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Published by: Arul Sakthi on May 11, 2011
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India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) After denying permission to the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) to locate the

India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) at Singara in Nilgiris district in Tamil Nadu , the Union Ministry of Envi ronment and Forests (MoEF) accorded both environmental and forest clearance for locating the project in the Bodi Wes t Hills (BWH) in Theni district, also in Tamil Nadu. *?The INO will be a major underground experimental facility to study the elusive and nearly mass-less fundamental particles of nature called neutrinos. *?The proposed massive neutrino detector will be built in a cavern set in massiv e charnockite rock (group of igneous rocks found in South India with those in Tamil Nadu known to be the hard est). The cavern will be excavated by drilling a tunnel of 1.9-2 km in length under the peak designated a s 1589 so that there is vertical overburden of about 1,300 m. For a good neutrino detection facility, a vertical cover of at least 1,000 m is required so that the observed neutrino events are not contaminated by unwanted p articles that will be absorbed by the overburden. *?The INO includes nearly 90 scientists from 25 institutions, with the TIFR as t he nodal institution. Background: A neutrino is an elementary particle, that usually travels close to the speed of light, is electrically neutral, and is able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed. This makes neutrinos extremely difficult to detect. Neutrinos have a very small, but nonzero rest mass. Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference : neutrinos do not carry electric charge. Because neutrinos are electrically neutral, they are not affected by the electro magnetic forces which act on electrons. Neutrinos are affected only by a "weak" sub-atomic force of much shorter range t han electromagnetism, and are therefore able to pass through great distances in matter without being affected by it. As neutrinos have mass, they also interact gravitationally with other massive particles. Gravity, however, is by f ar the weakest of the four known forces. CIRUS / DHRUVA On December 18, the scientists and engineers in the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) celebrated the Golden Jubilee of research reactor CIRUS and the Silver jubilee of DHRUVA. Background: Research Reactors *?The research reactor programme of DAE provided research and development support to the nuclear power programme, produces radioisotopes for use in health care,agriculture, industry a nd research, and provides manpower training. *?The research reactors set up by DAE so far, have been Apsara (1mW, Fuel:Enrich ed Uranium-Aluminium alloy), CIRUS (40MW, Fuel: Natural uranium), Zerlina(zero energy, Natural Uranium), Purn ima I-III (Fuel: Plutonium/Uranium-233),Dhruva (100 MW, Fuel: Natural Uranium) at Trombay (Mahara shtra), and Kamini(30kW, Fuel : Uranium-233-A1 alloy) and Fast Breeder Test Reactor (40MW, Fuel :UraniumPlutonium carbide) at Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu). Of the research reactors,Zerlina was decommissioned in 1

Fuel cells are different from conventional electrochemical cell batteries in tha t they consume reactant from an external source. Kazakhstan (13. Fuel cells can operate continuously as long as the necessary reactant and oxidant flows are maintained. The Bloom Energy Server (commonly referred to as the Bloom Box) is a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) made by Bloom Energy. is used widely across the country to artif icially ripen fruit. calcium carbide. is used freely in the country. of Sunnyvale. risking the health of consumers. *?The Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act. and Purnima series made way for Kamini.9%). including the use of CaC2. *?Top Producers *?Russia (40. while the electrolyte remains wi thin it. It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant.984. triggered in the presence of an electrolyte. *?Monikers: Killer Dust/ the silent time-bomb *?Chrysolite: chemical name of while asbestos. Background: . GM mosquitoes Malaysia's Health Minister said the country would carry out a landmark field tri al by releasing genetically modified mosquitoes designed to combat dengue fever by the end of the year. which must be replenished a thermodynamically open system. *?Although banned. electric al and chemical damage. Canada (10. calcium carbide (CaC2) *?A deadly chemical.9%) *?Top exporters *?Russia>Kazakhstan>Brazil>Canada *?Top Consumers *?India>China>Russia *?In news: Kolkata-headquartered Balmukund Cement & Roofing Ltd. E IA report has inconsistencies. both ban artificial ripening.0%). China (19. California *?Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals *?Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the l ate 19th century because of its sound absorption. known commonly as masala. 1954.2%). and the reaction products flow out of it. LWR The light water reactor or LWR is a type of thermal reactor that uses normal wat er as its coolant and neutron moderator Fuel cell A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an elect ric current. and Brazil (9. the chemical. *?Due to carcinogenic effects it is banned in many countries including the UK. and its resistance to heat.3%). Marwan block in Bihar. 1955. average tensile strength. Background: BHEL developed a 3 kW (3 x 1 kW) automated Proton Exchange Membrane fuel Cell Po wer Pack and demonstrated the same for the Stationary Applications. The reactants flow into the cell. and the Prevention of Foo d Adulteration Rules. (BCRL) proposed to set up an asbestos cement roofing sheet factory in the Bishnupur-Chainpur. U S and Australia.

CRH380/world's fastest train China's home-built CRH380 bullet train has been recorded travelling at 420 km pe r hour. The idea of using genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes to help wipe out malaria has been around for a while. s hafts and passages.4 mi) and a total of 151. World's longest Railway tunnel The Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT).? *?The world record for conventional high-speed rail is held by the V150. travel between the two cities at less than full tilt. *?Cheaper than normal metro. Background: *?India has the world's fourth largest railway network after that of the United States.due to open in late 2017. Russia and China. Theoretically. with the first oper ations commencing in October. surpassing the undersea Seikan Tunnel in Japan. The next time she feeds on an animal. and you were to release tens of thousands of those better mosquitoes into the wild." stronger mosquito that happens to be unable to spread malaria parasites. a world record.3 mi) of tunnels. appears to stop the development of the malaria parasite while it's living in the mosquit o. First trial with human embryonic stem cells began in USA recently as the Obama administration has lifte d the ban on embryonic stem cell research. however. she transfers the pa rasite to that animal's blood stream. a speci ally configured version of Alstom's TGV which clocked 574. it wouldn't come back because the mosquitoes couldn't carry it back. she needs extra protein. ? *?World's only commercial Maglev Line in Shanghai reaches speeds of 431 km/h.84 km (94. it is the world's longest rail tunnel. SM1 peptide. 1984 (foundation stone-29 Dec 1972) Skybus Metro *?is a rapid transit system indigenously developed by the Konkan Railway in Indi a. which she gets by sucking blood from vertebrate animals like birds. reptiles or mammals. scientists turned on a gene in the mosquito's gut that controls SM1 peptide.When a female Anopheles mosquito is laying eggs. to treat spinal cord injury. *?Konkan Railway trying to find partners. If the animal she feeds on i s carrying a malaria parasite. With a route length of 57 km (35. once malaria were eradicated from a particular area. It will. But there has always been a glitch. India to get world's first AC double-decker train The world's first air-conditioned double-decker train was launched on the Howrah -Dhanbad sector. is a railway tunnel ben eath the Alps in Switzerland. a type of protein. The world speed record for Maglev is . if you could create a "better. rendering it harmless GRNOPC1 a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapy by Geron corp. they would eventually win the survival game and replace the mosquitoes that are able to spr ead malaria.? *?China has world's largest high-speed rail network and overall third. at an average speed of 350 km per hour. In this theoretical solution. 17th independent zonal railway *?Kolkata Metro given Zone Status *?The Kolkata Metro or Calcutta Metro is the Underground Mass Rapid Transit Urba n Railway network in Kolkata *?It was the first underground railway to be built in India.8 km/h on a test run. the mosquito picks it up.

It is aiming to develop and deliver world class urban infrastructure to the citizens o f Delhi. Kannabiran has been known for his concern towa rds poor and down trodden sections of the society. East Marr edpalli. Kannabiran s popular book is The wages of impunity: po wer. Andhra Pradesh. Recently. his memory. Human Righ ts activists of our generation always drew strength from him. K. DIMTS Delhi Integrated Multi Modal Transit System Ltd. PUCL. Shabnam Hashmi said. He was also the President of (APCLC). He is also President of People s Union for Civil Libe rties. reads a PUCL press statement signed by its national secretaries Mahipal Sigh and Kavi ta Srivastva. National President. He married to Vasanth Kannabiran. humid. He is an activist lawyer and has been associated with civil liberties institutions for more than three decade s. Address: K G Kannabiran. Deepa Dhanraj h as directed a 130 minute film The Advocate on Kannabiran s contribution in various w alks of life. He started his pr actice in Hyderabad in 1961. He obtained his Masters Degre e in Economics and later Degree in Law from Madras University. Kannabiran. World's first methanol factory using carbon dioxide The world's first methanol factory using carbon dioxide extracted from steam is expected to be completed next March in Iceland. and human rights . Kannabiran.G. Tamil Nadu. Balagopal who also passed away last year. This loss is particularly shocking as it has come within a fort night of the passing away of Surendra Mohan. justice. India s largest private port Mundra Port and SEZ owned by Adani Group Miscellaneous XM-25 The U.500026. according to a report from Stockholm on December 8. (DIMTS) is a Joint Venture Comp any set up with equal equity of the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and Infrastructure Dev elopment Finance Company (IDFC). senior advocate and noted civil liberties lawyer activist has p assed away on 30th December 2010. Street 6. K. primarily in the area of urban transport. Phone: 040-27730632. his dedication. India. New Delhi.69 days after the men were trapped in a dark. Hyderabad.S. another stalwart in the field. who is a women activist and founder of Decc an Development Society. Phoenix capsule Named after the mythic bird that rose from its ashes. Plot 300. Renowned social activist. was instrumental in mediating between the Naxalites and the Sta te in Andhra Pradesh along with K. He had filed more than 400 public interest li . which is involved in research on women s issues. a Bangalore based documentary maker. uses a laser guidance system and specially developed microchipped ammunition which can be programmed t o detonate over a target. In his death India lost one of the stalwarts of the human rights movement and it has created a huge void . designed through a joint collaboration by NASA engineers and the Chilean navy to ferry 33 miners to the s urface -. Secunderabad. The XM-25. In Kannabiran s death the civil liberties movement in the country has suffered an i rreparable loss. Kalpana is a founder member of Asmita Resource Center for Women. His daughter Kalpana Kannabiran is also a famous womens activist a nd academician. described as a game changer . KG Kannabiran born in 1929 in Madurai. a custom-built rescue caps ule. K. even when the target is hidden behind walls or in ditches.G. army is deploying a new rifle in Afghanistan. copper-gold mine in Chile's northern Atacama Desert.held by the Japanese experimental MLX01: 581 km/h (361 mph). she added while sal uting his spirit. his determination and fearlessness .G.

he helped set up the Central Cottage Industries Emporium and Super Ba . Jain later helped€Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay€organize the Indian Cooperative Union and applied its principles to the handicrafts industry. Jain took part in the Quit India movement (1942). 2010 wi th€gastrointestinal bleeding€and€bilateral pneumonia. as Indian€High commissioner€to€South Africa.[1] Joshi was admitted to Sahyadri Super Speciality Hospital on December 31. He regularly wrote articles for various magazines and daily newsp apers apart from PUCL Bulletin. his condition deteriorated thereafter. (February 4. he was put on ventilator support. Later. He was author of many books. technical services.[10]€He was cremated at Vaikunth Crematorium in Pune with full state honors. he served at various time s as a member of the€Planning Commission.tigation (PIL) cases single-handedly. He was also one of the jury members of Ind ependent Peoples Tribunal on the Atrocities Committed against Minorities in the N ame Of Fighting Terrorism . he was chosen posthumously for the second highest civilian award€Padma Vi bhushan€by€Government of India. applying unique organizational skills to w ed theory to practice. he joined the rehabilitation project for refugees fro m Pakistan located in Faridabad. but the family declined to accept the award since he had been against the concept of state honours[ While yet in his youth. Jain worked with and on a number of development agencies as well as government c ommittees and boards. In 1968 he co-founded a service-oriented consulting firm. he is renowned f or the€khayal€form of singing. Justice and Human Rights published by Orient Longman in 2004. as well as for his popular renditions of devotional m usic (bhajans€and€abhangs). He pa ssed away on 24 January 2011 at 08:00 am (IST). During the€partition of India€(1947). He was the most recent recipient of the€Bharat Ratna. awarded in 2008. Jain and his like-minded colleagues helped government.€Marathi:€????? ?????? ? ?????? ????). 1922 . By seeking the advice of farmers and workers. is know n to be his best and most read book Pandit€Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi€(Kannada:€?????? ?????? ??????? ????. In his youth. Though he recovered briefly for three days wh en he was taken off the ventilator. 11 days before his 89th birthday . He helped introduce cooperative societies for farming and cotta ge industries into rehabilitation camps. As secretary of the All-Ind ia Handicrafts Board. clothing.[11] Lakshmi Chand Jain€(1925 2010) was a€Gandhian€activist[1]€and writer. 2011) was an€Indianvocalist in the€Hin dustani classical€tradition. a s a member of the€World Commission on Dams€(WCD) and as secretary of the Indian Coop erative Union and the All-India Handicrafts Board. He championed artisans against mechanization and mass production. and too ls at a fair price. Kannabiran was prominent for his most scholarly write-ups on civil liberties and human rights. In 2011. and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) design mod ernization projects that were relevant and effective. In 1966 he led the establishment of a chain of consumer c ooperative stores where those living in cities could buy food. He suffered convulsions and was put on dialysi s too during his stay in hospital. and metalsmiths. Jain became an expert on development.€India' s€highest civilian honour. He applied modern marketing techniques to pr omote handicrafts sales abroad and organized the Central Cottage Industries Empo rium to expand the market at home. carpenters.(Hyderabad. He was awarded the 1989€Ramon M agsaysay Award€for Public Service. THE WAGES OF IMPUNI TY: Power. and loans to India's struggling self-employed spinners. such as the United Nations' World Dam Commission€[3]€As part o f the ICU.January 24. A member of the€Kirana Gharana€(school). he was put in charge of the refugee camp at€Kingsway C ampin€North Delhi. he fostered decentralized production and directed training . 22-24 August 2008). industry. 20€km from Delhi. As a volunteer organiser with the India n Cooperative Union (ICU). we avers. helping millions of independent craftsmen carry on traditio nal livelihoods in security and pride and assured the survival of precious arts and skills. he par ticipated briefly in the€Indian freedom movement. Due to difficulty in breathing.

and the second was for "Amarshilpi Jakkanna". Preeta D. during which he played the roles of c inematographer. musician and reformer who successfully used the power of Hindustani classical music to bring about economi c empowerment and social transformation. director. Vikram Productions. the self-trained Ranga sent some of his work to be exhibited at the€Royal Salon€in€London. Homi Nusserwanji Sethna *?He was a nuclear scientist and a chemical engineer. was conferred a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF). one of the last of the mighty men who fought all odds to protect the tiger.[6] [edit] Bindinganavale Srinivas Iyengar Ranga€(11th November 1917 .12th December 2010€[1]) was born in€Magadi Village€(near€Bangalore. including two President's Awards. At the age of 17.Ranga then embarked on a f ilm career lasting more than five decades. sometimes all at once for one of his productions. producer. Subsequently.S. and won B. Rama Rao€and€Akkineni Nageswara Rao) .S. studio owner. the first colour movie produced in Kannada.T. After an art-enriched childhood wherein he interac ted with many stage personalities. His productio n company.Ranga many awards. *?He was the primary and central figure in India's civilian nuclear program as w ell as the construction of nuclear power plants. B.Ranga entered the field ofphotography.zaar cooperative stores. Mitali Madhumita *?first woman officer to be awarded the Sena medal(gallantry) for her brave acti on overseas. he moved to€Bombay€(now€Mumbai) and apprenticed himself to the famous ca meraman / laboratory technician. *?all three padma awardees Priti Kumari *?Become the first woman to drive a train for Western Railway in its 143 years h istory. Jain received the€Ramon Magsaysay Award€for Public Service. *?From Army Education Corp (AEC) *?Major Madhumita's job was to teach at facilities in Kabul. who remained the head of A tomic Energy Commission of India during India's first nuclear test in Pokhran in 1974(Smiling Buddha). B. and was elected an Honorary Fellow of theRoyal Photographic Society. especially among the visually impaired and the destitute. Bansal to serve as the Vice Chair . Fateh Singh Rathore( Tiger Man') *?Fateh Singh Rathore. but she rushed to t he spot and saved the lives of those buried under the debris. Pandit Puttaraja Kavi Gavai *?Padma awardee Pandit Puttaraja Kavi Gavai of the Gwalior Gharana. In 1989. laboratory owner. is no more. gained fame and fortune throughout the 60's and 7 0's.[4][5] Jain's wife is the economist€Devaki Jain. the couple have two sons and now settled in Bangalore.€India) in the erstwhile princely state of€Myso re€(now part of€Karnataka State).S. Bansal *?Obama administration has appointed Preeta D. exhibitor an d script-writer. [[Krishna Gopal. for "his informed and selfless commitment to attack India's poverty at the grass -roots level". The first was for "Tenali Ramakrishna" in€Telugu€(starring€N.

Paul Kagame *?Sworn in as president of Rwanda for a second term. First Chief Technology Officer. 2. Vivek Kundra. Federal Chief Information Officer. Aneesh Chopra. Special Representative to Muslim communities. 5. Richard Verma. Farah Pandith.(Government Official) of the Council of the Administrative Conference of the U. Rwanda has been called Africa s biggest success story and Ka game has become a public advocate of new models for foreign aid designed to help recipients become self-reliant. 7. later Resigned). 6. USAID. Administrator. Background: *?He rose to prominence as the leader of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Rajiv Shah. Attorney for Southern District of New York. *?However involvement in the Congo Civil War has seen doubts raised over his Gov ernment's policies . 4. *?Under his leadership.S. U. Preet Bharara. (ACUS). 3. actor Kal Penn (Associate Director in the White House Office of Public Engage ment. Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs at the State Depar tment. Background: Indian-American Obama appointees 1. whos e victory over the incumbent government in July 1994 effectively ended the Rwandan genocide.S.

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