kiev Reservoir.000–17.700 440–3. 3.2.000 98 1.900 3.667 2–40 Concentration in aquatic flora and fauna as compared with concentration in water. 2000: tables 9.100 190 220 50–3. and Ru-103 were measured in rainwater in the Nijmegen area during May 1–21. and Canada are presented in Table 8.14. Sr-90 leaves river ecosystems much faster than Cs137. 1987).000 240 4. 1996). 15.6. 0. 8. 1988). In the 5 to 9 years after the catastrophe. France.000 11. GREECE. On the evening of May 3. roach. NORTH SEA. 1996). I131. Belarus). The amount of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in water has decreased over time. The total activity on the first rainy day was of 9 kBq/liter . More intensive radionuclide accumulation occurs in lake sediments owing to annual die-off of vegetation and the absence of drainage.000 Bq/kg. 9.2. 14. Up to 99% of Sr-90 migrates in a dissolved state (Konoplia and Rolevich. THE NETHERLANDS.. and Ba-140/La140 totaling 7.458 60 Fishes (bream. Cs-134. 4. total radionuclide concentration in water measured 8. 12. Cs-137. AND CANADA. 1996). FINLAND.700–3.13.175 7.000 Bq/kg (Konoplia and Rolevich. whereas Ru-106 and Ag-110 lingered in the spume (Martin et al. 2002). 1986.000–4. the highest Chernobyl activity reached 670. Owing to its higher solubility. 13. Ru-103. During spring high waters Cs-137 that has accumulated in bottom sediments becomes suspended and leads to noticeably increased radioactivity in water. La-140.. in heavily weeded bodies of water there was a decrease in Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the water itself but a simultaneous increase in radioactivity in the sediment (Konoplia and Rolevich.. I-131. with Ru-103 being the most prevalent isotope (Kempe and Nies.228 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8. Other Countries 1. 5. In the Svjetsko Lake (Vetka District.000 — — 120 Water plants 20. At the same time Cs-137 can accumulate up to 93 × 10−9 Ci/kg in grass and sod on flooded land (Borysevich and Poplyko. 2004) Radionuclide Ce-141. 1996). Cs-137 and Cs-134 quickly migrated to the sediments. sander. Ce-144 Ru-103.000 2. Composition of doseforming radionuclides and their activity in Greece in May 1986 are presented in Table 8.000 22. Radionuclide levels in sea spume were several thousand times higher than in seawater in June of 1986. and in fish up to 39.700 Bq/kg. I-132. in aquatic plants upto 3. but it has increased in aquatic plants and sediments (Konoplia and Rolevich. 9. FRANCE.000 Bq/liter (Martin et al. 2. Cs-137. In a North Sea sediment trap.

1987 Joshi.700 64. 1987 Thomas and Martin. Belarus. Chernobyl’s Contamination of the Soil Mantle The soil mantle will accumulate Chernobyl’s radionuclides with long half-lives for centuries. Composition and Activity of the Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout in Thessaloniki. Rainfall and Surface Water Radionuclide Concentrations in Several Countries..276 8. 8. Levels of contamination are higher in natural pastures as compared with plowed pastures. Paris Finland France.7 kBq/liter for I-131 and 2.000 Bq/m3 7. 7.900 15. and Soil Contamination 229 TABLE 8. 1988 Thomas and Martin. TYRRHENIAN SEA. 1992). and up to 80 times higher than the highest values after the nuclear weapons test period in the 1960s. It is in this way that soils with low surface contamination transfer radioactivity to the vegetative (and edible) parts of plants (Borysevich and Poplyko. which delivered 192 MBq of Chernobyl’s Pu-239 + Pu-240 to the Baltic Sea in 1989 (Skwarzec and Bojanowski.256 35. Concentration of Cs137 in surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea rose significantly immediately after the catastrophe (Figure 8. 1986 Reference Saxen and Aaltonen. . Ontario France. The highest concentration of Pu in sediment probably came from the Vistula River. 29–30.000 to 25 kBq/m2 range in the upper soil layers (0–5 cm).000 times higher than the precatastrophe concentration. resulting in the concentration of radionuclides in the root zone.Yablokov et al. (2. 1995).3). 8. May 5–6. POLAND. Water. 29–30.580 23.100 Bq/m2 (Robbins and Jasinski.7.: Atmospheric.3 kBq/liter each for Te-132 and I-132). Radionuclides on sod-podzol and heavily podzolized sandy clay soils move from the surface to the bottom soil layer during the course of time.1.2. (Total Wet Deposition.3. Plowed and natural pastures located 50 to 650 km from the Chernobyl site have levels of Cs-137 activity in the 1. Average values of Pu-239 + Pu240 in the Polish economic zone of the Baltic Sea ranged from 30 to 98 Bq/m2 in three sampling locations. 6. with the Sr-90 activity ranging from 1.278 70. 1986 Sr-89 Te-132 ∗ About 1.400 Bq/liter Location Finland Canada. 2. Greece. 1986 (Papastefanou et al.. 1988) Radionuclide I-131 Te-132 I-132 Ru-103 Ba-140 Cs-137 La-140 Cs-134 Maximum concentration 117. The annual mean concentration of Cs-137 (in Bq/kg) in surface water near Gotland Island from 1984 to 2004 is shown in Figure 8.3.470 12. 1986– 1987 Radionuclide Cs-137 Maximum concentration 5. and Russia 1.8. 1994). this material is only a representative selection from the very large body of existing data.300 Bq/m3∗ 325 mBq/liter 700 Bq/liter 11. Bq/m2 ).4 to 40 kBq/m2 (Salbu et al. 1986 Saxen and Aaltonen. SWEDEN. As in the previous review. The total Cs-137 loading of Lake Sniardwy was estimated to average 6. Paris Date 1986 May 1986 Apr. Ukraine. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was about 55 GBq (Beentjes and Duijsings.686 48. TABLE 8. 1986 1986 Apr. 2002). 1987).

7. or sandy (Borysevich and Poplyko. 4. Figure 8. and northeast of the Chernobyl NPP the levels of Cs-137 soil contamination exceed 1.9).230 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 8. and nearby provinces of Russia. sandy-clay.11 Bq/kg) in the degree of Cs137 transition from soil to beetroots depending on whether the soil is sod-podzol.3. 2005). 2002).. 1992). The granular composition of soil and agrichemical soil characteristics modifies the transfer coefficient for Cs-137 (see Chapter 9). lowland moors. The annual mean Cs-137 concentrations (in Bq/liter) in surface waters of East and West Gotland (sampling depth ≤10 m) from 1984 to 2004. northwest. 6. including Kaliningrad Province on the Baltic shore (Makhon’ko.489 kBq/m2 (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. 1999). . but some “spots” of radioiodine soil contamination have been detected in many areas. 2006). 2000).2. Self-cleansing of soils by vertical migration of radionuclides can reach 2 to 4 cm/year (Bakhur et al. eastern Belarus. In many areas up to hundreds of kilometers to the west.01 to 0. 5. and peat bogs vertical migration is activated at different speeds for different radionuclides (Table 8. Concentration of Cs-137 (mBq/liter) in surface waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea. 3. Straight line—average pre-Chernobyl (1984–1985) level (HELCOM. In humid environments such as flood planes. loamy. There is roughly a 10-fold variation (from 0. The soils most highly contaminated by I-131 are in northern Ukraine. 1960–1995 (Europe Environmental Agency.

Floodplain loading of Cs-137 in soil was up to 100 times greater than in soils above the floodplain (Walling and Bradley... CROATIA.12). POLAND. Up to 20 radionuclides were detected on the ground. which is eight times higher than the cumulative amount deposited during the peak period of weapons testing (Pourchet et al. The maximal Cs-137 Chernobyl soil contamination reached up to 545 kBq/kg (CRII-RAD. 7. 2008). Concentration of Cs-137 in soil 0–5 cm deep declined only 20% in the first 5 years after the catastrophe (Velasko et al. 1997). Many places in Norway were heavy contaminated after the catastrophe (Table 8. one of the Chernobyl clouds . Water. 2008). ESTONIA. 1996). some 20-fold higher than the pre-catastrophe level (McAuley and Moran. In the Faeroe Islands the mean deposition of Cs-137 was 2 kBq/m2 and in Greenland it was up to 188 Bq/m2 (Aarkrog. Pu-240 Am-241 Sr-90 Cs-137 Up to 50 km 6–7 6–7 7–12 10–17 Up to 200 km >50 >50 7–12 24–27 231 8.3 and 38 Bq/m2 . 2006) Years Radionuclide Pu-239. 2006). and Ru-103. The ground deposition from Chernobyl for Cs-137 was 40 kBq/m2 (Realo et al. In 1986 Cs-137 fallout deposit c reached 6. Most of the debris was deposited in the first half of May. with less than 3% having reached layers deeper than 20 cm. 2007) or even 200 kBq/m2 (Energy. In the northeastern part of the country Cs-134 + Cs-137 ground deposition levels were up to 30 kBq/m2 and I131 and I-132 deposition was up to 1 MBq/m2 (Energy. In May 1986 in Salzburg Province the median Cs-137 surface deposition was about 31 kBq/m2 with maximum values exceeding 90 kBq/m2 (Lettner et al. The total mean Cs-137 and Sr90 deposits over Denmark reached 1. GERMANY. JAPAN. In the mountain area of FriuliVenezia Giulia deposition of Cs-137 from Chernobyl ranged from 20 to 40 kBq/m−2 .3 years in the 0–5 cm layer. 1988). Surface soil Cs-137 activity was up to 81. 1987). 10. 9.1989). 1995). The Years Needed to Achieve a 50% Reduction in the Amount of Each Radionuclide in the Top (0–5 cm) Soil Layer in Areas 50 and 200 km from the Chernobyl NPP (National Belarussian Report.9 years in the 5–10 cm layer. The initial Chernobyl fallout owing to Cs-137/Cs-134 reached a concentration of 14. 11. Ten years after the catastrophe 54% of Chernobyl-derived Cs-137 was 2 cm deeper into the soil layer in a spruce forest stand. and maximum Cs-134 + Cs-137 ground deposition was up to 200 kBq/m2 (Energy. with resulting levels of 414. 4.2..78 years in layers deeper than 10 cm (Strebl et al. Soil in central Poland was contaminated by a wide spectrum of the Chernobyl radionuclides (Table 8. and Soil Contamination TABLE 8.10). 2008). 9.. Examples of radioactive contamination in soil are presented in Table 8. 1988). DENMARK. The average retention half-life of Cs137 was 5. 2.. 1994). The mean deposition of Chernobyl Cs-137 in the forest soils was above 50 kBq/m2 (McGee et al. BULGARIA. 2008). UNITED KINGDOM. The alpine regions were among the most heavily contaminated territories outside of the Former Soviet Union. respectively. Other Countries 1. 13.. 1997).9. 6.Yablokov et al. and 1.11).. ITALY. 19. I-131.. 12. 1988) and radioactivity from Chernobyl fallout in the French Alps reached 400 Bq/m2 (Pinglot et al.3. as a result of Chernobyl. SWEDEN. respectively (Aoyama et al.3 kBq/m2 (Frani´ et al. 5. and 1 Bq/m2 . 14..8 kBq/m2 in the most contaminated territories. including Cs-137. 3. On May 3. 8. FRANCE. Average ground deposition for total Cs was 6 kBq/m2 (Energy. 2000). NORWAY. AUSTRIA.13. IRELAND.: Atmospheric.200 Bq/m2 . and concentration of radionuclides in the southern part of the country was much higher (Table 8.

232 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8. Examples of Cs-137 Ground Contamination after the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Norway. 1992 Staaland et al. and European Russia. 1993 Clooth and Aumann. Observations of radionuclide contamination of U.15 presents data on Cs-137 + Cs-134 contamination in several European countries.. Spectrum and Activity of Chernobyl Radionuclides in Soil Samples (kBq/m2 in 0–5 cm Layer) in the Krakov Area. May 1. I-132. 8. 16. Mo-95. La-140.38 60 120 Reference Bilo et al. Ground deposition for Cs-137 comes close to or exceeds the total weapons’ testing fallout (Dibb and Rice. The spectrum of Chernobyl’s soil contamination in the United States included Ru-103. Cs-137.3 0.7 Up to 360 . Ukraine. the surface and the bottom soil layers... 1986. 1992 Cs-134 + Cs-137 contaminated the Scottish landscape with Te132/I-132. soils from Chernobyl are listed in Table 8. Cs-136. 1986 Radionuclide Cs-137 Cs-134 + Cs-137 Te-132 ∗ Location Upper Swabia Bonn South Germany Munich∗ Concentration. 1995 Pinglot et al. UNITED STATES. 15. max 43 1. Ce-141. TABLE 8. 2008 Gogolak et al. and Ba-140/La-140 totaling 41 kBq/m2 (Martin et al..10. Levels of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination even in North America and eastern Asia are above the maximum levels that were found in the wake of weapons testing in the 1960s. 1994 Solem and Gaare. 1987) Radionuclide Te-132 I-132 I-131 Te-129m Ru-103 Cs-137 Cs-134 Activity 29. water.3 25. 1986 June 3. Cs-137.8 0. 1988).4. Conclusion Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination has adversely affected all biological as well as nonliving components of the environment: the atmosphere.7 23. 1988).11. 1986 (Broda.S.. Table 8. grazing areas Soils in affected areas Reference Hongve et al.12...4 1. Cs-134.0 6. especially in the heavily contaminated areas of Belarus. Ru-103. Cs-134.7 Radionuclide Ba-140 La-140 Mo-99 Ru-106 Sb-127 Cs-136 Total Activity 2. and Ce-144 (Larsen et al. Modern science is far from understanding or even being able to register all of the radiological effects on the air. surface and ground waters.5 2. Zr-95.2 2. TABLE 8. 1986).14. 1986 Maximum radioactivity 22 kBq/kg∗ 500 kBq/m2∗ 22 Bq/kg 80 kBq/m2 54 kBq/m2 (mean) 200 kBq/m2∗ ∗ Location Stream gravel Average in sediment Svalbard glaciers Dovrefjell Southern Norway.6 8. Ba140.. 1990 Energy. 1995 Blakar et al. I-131.7 1. and soil ecosystems due to anthropogenic radioactive contamination. 1995 Hongve et al. Ru-106.1 5.. Ground Deposition (kBq/m2 ) of Some Chernobyl Radionuclides in Germany. cumulative dry and wet deposition.

tripod.46 Bq/m2 15 Bq/m2 47.3 2. 1988. Contrary to the common view that the Chernobyl plumes contained mostly light and gaseous radionuclides. owing to the amount of Chernobyl radionuclides that were added to the biosphere. As a result of vertical migration of radionuclides through soil. NJ Chester.000 Bq/m2 22. . Dreicer et al.14. This transfer is one of the more important mechanisms observed in recent years that leads to increased internal irradiation for people in the all of the territories contaminated by nuclear fallout. MD Solomons Island. Examples of Ground Deposition of Chernobyl Radionuclides (Dibb and Rice. 1993 Nair and Darley. Cumbria Sellafield. 1986 Wynne.2 Bq/m2 9.40 Bq/m2∗ 2. 2008 Cs-134/Cs-137 Gross beta TABLE 8.157 pCi/m2 I-131 ∗ Deposition on grass. 1986 May 8–June 20 May 17 May 8–June 20 May 8–June 20 June 3 May 23 May 23 May 11 Activity 4.8 7. the buried radionuclides again rise to the surface and will be incorporated in the food chain. I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 Soil Contamination (kBq/m2 ) from Chernobyl Radionuclides in Some Parts of the United Kingdom. they accumulate in plants with deep root systems. 1989 RADNET. MD Chester. MD Chester. Cumbria Ireland Berkeley.13. This means that harmless looking “average” levels of radionuclides inevitably have a powerful impact on living organisms in the contaminated ecosystems. Gebbie and Paris..Yablokov et al. 1986.3 4.4 2. Undoubtedly there are such changes and.4 15 0.: Atmospheric. 1987 Fulker. in sea spume. 1986) Radionuclide Cs-137 Cs-134 Ru-103 Location Solomons Island.9 5.250 Bq/m2 9. NJ Solomons Island. kBq/m2 4..com/∼BRuslan/ win/energe1. which would disappear without a trace into the Earth’s atmosphere. NJ Portland. Shetland Holmrook.6 100 88. 1986 Radionuclide I-131 Cs-137 Activity 26 41 7. through bioconcentration (for details see Chapters 9 and 10).. Gloucestershire Scotland Strathclyde. kBq/m2 2. etc.3 4..4 Location Lerwick. Level of Ground Radioactive Contamination after the Chernobyl Catastrophe on British Embassy Territory in Some European Countries (http://members.htm) Location Czech (Prague) Hungary (Budapest) Yugoslavia (Belgrade) Romania (Bucharest) Poland (Warsaw) Cs-134. Water.7 concentrations increased thousands of times at distances as far as many thousands of kilometers away from Chernobyl. Absorbed by the roots.8 Cs-137. 1986.9 8. Scotland Date May 1–6 May 1986 May May May 6 Reference Cambray et al. NJ Chester. OR Date. 1987 Rafferty et al. in soil microfilms. and Soil Contamination 233 TABLE 8.000 Bq/m2 18. the changes will continue for many decades.6 1. the available facts indicate that even Pu TABLE 8. Miller and Gedulig.15. Common estimates of the level of radioactivity per liter or cubic or square meter mask the phenomenon of radionuclides concentrating (sometimes many thousands of times) in sediments.

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transition coefficient) and the coefficient of accumulation (CA)—the relationship of specific activity of a radionuclide in a plant’s biomass to the specific activity of the same radionuclide in soil: [TR = (Bq/kg of plant biomass)/(kBq/m2 for soil contamination). where contamination in the first weeks and months after the catastrophe reached several thousand curies per square kilometer. Radioactive Contamination of Plants. Each radionuclide has its own accumulation characteristics (e. and other plants and mushrooms contaminated after the Chernobyl catastrophe (Aleksakhin et al. and Lichens The level of radionuclide incorporation (accumulation) in a living organism is a simple and reliable mark of the potential for damage to the genetic. immunological. 1992.1). There are thousands of papers about agricultural. CA = (Bq/kg of plant biomass)/(Bq/kg of soil)]. and Am-241 at each place and time and for each individual plant or fungus. sometimes continuing for many years. Aleksakhin. such as a high percentage of anomalous pollen grains and spores. spotty radioactive contamination. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Flora Alexey V. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. Soon after the catastrophe plants and fungi in the contaminated territories became concentrators of radionuclides. Office 319. 2006. Russian Academy of Sciences. Radionuclide levels in plants depend on the transfer ratio (TR. Pu239. The Chernobyl fallout has ruined the pine forests near the nuclear power plant. morphological. if not impossible. Coefficients of accumulation and transition ratios vary so much in time and space that it is difficult. Leninsky Prospect 33. With the catastrophe’s initial atmospheric radiotoxins (see Chapter 8) and the powerful irradiation caused by “hot particles. pulling them from the soil via their roots and sending them to other parts of the plant. 1995. the particular biosphere. Sr-90. Yablokov Plants and mushrooms accumulate the Chernobyl radionuclides at a level that depends upon the soil. Krasnov. the climate.. and a thousand times less than that for Ce-144). and life-support Address for correspondence: Alexey V.ru 237 ...CHERNOBYL 9. 2001. which were not able to withstand the powerful radioactive impact. etc. to predict the actual levels of Cs-137. Grodzinsky et al.1. Unique pathologic complexes are seen in the Chernobyl zone. 119071 Moscow. Ipat’ev 1994. Orlov. levels of accumulation for Sr-90 are much higher than for Cs-137. and other changes in plants caused by Chernobyl radiation. cultivars). and the particular species and populations (subspecies. Pu-240. g. medicinal. Chernobyl irradiation has caused structural anomalies and tumorlike changes in many plant species. 1998. and many others). In this chapter we present only a relatively small number of the many scientific papers that address Chernobyl’s radioactive impact on flora. Yablokov. Pu-238. 1991. 1999. Russia. and it appears that it has awakened genes that have been silent over a long evolutionary time. Mushrooms. Parfenov and Yakushev. 9. There is also an extensive body of literature on genetic. Chernobyl’s irradiation has led to genetic disorders. Yablokov@ecopolicy. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. the season.” the soil and plants surfaces became contaminated and a cycle of absorption and release of radioisotopes from soil to plants and back again was put into motion (Figure 9.

2 presents data on radionuclide accumulation in the pine needles in Finland after the catastrophe.000 18. 3.350 14.800 18.100 18.300 1. Spots of the raised radioactivity are visible. 1991.100 7. 4.500 21.600 35.540 10. dry weight) of Leafage in Three Species in Kiev City at the End of July 1986 (Grodzinsky.500 9.100 4.300 2.238 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 9.600 41.) systems of that organism.1).800 61.800 390 3.400 Pinus silvestris∗∗ – 4.300 Near underground station “Darnitza”.030 2.900 – 70. (A.150 – – 1. In annual plants such as absinthe (Artemisia absinthium).180 5.930 – – 36.050 94. Table 9. There were high levels of radionuclide accumulation in aquatic plants (Table 9.1. Data in Table 9. After the catastrophe the levels of incorporated radionuclides jumped in all of the heavily contaminated territories.” . 1995b) Nuclide Pm-144 Ce-141 Ce-144 La-140 Cs-137 Cs-134 Ru-103.290 400 11. 9.400 1. E. 5. ∗∗ near underground station “Lesnaya.650 – 312. Bakhur photo.3 indicate the level of plant radionuclide contamination that was reached worldwide after the catastrophe.700 6. 2. Chernobyl Radioactivity (Bq/kg.000 Tilla cordata∗∗ 146.350 400 399.1.600 53.4). C-14 TABLE 9.500 – 101. (B) aspen leaf (Populus tremula) Bryansk Province.600 Betula verrucosa∗∗ 10.800 6.1. Plants 1.400 18. The levels of surface contamination of three species of plants in Kiev City reached 399 kBq/kg and varied by specific location and particular radionuclide (Table 9.800 660 4. with permission. Radioautographs of plants with Chernobyl radionuclides: (A) leaf of common plantain (Plantago major ). Russia.800 63. Rh-103 Ru-106 Zr-95 Nb-95 Zn-65 Total activity ∗ Aesculus hippocastanum∗ 58.1. The first part of this section presents data regarding radioactive contamination in plants and the second relates to the levels of contamination in mushrooms and lichens.

1995c). . and clover (Trifolium) and vetch (Vicia) had intermediate levels..Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora TABLE 9. in dernopodzolic soils by a factor of 38 and in chernozem by a factor of 49 (Kuznetsov TABLE 9. 1999). 1995. Cs-137 accumulation in the various grain crops varied to an even greater degree than that in vegetative masses. 1987 Rantavaara. In above-ground parts. 11. Russian northwest (more than 1. are characterized by a maximum intensity of Cs-137 accumulation (Mukhamedshin et al. Examples of the Worldwide Contamination of Plants (Bq/kg) in 1986 Nuclide Cs-137 Subject Moss Hair moss Moss Moss Tea.5 Ci/km2 . 1988 Ilus et al.000 18.. up to 139 times higher than in 1985. Jacob and Likhtarev. 1996). 1988. 1998). 1995a). 1986 Lang et al. 9. More radionuclides accumulated in the root system (up to sevenfold more than in above-ground parts of plants). 1988) Radionuclide Cs-137 Ce-141 Ru-103 Concentration...000 30. 7.2.. Concentration of Cs-137 in the vegetative mass in different lupine (Lupinus) varieties was on average fivefold more than in maize (Zea). 1987 I-131 Ce-141 Ru-103 Te-132 Sr-89 ∗ 1987. stalks have 26%.000 Bq/m2 40. 6. 1995 Elstner et al.000 20. 1989 Steinnes and Njastad. Cort and Tsaturov.000 35. May– December 1986 (Lang et al.3).290∗∗ 12. 1987 Staaland et al.200 km from Chernobyl) after the catastrophe (Figure 9.. 1987 Ilus et al.000 239 concentrations increased as much as fivefold in 1986 (Grodzinsky et al. 1996. The coefficient of accumulation of Cs-137 in cranberries (Oxycoccus palustris) is up to 1. There are wide intraspecies variations in specific Sr-90 activity: from 2–3 up to 555 Bq/kg in fresh bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) in mertyllus-type pinewoods (Orlov et al... 1995 Ilus et al..000 2. Concentration of Three Radionuclides in Pine Needles in Central Finland. 1993 Heinzl et al.000 35.2 shows the concentration of C-14 in three rings (percent compared to the 1950 level) of pine (Pinus silvestris) from the 10-km zone. 1987 Clark.000 40.. 1996).500 Country Norway Finland Norway Germany Turkey Norway Germany Japan Japan UK Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland Reference Staaland et al.180∗ 28. and rhizomes with roots 18% (Korotkova and Orlov. Bq/kg 30. 2006). 1987 Gedikoglu and Sipahi. Hylocomium splendens Moss Plants Edible seaweed Grass Pine needles Pine needles Hair moss Herbs Hair moss ∗∗ ∗∗∗ Activity 40. It is important to note that Karelia officially characterized the level of contamination as very moderate (<0. 1997. There was a marked increase in the total amount of radionuclides in tree rings of pine (Pinus silvestris) in the Karelia Republic.300 15... 1988 Hisamatsu et al. The leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) during fruiting (July) contain 31% of the general Cs-137 activity. 1988 Lang et al.000 40..3. 1988 Ishida et al. 10. 8.. semifrutex of the Vacciniaceae species... Kenigsberg et al. Figure 9.028 (Orlov and Krasnov. Krasnov and Orlov. Thea sinensis Moss. The Belarussian berries.000 730 3.. berries 25%.100 1. the higher radionuclide concentration is in the leaves and lower levels in the flowers (Grodzinsky et al.370∗∗∗ 44.

. 13.700 7. and others). There are heavy accumulations of Cs137 in a plant’s above-ground biomass in the Ukrainian wet pine subor for the cowberry family species (Vacciniaceae): TR is about 74 . 2000. underwater parts Narrow-leaved cat’s-tail (Typha angustifolia) Ce-144 44. 15. Figure 9. The Cs-137 CA of 120 plant species increases in the following order of ecotopes: boggy forest (425) > oakwood (241) > depressions between hill-forest of flood plain (188) > pinewood (94) > undrained lowland swamp (78) > hill forest of flood plains (68) > upland meadows (21) > drained peat-bog soil (11) > long-term fallow soil (0. Rh-103 4.2.4).800 21.. Dry Weight) by Some Aquatic Plants.400 26. 17.700 13. above-water parts Common reed grass (Phragmites communis).500 24.900 66. The most active transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants occurs on peatbog soil. 1993).4. Zr-95 63. The transfer coefficient for Cs-137 from scrub forests is up to three times higher for half-submerged soil as compared with drier soil and up to twice that for mixed vegetation as compared with pinewoods (Borysevich and Poplyko. There are strong correlations between specific Cs-137 activity in a phytomass of Convallaria majalis and both the density of ground contamination (r = 0. Plants growing on hydromorphic landscapes accumulate 10-fold more Cs-137 than those in automorphic soil. Concentration of C-14 in tree rings of pine (Pinis silvestris. 12.000 Ru-106.600 12. Wirth et al.000 99.370 Nb-95. 16. Levels of Radionuclide Accumulations (Bq/kg.400 270 et al.. and the minimum was in bilberry (TR 0. Ukraine..5).300 8.240 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9. 14.100 4. Rh-106 33.700 1.600 3.900 129.9) in Belarus. Elyashevich and Rubanova. 1996. 1995) Species Shining pondweed (Potamogeton natans) Common reed grass (Phragmites communis).900 20.84.330 Sr-90 925 5 2. Korotkova. Transfer ratios from soil to plants are different for each species and also vary by season and habitat (Table 9.350 Ru-103.800 3. 2002). 18. 1993). 2000). 1998). Elyashevich and Rubanova. Ipat’ev. percent difference from the level in the year 1950) from the 10-km Chernobyl zone (Grodzinsky et al. There is up to a 50-fold difference in the Cs-137 TR between an automorphic and a hydromorphic environment: intensity of accumulation of Cs-137 in berries is much lower on richer and dry soils as compared with poor and wet soils (Tsvetnova et al. 1990.89) and the specific activity of Cs-137 in the soil (r = 0.700 6. The maximum transfer ratio (from soil to plant) of Sr-90 was measured in wild strawberries (TR 14–15). The level of incorporated radionuclides tends to correlate with the density of radioactive contamination in the soil (Figure 9.04.800 Cs-137 12.000 3.6–0. 1986–1993 (Bar’yakhtar. 1995c). Bulavik. The Cs137 transfer ratio in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is threefold higher than that for wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca.700 Cs-134 8.800 1. 1994.

grass (Polygonum hydropiper) 122. 20. 1993).5. 2001). fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus) 159. for the period 1975–1994 (Rybakov.9 1. In the Ukrainian Poles’e.3–12. 2000). kBq/m2 (B 2 . C 2 . 22.9 9.1 8.8–8. 1998). C 3 . 67 in cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). 2001). Bq/kg. uliginosum Oxycoccus palustris Rubus idaeus TR 3.6 1. dry sudubrava). 19.0–16. 2001) Figure 9.0–10. and 63 in blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum. leaves (Fragaria vesca) 73 and (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) 79. Karelia. Correlation between the amount of Cs-137 in fresh bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) (Bq/kg) and the level of soil contamination (kBq/m2 ) for four different biospheres in Central Poles’e.3 . dry subor. Krasnov. The maximum TR values are: wild plants (Ledum palustre) 451.3. For nonwood medicinal plants the decreasing order of Cs-137 incorporation is as follows: berries (Vaccinium myrtillus) > leaf (Vaccinium myrtillus) > grass (Thymus serpyllum) > grass (Convallaria majalis) > grass (Fragaria vesca) > flowers (Helichrysum arenarium) > grass (Hypericum perforatum and Betonica officinalis) > grass (Origanum vulgare.4 Species Rubus nessensis Rubus caesius Fragaria vesca Sorbus aucuparia Viburnum opulus TR 6. from 1991 to 1999 the amount of Cs-137 in bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus) fluctuated greatly (Orlov. fresh subor. B 3 . in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). In other data. 2000). Total radioactivity in tree rings of pine (Pinus silvestris) near Petrozavodsk City. 21.0 2.4.4–16.7 13. 2001): (vertical axis) specific activity.0 0. Cs-137 in fresh berries and air-dried bilberry offsets decreased fivefold in 1998 in comparison with 1991 (Korotkov.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora 241 Figure 9. and buds (Pinus sylvestris) 61 and (Betula pendula) 47 (Elyashevich and Rubanova. (horizontal axis) soil contamination. vitis-idaea V. Orlov. Species Vaccinium myrtillus V. Ukraine (Orlov. In mossy pine forests the concentration of Cs-137 in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit TABLE 9. Cs-137 TR from Soil to Fresh Fruits of the Principal Wild Ukrainian Berries (Orlov.4–11.6 0. fresh sudubrava.

26. Average data for 28 stations in Ukrainian Poles’e (Krasnov. TR differs for the same species for different biotopes (Table 9.3 1. 2001). . and needles were nearly stable over 12 years. for blueberries there was a slight decrease over 9 years. Dynamics of Cs-137 contamination of various parts of pine (Pinus silvestris) are presented in Figure 9.6 1. and Russian Forest Zones Affected by Chernobyl Fallout (Based on Many References from Orlov. Figure 9.1–12. for the grass Hypericum perforatum there was a marked decrease from 1991 to 1992.0–10.1 8.6).0 1.4 2.7. 27.0 0. Specific Sr-90 activity in the fresh fruits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Ukrainian pine forests varied from 2 to 555 Bq/kg (Orlov. Long-term dynamics of Cs-137 TR from soil to plants revealed all possible variations: for the grass Convallaria majalis there was a significant decrease over time. from 1987 to 1990 was practically stable in some places. 2001) Species Rubus idaeus Fragaria vesca Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium vitis-idaea Oxycoccus palustris Vaccinium uliginosum Rubus nessensis Rubus caesius Sorbus aucuparia Viburnum opulus TR (Lim) 0. for the bark Frangula alnus there was a steady total threefold decrease in 1995 as compared with 1991 (Figure 9. 1999.3 Max/min 10. and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the same area from 1990 to 1998 (Ipat’ev.5 5. Maximum Cs-137 activity in the vegetative parts of undershrubs and trees is observed in May and June (Korotkova and Orlov.3 1.6).4–16. 28. whereas in other areas there was a threefold decrease in the TR in 1989–1990 as compared with 1987–1988 (Parfenov and Yakushev.5. The lognormal distribution of the TR in the same species in a similar ecological ambience makes it impossible to correctly estimate specific TR by sporadic observations (Jacob and Likhtarev. Variation of the transfer ratio for Cs137 for three species of wild forest berries in Belarus: raspberry (Rubus idaeus). 24.6 1.5). 2002). The levels of contamination in the trunk.9 13–16. strawberry (Fragaria vesca).5 5. 1998).7 6. Variations of the transfer ratio for Cs137 for three medicinal plants: the grasses Convallaria majalis and Hypericum perforatum and the bark Frangula alnus over several years (1991–1995). but more than a twofold increase from 1993 to 1995. 1999).242 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9. Ukrainian.and intraspecies variations in TR for the edible wild berries (Table 9. 1996). Borysevich and Poplyko. 25. 23.4–11. and for strawberries there was a sharp increase followed by a slower one (Figure 9.6. branches.6. Inter.9 3.2 Figure 9.8–8.7). 1995).and Intraspecific Variations of TR (m2 /kg × 10–3 ) from Soil to Fresh Wild Edible Berries in Belarussian.6 9. 29. There are wide inter.

and radishes (Borysevich and Poplyko.0–15. 2002). There are marked differences in the amount of incorporated radionuclides even for different cultivars of the same species among carrots. quercus bark 7.9 for blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). 38. 1999). still less in the species of the family Lamiaceae (Origanum vulgare.9).7. Pu-239.19 14.00 24. 41. 0. 1999). Calendula officinalis) and Hypericaceae (Hypericum perforatum. somewhat less in the families Boraginaceae and Caryophyllaceae.. 35. among root vegetables: carrot < beetroot < radish. The TR for Sr-90 in wild forest berries depends on the level of soil contamination: it appears that the TR is lower under conditions of higher contamination (Table 9. 1999). The following order of TR for medicinal undershrubs is: rhamn (Rhamnus) and mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia). For Sr-90 levels the order was: wheat < oats < barley. 2002). 33. 31. 37. The TR for Sr-90 from soil to plants is 10 to 20 times higher than the TR of Cs-137 in the same habitat and the same species (Orlov et al. In the Ukrainian Poles’e intensity of accumulation of Sr-90 in berry species is as follows: Fragaria vesca > Vaccinium myrtillus > Vaccinium vitis-idaea > Vaccinium uliginosum > Viburnum opulus. Table 9.7.9 for raspberry (Rubus idaeus.. The intensities of Cs-137 accumulation in herbs that were studied are divided into five groups: very strong accumulation (average TR >100).).. radish and carrot < beetroot (Borysevich and Poplyko. Total incorporated gamma-activity in various populations of lupinus (Lupinus luteus) differed by as much as 20-fold (Grodzinsky et al. weak accumulation (TR 1–10). In hydromorphic landscapes there was gradual increase in this coefficient beginning in 1992 (Tscheglov. Salvia officinalis. branches of aglet (Corylus avellana) and buckthorn (Frangula alnus) 7–9. The concentrations of Sr-90 and Pu-238. 1997). The highest intensity of Cs-137 accumulation according to species was found in the families Ericaceae and Fabaceae. Thymus sp. 34. moderate accumulation (TR 10–50). Ipat’ev. Dynamics of Cs-137 transfer ratio (TR × 10–3 ) for branches and wood of pine (Pinus silvestris) from 1993 to 2004 (Averin et al.1 for wild strawberry (Fragaria). fresh hydrotops 3– 4. and Pu-240 were significantly higher in the surface phytomass of wild strawberry . and 0. beetroots..Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora TABLE 9. In Belarus in increasing order for Cs-137 levels in cereal grains that were studied: spring wheat < barley < oats.6–0. and minimal in species of the families Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium. 39. 2000) Type of pine forest Bilberry Polytric Ledum TR 5. strong accumulation (TR 50–100). Figure 9. 40. branch of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) 11. and very weak accumulation (TR <1. 2006). 36. The TR for Sr-90 was 14. branch of European dewberry (Rubus caesius) 13. Aleksenyzer et al. and branch of mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) in the wet biotopes 13–18 (Borysevich and Poplyko. Average TR in Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus ) in Three Different Types of Pine Forests in 1995 (Ipat’ev and Bulko. 2002).00 243 30.8). 32. In automorphic landscapes the Cs-137 TR decreased in grass species from 1988 to 1995. 1995b).

1995).8 ± 0. France. .03 Strong accumulation Moderate accumulation Weak accumulation Very weak accumulation (Fragaria vesca) as compared with bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the bilberry pine forests (Parfenov and Yakushev.8 8.10 presents data on radionuclide accumulation in lichens and mushrooms after the catastrophe.2 5. Intensity of Cs-137 Accumulation in Several Species of Herbs in Ukraine (Krasnov and Orlov.1.1 1.1 ± 2.0 ± 1. TR for Sr-90 in Three Wild Berry Species under Various Levels of Soil Contamination (Ipat’ev. 1996) Group Very strong accumulation Species Inonotus obliquus Vaccinium myrtillus Lycopodium clavatum Vaccinium vitis-idaea Ledum palustre Chelidonium majus Vaccinium myrtillus Pinus sylvestris Centaurium erythraea Viola tricolour Potentilla alba Hypericum perforatum Sambucus nigra Convallaria majalis Frangula alnus Tanacetum vulgare Potentilla alba Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Convallaria majalis Urtica dioica Oryganum vulgare Quercus robur Helichrysum arenarium Thymus serpyllum Digitalis grandiflora Leonurus cardiaca Achillea millefolium Juniperus communis Valeriana officinalis Acorus calamus Plant part Fruit body Berries Spores Leaf Branches Grass Leaf Buds Grass Grass Rhizomes Grass Inflorescences Inflorescences Bark Inflorescences Grass Leaves Grass Grass Grass Bark Inflorescences Grass Grass Grass Grass Galberry Rhizomes Rhizomes TR (M ± m) 130 ± 30 125 ± 18 120 ± 20 94 ± 14 82 ± 18 79 ± 14 78 ± 6 77 ± 11 61 ± 6 27 ± 4 20 ± 3 18 ± 2 18 ± 2 16 ± 2 15. those of the pea family (Leguminosae) tend to concentrate Pu and Am (Borysevich and Poplyko.6 4. 1995). Table 9.8. 44.9 ± 0.1 10.8 7.5 2.8 15.9 ± 0. 1990).05 0. but with Ce-144 and Ru106 being found in the bark (Tsvetnova et al.9 0.7 7.6 0. The main radioactive contaminants in most species of medicinal herbs in Belarus prior TABLE 9.2 12.27 ± 0. 1999) Species Blueberry Raspberry Wild strawberry Level of soil contamination.4 ± 0.6 ± 0.7 3. Concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in tree rings of French white fir (Abies concolor) from the French–German border near Nancy.0 9. reflect the Chernobyl fallout (Garrec et al.5 ± 1.6 22..2 ± 1.4 ± 0.5 4.2.4 ±1. 43. 9..4 ± 2. Mushrooms and Lichens 1.5 9. Among annual plant species. 42.64 ± 0.244 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9.0 to 1990 was Cs-137.9.7 28. kBq/m2 1. 2002).36 ± 0.05 0.8 14.4 12.6 ± 0.

and in lurid boletus (Boletus luridus) about threefold. the particular biosphere.300 14. TABLE 9.. 1998). and subors are up to fourfold. Examples of the Worldwide Contamination of Mushrooms and Lichens (Bq/kg) in 1986 Nuclide Cs-137 Subject Lichen Lichen Reindeer lichen Mushrooms Lichen Mushrooms Mushrooms Lichen.11. 1988 Solem and Gaare.. Each radionuclide has its own accumulation characteristics.630 25. Sr-90. Coefficients of accumulation and transition ratios vary so much in time and space that it is difficult. 2.000∗∗ 16.1993 Coles..560 8. russula marsh (Russula). 1998. The Cs-137 accumulation in the fruit of mushrooms is lower in richer environmental conditions: in russulas (Russula sp. and the population (subspecies. 1998) TR 1–10 Species Honey mushroom (Armialliela mellea).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora 245 TABLE 9... the climate. pine forests.040∗ 36. Krasnov et al. 1988 Grodzinsky. The specific Cs-137 activity in the fruit of mushrooms Lactarius necator. aspen mushroom (Boletus versipellis) Black milk mushroom (Lactarius sp.) a difference between Cs-137 accumulation in sudubravas (mixed oak forests).. 1987 Seaward et al. etc.114 16. Kubert..570 400. ∗∗ up to 75-fold higher than in 1985.1991. Pu-239.680 60. 2002)... and Am-241 in . ∗∗∗ up to 93-fold more than in 1985. if not impossible.000 24. 3. chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius). 1995b Cs-135/Cs-137 Ce-144 Nb-95 Ru-106/Rh-106 Total activity ∗ 1987.). Armillariella mellea. to predict the actual levels of the Cs-137. 1988 Elstner et al. 1998). the species.10.300∗∗∗ 6. Cladonia stellaris Mushrooms Lichen Lichen Lichen Lichen.500 8.. edible boletus (Boletus edulis). 1994 Papastefanou et al..1987 Rantavaara. 1988 Seaward et al. spotty radioactive contamination. The level of radionuclide accumulation in plants and mushrooms depends upon the soil. Steinnes et al. 1997.. 1988 Seaward et al. There is correlation between the specific activity of Cs-137 in the fruit of the mushrooms and the radioactive density of soil contamination (Krasnov et al. 6. 1998.11). The Cs-137 accumulations in the fruit bodies of the edible boletus (Boletus edulus) were noticeably low in pine forests and for the Polish mushroom (Xerocomus badius) in subors (Krasnov et al. Various species of mushrooms have different TR characteristics (Table 9. 1995 Seaward et al. green boletus (Xerocomus subtomentosus) Birch mushroom (Leccinum scabrum). Pu-240.). 7. 1987 Brittain et al. yellow boletus (Suillus luteus) 1–50 50–100 >100 5. The concentration of Cs-137 in mushrooms of the same species differs more than 500-fold depending on the levels of radionuclide concentration in the soil (Shatrova et al. cultivars). the season.000 Country Norway Poland Norway Japan Greece Germany Finland Norway France Poland Poland Poland Ukraine Reference Staaland et al... 1992 Yoshida et al. Cladonia silvatica Activity 40.000 18. 4. Kubert. and Xerocomus badius increased exponentially with increased density of radioactive soil contamination (Krasnov et al. 1998).. TR of Cs-137 in Mushrooms in the Ukrainian Poles’e Ecosystems (Orlov et al.. blue boletus (Gyroporus cyanescens) Paxill (Paxilus sp. Pu-238. Polish mushroom (Xerocomus badius).

on which needles are replaced once every few years and on perennial shoots and branches (Figure 9. When top buds. Grodzinsky. and flowers (Gudkov and Vinichuk. 6. which under normal conditions are in a resting state and are more radioresistant. Some Radiation-Induced Morphological Changes in Plants in Heavily Contaminated Territories after the Catastrophe (Grodzinsky. 1991. stems. 2006) Part Leaves Morphological changes Increase or decrease in size and quantity Shape change Twists Wrinkles Nervation break Asymmetry Thickening Leaf plates inosculation Fasciations and swellings Appearance of necrotic spots Loss of leaf plate Premature defoliation Additional vegetative lateral and apex shoots Impairment of geotopical orientation of the shoots “Bald” shoots Speedup or inhibition of growth Phyllotaxis failure (order of leaf placing) Color change Loss of apical dominance Dichotomy and fasciations Change of intercepts Swellings Speedup or inhibition of growth Splitting of main root Death of main root Trimming of meristem zone Absence of lateral roots Swellings and twists Appearance of aerial roots Heliotropism break Speedup or inhibition of flowering Color change Increase or decrease of quantity Shape change Defoliation of flowers and floscules Swellings Sterility each place and time for each individual plant or mushroom. Table 9. In 1987 and the years following. Radiation-induced death of the main root meristem in plants with pivotal root systems results in more active development of lateral roots. Several years after the catastrophe there was a significant rise in the incidence . Shoots Stems Roots Flowers 5. Gudkov and Vinichuk. Anomalies.12).8). leaves. which in turn provokes growth of some above-ground organs. and others). and other organs also appeared as the result of irradiation in the 30-km zone in 1986.12. 1999c. The newly active buds produce extra shoots. twists.2. Gudkov and Vinichuk. Radiation-induced changes that have been observed in plants in the Chernobylcontaminated territories include alterations in shape. 3. intercepts.. 4. 9. Radioinduced Morphology. (Table 9. bifurcations. wrinkling.13 presents examples of radiationinduced morphologic changes in pine (Pinus silvestris) and spruce (Picea abies). roots. 1999. Swelling-like excrescents on leaves. there is a loss of apical domination and transfer of activity to axial buds.246 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9.. which contain the actively dividing cells die. flowers. 2006. the number of such abnormalities increased and were observed mainly in coniferous trees. 2000). abnormal flattening of stems. 1. and Tumors Changes from the normal morphological structure of plants under the impact of irradiation (radiomorphosis) are typical manifestations in the heavily contaminated territories (Grodzinsky et al. 2. 2006). The number of pollen structural anomalies in winter wheat increased in the heavily contaminated territories (Kovalchuk et al. Radiomorphosis arises primarily because of the impaired duplication process in live cells under the influence of external and/or internal irradiation. etc.

Chernobyl radiation. B) and spruce (Picea excelsa: C–G) in the 30-km zone in 1986–1987 (Kozubov and Taskaev. The incidence of two morphologic characteristics in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) increased after the catastrophe and decreased in the next two generations (Group 1). 1991). 9.. mg All differences are significant. mm Weight of needles. Hieracium umbellatum.15). causing morphogenetic breaks.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora 247 Figure 9. 7. mm Weight of needles. 10. Chernobyl’s Irradiation Impact on Pine (Pinus silvestris ) and Spruce (Picea abies ) Morphometrics (Sorochinsky. 1993). Tumorlike tissue is found in 80% of individual milk thistle (Sonchus arvensis) plants growing in heavily contaminated soil (Grodzinsky et al. TABLE 9.. Active development of such tumors is seen in some plants. Grodzinsky et al. . including Hieracium murorum. Rubus idaeus. mg Length of needles. 8.8. in the heavily contaminated territories (Grodzinsky et al. of various teratological characteristics in plantain seedlings (Plantago lanceolata) growing within the 30-km zone (Frolova et al. 1991). 1998)∗ Characters Pine Spruce ∗ Low contamination 60 ± 4 80 ± 3 16 ± 2 5±1 Heavy contamination 19 ± 3 14 ± 2 40 ± 3 95 ± 5 Length of needles. and Rubus caesius. 1991). provokes the development of tumors caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Anomalies in the shoots of pine (Pinus silvestris: A..14)..13. Irradiation in the contaminated territories caused a noticeably stronger influence on barley pollen than did experimental gamma- irradiation done under controlled conditions (Table 9. 2002. the frequency of nine other morphologic characteristics (Group 2) increased in subsequent generations (Table 9.

9 2. var.7 1. In the heavily contaminated territories there was a significant increase in gall formation on oak (Quercus) leaves (Grodzinsky et al.1 2.0 29.248 TABLE 9.5 91.6 100 122.9 9.9 23.63 0.000.7 14.16. “Kiev-80” Rye.7 3.5 % 100 127.9 0.16). 2006) Cells. In the first 2–3 years after the catastrophe.7 Normal tissue With an extract Tumorous tissue With an extract 39.71 0.3 75 422 528 680 0.8 4.960 29.1 3.14 0.0 10.17.9 0.7 38.99 1.4 11. 12.4 4. Cs137.8 5. Influence of a Chernobyl Soil Extract (Cs-137 and Ce-144 with Total Activity of 3. Genetic Changes 1.01 0. and Ru-106 Ground Contamination (Grodzinsky et al..91 0.8 11.15. 1991) Contamination Years Control 1986 1987 1988 1989 Rye.600 Abnormal grains.80 0.4 2. var..7 Cells. the frequency of plant mutations in the contaminated territories increased sharply.0 29. “Kharkov-03” Barley. Grodzinsky. 2. 1991) Dose rate.0 1. Frequency of Some Morphologic Changes in Three Generations of a Species of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the ChernobylContaminated Territories (Grodzinsky et al.7 24.8 5. but there was an accumulation of mutations in some wheat populations (Grodzinsky et al.4 1. 1999. per callus n × 105 78. n × 105 49. and the increase was maintained at a high level for several years (Tables 9. var.14 0. the number of lethal and chlorophyll TABLE 9. # 2 0. and Rye (Secale seriale ) in the 30-km Zone with Cs-134. Frequency of Abnormal Barley (Hordeum vulgare ) Pollen Grains (per 1.96) 59 320 400 515 Background (0.5 14. 2006) Year Characters Group 1 Infertile zones in spike Truncated spike Lengthened stem Scabrous beard Group 2 Split spike Lengthened beard Angular forms Change of stalk color Spike gigantism Stem plate Additional spikelets 1986 1987 1988 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9. 9.000 50.20 1. 1995a). Grodzinsky.9 4.4 4.17 and 9.5 2.4 4.9 1..0 32.8 14. Ce-144.0 4.1 × 104 Bq/kg) on Growth and Cell Division of a Stramonium (Datura stramonium.4 4. Frequency (%) of Chlorophyll Mutations in Barley (Hordeum vulgare ).02 0.3. Formation of tumoral tissue (callus) in plants under the influence of soil contaminated TABLE 9. Immediately after the catastrophe.40 0. 1991).% 0 23 79 86 90 0 43 45 59 57 72 with radioactivity has been confirmed experimentally (Table 9.35 0.18).11) 5 50 500 5.14.70 0.000) after 55 Days of Irradiation around Chernobyl’s NPP and in the Experimental Gamma-Field (Bubryak et al. mSv 1.4 74.71 Experimental gamma-field .8 1.6 296 2.000 Dose.6 100.. μSv/h 30-km zone Control (0.8 9.4 % 100 98 100 140. 13. There is some tendency toward normalization of the number of gametogenetic anomalies in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) in four to six generations after the Chernobyl irradiation.81 0. per 1 g tissue.7 1..9 29.

Some 13 years after the catastrophe the frequency of chromosome aberrations in two wheat cultivars in the 30-km zone was significantly higher than the spontaneous frequency (Yakimchuk et al.9 14.325 Mitotic index.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora TABLE 9. 2001). wall lettuce (Mycelis muralis). In acorns of the oak Quercus robur and the pine Pinus silvestris in Voronez City areas contaminated by Chernobyl fallout there was significantly increased mitotic activity.290 23.. The average frequency of mutations in pine (Pinus silvestris) correlated with the density of radiation contamination in an area. anaphase. Progeny tests of plantain (Plantago lanceolata).9 16.5 1989 15. mutations in all studied populations of Arabidopsis thaliana in the 30-km zone increased significantly.9 17.005 33. 1996). 2000. In areas with gamma-radiation levels up to 130 mR/h the level of mutations was up to eightfold higher than the spontaneous level for 8 years after the catastrophe (Abramov et al.. autumnal hawkbit (Leontodon autumnalis). 6.7 9. and field wormwood (Artemisia camprestris) collected in the 30km zone (gamma-activity at ground level 130– 3. 3.9 14. 2000).1 17. Damage of Apical Root Meristem (Growing Tip) of Onions (Allium cepa) under Different Levels of the Chernobyl Soil Contamination (Grodzinsky..19.. 7. and telophase and with multinucleated cells persisting “many years” after the catastrophe (Butoryna et al. Frequency of Chromosomal Aberrations (%) in Root Meristems of Some Cultivated Plants in the Chernobyl-Contaminated Territories. The level of chromosomal aberrations in onions was correlated with the density of radioactive contamination of the territory (Table 9. and in the 30-km zone was 10-fold higher than in control locations (Shevchenko et al. bloodwort (Achillea millefolium).2 0. Only devil’s-bit (Succisa pratensis) showed increased resistance to radioactivity (Dmitryeva.8 All differences from controls are significant. 2006)∗ Years Control Lupinus alba Pisum sativum Secale cereale Triticum aestivum Hordeum vulgare ∗ 249 1986 19.7 19. gosmore (Hypochoeris radicata). The significantly increased mutation level in pine (Pinus sylvestris) seeds from the 30-km zone persisted for 8 years after the catastrophe (Kal’chenko et al. 8..188 Ci/km2 ) and after additional intense irradiation developed significantly more mutations than in controls (i.3 11.. 1995).7 1988 14.4 4.7 14. 1996).7 0. 1995).9 1987 20. 5.e. 4.4 14. gold birch (Solidago virgaurea). 1986–1989 (Grodzinsky.% 4.275 29.9 0.9 7..4 117 Aberrant cells 100 240 216 150 Cells with micronucleus 100 171 129 229 Degenerate cells 100 250 500 900 .2 9.1 4. In the 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe.18. the number of chromosomal aberrations is correlated with the density of contamination). The frequency of mutations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was sixfold higher in the contaminated territories (Kovalchuk et al.1 17.9 0. Artyukhov et al.1 18.0 9. The original spontaneous level of mutation was reached in 6 years in areas with gamma-radiation levels up to 10 mR/h. n 15.8 0.4 12. kBq/kg Control 37 185 370 Number of cells. 2004). demonstrated by increased frequency of cells with a residual karyo nucleus at metaphase. the number of meiosis anomalies in microspore formation (the number of anomalies in a root meristem) and the number of pollen grain anomalies documented in 8–10% of TABLE 9.19). 9. 2006) Percent of control Soil activity..

Table 9. and corn cultivars in the 30-km zone during the 6 years after the catastrophe (Fedenko and Struzhko. Dyneva.. More than a 10-fold lower frequency of extrachromosomal homologous recombinations are found in native Arabidopsis thaliana plants from radioactively contaminated territories (Kovalchuk et al. I.5 Gy Chronic irradiation. Shmatov et al. dwarf and ultradwarf forms. & Shevchenko. Coniferous forests have suffered most strongly from irradiation (so-called “Red for- est”) as compared with mixed and deciduous forests (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. winter rye. V. translocations. References Abramov.. 5. 0. 2004).. Radiosensitivity of some plant species increases under chronic low-rate irradiation in the 30-km zone owing to a gradual loss of the ability to repair DNA (Grodzinsky. 1995). 2006) Levels of irradiation Corn (Zea mays). Unique polynoteratogenic complexes are seen in the 30-km Chernobyl zone: a high percentage of pollen grains and spores with different genetic anomalies (underdeveloped pollen grains/spores. (1995). A. It is clear that plants and mushrooms became natural accumulators of Chernobyl radionuclides. V. Some metabolic processes in plants are disturbed in the contaminated territories (Sorochin’sky. 1998). V. 2005). 6.) is significantly higher than in controls (Shevchenko et al. A new form of stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis) is present in the Chernobyl zone. 2006).. The number of sterile pollen grains in violets (Viola matutina) correlates with the level of radioactive soil contamination (Popova et al. The number of a growing root cells with chromosome disorders (inversions. A. Some phenolic compounds with altered qualitative structure accumulated in all winter wheat. change in number of chromosomes. 4. Rubanovich. and its virulence is greater than in the control form (Dmitryev et al. 2000). 1996). 1991). 9. We are far from knowing all of the consequences for flora resulting from the catastrophe. S. Chernobyl irradiation has caused many structural anomalies and tumorlike changes in many plant species and has led to genetic disorders.20 lists examples of such impairments. the sprouting of seeds did not exceed 50%. 3.. 12. Other Changes in Plants and Mushrooms in the Contaminated Territories 1. The radial growth in trees in the heavily contaminated territories was slowed (Kozubov and Taskaev. In natural populations of Crepis tectorum from the 30-km zone.250 TABLE 9.20. Twenty-three years after the catastrophe it is still too early to know if the whole spectrum of plant radiogenic changes has been discerned.5 Gy Anthocyanin (% of control) 119 157 173 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 94 plant species correlate with the level of gamma-irradiation (Kordyum and Sydorenko. and by landscape. 2000). and polynomorphs that diverge from the norm in several morphological characters). It appears that the Chernobyl irradiation awakened genes that had been quiescent for long evolutionary periods. sometimes continuing for many years. expressed in changes of anthocyanin (purple color) concentration.. sprouts Mung (Phaseolus aureus) Arabidopsis thaliana Soil 975 Bq/kg Chronic irradiation. etc. The levels of such uptake and the transition of radionuclides from soil to plants and mushrooms are specific for each radionuclide and vary from species to species. 2. etc. Genetic consequences of . 1997). Change in Anthocyanin Concentration in Irradiated Plants (Grodzinsky. 10.. by year. 13. V. 0.4. 1999). This indicates that the Chernobyl catastrophe caused a “geobotanical catastrophe” (Levkovskaya. by season. 11. 1994.

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Radioactive Contamination of Belarussian Plants Connected to the Chernobyl Accident (Scientific Technical Publications. N. Orlov. 2005. Env. Kulmala. & Kubers. Chylymov. A. 15–25 (in Russian). M..biobel. V. Moscow): pp. Irklienko. In: Zakharov. R. A. I. N. Characters and Quality of Timber. Khomlyak. (1997). A. E. J. Cs-137 accumulation intensity under soil cover in quercus and pinequercus forests sugrudoks of Ukrainian Poles’e. I. STUK-A59 (Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. N. Gomel): pp.. Korotkova. Sci. D. Abramov.by/igc /ChD/ChD_r. V.pdf) (in Russian). Z. Report No. Third International Symposium on Structure. P. 106–107 (in Russian). Popova. In: Forestry under Radiation (All-Russian Center LESRESURS. Taskaev. L. A. (2000). M. V. V. Kal’chenko. A. Techn. Raunemaa. V. C. (2000). Ecology and Youth. Regularity of Cs-137 concentration of edible mushrooms in Central Ukrainian Poles’e forests. Seaward. M. Orlov. K. E. G. September 11–14. Aspects Chernob. Zhytomir) 3: pp. 1998. Kubert. V. M. Ogorodnik. Radioactive contamination in non-timber forest production. Orlov. Quantitative estimation of soil characters and intensity of Cs-137 migration in “soil–plant” and “soil–mushroom” chains based on a phytoecological approach. Bezuglov. Radioact. T. A. Sanzharova. Shevchenko. Levkovskaya. Kalashnykov. Kalish. (1995). I. E. M. & Charamlambous. (1996). S. 25–30 (in Ukrainian)... D. & Frolova. N. & Yakushev. Kryshev. Radiation measurements and radioecological aspects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident. A. Present-day Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms from the Chernobyl zone. A. M.. Collection of Scientific Papers (Poles’e Forest Station. S. (1998). In: Problems of Forest and Forestry Ecology in Ukrainian Poles’e (Collection of Scientific Papers. V.. K. I. A. N. Chernobyl Catastrophe Consequences: Environmental Health (Center of Russian Environmental Policy. 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Cytogenetic effects in natural population of Crepis tectorum. Helsinki) (cited by RADNET). G. V. Krasnov. What are some natural or anthropogenic geobotanical catastrophes from the palynological statistical point of view? In: Proceedings of Eleventh All-Russian Palynological Conference on Palynology: Theory and Applications.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora Abroad. J. A. S. Papastefanou. I. Green. Shatrova. V. Minsk): 582 pp. D.. A. Kharkov) 4: pp. Parfenov. A. & Rubanovich. (2002)... Moscow (Abstracts. 118–133 (in Russian). D. V. (1998).. (1999). First International Scientific and Practical Conference.. Agro. M. Radioact. 72–75. I. Krasnov. & Snytkin. 169–176 (in Russian). B. (1988). J. P. (Eds. Grodzinsky. 4: 448–451 (in Russian). Express-inform 5 (Moscow): pp. Mishukov... S. Env. Accumulation of technogenic radionuclides by wild forest berries and medicinal plants. In: Problems of Forest Ecology and Forestry in Ukrainian Poles’e.. 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B. & Njastad. W. 32(5): 35–40 (in Russian). (1992). O. A. (1996). V. Staaland. January 2: p. L. & Logvinenko. M. A. Norway. Scientific and Practical Conference. A. (1998). Genetic consequences of radionuclides contamination in exclusion zone 13 years after the Chernobyl accident. (2000). J. Hove. V. Muramatsu. & Chernov. Radiocesium concentrations in mushrooms collected in Japan. 22(2): 141–154..254 after accident. E. Radionuclide contents in row medicinal plant materials from radioactive contaminated forests.. V. J. Radioecol. Radiat. 17(1): 1–12. Gomel): pp. Physiol. O.). Protein characters in anomalous needles of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus silvestris) from 1-km Chernobyl zone. H.. Env. Cultivars 33(3): 226– 231 (in Russian). Solem. Env. (1995). & R¨ hm. J. Moregun. 69– 73. B. Luxembourg): pp.. Radioact. Sorochin’sky.. (1993). Genet. (in Russian). Wirth. (1999). Y. Tsvetnova. Uptake of u radionuclides by understorey vegetation and mushrooms.. Garmo. & Tikhomyrov. O. J. E. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of Cs-137 fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Tscheglov. J. Behavior of Radionuclides in Natural and Semi-Natural Environments (Final Report of ECP-9. Shmatov. Yakimchuk. 21(1): 65– 74. Radio-cesium in aquatic invertebrates from Dovrefjell. T. sheep and goats grazing alpine summer habitats in southern Norway. O. V. E.. after the Chernobyl fall-out. R. (1990). H. F. Env. Radioact. In: Belli. . Steinnes. (Ed. Feed selection and radio-cesium intake by reindeer. 1 (in Russian). Yoshida. Tcheglov. Ivanov. 27–28 (in Russian). 35(5): 695–701 (in Russian). S. K. S.” Moscow): 268 pp. (1994). S. Env. V. & Ogawa. Radioact. Cytol. I. Kammerer. M. V. & Pedersen. Why do spruce get dry? “Bryansk Worker” (Bryansk). Basic Foundations of Forestry under Radioactive Contamination (Abstracts. 1986 to 1989. Biochem. & Gaare. 29(1): 39–56. & Smirnov. A. I. Radioact. Biol. Biogeochemistry of Technogenic Ra- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences dionuclides in Forest Ecosystems: Results of 10 Years of Studies in Chernobyl Zone (“Nauka. F. (2001).

and Russia that show deterioration in the health of cows. and invertebrates. Office 319. Sutshenya et al. 1991. there are many hundreds of studies published by veterinarians in Ukraine. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Fauna Alexey V.CHERNOBYL 10. fish. 2000. Twenty-three years after the catastrophe levels of incorporated radionuclides remain dangerously high for mammals. Ryabov. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. birds. sheep. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. and invertebrates. These populations exhibit a wide variety of morphological deformities not found in other populations. Belarus. Russian Academy of Sciences. birds. As in the earlier chapters. 1995. Mutation rates in animal populations in contaminated territories are significantly higher and there is transgenerational genomic instability in animal populations. and fish in some areas of Europe. Goncharova. Yablokov. transition coefficient) and the coefficient Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. The first section of this chapter is devoted to levels of Chernobyl radionuclide accumulations in various species. 10. 2002.. only a small part of the available scientific literature is presented here. 119071 Moscow. birds. Russia. The order of presentation is mammals. 1998. Apart from zoological studies. fish.ru 255 . Sokolov and Kryvolutsky. manifested in adverse cellular and systemic effects. physiologic. but several monographic reviews have been included: Frantsevich et al. Despite reports of a “healthy” environment in proximity to Chernobyl for rare species of birds and mammals. The Chernobyl catastrophe has impacted on fauna and will continue to have an impact for many decades to come. and others. Long-term observations of both wild and experimental animal populations in the heavily contaminated areas show significant increases in morbidity and mortality that bear a striking resemblance to changes in the health of humans—increased occurrence of tumor and immunodeficiencies. Incorporation of Radionuclides The level of radionuclides maintained in an animal’s body depends on the transfer ratio (TR. Zakharov and Krysanov. early aging. and genetic disorders in every animal species that has been studied—mammals. and chickens in the areas contaminated by Chernobyl. decreased life expectancy. It is well to remember that Homo sapiens are a part of the animal kingdom and suffer the same kinds of health consequences that are observed in animals. malformations.. Yablokov The radioactive shock when the Chernobyl reactor exploded in 1986 combined with chronic low-dose contamination has resulted in morphologic. changes in blood and the circulatory system. Leninsky Prospect 33. and other factors that compromise health. amphibians. The second section addresses reproductive impairment in animals in the contaminated territories and the resultant genetic changes. the presence of such wildlife is likely the result of immigration and not from locally sustained populations. 1996. boars.1. amphibians. amphibians. with effects ranging from changes in population vitality to abnormal reproductive and genetic disorders.

2005∗ Ryabokon’ et al. The health and survival of the animals provide a view into environmental radiation levels and effects... Maximum Concentration (Bq/kg. 2005∗ Ryabokon’ et al. 1987 Sherlock et al. Up to 33 times higher than pre-Chernobyl level (Danell et al.888 1. 1986 Western Europe Eriksson et al. 1996 Pel’gunov et al. 2.6 12 <0. 1989 o Rissanen et al. of accumulation (CA).3 0..954 1.. CA = (Bq/kg of animal biomass)/(Bq/kg of air.. July 1986 Mason and MacDonald.500 d.000 187.630 7. 2005∗ Ryabokon’ et al.000 113. 1997 Scotland. 1987 Ryabokon’ et al.870 400. from mammals to birds.000 15.355 42. 1988 Ryabokon’ et al. 2006 Pel’gunov et al. 2 10.320 1. 1996 France Tchykin.2 Species Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Wild swine (Sus scrofa) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Common shrew (Sorex araneus) Little shrew (Sorex minutus) Yellow neck mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) Brown hare (Lepus europaeus) Moose (Alces alces) White tailed deer Arctic hare (Lepus timidus) Moose (Alces alces) Moose (Alces alces) Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) Sheep (Ovis ammon) Sheep (Ovis ammon) Country Belarus Belarus Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Finland Finland Finland Sweden Reference Ryabokon’ et al...750 48. 1987 Rantavaara et al. worms.Y.. Fresh Weight) of Some Radionuclides after the Catastrophe Nuclide Sr-90 Cs-137 Bq/kg 1..000 3. Animals.).. 2005∗ Borysevich and Poplyko.000 100. 1..1. 1989).610 7601 720 60. that is.7 times higher than the pre-Chernobyl peak concentration. 2005∗ Pel’gunov et al. 2006 Pel’gunov et al.. or water)]. 1987 Johanson and Bergstr¨ m. 2002 Great Britain..000 24. soil.1 presents the maximum concentrations of some radionuclides in mammals after the catastrophe.. on the relationship between the specific activity of a radionuclide in a body and the specific activity of the same radionuclide in the environment [TR = (Bq/kg of animal biomass)/(kBq/m2 for background contamination).w.. 1996 Ushakov et al. 2005∗ Strand.000 79.256 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10.. 2006 Ushakov et al.898 3.. 1987 Strand.000 74. 1986 Jones et al. Indicator species such as the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollus) that inhabit the natural forest ecosystems of Belarus showed maximum levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 for 1 to . 2006 Rantavaara. 1987 Rantavaara et al.01 74 58. 1996 Ushakov et al. and insects.200 1.. depend upon whatever food they can catch or forage.. Table 10. 1988 Cs-134 Cs134/Cs-137 Pu-239 + Pu-240 Pu-238 Am-241 Finland Belarus Norway Norway Great Britain (Cumbria) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Germany Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Belarus Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Belarus Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Belarus Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Belarus Ag-110m Total gamma Cow (Bos taurus) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Otter scats Heinzl et al. 1988 ∗ 1 Calculation from figure (A.. fish..500 3.

1995). but also upon spotty radioactive contamination (see Chapter 1 for details) and on activity in a specific area (Table 10. 10 years after the catastrophe. 2005). Study of 44 bird species in the Chernobyl 5-km zone from 2003 to 2005 revealed that the greatest contamination was present during nesting and hatching. and the increased uptake occurred despite lower levels of ambient radioactive contamination in some areas (Figure 10. 9. Females accumulate more Sr-90 than males. Eriksson et al. Decrease in Cs-137 concentration in cattle (Bos taurus) in the contaminated territories is occurring more slowly than was predicted by all of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) models (Thiessen et al.000 Bq/kg.2) (Ryabokon’ et al. . Time course of Sr-90 activity concentration (Bq/kg) in two Belarussian populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in 1991 and 1996 (5 and 10 years after the catastrophe).000 Bq/kg and that in wild boar (Sus scrofa) was up to 113.. Levels increased up to the 10th year and are expected to increase further (Ryabokon’ et al.3). 2005). 3. 6. Radionuclide level accumulation for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) can vary from 10. 7. 2 years after the catastrophe.. Standard deviations of mean values are indicated: p < 0. Accumulation of Cs-137 shows significant individual variation in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and is more homogeneous in moose (Alces alces).1. During the autumn in Ukraine.. 1997).000 Bq/kg.. Tchykin. and nestlings and juveniles accumulate more than females. 1996. 13. levels of total gamma-radionuclides in the bodies of teals (Querquedula querquedula and Q. 2005).2). 1997). 12.1).. There is marked individual variability in the incorporation of Cs-134.to 30fold according to seasons (McGee et al.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 257 Figure 10. significant Am-241 activity was detected in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from areas with high levels of contamination. Five years after the meltdown. 2000). Ten years after the catastrophe. 10. the level of Cs-137 accumulation in mice species (Muridae) and the internal organs of fawns increased 11-fold (Krasnov et al. In Belarus. 1995.4. crecca) exceeded 13. The level of Cs-137 incorporation is significantly different in cattle (Bos taurus) in the heavily and less contaminated areas in Ukraine (Table 10. oak. Cs-137 accumulation did not differ between young and adult birds or between the sexes.. However. in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) it was about 10. Sr-90. Cs-137. and in coots (Fulica atra) it was more than 4. bilberry. Pu. 5. 1998). 11.000 Bq/kg (Sutchenya et al..000 Bq/kg (Eriksson and Petrov. 4. depending not only upon species-specific food chains. incorporated Sr-90 concentrations increased up to 10 years after the catastrophe (Figure 10. in contaminated areas of Western Europe. and Am-241 in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) populations living in contaminated territories of Belarus (Figure 10. Maximum levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137 accumulation are shown in Table 10. and heather (Krasnov et al.. The concentration of Cs-137 in wild ungulates in the contaminated territories increased for 7 to 20 years after the catastrophe.. 1997). The greatest contamination in fawns was due to grazing on aspen.01 in comparison with previous year (Ryabokon’ et al. 8. followed by an exponential decrease.3). radioactivity in the meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) reached an average of 58.

44. spade-footed toad (Pelobates fuscus). The TRs for Sr-90 in decreasing order were: red-bellied toad (Bombina bombina).. Pu-240. The transfer rate (TR) from substrate to animal measured in Bq/kg demonstrated that the TR is higher for Sr-90 and less for Cs-137 in all the amphibians studied.6. Pu-239.3 kBq/kg in some amphibians.5). 2005).). Intraspecies (individual) variations of Cs-137 concentrations are greater than interspecies ones (Table 10.258 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 10. accumulations of Cs137 and Sr-90 reached 5. and Sr-90 (10 years after) (Ryabokon’ et al. Individual variability in the level of incorporated radionuclides in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) population in Belarus: Cs-137 and Cs-134 (3 years after the catastrophe) and Pu-238. 2002).4 (Bondar’kov et al. 34. Am–241.4. . tree frog (Hyla sp. In the 30-km zone.. and true frogs (Rana sp. 14.2.). and 20.1. 15. respectively. 20.

24. 2000).140 to 6.900 Bq/kg of Np-239 (Ikaheimonen et al.900∗ 800–74. TABLE 10. 22. 2004).4 ± 0.001. 1..9 and the moor frog (Rana arvalis). Figure 10.660 ± 1. and Colostral Milk of Cows from More Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas. Average concentration of Cs-137 (Bq/kg fresh weight) in moose (Alces alces) in contaminated territories of Bryansk Province.750 240–3. 23.320 504–7. Reproductive Abnormalities Regular biological observations in the heavily contaminated territories of Ukraine. Cs-137 Accumulation (Bq/kg of Wet Weight) in the Muscles of Several Species of Game Mammals from Bryansk Province Areas Contaminated at a Level of 8–28 Ci/km2 . 17. Belarus. Bunzl and Kracke.3 ± 1. 2001)1 Level of contamination 5–15 Ci/km2 Afterbirth and amniotic membranes Placentas (cotyledons) Colostral milk 1 ∗ 259 < 0.. and European Russia were not begun Russian permissible level = 320 Bq/kg. .. lowering of contamination levels slowed drastically (Figure 10. 2006) Species M ±m Min–max 250–187. Radioactive contamination of Baltic plankton in 1986 reached 2.340 capreolus). radionuclide concentration in raptorial fish reached 300 × 103 Bq/kg (Gudkov et al. 18.0 (Bondar’kov et al. 10. The highest TR for Cs-137 was found in the European common toad (Bufo bufo). Placentas.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10.. Initial forecasts of a rapid Cs-137 elimination from fishes (in 7 to 8 years) appear to be inaccurate: after 3 to 4 years of fast decline. 1992–2006 (Pel’gunov et al. Cs-137 Incorporation (Bq/kg. 2002). 21. 1988).4 4. honey in Germany was heavily contaminated with I-131 (>14 × 103 Bq/kg) and by Ru-193 (>750 Bq/kg. Levels of contamination after the catastrophe in some fishes are listed in Table 10.600 Bq/kg (gross-beta) and 3.3. Ukraine. 2006). Bq/liter) in Amniotic Membranes. n = 8 ∗ 20. 16.7 provides data on Chernobyl radionuclide concentrations in zooplankton that reflect both high levels of bioaccumulation and the wide range of contaminated waters.410 n = 59 Roe deer (Capreolus 12. 1997–1999 (Karpuk. 13. 12. p < 0. 19.560 europaeus).3 ± 4.500 Bq/kg (Zarubin. Up until 1994 the level of Cs-137 in perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish and Finnish lakes exceeded the official safe level (Kryshev and Ryazantsev.4).2.3.6. Y..5 24.1 ± 0.120 ± 3. 2004). Russia. Several hours after the catastrophe.860 ± 160 n = 30 Brown hare (Lepus 2. In landlocked bodies of water in the contaminated areas. From 1987 to 2002 the amount of Cs-137 in catfish (Silurus glanis) muscle in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) cooler reservoir increased from 1.1∗ 36.9 ± 0. Table 10. Zhytomir Province.500 Wild boar (Sus scrofa). 1988).3 ± 2. 10.1 Ci/km2 3.2∗ 17.4∗ Data for Ci/km2 – summarized for two farms by A. n = 97 Moose (Alces alces).1 4.2. for three periods after the catastrophe (Pel’gunov et al.

.930 280–450 270–470 Russian permissible level—180 Bq/kg. 2... 1992–2006 (Pel’gunov et al. Observations in farm hog sires (Sus scrofa) with Cs-137 contamination levels of 1–5 Ci/km2 plus Sr-90 at a level of 0.000 305. 3. 5.260 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. Smolich and Ryabokon’. and an increase in preimplantation deaths (Karpenko..000 10. and many others). 2000). during that time. A significantly high prenatal mortality has persisted despite a decrease in the level of ground contamination (Goncharova and Ryabokon’..000 85.930 450 470 350 112 10.292 >13.000 Species Great tit (Parus major) Long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus) Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) Great tit (Parus major) Blackbird (Turdus merula) Song thrush(Turdus philomelos) Mallard duck (Anas platyrynchus) Gray partridge (Perdix perdix) Woodcock (Scopolas rusticola) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Waterfowl (Anas sp. n = 11 ∗ Average 920 350 370 Min–max∗ 314–1. 2007).. 2008 Gaschak et al.000 226.. 1995 Cs-137 Cs-134 Cs-134. 1987 De Knijff and Van Swelm. Fortunately. 2008 Sutchenya et al.000 1. 1997). 2008 Rantavaara et al.) Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Teal (Quercuedula quercuedula and Q.. 2006 De Knijff and Van Swelm.000 367.5. 2006 Pel’gunov et al. data concerning the harmful effects of the Chernobyl contamination on cattle and other farm animals were collected from many veterinarians (Il’yazov. n = 28 Gray partridge (Perdix perdix). Novykov et al.666 467 1.635. 2006 Pel’gunov et al. 1987 Rantavaara et al. 1995 Sutchenya et al. the population of murine species in the heavily contaminated Ukrainian territories had decreased up to fivefold (Bar’yakhtar. 2008 De Knijff and Van Swelm.5 months sexually active male rats (Rattus norvegicus) within the 30-km zone demonstrated suppressed sexual motivation and erections. Concentration of Some Radionuclides (Bq/kg. 1994. crecca) Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhyncha) Coots (Fulica atra) Country Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Russia Russia Russia Netherlands Netherlands Finland Finland Netherlands Netherlands Belarus Belarus Belarus Reference Gaschak et al. 2008 De Knijff and Van Swelm. which resulted in a reduction in the number of inseminated females. 2008 Gaschak et al. reduced fertility. Konyukhov et al. Cs-137 Zr-95 Nb-95 Total gamma until 2 months after the explosion. 2008 Gaschak et al.. For 1.b. 2008 Gaschak et al. n = 14 Woodcock (Scopolas rusticola). 2002.469 6. 2008 Gaschak et al.... TABLE 10. 1. 1995). 2006.000 556. 1995 Sutchenya et al..08 Ci/km2 demonstrated significantly fewer . 2006) Species Mallard duck (Anas platyrynchus)...04– 0. There was an increasing incidence of embryo deaths over 22 generations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from the contaminated territories that correlated with the radionuclide levels in monitored areas.4. 4.. By September 1986. 2008 Pel’gunov et al. Cs-137 Accumulation (Bq/kg of Wet Weight) in Three Game Bird Species from Bryansk Province Areas Contaminated at a Level of 8–28 Ci/km2 .. Fresh Weight) in Several Bird Species after the Catastrophe Radionuclide Sr-90 Bq/kg 1.000 >4. The mortality of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) that remained in the 10-km zone from 1 to 14 days increased significantly and is associated with additional radiation (Nazarov et al. 1998a..

1987 Saxen and Rantavaara.000 708 493 190 15–30 55... Calving problems included delayed delivery of the placenta and amniotic membranes. 7. 1987 Saxen and Rantavaara. Concentration (Bq/kg) of Some Radionuclides in Fishes after the Catastrophe Nuclide Cs-137 Concentration 16. 1987 Ikaheimonen et al. solid line. Zhytomir Province. About five times the pre-Chernobyl level. forecast. anus. House mice (Mus musculus) populations in the heavily contaminated areas decreased Figure 10.6. 1995 Ilus et al.000 Species Perch (Perca fluviatilis) Pike (Esox luceus) Whitefish (Coregonus sp. semen channels (especially for hogs 2 to 4 years old). actual concentration (Jonsson et al.000 12. 1999).5% of the piglets were born dead or with congenital malformations involving the mouth. Dynamics of concentration of Chernobyl Cs-137 in lake trout (Salmo trutta) and charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in lakes in northern Norway from 1986 to 1998. (Oleinik. 1987 Brittain et al. Ukraine (Cs-137 levels of 5–15 Ci/km2 ) were significantly different from the same species bred in the less contaminated (<0.. 1987 Saxen and Rantavaara. ..9).8). 2006 Saxen and Rantavaara.. as well as widening. 1996 Gudkov et al.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10.000 7. and morbidity and mortality were higher in the heavily contaminated areas (Table 10. 2004 120 times that of pre-Chernobyl level. 2005). There was a marked decrease in insemination and 1. 1988 Strand. 8. 1987 Ushakov et al. The weight of the amniotic tissues and placental lobule characteristics were significantly lower in cows (Bos taurus) in contaminated areas (Table 10. etc. 1987 Zarubin.000 10.. Dotted line. 1996 Robbins and Jasinski. More calves had abnormal weights..500 2.) Catfish (Silurus glanis) Bream (Abramis brama) Vendace (Coregonus albula) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Bream (Abramis brama)∗ “Fish” “Pike and cod”∗∗ “Freshwater fish” Brown trout (Salmo trutta) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Raptorial fish Country Finland Finland Finland Ukraine Finland Finland Russia Poland Baltic Baltic Norway Norway Russia Ukraine Reference 261 Cs-134/137 Sr-90 Total gamma ∗ ∗∗ Saxen and Rantavaara. 6. and gigantic heads. 9.500 157 300.10). 1991 Ushakov et al.8 to 2. Pregnancy outcomes and some health characteristics of calves (Bos taurus) (a Poles’e breed) in the heavily contaminated Korosten and Narodnitsky districts. necrosis. and unusual positions of sex cells within the channels (Table 10.100 6.1 Ci/km2 ) Baranovka District.4. legs.500 4.

mkm Contaminated 178. Fecal pellets in sediment traps Ce-141 and Ce-144.4 ± 0. 1986 May–June.9∗ p < 0.) as a percent of the current year of breeding young deviated significantly in the heavily contaminated territories (Kudryashova et al. 2004). Higher antenatal mortality was observed in field mice (Clethrionomys and Microtus sp.0 Contaminated 39.4 12. 12.2 Control 465. Long-term studies of small-rodent populations (Clethrionomys glareolus and others) in TABLE 10.9 ± 0.7∗ 335. Kempe et al.5∗ 231. 1987.0 ± 17. Irradiation caused increased prenatal and postnatal mortality and reduced breeding success for bank vole populations (Clethrionomys sp.. 2004).0 ± 0. 1998). as well as to abnormal spermatozoa (Pomerantseva et al. The reproductive rate (number of litters during the reproductive period and number of newborns in each litter) of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) line CC57W of a Chernobyl experimental population steadily decreased over seven generations. 11.6 Control 63.. Sokolov and Krivolutsky..0 ± 8.0 ± 8. 13. At the same time the number that died in the first month postnatal period and preimplantation period significantly increased (Stolyna and Solomko.05.) in contaminated areas (Kudryashova et al. 15. Radiation contamination caused bank vole populations (Clethrionomys sp..5 ± 26.0 ± 18.1 428.0 ± 12.81∗ 380. 10. Some Recorded Chernobyl Radionuclides in Zooplankton (after J.11). >70% composed of copepod fecal pellets At a depth of 1.8∗ 21.3 ± 22.071 m (Emiliania huxleyi) From 110 to 780 m Reference Kempe and Nies.4 ± 0.5 ± 0. both of which are associated with premature aging and reduced life expectancy (Kudryashova et al. In October 1986 in Chernobyl City. 2005) Specific numbers of semen channels Age 5 months 8 months 2 years 4 years ∗ Thickness of white envelopes. 16.9∗ 21. 1996). 1987 Buesseler et al.3 349. 14. Histological Characteristics of Hog Testes Associated with Sr-90 and Cs-137 Contamination (Oleinik. . 1996). 1987 Fowler et al.8. 1990.2 ± 0.. 1988 owing to sterility. a special animal facility was established for laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the breeding group that originated in the Kiev laboratory colony. 1991.7 ± 2. 1987 Kusakabe and Ku.2 ± 0.7. 1986 Notes At depth of 222 m. 1986 June–July.9 13.) to mature early and intensified reproduction. 2002) Sea North Sea off Norway Mediterranean off Corsica Black Sea North Pacific and Bering Sea Date May–June May 8–15 (rainfall on May 4–5).262 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. After the catastrophe there was a significant decrease in the average life span of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in animal facilities in both Chernobyl and Kiev (Table 10.2 ± 11. 2004).8 19. 200 m depth.. Turner.7 20.. The sex ratio of bank voles (Clethrionomys sp.) in the first years after the catastrophe in the heavily contaminated areas owing to pathologic changes in the urogenital tract and embryo resorption in the early stages of development (Medvedev.7 572.

) in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) occurred at significantly higher frequencies in heavily contaminated areas (Møller et al. stillbirths. and sick foals occurred in a horse-breeding center in the Gomel area (Belarus) from 1993 to 1999 when contamination levels were up to 40 Ci/km2 . with contamination levels less than 1 Ci/km2 (Yakovleva. In areas of moderate contamination.6 ± 0.6 <0. 20. about 40% in control populations in Ukraine. 18.. covering 5. and Mortality (%) of Calves from Heavily (5–15 Ci/m2 ) and Lower (<1 Ci/km2 ) Contaminated Districts of Zhytomir Province.05.0 4. Some Characters of Afterbirth Membranes in Cows (Bos taurus ) from Greater and Lesser Contaminated Areas.5∗ Mortality 7 12∗ 13. Chernobyl bird populations show dramatically reduced reproductive rates and lower offspring survival rates (Møller et al. Ukraine.11. most probably connected with the Chernobyl fallout (DeSante and Geupel. The Chernobyl barn swallow populations are only sustained via immigration from adjacent. Observations from 1978 to 1999.6 ± 0.7 4. p < 0. Weight.3 ± 0. Overall. 17.043 ± 118 Chernobyl City Life span months 20. two tails. the Kanev Natural Reserve pre. 1997–1999 (Karpuk. Abnormal spermatozoa (head deviations.9. .1 Ci/km2 5. Total Morbidity. Y.3 76. Millpointer. Survival rates of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) in the most contaminated sites near the Chernobyl NPP are close to zero. and Less Irradiation in Kiev (Serkiz. and Denmark). 2005). 1998).3 20 p < 0. 2001) Weight Less than 26 kg Heavy contamination Low contamination ∗ More than 35 kg 10 15 Normal 76. and Oregon in June– July 1986. delay in the “population clock” run. Decreased clutch size of some bird species was found in the United States in California. uncontaminated populations. 19.2 ± 0. 1995) October 1986 to 1989 Kiev before April 1986 28.10. 2005). 22. An intermediate level of problems was in a horsebreeding center in the Bryansk area. Stable TABLE 10. Zhytomir Province. with background radiation levels of 1– TABLE 10. Spain. Russia. Ukraine. The litter size of wolves (Lupus lupus) in Russian contaminated territories correlates with the level of radioactive contamination and specific activity of Cs-137 in their fur (Adamovich. 21.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 263 TABLE 10. and the fewest problems occurred in a horse-breeding center in the Smolensk area. 1997–1999 (Karpuk. kg Placental lobules Number cm2 1 ∗ 5 Ci/km2 . 2005). 1987.6 ± 0.01. and biotic turnover (Mezhzherin and Myakushko. Russia.and postcatastrophe revealed disturbances in ecological balance. 2001)1 Contamination level 5–15 Ci/km2 Weight amniotic membranes. 1998). annual survival is less than 25% (vs. Italy. etc. Average Life Span of Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) under Heavy Irradiation in Chernobyl City. two heads.8 Kiev 21. 1991).0 ± 2.853 ± 206∗ ∗ 4.7 65 Total morbidity 34 50. Washington..9 ± 4.3∗ 88.5 Data for Ci/km2 —summarized for two farms by A.427 horse-breeding years. indicated that the success of breeding free-range horses (Equus caballus) correlated with the level of farm radioactive contamination: the greatest number of abortions.

immigrants) than is observed in control populations or in populations collected from the Chernobyl region prior to the disaster (Møller et al. Reproductive characteristics of carp (Cyprinus carpio) correlated with levels of incorporated radionuclides in sperm and eggs (Figure 10. 32. A significant decrease in volume and concentration of seminal fluids and destruc- tive changes in the testes were observed in several generations of white silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from the breeding stock at a Chernobyl NPP reservoir-cooler (Verygin et al. There was reduced hatching in boxes with high levels of radiation. Concentrations of total carotenoids and vitamins A and E in the yolks of the great tit (Parus major) were depressed in the 10-km zone as compared to concentrations in a less contaminated Ukrainian area or in France. whereas in control areas there was parity between adult and young individuals (Victorov. Kokhnenko. changes in normal oocytes and nucleus size.e. Egg-laying dates were advanced and clutch sizes increased in nest boxes with high dose rates.. 24. 2007a). In gonads of fish from two lakes within the 30-km zone (Smerzhov Lake with Cs-134 and Cs-137 levels of 5. and Perstok Lake..5). 1992). Nine years after the catastrophe in bodies of water with heavy radioactivity. thickening of the follicular wall. decreased sperm concentration.. with levels up to 199. Where it interacted with habitat for the great tit and with the laying date for the pied flycatcher. 28.. 1998). 2007a). 29. 2006). Abnormal growth of testicular connective tissue.) was found in bream (Abramis brama) and small fry (Rutilus rutilus) from the Pripyat River and Smerzhov Lake (Gomel Province.. Krivolutsky and Pokarzhevsky. 1996). Abundance of birds decreased by about 66% in the most contaminated areas as compared to sites with typical (control) background radiation levels (Møller and Mousseau. etc. Degenerative morphological changes were seen in oocytes of pike (Esox lucius) during vitellogenesis in heavily contaminated waters. 31. Belarus). Deviation in gametogenesis (i.e. Species richness and abundance of forest birds declined by more than 50% as contamination levels increased. Detailed surveys of birds indicate that many species are either absent or present in very low numbers in the Chernobyl region. 1993. 2008b). 27. which eventually eliminated and even reversed the differences in reproductive success associated with early reproduction and large clutch size. resulting in negative consequences for hatching and reproductive success (Møller et al.800 Bq/kg in 1991. compared with a thickness of about 10 μm for egg cells from the Pripyat River (875 Bq/kg in 1992. 33. decomposition of the nucleus. 30. hatching success was depressed as radioactive contamination increased (Møller and Mousseau. Adult earthworms dominated in heavily contaminated sites during the first period after the catastrophe. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that radioactive contamination reduces levels of dietary antioxidants in yolks. developmental abnormalities of oocytes. Great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) species avoided nest boxes in the heavily contaminated areas to a marked degree. 23.900 Bq/kg in 1995) the thickness of the radial membrane in egg cells reached 25 − 30 μm. Brightly colored and migratory bird species appear to be particularly sensitive to radioactive contaminants (Møller and Moussaeu. 1996). 2007b). 26. Changes were correlated with the level of radiation contamination of the reservoirs (Petukhov and Kokhnenko. 2000). 20% of .. 25.264 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences isotope analyses on current and past specimens (from museums) have indicated that current Chernobyl populations are composed of a more diverse group of individuals (i. and increased numbers of abnormal spermatozoa were found in motley silver carp (Aristichthys nobilis) that were radiated in 1986 at the age of 1–2 years and then lived under conditions of chronic low-dose radiation (Makeeva et al.

%. (7) larva survival. 2006).b. Smolitch and Ryabokon’. %.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 265 Figure 10. %. (9) mitotic index. 2. 1999). Genetic Changes 1. 1998a.. % (Goncharova. (5) number of prelarvae (thousands per female). (10) frequency of chromosome aberrations at late blastula stage. coefficients of correlation are given in absolute values): (1) number of eggs (thousands per female).5. 2005). despite a decrease in contamination (Goncharova and Ryabokon’. (6) number of larvae (thousands per female). 3. (8) frequency of morphological abnormalities. oligochaete (Stylaria lacustris) specimens have sex cells. The number of polyploidy cells in all studied populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in heavily contaminated Belarussian territories correlates with the level of incorporated radionuclides (Ryabokon’. In 1989 there was a significantly higher frequency of cytogenetic disorders in somatic and germinal cells (number of chromosomes and aberrations in marrow cells) in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in territories with Cs-137 levels of 8–1. 4. %. Wild populations of house mice (Mus musculus) living in the contaminated territories have a significantly increased level of dominant lethal mutations and chromosome translocations. whereas normally this species reproduces asexually (Tsytsugyna et al. The frequency of reciprocal translocations in spermatocytes was higher in areas with more intensive contamination during the . (2) amount of milt (ml per male). 1997. polyploidy cells occurred in an excess of up to three orders of incidence as compared with precatastrophe frequencies (Ryabokon’. 1999a). 10. 1997). 1999). Ryabokon’. The number of genomic mutations in a population of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) increased to the 12th generation after the catastrophe (from 1986 to 1991) despite a decrease in background radioactivity (Ryabokon’. The offspring of female bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the contaminated territories and raised under contamination-free conditions showed the same enhanced level of chromosomal aberrations as the contaminated mothers (Ryabokon’ and Goncharova. Coefficients of correlation between reproductive characteristics of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and radionuclide concentration in their eggs and sperm (milt. 1999). (3) quality of milt. 5. These abnormalities were maintained at high levels for no fewer than 22 generations. which increased from 1986 until 1991/1992 in all the populations studied. 6.3. (4) fertilization. In all the studied populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in heavily contaminated Belarussian territories.526 kBq/m2 and in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) lines CBA × C57Bl/6j (F1) in the heavily contaminated areas.

5 Types Deletions Deletions.266 TABLE 10. The number of chromosome aberrations in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) was higher in a more radioactively contaminated environment (Table 10. 13. 10.45 4.13 ± 0. 2000). 2006) Chromosomal aberrations Percent of cells Controls After exposure Up to 3 Up to 24. Number of Micronuclei in Polychromatic Erythrocytes of Bone Marrow in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus ) after 12 Weeks in 30-km Chernobyl Zone (Sushko et al. Hillis.14). and translocations Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. The micronuclear frequencies in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) increased significantly after a 10-day stay in the “Red Forest” (10-km zone) for the BALB/c line and after 30 days for the C57BL/6 line (Wickliffe et al. 1996).11 ± 0..14. 1996) Contamination level 20 μR/h 60 μR/h 180 μR/h 220 μR/h Cells studied n 229 593 325 864 Aberrant cell frequencies 0.11 0.. whereas the whole-body absorbed dose rates decreased exponentially after 1986 (Goncharova et al. 15. 9. n 5. 1996).12).34 ± 0.53 ♂ ♀ ♂ ♀ All significantly different from controls.000 5. BALB/C.000 Cells with micronucleus 0. 12. The level of both somatic and genomic mutations in a population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) in the Chernobyl zone was two to ten times greater than in other populations in Ukraine or in Italy (Ellegren et al. 1996)..13.000 5. Abnormalities in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus ) Fibroblast Cell Cultures after 5 Days of Exposure in the 10-km Zone (Pelevyna et al. Bryansk Province.. including cells with multiple aberrations (Nazarov et al. Frequency of Aberrant Cells in Bank Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus ) under Various Levels of Radioactive Contamination. Baker. The number of aberrant alveolar macrophage cells in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) was significantly higher in the populations living in heavily contaminated territories (Yelyseeva et al.06 ± 0. 1993. 1996.02 0.000 5. The frequency of mitochondrial DNA mutations in voles in the 30-km zone was significantly increased in the first years after the catastrophe (Freemantle.. In laboratory mice (Mus musculus). Table 10. fragments.12. 1996).29 ± 0. 1990. 2007. were found to have a wide spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies (Glazko et al. 8. Russia (Krysanov et al.. 1997). 2002). CC57W/Mv contained within the 30-km zone and other rodents caught in 1995 in the 10-km zone.06 ± 0.09 4. 7. 2005). 1996.02 . 2006)∗ Sex Controls 30-km zone ∗ Studied cells. period from 1986 to 1994 (Pomerantseva et al. cell fibroblast cultures originating from embryos conceived in the 10-km zone demonstrate significantly increased numbers of cells with chromosomal aberrations. 14....006 0. 11. Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) lines C57BL/6.1 ± 0..008 0. Keeping laboratory mice (Mus musculus) for 4 months in the 30-km zone resulted in a sharp and significantly increased incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic cells of the bone marrow (Table 10. 16.04 ± 0. TABLE 10.13). The rate of chromosome aberrations and embryonic lethality noticeably increased for more than 22 generations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). The frequency of mutations through several generations in both somatic and germinal cells of house mice (Mus musculus) remained significantly higher after irradiation as compared to nonradiated descendants (Dubrova et al..

Mutation rates seen in Chernobyl populations have significantly higher numbers of morphological defects as compared to control populations in Ukraine. Mousseau). 22. photo by T.15). 1993 (Chubanishvyli. 1996).. 21..15. 1996). R.33% 220 μR/h 1. There are positive correlations between the number of abnormalities in black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) and house sparrows (Passer domestica) and the level of background radiation in Ukraine (Møller et al. 1998). arvalis) from the heavily contaminated territories showed a significantly higher number of aberrant bone marrow and intestinal epithelial cells and an increased number of micronuclei in peripheral blood (Yelyseeva et al. Brown frogs (Rana temporaria. TABLE 10. dose 15 μ R/h 0.. and Denmark (Møller and Mousseau. From 2005 to 2006 there were significant differences in motility and morphology of live sperm of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in heavily radioactively contaminated areas (390 mR/h) around Chernobyl as compared to sperm from swallows in two less contaminated (0.. 18. Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) wing color pattern mutations occurred with greater frequency in the more contaminated territories in Belarus (Makeeva et al. Normal barn swallow (left) and partial albino (right.22% ∗ 60 μR/h 1.6).55∗ p < 0.05. The Frequency of Micronuclei in Erythrocytes in Frog Hybrid Complex (Rana esculenta) in Three Populations in Bryansk Province.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 267 Figure 10. The frequency of chromosome aberrations and genomic mutations in carp (Cyprinus carpio) populations was significantly higher in more contaminated ponds in Belarus (Goncharova et al. Spain. 2001.6. 2007). 19. . 23. larvae.006 mR/h) areas in Ukraine. The frequency of morphological anomalies (congenital malformations) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos.. and fingerlings was significantly higher in more contaminated ponds in Belarus (Slukvin and Goncharova. and low track velocity increased with increasing background radiation levels (Møller et al. small amplitude. 1995). 2007). The incidence of sperm with low motility.. Barn swallow populations (Hirundo rustica) that originated in the Ukrainian Chernobyl zone after the catastrophe have significantly more (up to 15%) albino mutations (Figure 10. 24. 1996) Contamination. Italy. 17.25 and 0. 20. Møller et al. 2008b). high linearity. lateral head displacement. The incidence of erythrocytes with micronuclei was higher in the hybrid frog complex (Rana esculenta) in the more contaminated areas in Bryansk Province (Table 10.

. 2007). ∗∗ p < 0. 2.15∗∗ 42.09 ± 0. 28.88 6. Changes in Other Biological Characteristics 1.. Table 10. 1996 Matson.91∗ 12. 10. 1996 Lingerfelser. Neutrophilic phagocytic activity to Staphylococcus aureus in the blood serum and the Blymphocytic system was significantly lower in 25.17. The highest level of mutations was observed in aquatic crustaceans Amphipoda and Platyhelminth worm populations in the Chernobyl 10-km zone as compared with populations from the Black and Aegean seas and the Danube and Dnieper rivers (Tsytsugyna and Polycarpov. 2003 Not statistically significant.16). and Microtus sp. 1999) Vetka District DLM RLM ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Berezinsky Reserve 63. 2006) Species Apodemus flavicollis Mus musculus Clethryonomys glareolus Genetic marker Chromosome aberrations Reciprocal translocations Somatic mutation Multiple substitutions in Cytochrome-b and transversions Mutation and heteroplasmy∗∗ Point mutations Microsatellites DNA breakage I DNA content Frequency of aneuploidy Sex-linked lethal mutations Chromosomal aberrations Effect. 2000 Baker et al. 1998 Zainullin..66 p < 0. 1999 Hirundo rustica Icterus punctatus Carassius carassius Four fish species Drosophila melanogaster Three Oligochaete species ∗ ∗∗ Wickliffe et al. 2003. 1992 Tsytsugyna and Polycarpov.65 ± 0. 1997 Snugg.. 1995 Pomerantseva et al. 2002 Dubrova.76 ± 0. the incidence of dominant lethal and recessive sex-linked lethal mutations is significantly lower than in the less contami- TABLE 10..) from the contaminated areas showed impaired brain development and deformed limbs (Sokolov and Kryvolutsky.4. Wickliffe et al.64 ± 1. Examples of Genetic Changes in Animals as a Consequence of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Based on Møller and Mousseau. 1990. 1997 Dallas. 26. 2002 Ellegren et al... 1998).. Heteroplasmy—mixed mitochondria in a single cell.05.17 presents some additional data on genetic changes in animals associated with the Chernobyl contamination. Voles (Clethrionomys sp. 27. as a result of increased radioresistance in the irradiated population (Table 10. Belarus (Glushkova et al.16. The Frequency of Dominant Lethal Mutations (DLM) and Recessive Sex-Linked Lethal Mutations (RLM) in Natural Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster ) Populations from the Vetka District in Gomel Province as Compared with the Population from the Less Contaminated Berezinsk Reserve.268 TABLE 10. The frequency of lethal and semilethal mutations in drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster) populations is significantly higher in the Belarussian contaminated territories (Makeeva et al. Gomel Province (radiation level of 24 Ci/km2 ).001. 1995). nated Berezinsky Reserve. In natural drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster) populations from the Vetka District. comments Increase by a factor of 3–7 Increase by a factor of 15 Increased∗ Only from Chernobyl samples Increased∗ Increased∗ Increased by a factor of 2–10 Increased rate Changes Increased Increased Increased by a factor of ∼2 Reference Savchenko.

3 5. There was a significantly increased frequency of tumors in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) experimentally inoculated with tumor cells after they had been in the 10-km zone (Savtsova et al..2∗ 4.1 6. 6.19. % Eosinophils. There was a decreased density of endotheliocytes in various parts of the brain in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) after they had lived in the 10-km zone for 1 month (Pelevyna et al. Ukraine.01. 9. 1991).8 ± 0. 8.0 ± 1. Dairy cows (Bos taurus) from areas contaminated at levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 developed inflammatory and atrophic changes in lymphoid tissue accompanied by decreased T-lymphocyte functional activity. % Lymphocytes.77 ± 0.06 0. 2001). % Segmented neutrophiles.3 ± 0.5 57.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10. 7. cows from more contaminated areas (p < 0. There was coarsening of reticular fibrous structures and dispersed and reduced lymph nodes in the cortex (Velykanov and Molev. 1996). 2007). After 20 weeks of exposure in the 30-km zone the incidence of lung neoplasms in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) was significantly greater (Table 10. Dairy cows (Bos taurus) in areas with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 developed indurated spleens with reduced volume and sharply reduced white pulp area. Frequency of Lung Neoplasms in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus ) after 20 Weeks Exposure in the 30-km Zone (Sushko et al.17 4. .19). 1993).7 ± 1.3 91. Changes included accelerated cytolysis and lowered mitotic activity. Endogenous activity changed significantly in spinal cord nerve cells and in the cerebrum of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) lines C57BI/6 after they were in the Chernobyl zone for 40 days with background radiation of 100–120 mR/h (Mustafin et al.8∗ 4..3 Data for Ci/km2 —summarized for two farms by A..6 ± 0. 2006) Neoplasms per mouse Control 30-km zone 0. 2004). 1997–1999 (Karpuk. 1998).. There was increased sensitivity to viral infections in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) after they had been in the 10-km zone (Savtsova et al. 2006. 2002). Hypoplasia and degenerative-dystrophic changes developed in the thymus glands of 20day-old laboratory albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) whose pregnant mothers lived for 25 days in an area with a Cs-137 level of 116 Ci/km2 and an Sr-90 level of 26 Ci/km2 .3 ± 0. 2001)1 5–15 Ci/km2 <0.8 ± 0. % 1 269 TABLE 10. 1993.18).8 ± 0.05 and p < 0. 12.3 32 ± 0. Hematological characteristics differ significantly in cattle (Bos taurus) from areas with different levels of contamination (Table 10. ∗ p < 0.001.0 0. 11.4 ± 2.2 ± 0.2 10. which indicated the development of immunodeficiency (Il’yazov. 13. Y.26 ± 0.5 3. Such thymus gland changes led to immune disorders (Amvros’ev et al. Nazarov et al.. 2002).. Resistance to skin infections is lowered in wild murine rodents in heavily contaminated territories (Kozynenko and Zavodnykova.. 3.8∗ 1. 14. Large horned livestock (Bos taurus) in contaminated areas had lowered lysozymic activity in whey and lowered resistance to skin infections. % Monocytes.4 78.9∗ 60. Karpuk. 10. 5.9 ± 0.9 ± 0.18.6 ± 2. and they demonstrated abnormal connective tissue growth 4 years after the catastrophe (Velykanov and Molev. Zhytomir Province.2∗ 6.. Asymmetry of yellow-neck mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) skulls was significantly higher in populations from more contaminated territories (Smith et al.1 Ci/km2 Erythrocytes (thousands/liter) Leucocytes (g/liter) Hemoglobin (g/liter) Basophiles. 4. 2004).5 ± 0.0 24. 1991). Some Hematological Characteristics of Calf-Bearing Cows from Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas.7 ± 1.

16. leukocytopenia (onset during the third month of being in the radioactive zone). Mammary adenofibromas and malignant lung and intestinal tumors appeared at earlier ages in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Chernobyl animal facility from 1987 to 1989 and included lymphoid and connective tissue tumors. Tumors developed in 74% of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Chernobyl and Kiev experimental breeding colonies .08 Ci/km2 . 21. 1995). The most common immediate causes of death for laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the animal facilities in Chernobyl City and Kiev after the catastrophe were inflammatory processes of the lungs and intestines (Serkiz..5 11. 1990). the percentage of young and stick hearted leukocytes increased 1. October 1986–December 1989 (Serkiz. lung hemorrhage Pulmonitis Colitis Lymph node hyperplasia Thymus gland/spleen hyperplasia Kiev 10. ery- throcyte counts were significantly lower (up to 15. Ukraine.. Increased numbers of abnormal cells (huge hypersegmented neutrophilic leukocytes.1 13. Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) kept in the 10-km zone from 1986 to 1993 were found to have (Pinchuk and Rodionova. laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) developed significant mitotic growth activity (sometimes accompanied by an increase in the number of bone marrow cells) and then had a subsequent decrease in mitotic activity.20..4 15.0%). Serkiz et al.20 presents data on their mortality from 1986 to 1989. 1996). Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) kept in the 30-km zone for 1 month had significantly increased leukocytes and have a tendency toward increased numbers of marrow cells (Izmozherov et al. 1993.2 4.3 2. decreased hemoglobin levels. Cause of Death (%) in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) from the Experimental Animal Facilities in Chernobyl City (Heavy Background Radiation) and Kiev (Less Background Radiation). Table 10.. Hypochromatic anemia.04–0. Similar processes were observed in wild murines living in the 10-km zone (Serkiz et al. peripheral blood leukocytes. 1995. and eosinophilia. After being in the 10-km zone for 3 to 6 months. 23.1 10. and decreased percentage of neutrophils and monocytes were seen in cattle (Bos taurus) that remained in the 12-km zone for 2 months after the catastrophe (Il’yazov.21).and gammaglobulins decreased up to 44. 1993). including lymphatic sarcoma (Table 10.3 8.0%)..4 19. and blood levels of alpha. and hyperchromic anemia (Glazko et al. as well as undifferentiated cells. 2003): • • • Decreased numbers of bone marrow cells. 1995). Il’yazov et al.270 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. from 1997 to 2001. hemoglobin was lower (up to 45. In farm-raised hog sires (Sus scrofa) in Mlinivs’sk and Sarnens’k districts of Rivne Province. Low red cell counts. cells with shaggy chromatin structure. where Cs-137 contamination levels were 1–5 Ci/km2 and Sr-90 levels were 0. Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) kept in the 30-km zone for 1 month had significantly increased numbers of lymphocytes and leukocytes (Pelevyna et al. cytoplasm nuclear inclusions. 25. 17.3 to 2. 18. 24. 2003). and myelokaryocytes. 1995) Cause of death Pneumonia.1 31.. 20. granulocytopenia with very high levels of eosinophils. Animals in the Chernobyl zone had accelerated aging of the immune system (Savtsova. broken cell forms.4% (Oleinik.8 times. 1990).4 Chernobyl City 35. 22. 19. and multinucleated lymphocytes. 2005). Until October 1986 free-range cattle (Bos taurus) living 3–6 km from the Chernobyl NPP had high eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts. cells with fragmented nuclei.

A test of F-dependent enzyme activation revealed a significant reduction in the stimulative effect of ACS activity on myocardium in animals kept under irradiation.48 ± 0. 1990).26 ± 0.03 180 μR/h 0.7 29 58. 29. reflecting endocrine system impairment (Mykytyuk and Ermakov.24).24.016 ± 0. 28.2 43. 2000).7 1 15.78 nMol/mg protein/min as compared with 20.. %∗ Animals with multiple mammary tumors.78 ± 0. The percentage of dead cells in the spleen and bone marrow of moor frogs (Rana arvalis) TABLE 10. 1993). Female rats (Rattus norvegicus) age 4–5 months with hyperthyroidism kept in the 30-km zone for 30 days had significantly reduced basal activity of myocardial adenyl cyclase (ACS.3 from 1989 to 1992. 1996b) Contamination.5 27 20. 1995) After 1986 Chernobyl Kiev 1985 Average age for malignant tumors. 26. dose 60 μR/h 0.1 Between 1986 and 1989 the animals in Kiev had no such tumors.21.03 Kiev 2.8 Kiev 9. Occurrence and Features of Breast Neoplasms in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norbegicus ) from 1989 to 1992 in Chernobyl City and Kiev Experimental Animal Facilities (Pinchuk. months 10 35 14 17 16 5 Breast adenofibroma with malignancy. months Probability of occurrence of tumors.. 1995). 14.23.22. From number of animals with mammary gland tumors.7 6. The level of developmental stability (by fluctuating asymmetry of many morphological characters) in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) was significantly higher in the contaminated areas (Møller. 30. 1995) Chernobyl City 14. Level of Fluctuating Asymmetry (Asymmetric Cases per Character) in Three Populations of Common Shrew (Sorex araneus ) with Different Levels of Radioactive Contamination. but such tumors did develop in 4. Endocrine gland tumors (Table 10. The data point to the possibility of modulating hyperthyroid effects at TABLE 10. 27.24 ± 0. 1992 (Zakharov et al. Occurrence (% of Total Tumors) in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) from 1986 to 1992 in Chernobyl City and Kiev Experimental Animal Facilities (Pinchuk. %∗∗ Animals with a breast tumors combined with other tumors∗∗ ∗ ∗∗ 271 TABLE 10.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10. the β-adrenergic link level of ACS in cardiomyocytes in animals exposed to radiation (Komar et al.03 220 μR/h 0.8 15. 1995) Chernobyl City Thymus gland tumor∗ Adrenal cortex adenoma Thyroid gland tumor Cellular adenoma of islet of Langerhans ∗ From the total number of animals. Bryansk Province. Average Age of Occurrence and Probability of Occurrence (%) of Malignant Tumors in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) under Different Levels of Contamination before and after the Catastrophe (Pinchuk.8% of all the animals in the Chernobyl facility.22) in combination with mammary tumors (Table 10. Russia (Table 10.2 34. . The level of fluctuating asymmetry in populations of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) was higher in the more radioactively contaminated environment in Bryansk Province.9 43. Adenocarcinoma and epithelial tumors in Chernobyl rats were not observed in rats in the Kiev group and were not seen as spontaneous tumors in this breeding line before the catastrophe (Pinchuk. Carbohydrate metabolism and lipid balance were noticeably abnormal in some birds from the Chernobyl zone.57 in the controls).23) were typical for rats from Chernobyl.

03 0.1 ± 1. near the 30-km zone..45 ± 0.001) than from less contaminated areas (in some cases by a factor of 30). % from populations living under heavy radiation for 7–8 years differed significantly from controls after exposure to additional experimental radiation (Afonin and Voitovich.32 ± 0.9 ± 1. 8 (Kryvolutsky.46 ± 0.41 Neutrophils. The number of micronucleated erythrocytes in all the populations of brown frogs (Rana temporaria) from heavily contaminated areas caught before 1991 was significantly higher (p < 0.08 ± 1.. 32. The level of developmental stability (by number of asymmetric cases per character) in three populations of frogs (Rana esculenta) was lower in less contaminated environments (Table 10. 0. .26). Before the catastrophe. Bryansk Province. 31. 1988.03 0.03 12. arvalis) frogs inhabiting radiation-contaminated areas have increased cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells and erythrocytes and a change in the ratio of erythrocytes in peripheral blood (Voitovich. inhabitants on pine bark and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes significantly declined on radioactively contaminated trees 2–3 km from the Chernobyl NPP. 2006). 1992–1993 (Chubanishvyli et al.28). % 20.7 ± 1.03 Leukocytes.22 neutrophiles. 1999.9 ± 0.03 220 μR/h 0.7 ± 0. 39. Bryansk Province.272 TABLE 10. 1998. μR/h Index 60 220 21. The number of oribatid mite species. In 1990 up to 22% of all insects collected in the Polessk District.45 B lymphocytes. Osterfarnebo. 6.. dose 15 μR/h 0. % 32. 1999).54 ± 0. 37. Afonin et al. After the catastrophe.16 ± 0.56 Zero-cells.38 17. there were 16 species. and even 13 to 15 years after there were also fewer small-sized species (Pokarzhevsky et al.99 Lymphocytes. The level of fluctuating asymmetry and the number of phenodeviations in populations of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and wild goldfish (Carassius auratus) were higher in those living in water with more radioactive contamination in Bryansk Province. Immune Status of the Frog Hybrid Complex Rana esculenta in Two Populations with Different Contamination Levels. 33.49 Year 1994 1993 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. 106 /liter 6. afterward the numbers were: 1986. The initial level of cells with chromatin changes was significantly higher (p < 0.55 26.6 ± 1.54 ± 0. % 47.64 ± 0.25). temporaria) and narrow-muzzled (R.9 ± 1. 2.8 ± 1. 1999). Changes were demonstrated in the functional immune status activity in the frog hybrid (Rana esculenta) in the more contaminated areas (Table 10. % 47.25.27). 1991. The intensity of nematode and cestode invasions was higher in more radioactively contaminated environments (Table 10.0 ± 1.2 ± 1. 1987. 2000).03 — 60 μR/h 0. there were many malformed specimens of true insect (Heteroptera) species collected in areas with the most radioactive contamination in eastern Sweden (Gysinge. Russia (Table 10. 1994 (Isaeva and Vyazov.05) in animals from the 30-km zone (Afonin et al. Hesse-Honegger and Wallimann. Both brown (R. 2001. 4.26.59 Rosette-forming 22. were malformed (Hesse-Honegger. 35. 2004). Additional gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis of bone marrow cells was discovered in narrow-muzzled frogs (Rana arvalis) inhabiting the 30-km zone. 36. The Level of Developmental Stability (Asymmetric Cases Per Character) in Populations of Frog Hybrid Complex Rana esculenta with Different Levels of Radioactive Contamination. 106 /liter 15..11 T lymphocytes.0 28. and Galve) and southern Switzerland (Melano near Ticino). and 2002. In the 5 to 6 years after the catastrophe the species diversity of large soil invertebrates was significantly lowered.5 ± 0. 38. 2. 1996) Contamination. 2008). 1996) Contamination. 34.67 61.83 11.

decreasing life expectancy.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 273 TABLE 10. ∗∗ Predominant species: Catenotaenia cricetorum and Paranoplocephala omphalodes.27 180 μR/h 0. early aging.42 ± 0.04 2. % Index of abundance Cestodes∗∗ Intensity. There is transgenerational accumulation of genomic instability in animal populations. changes in blood formation. Bryansk Province. 1992– 1995 (Pel’gunov. Mutation rates in animal populations in contaminated territories are significantly higher. fish. birds. and invertebrates. an enormous amount of many different radionuclides was absorbed by animals through food. immunodeficiencies. Intensity of the Invasion of Bank Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus ) by Nematodes and Cestodes.53 1. 23 years after the catastrophe. This first radioactive shock together TABLE 10. Now. manifested as adverse cellular and systemic effects. In the 10 years after the catastrophe the biodiversity of soil protozoa did not exceed 50% of the precatastrophe level (Pokarzhevsky et al. 1996) 60 μR/h Nematodes∗ Intensity.45 ± 0.04 4.6 0.61 0. 1996a) Species C.29 80 μR/h 0.06 4.07 1. Despite reports of a “healthy” Chernobyl environment for rare species of birds and mammals. long-term observations of both wild and experimental animal populations in the heavily contaminated areas show serious increases in morbidity and mortality that bear striking resemblance to changes in the public health of humans—increasing tumor rates. carassius C. auratus Character Asymmetric cases per character Phenodeviation per specimen Asymmetric cases per character Phenodeviation per specimen 60 μR/h 0. malformations.27. Levels of incorporated radionuclides were sometimes hundreds of times higher than precatastrophe ones. Since the catastrophe. 10.26 0.5 3. and other compromises to health.26 ± 0. Bryansk Province. amphibians. . and air. 1992 (Zakharov et al. amphibians. and Syphacia obvelata. Russia. birds. 2006). Conclusion In 1986 in the contaminated territories.9 220 μR/h 48.03 2.. living in the contaminated territories.71 3.0 3. their existence there is likely the result of immigration and not from locally sustained populations.0 3. water. Level of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Number of Phenodeviation in Populations of Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius ) and Wild Goldfish (Carassius auratus ) with Different Levels of Radioactive Contamination of the Water.31 ± 0. 2005).57 ± 0. and genetic disorders in all of the animals studied— mammals.30 - 40.10 ± 0.28.0 1.1 0.1 Predominant species: Heligmosomum mixtum. Heligmosomoides glareoli.88 ± 0. “Chernobyl” populations exhibit a wide variety of morphological deformities that are not found in normal populations of domestic animals. and fish.4 2. even beetles.93 ± 0. % Index of abundance ∗ 180 μR/h 5.1 40.0 ± 0. with chronic low-dose contamination has resulted in morphologic.. physiologic. Some bird species may persist in the 30-km Chernobyl zone only via immigration from uncontaminated areas.5.37 ± 0. the levels of incorporated radionuclides in some areas of Europe remain dangerous for mammals. These long-term effects may be even more detrimental because the genomes of animals in subsequent generations are more sensitive to the impact of very low doses of radiation (Goncharova.

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Rad. & Solomko. (1997). Kadukova. Belar. 2008). (2005). R. Sci. Vybornov. M. & Molev.ecopolicy. J. G. (1993). Rate of adaptation to antropogenic contamination of populations of hydrobionts with different reproductive strategies. 227–231 (//www. Kartek. Biol. & Krupnova. (in Russian). Aquatic Microb. Makeeva. Moscow): 12–16 (in Russian). Environ. A.) 3: 60−63 (in Belarussian). Smith. P.T. Fluctuating asymmetry of shape in rodents from radioactively contaminated environments in Chernobyl.” Moscow): pp. V. . In: Zakharov. Sci. I. A.. Herald Nat. (1996). Turner. P. Voitovich.. M. G. G. 36(2): 248–259 (in Russian). M. Verygin. E. Petersburg (Materials. K. Sci. J. Env. 213–217 (in Russian). (Biol. Impact of low dose chronic ionizing radiation on some characteristics of reproduction in mice CC57W/Mv from the Chernobyl experimental population. Animal life in the Chernobyl zone (Science and Technology. J. S. (2006). (2000). Radiological effects on populations of Oligochaeta in the Chernobyl contaminated zone. Sokolov.. p. G. I. Chernobyl spots on map of France. M. Tchykin. & Ryabokon’. Oslo) (cited by RADNET. E. Acad. G. & Malenchenko. Env. P. M. Belova. Micronuclei frequency in erythrocytes and disturbance in differentiation process in brown-frog under chronic radiation exposure.. Change in Ecology and Biodiversity after a Nuclear Disaster in the Southern Urals (Pensoft. Ogurtsova. Chernobyl 20 Years After: Social Economical Problems and Perspectives of Development of Affected Territories (Materials. 131–133 (in Russian). Ichtyol. Rantavaara. Purdue. Genet. Chem. 31(8): 358–363. S. (2002). 2006. Pykulik. V. All-Russian Scientific Conference. Savin. Voitovich. D. R. I. Sci. Polykarpov. Characteristics of spleen and lymph nodes in cattle kept in areas contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. Yelyseeva. Smolich. (1996). M. G. M. Viktorov. Sutshenya. (2003). & Krysanov. Trusova. I. T. B.. 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Kiev): pp. 30(4): 20–24 (in Russian). I. V. E. 2006.). In: Zakharov. April 24–26. V. M. S. Belyaev. M.. Chromosome aberrations in some tissues of murine rodents and amphibians from Belarussian radionuclide contaminated territories. 37– 44. (1996a). O. A. Sci. (Eds.) (1996). E. 62–72 (in Russian). Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. 245–246 (in Russian). & Krysanov.. V.). Zakharov. A. The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. V. M. A. . Genet. Zarubin. Moscow): 160 pp. (1996b). L. (1996).. & Krysanov. Moscow): pp. V. Conse- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences quences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. V. Cytol. Borysov. E.. Kiev. (1992). V. I. V. V. & Valetsky. Moscow): pp. Borysov. E. Total Environ. V. In: Zakharov. A. Zakharov. Volkova. Baranov. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook. Fish: Developmental stability.G. Dynamics of radionuclide incorporation in fishes from large bodies of water in Kiev Province (1986–2005). Borysov.280 E. 39–46 (in Russian). V. Yu. Ukraine (Abstracts. International Conference. M. (Eds. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. Yu. V. & Zalissky. (Eds. 112: pp. A. Zakharov. V. (in Russian). & Krysanov. M. (2006). & Valetsky.. Yu. Zainullin. N. S. A. Mammals: Developmental stability..

Leninsky Prospect 33. There is evidence of increased susceptibility to Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus in children whose immune systems were suppressed in the contaminated territories of Novozybkov District. Soon after the catastrophe studies observed activation of retroviruses (Kavsan et al. Russia. 3. The prevalence and severity of Gruby’s disease (ringworm). herpes. 1996). From 1993 to 1997 the hepatitis viruses B... 1996). Compared to humans and other mammals. Several incidences of increased morbidity owing to certain infectious diseases may be due to increased virulence of microbial populations as a result of Chernobyl irradiation. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. 7. Tuberculosis became more virulent in the more contaminated areas of Belarus (Chernetsky and Osynovsky.. and microfungi. 1996). 1992). was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated areas of Bryansk Province (Rudnitsky et al. 2. Herpes viruses were activated in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus 6 to 7 years after the catastrophe (Matveev. 1996). C. microfungi. Belarus (Matveev..b). The number of saprophytic bacteria in Belarussian sod-podzolic soils is at maximum in areas with radioactivity levels of 15 Ci/km2 or less and minimal in areas 281 . Yablokov@ecopolicy. 1993. caused by the fungus microsporia Microsporum sp. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19.000 microorganisms (bacteria. Yablokov Of the few microorganisms that have been studied.CHERNOBYL 11. Organisms such as tuberculosis bacilli. 1993. 1993). 2003). Office 319. Activation of cytomegalovirus was found in the heavily contaminated districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces. Yablokov.. Up to 3 kg of the mass of an adult human body is made up of bacteria. 1996). hepatitis. and soil micromycetes and bacteria were activated in various ways. In some heavily contaminated areas of Belarus and Russia there was a markedly higher level of cryptosporidium infestation (Lavdovskaya et al. 10. Prevalence of Pneumocystis was noticeably higher in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province (Lavdovskaya et al. 5. and G became noticeably activated in the heavily contaminated areas of Belarus (Zhavoronok et al. cytomegalovirus. 1998a. and protozoa). The ultimate long-term consequences for the Chernobyl microbiologic biota may be worse than what we know today. D. 9. In spite of the fact that these represent such important and fundamentally live ecosystems there are only scarce data on the various microbiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota Alexey V. 119071 Moscow. Borschevsky et al. Belookaya. 1995.500.000. 1993.. Voropaev et al.. Russian Academy of Sciences.. 6. and tobacco mosaic viruses.. Matveev et al.. the profound changes that take place among these small live organisms with rapid reproductive turnover do not bode well for the health and survival of other species. 8.ru 4. Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Bryansk Province (Lysenko et al. One gram of soil contains some 2. all underwent rapid changes in the areas heavily contaminated by Chernobyl. 1. viruses.

The accumulation factor of Cs-137 in Stemphylium (family Dematiaceae) is 348 and in Verticillium (family Muctdinaceae) 28 (Zymenko et al. This suggests that the rabies virus has either disappeared or become inactivate.2 17. 14. Gomel. Sumy. Bryansk Province (Pel’gunov. Mucorhiemalis. Sutchenya et al.. Only slowly growing Cladosporium cladosporioides has aggregated growth both in contaminated and TABLE 11. Ukraine. (256. 12. (60–288). There are fewer than normal. and cellulose-fermenting bacteria. whereas the same species from soil with low radionuclide contamination show normal growth..2 180–220 μR/h 76. Since the catastrophe. Six years after the catastrophe a population of Eimeria cernae from Clethrionomys glareolus living in heavily contaminated soil (up to 7. 15. 1996) Level of contamination 20 μR/h Normal Anomalous Nonsporulated 94. 21.480 kBq/m2 and higher) in Bryansk. Oryol.. sulfate-reducing. 1998). 19.. 2003).6 6.1. 1998). coli has been noted in the intestines of evacuee children living in Ukraine (Luk’yanova et al. Zymenko et al. more anomalous. practically no cases of rabies in wild animals have been reported since the catastrophe (Adamovich..1). Mogilev.. Characteristics of Oocysts of Coccidia (Eimeria cerna) in Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus ) from Two Differently Contaminated Sites. a sharp increase in E. Smolensk. All the strains of microfungi species that were studied (Alternaria alternata.. with up to 40 Ci/km2 (Zymenko et al. Enterobacter sp. in particular. and heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria) was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude as compared to control areas (Romanovskaya et al. Cs137.5 0 5. 1995). Kaluga. lightly contaminated soils (Ivanova et al. (accumulation factor 587). 1995). the prevalence of black microfungi has dramatically increased in contaminated soil surrounding Chernobyl (Zhdanova et al. 13.. 1995). 2006).282 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11. 1994). 1995). 2007. Kovalchuk et al. In all soil samples from the 10-km Chernobyl zone the abundance of soil bacteria (nitrifying. Infection of tobacco plants with tobacco mosaic virus and oilseed rape mosaic virus was shown to induce a threefold increase in homologous DNA recombination in noninfected tissues (Boyko et al. There is a wide range of radionuclide bioaccumulations in soil micromycetes. nitrogenfixing. and Kursk provinces.. Sharp reduction in the abundance of bifidus bacteria and the prevalence of microbes of the class Escherichia. 1991. 20. Sr-90. Among soil bacteria that most actively accumulate Cs-137 are Agrobacterium sp. and no sporulated oocysts of coccidia Eimeria cerna in voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Bryansk Province (Table 11. In a long-term study (1954 to 1994— before and after the catastrophe) in Belarus. and their virulence is most likely correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the areas. and Pu-106) in Kiev Province . and Russia it was revealed that in areas with a high level of radioactive contamination (740–1. Chernygov. 18.. In contaminated areas several new variants of tobacco mosaic virus appeared that affect plants other than Solanaceous species. 16. and Klebsiella sp. and Paecilomyces lilacinus) from the heavily contaminated Chernobyl areas have aggregated growth of threadlike hyphae.3 kBq/kg of Cs-134. Rodents in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus have been extensively invaded by coccids (obligate intracellular protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa.3 12. 1995).

35(5): 1714–1725. Lozovaya. Epstein–Barr virus. A. S. Epidemiological abnormalities of tuberculosis in a region with a low level of radioactive contamination. Ecolog 3: 237– 240 (in Russian). (2003).pdf.. (2007). lungs. & Kovalchuk. fungi. A. M. V. et al... . Kovalchuk. & Osynovsky. 22.spb.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota 283 had anomalous oocysts (Soshkin and Pel’gunov. M. Chernobyl Catastrophe: Diagnostics. Kalck. and protozoa) and microbiological communities as a whole undergo rapid changes after any additional irradiation. organs. A.. and various pathologies of pregnancy. V.. & Antonenko. Belookaya.. chronic intestinal diseases. Phenotypical characteristics of microfungi from the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP. blood.) (in Russian). 3–10 (in Russian). J. endocolitis. Minsk): pp. I. & Bogomazova. I. Chernobyl Catastrophe: Diagnostics and Medical and Psychological Rehabilitation of Sufferers (Materials. Pogribny. 1992). Scientific and Practical Conference. Lysenko... see Sreelekha et al. K. 100–104 (in Russian). Radiologically induced pathologic changes in the microflora in humans can increase susceptibility to infections. The mechanism of such changes is well known: inclusion and increase in the frequency of mutations by natural selection and preservation of beneficial novel genes that for whatever reason appear more viable under the new conditions. Y. International Conference. I. V. and cells of human beings. Yao. (2006). but also many other illnesses are connected with viruses and bacteria. and ischemia).. November 18– 22. AIDs. dermatitis. There was a significant decline in the Shannon diversity index of infusoria species and a concomitant increase in their abundance in the Pripyat River mouth from 1986 to 1988 (Nebrat. Med.. Kalechits. N. The “host-opportunistic protozoa” system: Effect of ionizing radiation on incidence of cryptosporidiosis and pneumocystosis. This microevolutionary mechanism has been activated in all radioactively contaminated areas and leads to activation of old and the occurrence of new forms of viruses and bacteria. (1992). G. protozoa. Aslanydi.. pyelonephritis. hepatitis virus. Helicobacter pylori. A. The long-term consequences for microbial biota may be worse than what we understand today. Minsk): pp. The strong association between carcinogenesis and viruses (papilloma virus. 1994). Basova. Cancer and Human Retroviruses. 2003). Ivanova. F. 7: 10–11 (//www.. (1996). F. & Rybalkina. Kovalchuk. D. Nucl. T. Dynamics of Belarussian children’s health status under modern ecological conditions. Zemp. Acids Res.. Our contemporary knowledge is too limited to understand even the main consequences of the inevitable radioactive-induced genetic changes among the myriad of viruses. V. Med. Petersburg (//www. asthma. F. Kathyria.. Boyko. 1992. B. V. vaginitis. N. A. and fungi that inhabit the intestines. A. Karpenko. E. V. P. Not only cancer. Aspects Chernobyl Accident (Slavutich) 1: pp. J. Adv. bacteria. T. Belozerskaya. Kaposi’s sarcoma. Hydrophobia in animals on radioactively contaminated territories. (1993)..mycology.. & Zhdanova. Biol. Medical and Psychological Rehabilitation of Sufferers (Materials. All microorganisms (viruses. Lavdovskaya. Course of tuberculosis morbidity after the Chernobyl catastrophe in Belarus. Transgenerational changes in genome stability and methylation in pathogeninfected plants (virus-induced plant genome instability). L. References Adamovich. Baleva. Kavsan. V. inflammatory diseases of bacterial and viral origin (influenza. V. O. Parasitology 30(2): 153–157 (in Russian). L. Mycol. M. Boyko. N.ru/nam/pdf/vol7. cystitis. (1998). T.. Activation of human retroviruses after the Chernobyl accident. Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. 33–37 (in Russian). All but a few microorganisms that have been studied in Chernobylaffected territories underwent rapid changes in heavily contaminated areas. Borschevsky. Scientific and Practical Conference. Yu. (1996). bacteria. A.. V. D. St. S. N. E. Filkowski.. and herpes virus) provides another reason why the cancer rate increased in areas contaminated by Chernobyl irradiation (for a review. Ya. (1993). O. V. Frolov. V. Chernetsky. V.pdf) (in Russian). Nature 423: 760–762.biomed.ru/ conf_program/1992rus.

V.. N. N. V.. Yu. & Kyseleva. (2003). Analyses of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in a population in Belarus. S. Ten Years after Chernobyl Catastrophe: Scientific Aspect of Problems (Abstracts. N.. Microbiologic complex in radioactively contaminated sod-potboil soils. N. (1991). V. T. E. S. Chernobyl Catastrophe: History. Moscow): pp. Bot. (1998b). 97–100 (in Russian). A.kiev. (1995)... A.. Sect 3. Medical and Biological Consequences (//www. Kalynin. M. M. O. & Pel’gunov. Third Congress of the Belarussian Scientific Society of Immunology and Allergy.. N.) (1995). V. The host-opportunistic protozoa system.). E. V. K. Yu. Parasitological study of rodents. N.. Okeanov. L. A. (1994). In: Collected Transactions (Vitebsk Medical Institute. V. Baleva.284 Luk’yanova. A. (Ed. Radiat. suffering from the Chernobyl accident. (Eds.htm) (in Russian). Matveev. & Chernaya. Greenbaum. I. A. & Kolomiets. N. M. Chennai): pp. Activation of VPGinfections after the Chernobyl accident.. E. L. (1995). Bency. A. G. ca/bunchmj/ICEH/proceedings/Sreelekha_TT_ ICEH_papers_502to511.. Abnormalities in soil mycobiologic composition around Chernobyl NPP.) 4: 69–72 (in Belarussian). I. Minsk): pp. Lozovaya. Zhavoronok. N. M. L. Herald Nat. Denysova. (1993).stopatom.” Minsk): 263 pp. (in Russian). C. Hydrobiol. Fyliptsevich.. N. 136–143 (in Russian). V. Microbiol.. E. A.. Thankappan. I. Microbiology 67(2): 274–280 (in Russian).. Sokolov. Pel’gunov. K. (1998a). L. L. 30(3): 223–228 (in Russian).. A. 2003. Pikulik. N. Med. Jansy. Complexes of soil micromycetes in the area influenced by the Chernobyl NPP. Voropaev. (Biol. B. J.. Parasitol.. M.. 53: 3–9 (in Russian). Belar. Kalynin. Three-years of morphological monitoring of Eimeria cernae (Eucoc- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences cidiida. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. L. T.).pdf).. Babarykyna. Sreelekha. Greenbaum. and G markers in those suffering from the Chernobyl catastrophe. V. Activity of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women as an index of herd immunity in the radionuclide contaminated regions resulting from the Chernobyl accident. & Plenin. & Lapshin. E. V. V. Chernetsova. Basova.. T. S. & Mokhova..19. Role of the herpes virus infections in infant mortality of Gomel province areas with different densities of radionuclide contamination. (Eds. A. O.. Ukr. S. Zhdanova.. Social. Zhavoronok. Artyshkova. L. Eimeriidae) from red voles Clethrionomys glareolus (Rodentia. Soshkin. Geochemical. V. T. Gavrylyuk. S. & Rybalkyna.. N. G. G. S.. A. Lysenko. V. V. & Ospovat. and the incidence of mixed infections (Pneumocystis and cytomegalovirus) in children living in radionuclide contaminated areas. A. Nebrat. V. Health 8: 46–48 (in Russian).. Probl. A. (1996). 51: 134–143 (in Russian). A. P. Nakonechnaya. December 15–17. N. N. E. 65–66 (in Russian). Publ. Acad. 73(7–8): 5–7 (in Russian). Rokitko. Sutchenya.. Z. Ecological consequences of radioactive contamination for soil bacteria in the 10km Chernobyl zone. & Naralenkov.. G. V. A. F. (1992). & Sadovnikov.. Romanovskaya. (1994). Actual Problems of Immunology and Allergy (Abstracts. J.. Economical. J. Incidence of human microsporia in radionuclide contaminated areas. Chennai. Zakharenko. M. Grodno): pp. Hepatoviruses B. 5(2): 68–69 (in Russian).. A. V. V. Zool. Zhavoronok. A. F. 90–91 (in Russian). In: Zakharov.. Sci. et al. Vitebsk): pp. Voropaev.. V. M. & Artyshkova. Safety 43(5): 18–24 (in Russian). Lavdovskaya. J. E. T. D.. A. A. I. A. Hareendran. E. V. & Krysanov. D. (1995). Third International Conference on Environment and Health. Vasylevskaya. N. Plankton infusorias from downstream in the Pripyat River. In: Bar’yakhtar. et al. 502–511 (//www. (1996). (1998). T. India (Proceedings. Matveev. A. A. Matveev. Effect of radionuclides environmental contamination on the population health: Clinical and experimental study.ua/23-19.slavutich. (1996). V. M. J. A. Med. F. B. Rudnitsky. A. Environmental contamination impact on carcinogenesis. Children’s digestive systems. D. Mycol. Lashko. V. Zymenko. Chernovetsky. Scientific Conference. L. N. Zhdanova.yorku. Shkol’nyi. Animals in the Chernobyl Zone (“Nauka Tekhn. 28(6): 27–31 (in Russian). Radiol. Cricetidae) in a low level radioactive contaminated territory. O. Sobolev. A. Vasylevskaya. (2003). .. M.

and other ecological processes such as migration and accumulation of radionuclides throughout the ecosystems. physiologic. 1996). and genetic disorders in all living organisms: plants. chemical. Morphologic. As soon as industrial. and mammalian populations reveal deterioration in all the organisms that were studied in detail (For review see Grodzinsky. as compared to the genomes of animals that were exposed in the first few generations (Goncharova. The active migration of Sr-90. and evolutionary theory predicts that this will result because of special adaptation accompanied by elimination of sensitive genotypes and pauperization of the gene pool. elk. agricultural. show that the Chernobyl catastrophe has had and will continue to have multiple impacts upon flora and fauna. geologic. invertebrates. Large mammals—wolves. and immunological studies of plant. but the prosperity of this wildlife is deceptive.CHERNOBYL Conclusion to Chapter III The 1986 radioactive fallout from Chernobyl impacted fauna and flora over the entire Northern Hemisphere. Without exception. game animals and livestock in some Chernobyl-contaminated areas far from Ukraine continue to have dangerous levels of absorbed radionuclides. Affected populations exhibited a wide variety of morphological deformities that were extremely rare or not known before the catastrophe. 2000. Some plants and animals in the Chernobyl zone 285 . and microorganisms in the Chernobyl-contaminated territories are much higher than elsewhere. wild boars.. Twenty-plus years later. deer. including introduction into multiple food chains. 2006). manifested by abnormal cellular and systemic effects. Chronic low-dose exposure to Chernobyl irradiation has resulted in transgenerational accumulation of genomic instability. wildlife began to be restored and even appeared to flourish. Pu. fish. 2006 and Zakharov and Krysanov. birds. Chernobyl’s overall radioactive effect on water. in the contaminated territories there are also active processes of natural selection for the survival of less radiosensitive individuals—the processes of a radioadaptation. Radioadaptation in a population under conditions of chronic contamination will lead to diminish radiosensitivity over many generations. however varied. including eagles—are living in the Chernobyl zone of contamination. Conversely. amphibians. atmosphere. adverse effects were evident in all the plants and animals that were studied. animals. and soil is dynamic from both the radionuclide decay transformations as well as from biologic. the Arctic. and other anthropogenic pressures on wildlife in the heav- ily contaminated areas eased. 2007). and other isotopes results in bioaccumulation that will present unforeseen surprises for decades to centuries to come. cytogenic. Cs-137. and the levels were often hundreds of times higher than previous background levels that were considered “normal. Am. The data presented in Chapter III. These transgenerational long-term effects are detrimental because the genomes of animals in more distant generations are more sensitive to very low radiation doses. amphibian. mammals. and east Asia. Pelevyna et al. as well as viruses.” This huge outpouring of highlevel radioactivity together with the ensuing low-level chronic irradiation resulted in morphologic. and birds. and bacteria. fish. Mutation loads and mutation rates in plants. North America. Elevated radiation levels were documented in plants and animals (including microorganisms) in Western Europe. Studies of birds indicate that some species may be found in the contaminated regions only because of migration from uncontaminated areas (Møller and Moussaeu.

C. M. biological research should not be curtailed and stopped (as is happening in Belarus.ru/upload/File/conferencebook _2006. actively transforming the gene pool with unpredictable consequences. (2006). on the one hand. V. We. 1996). V. Reflection of the Chernobyl catastrophe on the plant world: Special and general biological aspects. A. (1996). (2006). Lett. Genetic effects in natural populations of animals from the Belarussian radiocontaminated areas: Biological effects of low doses.. More than 70% of all experimental rats raised under conditions of Chernobyl contamination developed cancer within the next few years and suffered multiple other diseases and impaired immunological competence. pp. (Eds. primitive