Kannada script - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada_script

Kannada script
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Kannada script (Kannada: Ç ) is an alphasyllabary (sometimes called an abugida) of the Brahmic family,[1] used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the southern language in India and also Sanskrit in the past. The Telugu script is derived from Telugu-Kannada script, and resembles Kannada script .The Kannada script displays the typical rounded edges and curves, and not either straight or wedge shapes as other scripts.This script is also used to write Konkani by the Konkani diaspora in coastal Karnataka. [2] Similarly,Goykanadi, a variant of Halekannada and Kadamba lipi has been historically used to write Konkani in the state of Goa.[3]

Kannada

Type Spoken languages

Abugida Kannada, Konkani

Time period c. 230BCE–present Parent systems Proto-Sinaitic alphabet Phoenician alphabet Aramaic alphabet Brāhmī Kadamba Kannada Telugu

Sister systems Unicode range

U+0C80–U+0CFF (http://www.unicode.org/charts /PDF/U0C80.pdf)
Knda

Halmidi Inscription Replica

ISO 15924

Contents
1 History 2 Evolution 3 General 4V owels 5 Yogavaahaka's 6 Consonants 6.1 Structured consonants 6.2 Unstructured consonants 7 Numerals 8 Kagunita 9 Unicode 10 Script similarities 11 See also 12 External links 13 References

History
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distinct signs were employed to denote the special consonants viz. A Bilingual sign board in Kannada script The characters are classified into three categories: swaras (vowels). . . akkara or varna. However. however. The Kadamba script is said to have evolved from the Proto-Kannada script (during 4th century CE).Kannada script . Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable.[4] Old Kannada script[5] which evolved around 10th century. as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English. . . . The Kannada writing system is an abugida. . The introduction was done so that Sanskrit and also loanwords into the Kannada language from the donor language Sanskrit) could be written using the Kannada script.[8] Each sound has its own distinct letter. . part consonants). true letter is akshara. and mahāprā a characters like . The name given for a pure. . . no orthographic distinction was made between the short mid . These changes consist of: 1. Modification of existing glyphs: In the early Kannada [Telugu-Kannada] script. Introduction of new characters: Kannada script includes characters like .Wikipedia. and long mid . . These changes have facilitated the use of the Kannada script for writing many of the literary Indic languages. is far more than the 49 characters in the alphasyllabary. 2. The Kannada character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. and therefore every word is pronounced exactly as it is spelt. .wikipedia. by 5th century. . Modern scripts of Kannada and Telugu started to separate as early as the 13th century CE (During 1100 CE – 1400 CE). respectively. The number of written symbols. so the 2 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM . . because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (ottaksharas). Kannada is written from left to right. is the continuation of the Kadamba script which in turn came during 4th century CE.[7] Kannada alphabet (aksharamale or varnamale) now consists of 49 letters. providing the visible and audible representations. The Proto-Kannada evolved from the ancient Brahmi script around 3rd century BCE. . . .org/wiki/Kannada_script See also: Kannada script evolution Kannada (Kanarese or Canarese) script is derived from the Old Kannada script. with consonants appearing with an inherent vowel. . the trill the retroflex palatal the retroflex lateral and found only in South Indian languages. including Sanskrit.[6] The Kadamba script is also known as Pre-Old-Kannada script. and therefore aptly called as Kannada-Telugu script. the free encyclopedia http://en. Old Kannada was used for writing Kannada and Telugu languages. General Kannada script has forty-nine characters in its alphasyllabary and is phonemic. Evolution Over the centuries some changes have been made to the Kannada script. Each letter has its own form (ākāra) and sound (shabda). vyanjanas (consonants) and yogavaahas (part vowel. . .

The accent falls on the first syllable.Kannada script .Wikipedia.wikipedia.[7] Vowels There are thirteen vowels (swaras). every word can be pronounced with perfect accuracy. After the exact sounds of the letters have been once gained. Kannada ISO notation a Unicode name KANNADA LETTER A ā KANNADA LETTER AA i KANNADA LETTER I Brahmi script.org/wiki/Kannada_script ear is a sufficient guide. the free encyclopedia http://en. Kanheri Caves ī KANNADA LETTER II u KANNADA LETTER U ū KANNADA LETTER UU r KANNADA LETTER VOCALIC R e KANNADA LETTER E ē KANNADA LETTER EE ai KANNADA LETTER AI o KANNADA LETTER O ō KANNADA LETTER OO 3 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM .

part consonant) include two letters: 1. The anusvara: (am) 2.Wikipedia. The visarga: (ah) Consonants Two types of consonants are identified in Kannada: the structured consonants and the unstructured consonants. (IAST Unicode ttha) (tha) . voiceless Velars (ka) voiceless aspirate (kha) voiced (ga) voiced aspirate (gha) nasal (nga) Palatals (ca) (cha) (ja) (jha) (IAST ña.org/wiki/Kannada_script au KANNADA LETTER AU Note: (U+0CE1) was removed during 1990[1].wikipedia. (IAST Unicode nna) (na) . Dentals (ta) Labials (pa) (pha) (ba) (bha) (ma) 4 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM .Kannada script . Structured consonants These consonants are shown here with the IAST symbols and the unicode name following. Unicode nya) Retroflex (IAST Unicode tta) . (IAST Unicode dda) (da) . (IAST Unicode ddha) (dha) . The structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. Yogavaahaka's The Yogavaahaka's (part-vowel. the free encyclopedia http://en.

(ra).wikipedia. (2). corresponding to syllables. (IAST . (ha). and the leftmost column from row 2 down the consonants (actually represented by kagunita. (va). (6). ( ). (7). In the table below the top row lists the vowels. (ll).Kannada script . (5). namely that obtained by combining each consonant with the "neutral" vowel 'a'). Kagunita Written Kannada is composed of kagunita. the free encyclopedia http://en. Unstructured consonants The unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures: (ya). Unicode ssa). (sa).org/wiki/Kannada_script See place of articulation for more information on tongue positions. Each kagunita corresponds to a syllable.  ‘ ’ „ ”‚ • – — ” ” ‰    ‘ ’  ‘ ’  ‘ ’  ‘ ’ “ ‘ ‘ ’ ’ ”Œ ”Œ • – — • – — ”Œ • – — ”Œ‡ ”Œ‡ • – — • – — ”‚ • – — 5 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM . (IAST .Wikipedia. (1). Unicode sha). (9). The remaining cells contain the corresponding kagunita obtained by combining the consonant of that row with the vowel of that column. The signs for consonants may combine with the signs for vowels to form ligatures. (8). Numerals The decimal numerals in the script are: (0). (3). (la). Unicode lla). (IAST śa. (4).

wikipedia.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en.Kannada script .org/wiki/Kannada_script ˜ ™‚ š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ƒ † ™ ™ „ ‡ ˜ ™ Œ ™ Œ ™ Œ ™ Œ‡ ™ Œ‡ ™‚ š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¦ § ¦ § š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ š › œ  ž Ÿ   ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © 6 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM .

org/charts/PDF/U0C80. 1991 with the release of version 1.org chart (http://www. Four rare letters used for writing Sanskrit in Kannada script were added to the Unicode Standard in July. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. 2006 with the release of version 5.org/wiki/Kannada_script ª «‚ ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ­ ‚ ³ ³ … ˆ ƒ † ‡ « « ª ª ª « ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ­ ³Œ ª ª ª «‚ ¬ ® « « ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ‰ ­ ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ­ «‡ «‡ ¬ ¬ ¯‡ ¯‡ ° ± ² ° ± ² ¯ ° ± ² ­ ³ ­ˆ ­ˆ ³Œ ³Œ ³Œ ³Œ Unicode Kannada script was added to the Unicode Standard in October.wikipedia. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points: Kannada[1] Unicode.0.[9] The Unicode block for Kannada is U+0C80–U+0CFF.Kannada script .unicode.pdf) (PDF) 0 U+0C8x U+0C9x U+0CAx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 7 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM .0.

^ As of Unicode version 6.[13] Old-Kannada Text from Kavirajamarga: See also Kannada Telugu script Tamil script Malayalam script Grantha script Kannada grammar Kannada literature Kannada poetry Karnataka Kannada script evolution Timeline of Karnataka _ 8 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM .Kannada script . the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. and old Peguan script (used in Burma).0 Script similarities Telugu script is closely related to the Kannada script because both scripts are derived from the TeluguKannada script.wikipedia.[10] Scripts which are close to Kannada script other than Telugu script are Sinhala script[11] (which included some elements from the Kadamba script[12]).org/wiki/Kannada_script U+0CBx U+0CCx U+0CDx U+0CEx U+0CFx Notes 1.

a non-profit organization..html) .atla. 4.atla. 804. ^ "Ancient scripts. http://www. Retrieved 2009-05-07. ^ "Romanization.ancientscripts.aspx) . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. the free encyclopedia http://en.com /Patrons/LanguageTech/Kannada.Kannada script .bhashaindia.Wikipedia. pp.com) — Kannada library References 1.org/unicode/uni2book/ch09. (1997-11-06). Routledge. 6.com/old_kannada. 9.com/writing/kannada.pdf) — Kannada Code Chart PDF (111 KB) Kannada alphabet (http://www. Telugu" (http://www. 5 8.ancientscripts. Retrieved 2009-05-07.bhaavana.0 (http://www.html) .net/telusa/jan96/0155. 84–5. The Indo-Aryan Languages.pdf) .bhaavana.bhashaindia. http://www.html. http://www.). See Terms of Use for details. Kittel (1993).com/Patrons /LanguageTech/Kannada.unicode.805.com/kadamba. ISBN 9780415137157.ancientscripts.org/web/20080414012744/http://www. ^ "BhashaIndia. Dhanesh Jain (2007). pp. ed.unicode. ^ "Old Kannada" (http://www. Handbook of scripts and alphabets (1st Ed.ancientscripts.html.com/tsig/Foreign_Lang_presentation/files2 /9_22SinhalaRomanization.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs /n2860.com/Patrons/LanguageTech/Kannada.pdf) PDF (634 KB) — South and Southeast Asian Scripts The Unicode Standard 5. 7.aspx. Retrieved from "http://en.ancientscripts.com/telugu. Retrieved 2009-05-07. http://www.html) .ancientscripts. ^ National Archives of India (1985).wikipedia. additional terms may apply. alphabet worksheet (http://www.com/sinhala. Retrieved 2009-05-07.pdf.archive.ancientscripts. Routledge.com/tsig/Foreign_Lang_presentation/files2 /9_22SinhalaRomanization.aspx) on 2008-04-14.html) . ^ "Ancient scripts. http://www.org/wiki/Kannada_script" Categories: Scripts with ISO 15924 four-letter codes | Brahmic scripts | Kannada language | Konkani | Tulu language This page was last modified on 9 May 2011 at 23:07.wikipedia. pp. Inc. 4. Archived from the original (http://www. Retrieved 2008-05-01.htm) — From Omniglot Kannada lessons. http://www.html. Volume 34.org/web/20080414012744/http: //www.com/kannada.com /sinhala.com/kannada.html) . 5.dkuug.bhashaindia.net/telusa/jan96/0155.html. ^ a b A Grammar of the Kannada Language F. http://www. ^ "Telugu & Sinhalese script similarities" (http://www. New York.ancientscripts. ^ Proposal to add six characters for Kannada to the BMP of the UCS (http://std. Retrieved 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2009-05-07.org/oclc/34473667) ..org/wiki/Kannada_script External links The Unicode Book: Chapter 9 (http://www. George L. ^ "Kannada" (http://www.html) ..worldcat.html. 11.omniglot. Sinhala (Sinhalese) Script" (http://www.. ^ "Kadamba" (http://www. p.html.com :: Kannada" (http://web.com /telugu. 12. http://web. Sinhala" (http://www. ^ Campbell.com /old_kannada. ISBN 041577294X.org/charts/PDF/U0C80. 13. OCLC 34473667 (http://www.com/kadamba. National Archives of India.pdf) 10. 2.kannadalibrary. Indian archives. ^ George Cardona. 9780415772945. 9 of 9 5/11/2011 4:32 PM .ancientscripts. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation..archive.ancientscripts. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 3.

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