You are on page 1of 44

TM

Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445


keep it simple science
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1

THE CHEMICAL EARTH


What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. The Composition of Matter... MIXTURES
2. The ELEMENTS
3. COMPOUNDS... Ionic & Covalent
4. Physical & Chemical Changes
5. Bonding, Structures & Properties
...all in the context of the Earth’s chemical nature & our use of resources

but first, an introduction...


What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties, and the ways that it can be changed or transformed.

To successfully study this subject it is essential that you grasp 3 vital concepts, as early as possible.

Types of Matter
Atoms
All matter, whether Element, Compound or Mixture, is
made of atoms.
Mixtures
Structure
Pure Substances All substances can be of an -
classified into just a few ATOM
electron (-)
different types...

Elements Compounds Nucleus contains


PROTONS (+) and
It is essential for you to understand the differences! NEUTRONS (0)

Although there are millions of different substances, they are


all composed of relatively few types of atoms.
The big difference is often the way the atoms are arranged.

Physical Changes v Chemical Changes


Physical changes do NOT produce any Chemical changes make new substances This topic
new substances. during chemical reactions.
Things may change their state (e.g. melt)
or might dissolve in a liquid, but it’s
In a chemical reaction the atoms do not
change, but they are re-arranged in new
covers these
still the same stuff. combinations, forming new “products”,
different to the “reactants” you started with. things and
more...
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science 1 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and
important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the
whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this “Mind Map” to practise on.

Mixtures on Earth Positions in the Occurrence


Lithosphere Periodic Table of Elements
Hydrosphere in Nature
Atmosphere

Metals, States
Methods for
Non-MMetals & Properties
Separating
Elements, Mixtures & Semi-M
Metals
Compounds &
Mixtures... Usage Depends
a Comparison on Properties

Gravimetric
Analysis THE ELEMENTS Atomic Number
&
Mass Number

The Composition of Matter...


MIXTURES Electron
Configuration
Atomic Structure

THE COMPOUNDS Formation of Ions


Ionic & Covalent &
CHEMICAL Bonding Ionic Bonds
EARTH

Covalent Bonding
in
BONDING Elements & Compounds
DETERMINES PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES &
CHEMICAL Names & Formulas
CHANGES for
Ionic Compounds

Physical
&
Chemical Names & Formulas
Properties Energy Particle for
& Theory Covalent Compounds
Change
Bonding in
Ionic Lattices
Covalent Lattices
Metals & Case Study:
Boiling Lewis Formulas
Covalent Molecules v
Decomposition &
Electrolysis
Reactions of Water Writing Equations
Bonding Determines
Properties & Uses

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 2 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

1. THE COMPOSITION OF MATTER... MIXTURES

Elements, Compounds & Mixtures Compounds


You should already be aware that all substances are made of are substances which contain 2 (or more) types of atoms
atoms, and that there are (about 100) different kinds of which are chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio.
atoms. If you could see the “particles” in substances you
would see that the main categories of matter are Some compounds are made up of molecules:
determined by
• how many different kinds of atoms are present
and • how the atoms are “bonded” together Different
atoms
Elements bonded
are pure substances composed entirely of one type of atom.

The atoms might be all separate, like this...


Example:
Water
An ELEMENT
(H2O)
of single atoms

Note that although there


are 2 different types of atom,
Example: the substance is “pure” 1 particle or molecule
Helium because it is entirely made
(He) of identical particles... in this case the molecules shown.

Other compounds may contain different atom types


chemically bonded in a 3-D array... a crystal lattice:
or, the atoms may be bonded in pairs (or other size groups)

Example: Salt Sodium (NaCl)


Chloride

Identical atoms
joined in pairs Example:
Oxygen (O2)

Although there are 2 types of atoms present, they cannot be


separated from each other by any physical means like filtering
or, they might be bonded in 3-dimentional arrays of or evaporating it. To separate them, you need to carry out
billions of atoms forming a crystal lattice... chemical reactions. For this reason, it is a “pure” substance.

This is a 2-D diagram of a 3-D lattice


Pure substances

ELEMENTS Only one type of atom

Cannot be separated into parts


by physical, nor by chemical means
Example: Carbon (C) COMPOUNDS 2 or more types of atom
chemically bonded in
a fixed ratio
Pure substances
which cannot be Can be chemically separated
In every case, there is only ONE KIND OF ATOM. physically separated into the elements present
These are all ELEMENTS.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 3 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Mixtures Separating Mixtures
are not pure substances. A mixture may contain a variety of Since the different particles within a mixture are not all
different elements and/or compounds combined in any chemically bonded together, and since each has different
ratio. The various atoms and molecules that may be present properties, they can be separated fairly easily by simple
are NOT all chemically bonded together. physical processes.

Different “particles” within the mixture It is important that you can identify the “Difference in
Properties” (D.I.P.) which allows each process to separate
the fractions of the mixture.

Solids of Different Grain Size


Imagine a mixture of dry sand and pebbles you have
scooped up from a beach. How could the sand be separated
from the pebbles? D.I.P = grain sizes

Using a sieve.

Fine material
(sand) falls
through the
mesh.

Since the parts (“fractions”) of a mixture are not in any Coarser


fixed ratio, it means that mixtures can have variable pebbles are
composition. caught

For example, imagine mixing sugar into your coffee to


sweeten it. In your cup of coffee you can add a few grains Solids and Liquids
of sugar only, or a teaspoonful, or 5 teaspoons. In every (when NOT a solution)
case it is a mixture of the same substances, but its If a solid is suspended in a liquid (such as sand mixed with
composition (and taste) varies tremendously! water) it will often separate by itself if allowed to stand.
When a solid settles-out of a suspension like this, it is called
We are Surrounded by Mixtures sedimentation.
The Earth is often thought of as being made up of several
“spheres”. All are mixtures of compounds and elements. In the laboratory or in industry, the separation can often be
achieved faster and more efficiently by filtration.
Lithosphere: is the solid, rocky part of the Earth.
Rocks are mixtures of minerals which are, in turn,
crystalline compounds. Each type of rock is a different Suspended solids
mixure, with different minerals, in varying proportions. caught by filter
paper.
(“Residue”)
Hydrosphere: is the liquid part of the Earth, mainly the
oceans, but also rivers and lakes. Most of it is a mixture of
water with suspended solids (e.g. dirt), dissolved
compounds (especially salt) and dissolved elements such as Mixture being
oxygen and nitrogen. filtered

Atmosphere: is the gaseous part of the Earth... the air. Air


is a mixture of elements (e.g. nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2)
and Argon (Ar)) and compounds such as carbon dioxide
(CO2) and water vapour (H2O).

Biosphere: technically refers to those parts of the Earth Clear


where living things are found, and so includes parts of the Filtrate
Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Atmosphere.
Living things themselves are complex mixtures of (mainly)
water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats and so on. These “life D.I.P = particle size.
chemicals” include the most complex compounds known, A filter paper is like a “sieve” of paper fibres, with many
such as DNA, which may have millions of atoms bonded small holes. Water molecules can pass through the holes,
together in each molecule. but the larger particles of the suspended solid are caught.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 4 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Dissolved Solids in Liquids Separating Liquid Mixtures
When a solid is dissolved in a liquid, such as when salt If 2 liquids can mix together and dissolve in each other (like
dissolves in water, the mixture is called a “solution” and alcohol in water, or oil in petrol) they are said to be
filtration will not work to separate the parts. “miscible”. If 2 liquids will not mix with each other (like oil
and water) they are “immiscible”.
Later in this course you will learn in detail what happens
when solids dissolve. At this point just be aware that in a Separating immiscible liquids can be easily done with a
solution the particles of the dissolved solid (“solute”) are separating funnel.
similar in size to the molecules of the liquid (“solvent”). If
the water molecules can get through the filter paper, the D.I.P. = immiscible and different density
dissolved solute particles will too. Separating Funnel

The commonest ways to separate a solution are:


Layers of
• Evaporation... to collect the solid solute, and immiscible
• Distillation... to collect the liquid solvent. liquids

Tap allows each


liquid to be
drained off
separately

If 2 or more liquids are miscible, separation is more


difficult.
Simple
evaporation If boiling points are quite different, distillation will work.
procedure
D.I.P.= different boiling points.
In both cases the D.I.P.= different boiling points. (b.p.) However, if the b.p.’s are similar, it might be difficult to get
total separation into really pure “fractions”. For example,
For example, with a salt-water solution, the water boils (and when distilling alcohol-water mixtures it is impossible to
o
vaporizes) at 100 C. The salt however, wouldn’t even melt collect pure alcohol, and in the industrial distillation of
o
until 770 C and so it stays in the basin or flask. (say) wine to make brandy, the distillate is about 40%
Water-cooled Condenser turns
alcohol, 60% water.
vapour back to liquid
Separating Gas Mixtures
It depends on exactly which gases are in the mixture!

If you had (say) a mixture of oxygen (O2(g)) and hydrogen


sulfide (H2S(g)) gases, they could be separated by simply
bubbling the mixture through water. Oxygen is barely
soluble, so most of it would pass through the water.
Hydrogen sulfide is quite soluble, and most of it would
dissolve. D.I.P.= different solubilities.

What about separating air into its parts?

The technique used is called “Fractional Distillation”.


D.I.P.= different boiling points.
Solution boiled Pure water Basically, air can be turned to liquid, by cooling and
in flask collects compressing it. Then, if allowed to gradually warm up, each
different gas “fraction” boils off at its particular b.p., and
As the water evaporates away the salt solution becomes can be collected separately... pure oxygen, pure argon, etc.
more and more concentrated, until solid salt crystals begin
to separate from the remaining solution. In a distillation, it Fractional Distillation is also used to separate crude
is time to stop heating before the flask over-heats and oil (petroleum) into petrol, kerosene, deisel fuel, etc.
breaks!

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 5 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Practical Work... Separating a Mixture
You may have done a practical exercise in the lab. to Mixture
separate a simple mixture into its fractions. Sand, Salt & Water

A common task is to begin with a mixture of sand, salt


and water and collect clean, dry sand, pure solid salt and
pure water.
Residue FILTER Filtrate
A flow-chart of a suitable procedure is shown. in filter paper passes through

divide in 2
You need to be able to interpret, and to construct, similar
flow charts of procedures. DRY

A Point of Good Technique


It is important to add small quantities of extra, pure water EVAPORATE DISTILL
to the residue to wash all the dissolved salt through with
the filtrate. Clean, Dry
Sand

Try the Practice Questions at the end of section Solid Pure


Salt Water

Repairing the Landscape after Gold Mining


Case Study of an Industrial Separation: Photo by Kris Nouwen
Gold Mining
In alluvial gold deposits, small nuggets and flakes of gold
are mixed with gravel and silt deposited over the ages by
rivers. Typically, there might be just a few grams of gold in
each tonne of dirt and stones.

D.I.P. = density difference

To separate the gold, the deposits are scooped up by


mechanical excavators and processed through a sluice, in
which large amounts of water (from a river) are washed
over the mixture while it is vibrated, or rotated, down a
series of steps or “traps”. Gold is very dense, and tends to
settle and collect in the traps, while the lower density
stones, sand and silt are washed away.

Useful Product of Separation


Obviously the purpose of this process is to collect gold,
which is used for jewellery, in electronics, and is still used as
a medium of storing and exchanging wealth.

Issues Associated with Waste Products


This process produces huge quantities of loose silt and
gravel which was traditionally discharged back into the
rivers with the water. This caused enormous ecological
damage due to dirty water, silting up of channels, burying
of fish breeding pools and wetlands, and so on.

Modern operations discharge waste into “settling ponds”,


where silt collects, allowing only clean water to return to the
rivers. Eventually the collected waste is used to refill the
excavation sites, and the original environment is helped to
regenerate.
Old Gold Mine. Photo by Erik Marr
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 6 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Gravimetric Analysis Practical Work...
To separate the parts of a mixture is one thing, but very A Simple Gravimetric Analysis
often in industry or science it is important to measure the You may have carried out a practical exercise similar to the
quantities or percentages of each fraction. following:
If you were given a solid mixture of sand and salt, how
Examples of where this might be important: could you determine the percentage of each in the mixture?
• Measuring the amount of a mineral within an ore deposit
to determine if it is economically worth mining it. Outline of Procedure Sample Results
• Measuring quantities of pollutant chemicals in effluent, 1. Weigh a sample of Mass of
or in water or air. the mixture. Sample = 3.45 g
• To check that manufacturers’ claims are correct regarding
the chemical composition (e.g. fat or salt content) of food.

Gravimetric Analysis involves separating the parts of a 2. Add pure water & stir
mixture and accurately measuring the masses along the way, well. (Salt dissolves,
so that you can calculate the composition of the mixture. sand doesn’t)

Points of Good Technique


Dry the filter paper in the oven 3. FILTER to collect
and weigh it accurately first! the sand.

Residue Filtrate
Don’t forget to wash the residue
with small amounts of extra pure 4. DRY the residue and
water, to wash all salt through. weigh accurately. Mass of
(Subtract the mass of Sand = 1.27 g
the filter paper)
For maximum accuracy, you should
weight it, dry it more and re-weigh.
Repeat, until the mass does not change;
then you know it’s fully dried.
5. EVAPORATE the
water from the filtrate
until completely dry.
Dry the evaporating basin in
the oven and weigh it
accurately first!

6. Weigh the dried salt Mass of


Heat gently near the end. A major (subtract mass of basin) Salt = 2.08 g
source of error is when rapid heating
causes “spattering” of salt, so you end Analysis of Results
up losing some.
% Sand in sample = mass of sand x 100
mass of sample
= (1.27 / 3.45) x 100
= 36.8%
For maximum accuracy, you should
weight it, dry it more and re-weigh.
% Salt in sample = mass of salt x 100
mass of sample
Repeat, until the mass does not change; = (2.08 / 3.45) x 100
then you know it’s fully dried. = 60.3%
Notes:
1. These percentages add to only 97.1%, so there must have
been some other substance(s) present, OR this represents
the experimental error. (Possibly there was moisture in the
mixture which doesn’t get accounted for. Need to dry the
mixture sample thoroughly, before starting.)

2. It is appropriate to round-off the final answers to 3


significant figures as shown, since that matches the
precision of the experimental measurements.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 7 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Worksheet 1 Part B Practice Questions & Problems


Part A Fill in the blanks. 1.
Check answers at the back. For each of the following mixtures, suggest a
simple way to collect the specified fraction(s) in
Elements are a)....................... substances the laboratory.
composed of b)............................................. of a) Collect pure water from a copper sulfate
solution.
atom. They c)........................ be separated into any b) Collect clear water from muddy water.
simpler substances by either c) Collect copper oxide (insoluble) from a water
d)................................. nor ........................................ suspension
processes. d) Collect solid nickel chloride from a water
solution.
e)....................................... are f)......................... e) A can of lawn mower petrol has accidentally
substances which contain 2 or more types of got some water in it... this could damage the
atoms, which are g)................................... bonded engine. How to remove the water? (These liquids
together in a h)....................... ratio. They cannot are immiscible)
be separated by any i)............................... process,
but can be chemically separated into the 2.
Fred has accidentally mixed flour (insoluble) and
j)...................................... they contain. icing sugar (soluble) together.
a) Use a simple flow chart to describe a
Mixtures are k)......................................... laboratory procedure to separate them again.
substances which may contain various b) Which simpler procedure might have been
l)......................... and ................................ which are possible if the sugar had been coarse-grained?
NOT all chemically m)................................... to
each other. The proportions of each part of the 3.
mixture may n)................................. enormously. A dry mixture of soluble potassium sulfate and
insoluble manganese dioxide was analysed
The “Lithosphere” is the o)........................... part gravimetrically as follows:
of the Earth. It is mostly made of rocks, which A weighed sample was thoroughly stirred into
pure water, then filtered through a pre-weighed
are p)...................... of minerals. The filter paper. The collected residue was oven dried
q)............................................ is the liquid part of and weighed.
the Earth. It is a mixture of r)............................. Meanwhile, the filtrate was boiled in a pre-
and various dissolved s)............................... and weighed evaporating basin until a dry solid
............................., notably t)........................ The formed, then weighed.
Atmosphere is a mixture of u).............................., Results:
the most abundant being v)..................................... Mass of mixture sample = 4.96g
and ........................................ Living things are Mass of filter paper = 0.16g
mixtures of (mostly) w)...................... and many Mass or paper + dried residue = 3.04g
complex x)..................................... such as Mass of evap.basin = 28.62g
y)................................ and .......................................... Mass of basin + dry solid = 30.70g
a) Name the substance collected in the filter
Every mixture contains different parts, each with paper.
different z).................................... This makes it b) Calculate the mass of this substance collected.
fairly easy to aa)........................................... the c) Calculate the % of this substance in the
“fractions” by simple ab)........................ processes mixture.
such as ac).................................., d) Name the substance collected in the
................................. and ....................................... evap.basin.
e) Calculate the mass of this substance collected.
ad)......................................... Analysis is the f) Calculate the % of this substance in the
method of finding the composition of a mixture, mixture.
by separating a mixture and g) What evidence is there that this analysis may be
quite accurate?
ae)..................................... the fractions accurately h) Describe one technique, not mentioned in the
as they are collected. outline above, which might have been done by
the experimenter to help ensure accuracy.
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS FOR MAXIMUM MARKS SHOW
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES FORMULAS & WORKING,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION & UNITS
IN ALL CHEMICAL PROBLEMS

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 8 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

2. THE ELEMENTS

Elements in Nature? Classifying the Elements


In the billions of years since the Earth formed, most atoms There are about 100 different elements, although many are
on Earth have chemically reacted with each other to form quite rare. Over 99% of the Earth is made up of only
various compounds. That’s why most of the Earth is a about a dozen of the most common elements.
mixture of (predominately) compounds, and not elements.
Each element has its own type of atom, and its own unique
However, there are a few notable exceptions. Some set of properties. However, most elements fall into just 2
elements have such low chemical reactivity (i.e. they tend general categories...
not to react with other atoms) that they are found as
uncombined elements. METALS NON-METALS
Examples: Shiny <appearance> Dull (most)
• Gold... is a very low activity metal, found in very small Most hard <state at 25oC> Some solids, many
amounts in the Lithosphere. solids gases
• The “Inert Gases” are a group of elements which do High <conductivity> Low (except carbon)
not chemically react at all, and so do not form compounds (of electricity)
and are always found as single, uncombined atoms. Being Malleable <can be rolled into sheets> Brittle... shatter
gases, they are found mainly in the atmosphere. The most Ductile <can be pulled into wires> Brittle... snap
common is Argon which makes up about 0.9% of the air.
• Nitrogen (N2) gas is an element which makes up about The Semi-Metals (or “Metalloids”)
78% of air. Nitrogen atoms are highly reactive, but when 2 There is also a small group of elements which have
of them join to form diatomic (2-atom) molecules of N2, properties that are “in-between” and do not fit clearly into
the molecules are very unreactive. the metal or non-metal classification. This group includes
Silicon and Germanium which have properties as follows:
Then, there’s an exception to these exceptions!
• Oxygen (O2) gas is an element which makes up about Shiny appearance, but glass-like rather than metallic.
21% of the air. O2 is actually quite chemically active, and Hard solids at 25oC (i.e. high melting point)
should all be combined into compounds. So why isn’t it? Semi-conductors of electricity (in-between)
Simple... living things (such as plants) constantly separate Brittle (non-malleable, non-ductile)
elemental oxygen from water during photosynthesis, and
replenish the air with it. If there was no life on Earth, there Because their properties are a mixture of those of the
would not be any elemental oxygen... it would all be metals and non-metals (or in-between), the “Semi-Metals”
combined into compounds. are usually considered as a small, separate group.

H Seriously Position of
Weird element. Metals, Non-Metals & Semi-Metals
See note below on the
Periodic Table
B

Si Non-Metals
Ge As

Metals Sb Te

Hydrogen does not easily


fit this scheme. These metals actually belong in the table where shown, but are usually detached so the table fits onto a page easily
Physically, it has properties
like a non-metal, but
Chemically it often acts like
a metal. It is usually shown
detached from the table, as
above.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 9 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
States of the Elements “INERT GASES”
at 25oC and normal atmospheric pressure. (SLC)
H Weirdo! Unshaded = Solid He

Black Shading = Liquid


N O F Ne

This “block” Grey Shading = Gas


of metals Cl Ar

Se
are all soft,

m
with low

i-
Br Kr
This “block” of metals includes all the familiar, typical

M
melting

et
metals such as copper, nickel, iron, gold and silver.

al
points, and

s
Xe
are highly
chemically
reactive Hg Rn

Mercury (metal) and Bromine (non-metal)


the only elements which are liquids at
“Standard Laboratory Conditions”.

These metals are very rare, and some exist only when made artificially by
nuclear reactions.

What Determines the State? A Note about the Gases


You need to understand that whether a substance is solid, On the Periodic Table, the extreme right-hand column
liquid or gas is determined by its melting point (m.p.) and contains the “Inert Gas” group of
boiling point (b.p.). elements. The main chemical
characteristic of this group is that they
For example, consider these: do not react chemically and they exist
as single atoms. Therefore, you can just use their chemical
Element m.p.(oC) b.p.(oC) State at 25oC symbols as shown. e.g. Helium (He), Argon (Ar), etc.
Iron (Fe) 1535 3000 solid
Mercury (Hg) -39 357 liquid ALL OTHER GASEOUS ELEMENTS always bond
Oxygen (O2) -219 -183 gas together in pairs, forming “diatomic
molecules”. Therefore, when dealing
Changing the pressure changes the mp. and b.p., so that’s with these in their pure element form,
why we specify “normal atmospheric pressure” as well as you must use formulas as follows:
25oC as being “normal conditions”. In fact, 25oC and Element Atomic Formula for
normal (average) atmospheric pressure is known as Symbol Pure Element
“Standard Laboratory Conditions” (SLC) and is the set Hydrogen H H2(g)
of conditions under which chemical measurements are Nitrogen N N2(g) Learn
usually made and formally declared. Oxygen O O2(g) These !
Fluorine F F2(g)
Chlorine Cl Cl2(g)

The Properties of Elements Determine Their Uses


You need to realize that we make use of very few elements in their pure (or near pure) form. Most of the materials we
use are compounds, or mixtures. When we do use an element, its usage is, of course, related to its properties.
Metal Examples: Metal usefulness is mainly based on Non-Metal Examples: Usefulness is based mainly
physical properties. on chemical properties.
• Copper is used for electrical wiring, because of its good • Argon is used to fill light bulbs, and in welding, because
electrical conductivity, and because it is very ductile (can it will not react chemically, and so shields metals from
easily be drawn out into wire). corroding while red hot.
• Iron (esp. in the form of steel) is used to construct tools, • Chlorine is used in industy as a bleach (paper making)
buildings, bridges, vehicles, etc, because of its strength. Its and as a disinfectant (swimming pools) because it is
malleability and ductility allow forming into many shapes. chemically very active.
• Aluminium has the same advantages of steel (strong, • Oxygen is used in medicine because its chemistry is
malleable & ductile) with the added advantage of light vital for respiration. In an oxy-acetylene torch, oxygen’s
weight and corrosion resistance. chemical involvement in combustion produces a hot flame.
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 10 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Worksheet 2 The vast majority of o elements are


Part A Fill in the Blanks ai)............................. at 25 C and normal
Check answers at the back atmospheric pressure. (These conditions are
The Earth is mostly composed of mixtures of known as “aj)..........................................................”)
a)................................., with very few uncombined Only 2 elements are liquid:
b).................................. This is because over the ak)................................... and .....................................
billions of years since the Earth formed most The rest are gases, including the
atoms have c).......................... with each other, to “al).................................” gases located in the
form d).......................... Only a few elements am)................... column of the Periodic Table.
occur e).................................. in nature. Generally These exist as single atoms, but all other gaseous
these are elements which have low f)...................... elements, such as an)............................, exist as
......................................... such as g)........................... “ao)............................” molecules. For these you
(metal) and “inert gases” such as must use a formula such as ap)...................... to
h)................................... A notable exception is show this.
i)....................................... which makes up 21% of
the atmosphere. It is actually quite The usage of an element is always related to its
j).............................., and would not exist in an properties. For example, Copper is used for
uncombined state except that k).................... aq)........................................ because of its
...................................................................................... ar).................................. and ..............................
Argon is used in light bulbs and in welding,
There are about l)................... elements, each with because of its as).........................................................
its own unique m)......................................... prevents red-hot metals from at)..............................
However, most elements can be classified as
either n)......................... or .............-.................... Part B Practice Questions and Problems
according to a few simple physical properties. 1.
The general differences can be summarized as: Rubidium (Rb) is located in the left column, and Neon (Ne)
n)............................... ...................................... in the right-hand column of the Periodic Table.
(yes or no?) a) One is always found in an uncombined, elemental state,
o)............... Shiny appearance? p)................ the other never is. Predict which is which, and explain why.
q)............... malleable? r).................. b) For each of these elements, predict its properties:
s)................ conduct electricity well? t)................... i) general apearance and state at SLC.
u)............... ductile? v).................. ii) electrical conductivity.
iii) malleability and ductility , in the solid state.
“Malleable” means w)...............................................
“Ductile” means x)................................................... 2.
From the following data of m.p., b.p. and electrical
However, not all elements fit this classification. A conductivity for some elements, predict
few, such as y)................................... and a) their physical state at SLC,
............................................ have “in-between” and b) whether each is a metal or non-metal.
properties and considered as a 3rd separate
group called the “z).............-...................................” ELEMENT m.p. b.p.(oC) Elect.Cond
One element, aa).......................................... doesn’t P 119 445 poor
fit easily into any of this. Its physical properties Q 1769 3825 excellent
are like a ab)........................................, but R -7 58 poor
chemically it often behaves chemically like a S 30 2400 v. good
ac)..................................... T -219 -183 poor

On the Periodic Table, the right-hand corner is 3.


where the ad)........................................ are located. For each of the following elements, list the properties
Over 3/4 of the table, on the ae).............. side is which make it suitable for the given use.
the af)............................... The small ag)............- (You may need to do a little research if necessary)
......................... group are found in between. That
weirdo, ah)................................ is usually detached a) Gold, used in jewellery.
from the table at the top-left corner. b) Silicon, used to make computer “chips”.
c) Lead, used in fishing sinkers.
d) Helium, used in air-ships and party balloons.
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS (Hydrogen’s better, but not as safe. Why?)
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES e) Tungsten, a metal used as the filament in light bulbs.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 11 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

3. COMPOUNDS... Ionic & Covalent

Atomic Structure The Mass of an Atom


All atoms have basically the same general structure: In chemical calculations it is vital to deal with the mass of
the substances involved. The atoms of different elements
In the Nucleus are You need to recall that
have different masses according to how many protons and
Protons & • Electrons carry
neutrons are in the nucleus.
Neutrons negative electricity
• Protons carry
positive electricity Note that the electrons have such small mass compared to
(Neutrons have a proton or neutron that, for practical purposes, the
no charge) electrons can be ignored.

Using the atoms on the left as examples:


In orbit around
the nucleus are Atom No.of No.of Mass
the Electrons Protons Neutrons Number
The atoms of each element are all the same as each other, Hydrogen 1 0 1
but different to the atoms of other elements. Lithium 3 4 7
Zinc 30 35 65
How are they different? Lead 82 125 207

The atoms of each element have different numbers of These “Mass Numbers” are the relative masses of these
Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. atoms... obviously one atom has a very small value when
Examples: measured in grams (1 hydrogen atom ≅ 1.7 x 10-27 kg).

Mass numbers are always whole numbers, since there must


be whole numbers of protons and neutrons in each atom.
Hydrogen
On the Periodic Table each element is detailed something
1 proton
1 electron like this:
0 neutrons Lithium Atomic Number
3 protons
3 electrons 18 Equal to the number of electrons
and the number of protons in
4 neutrons each atom

Ar
Zinc
30 protons Chemical Symbol
30 electrons
35 neutrons Argon Element Name
(full detail not shown
in diagram) 39.95 “Atomic Weight”
NOT the “Mass Number”

The “Atomic Weight” is not the same as the Mass Number.


(For one thing it is usually NOT a whole number.
Lead
82 protons This will be explained fully in a later topic.)
82 electrons However, for simplicity (K.I.S.S. Principle) you may round-
125 neutrons off this number to the nearest integer, and take this as the
Mass Number for atoms of this element.

Notice that no matter how many In this example, Argon atoms have:
particles there are; • Atomic Number = 18 ∴18 protons and 18 electrons

No. of Protons = No. of Electrons • Mass Number ≅ 40 = sum (protons + neutrons)


THIS IS TRUE FOR ALL ATOMS ∴ must have 22 neutrons.

This number is the ATOMIC NUMBER Try the WORKSHEET at end of section

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 12 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Electron Energy Levels Formation of Ions
Although the mass of an atom is all about protons and Every atom can achieve its best possible energy state if its
neutrons in the nucleus, chemical reactions and the outer shell of electrons contains 8 electrons.
forming of compounds is all about electrons. (or 2 electrons for the 1st shell)

The electrons are not just whizzing around the nucleus in Most atoms do not have the correct number of electrons
any old orbits... they are precisely organized into tightly for this to occur automatically. However, atoms will readily
defined “energy levels”, or “shells”. lose or gain electrons in order to achieve this. An atom
which has gained or lost electron(s) is called an ION.
The 1st energy level,
or “inner shell”, 2 Example 1: Formation of a Fluoride Ion
can only hold 2 electrons.
An atom of Fluorine has
9 protons (+)
10 neutrons
9 electrons (-)
Electron
The 2nd energy level can hold 2 7 Configuration = 2.7
a maximum of 8 electrons. Gains
2 8 symbol
1 extra
F electron

The atom becomes a


Beyond here, things get more complicated, but the thing to Fluoride Ion (F- )
know is that, beyond the first energy level, the “magic (note change in name) 2 8
number” is 8... if an atom has exactly 8 electrons in its Electron
Configuration = 2.8 symbol
F-
outermost energy level it achieves the best possible energy
state that an atom can have.
It still has 9 protons (+ ve charge)
but now has 10 electrons (- ve).
ALL ATOMS WILL TRY TO ACHIEVE Overall, it now has a negative charge.
THE BEST POSSIBLE ENERGY STATE, OUTER SHELL IS FULL = BEST ENERGY STATE
BY HAVING 8 ELECTRONS
IN THE OUTER SHELL.
Example 2: Formation of a Sodium Ion
Electron Configuration An atom of Sodium has
is simply a description of how the electrons are arranged 1 11 protons (+)
within the energy levels of an atom. 12 neutrons
8 11 electrons (-)
3 Electron
For example, atoms of
Aluminium have a total 2 Configuration = 2.8.1
8
of 13 electrons.
2 Loses
They would be arranged symbol outer
as shown: Na electron,
& loses whole shell.
Firstly, the 1st shell fills
with 2 electrons.
The atom becomes a
Sodium Ion (Na+ )
Then the 2nd shell fills with 8.
(note NO change in name)
Electron 2 8
There are 3 left, which must go into the 3rd shell. Configuration = 2.8
symbol
2.8.3 +
The Electron Configuration is: It still has 11 protons (+ ve charge) Na
but now has 10 electrons (- ve).
Overall, it now has a positive charge.
Try the WORKSHEET at end of section OUTER SHELL IS FULL = BEST ENERGY STATE

(It has lost the 3rd shell entirely, so the full


2nd shell is now its outermost orbit)
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 13 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Ionic Compounds Another example...
If a sodium atom came near to a fluorine atom, it should What if it was magnesium atoms that reacted with fluorine?
be obvious what will happen...
Magnesium atoms have 2
Electron transferred 12 electrons, so they are
1 arranged 2.8.2 8
8 2
To achieve a full
2 outer shell it must
2 7 lose 2 electrons...
Magnesium atom
Sodium atom Fluorine atom Mg
Na F
Both atoms become ions...

2 7 2 7
8
2 Fluorine atoms
2 2 8 Each one accepts an electron from the
magnesium atom
Fluoride Ion
-
The magnesium loses 2 electrons, so it will now have 2
Sodium Ion F more (+) protons than electrons. The magnesium ion has a
2+
double +ve charge... Mg
Na+
Opposite electrical charges attract, so these ions
Two fluoride ions are formed, each one with an extra
must now stick together... this is the -
electron... F
COMPOUND Sodium Fluoride (NaF)
Ionic Lattices The formula for magnesium fluoride is MgF2
In fact, of course, you don’t just get 1 sodium atom reacting because the ratio between the ions is 1: 2
with 1 fluorine atom. In real situations there are billions of
atoms. After all the ions have formed, each positive sodium
ion is attracted to every nearby fluoride ion, and vice versa. Ionic Compounds
form when atoms gain, or lose, electrons
The result is that you don’t just get pairs of opposite ions, creating ions
but huge, 3-dimensional lattices of +ve and -ve ions.

Na+ F- Na+ F- Na
+
NON-METALS
These lines represent

METALS always gain electrons


always lose electrons forming NEGATIVE ions
forming POSITIVE ions
F- Na+ F- +
F-
“ionic bonds”

Na Name of the atom changes


to end -IDE, for the ion

Na+ F- Na+ F- Na+


Each bond is really the attraction between
opposite electric charges
Positive & Negative Ions
The chemical formula for any ionic compound is an are attracted electrically, forming
“empirical formula”... it shows only the ratio between the ionic crystal lattices
ions, not the actual numbers that are present. In ionic
compounds there are no discrete molecules. In the solid
state an ionic compound forms a crystal, which is a huge
array of billions of ions in a lattice. The chemical formula
shows the ratio between ions
not the actual numbers involved
Try the WORKSHEET at end of section
(“empirical formula”)

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 14 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Non-M Metals

group
Ions and the Periodic Table gain electrons to fill the
outer shell to 8 electrons.
1 Ions are negative group
8
+1 group Main Group Numbers group grp
2 grp grp grp 0
correspond to the number of 3 4 5 6 7
electrons in the outer shell -4
+1 +2 ions 0
rare -3 -2 -1

“Transition Metal Block”


+1 +2 These atoms are filling an incomplete inner sub-orbit +3 -3 -2 -1 0

+1 +2 +3 -2 -1 0
It is not easy to predict the charge on ions of these metals.
Sn
+1 You should memorize the common ones.
+2 +3 +4 -1 0
Many of these can “shuffle” electrons from one shell to
another, and can have more than one possible ion. Pb v. rare
+1 +2 +3 +4 +5 ignore -1 0

+1 +2
Group 3 Metals
all have 3 electrons in Group 8
outer shell, and lose them. Semi-M
Metals all have FULL outer shell.
Group 2 Metals do not normally form ions Do NOT form ions.
all have 2 electrons in Do NOT react chemically.
outer shell, and lose them. INERT GASES
Chemistry contains many details to learn,
but there are nearly always patterns involved.
Group 1 Metals Learn the few, simple patterns,
all have 1 electron in outer
shell, and lose it rather than memorizing masses of detail.

Valency Multi-Valency Metals


The “valency” of a chemical species refers to its As suggested in the information above, many of the metals
“combining ratio” with other species. belonging to the “Transition Metal Block” of the Periodic
Table can form ions in more than one way.
For the simple ions, the charge on the ion (including sign)
is the same as valency. For example, atoms of Iron (Fe) most commonly have 3
electrons in the outermost electron shell. To form ions, the
3+
If you know (or can figure out by the patterns) the valency atoms lose these 3 electrons and thereby form Fe ions.
of species, you can predict the chemical formula of the
compound. Study these examples: However, sometimes the iron atom can “shuffle” its
electrons between its outer shell (the 4th energy level) and
Potassium ion the incomplete 3rd shell in such a way that it has only 2
(group 1 metal)
Valency = +1 K+ Formula for electrons in the outer shell. In this situation the atoms will
2+
Compound lose only 2 electrons to form an ion... Fe ions form.
Combined with K2S ion Note the use of Roman
Iron numerals in the name
Sulfur ion Valency = +3 Fe+3 (but NOT in formula)
(group 6 Potassium sulfide
non- metal) S-22 Combined with FeCl3
Valency = -2
2 ion
Must have same amount of Chlorine Iron(III) chloride
(+) and ( - ) electric charge, Valency = -1
1 Cl-
in every case. 2 different versions
ion ion of Iron Chloride
Aluminium +3 Iron
Valency = +3 Al Aluminium chloride
Valency = +2 Fe+2 Iron(II) chloride

Combined with AlCl3 Combined with FeCl2


ion ion
Chlorine Formula for Chlorine
Valency = -1
1 Cl- Compound Valency = -1
1 Cl-
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 15 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Polyatomic Ions Most of the common polyatomic ions have ( -ve) charge
As well as the simple ions which form when individual and valency. Only one common example has a (+ve)
+
atoms gain or lose electrons, there are a number of more valency like a metal. This is the ammonium ion (NH4 ).
complicated ionic species you must know about because
+
they are very common, and cannot be avoided.
(Even using the K.I.S.S. Principle we cannot ignore these!)
H This group consists of a
nitrogen atom and 4 hydrogens.
Compared to the total protons,
These are the “polyatomic” ions (poly=many) which are H N N this group has one less electron
composed of a group of atoms which have an ionic charge so it acts as an ion with a
on the whole group, due to the gain or loss of electron(s).
The entire group acts chemically just like a single, simple
H valency of +1.

ion, and can join with other ions forming compounds and
ionic crystal lattices. Working out a chemical formula is done exactly as before,
-2 except • names do NOT change
One common example is the “sulfate” ion, SO4 and • brackets are needed when 2 or more
polyatomic groups are involved.
Somewhere within this -2
2
group of 5 atoms there O Example:
are 2 extra electrons, in ion
excess of the total O S O Iron Note the use of
protons these atoms Valency = +3 Fe+3 the brackets
contain. The ion has a
valency of -2. O Combined with Fe(NO3)3
ion
Nitrate ion
Other examples are: Valency = -11 NO3- Iron(III) nitrate
-
• Nitrate (NO3 ) ion (valency -1)
-
• Hydroxide (OH ) ion (valency -1) Try the WORKSHEET at end of section
-2
• Carbonate (CO3 ) ion (valency -2), and many more.
A Table Summarizing Symbols &
Valencies is at the end of these notes

Formulas & Names for Ionic Compounds Naming Compounds of Simple Ions
Summary • Name the (+ve) ion (metal) first.
Its name is always identical to the element name.
• Add the name of the (-ve) ion (non-metal).
Its name is the element name, but altered to
Formulas end in -IDE.
• Determine the (+ve) and (-ve) ion involved. e.g. lithium + oxygen = “lithium oxide”
• Work out the minimum number(s) of each ion sodium + phosphorus = “sodium phosphide”
which will give equal amounts of (+ve) and (-ve)
charge. Example: you need 3x(-1) to match (+3) Naming Compounds of
• Write the symbol for the (+ve) ion first, always. Metals with Multiple Valencies
• Use sub-script numbers to show the ratio of ions. As above, but (in brackets) write the Roman numeral
Number “1” is not written. e.g. FeBr2 corresponding to the valency number of the metal ion.
• If a polyatomic ion is involved; e.g. FeBr2 is “iron(II) bromide” (Fe+2 ion)
- brackets MUST be used e.g. Mg(NO3)2 [speak “iron-2-bromide”]
if more than one polyatomic ion. e.g. FeBr3 is “iron(III) bromide” (Fe+3 ion)
- bracket must NOT be e.g. NaNO3 [speak “iron-3-bromide”]
used if only one polyatomic ion.
Naming Compounds Including Polyatomic Ions
Note: The symbols for an ion must contain electric • Name the (+ve) ion first.
charge, written as a super-script. e.g. Fe+3 • Add the name of the (-ve) ion.
The formula for a compound The name of a polyatomic ion does NOT change.
must NOT contain electric charges. e.g. Fe(NO3)2 is “iron(II) nitrate”
( NH4)2SO4 is “ammonium sulfate”

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 16 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Lewis Formulas... “Electron-Dot Diagrams” Lewis Formulas for Ions
Before going any further you need to learn another way to When a non-metal gains 1 or more electrons to form a
represent atoms, ions and molecules and their electrons. negative ion, the extras are shown in a different style, for
example:
A “Lewis Formula” for a chemical species uses dots to
represent the outer shell electrons of each atom. The rest Fluorine Lewis Formulas
of the atom is represented by the chemical symbol for that atom, F 7
element. 2 F

Examples: Lewis Formulas


Lithium Only the outer shell Extra electron Charge
electron shown gained shown
atom, Li 1 Fluoride
2 Ion F-
Li
2 8
-
F
Beryllium
atom, Be 2 extra electron
Be shown in different style
2

Add extra electrons in a An oxygen atom gains 2 electrons


“box pattern” around
Boron to form the oxide ion:
the atom
atom, B 3 Oxygen oxide ion
2 B atom, O 6 -2
+ 2 e-
2 O

Carbon
atom, C 4
2 C A Lewis Formula is not very useful for showing simple
positive ions, but for the record...

Nitrogen
atom, N 1 Lewis Formula
5
N Sodium atom
2 Na 8
After 4 electrons, begin
Na
making pairs.
(electrons do “pair up” in their
2
Oxygen orbits)
atom, O Only outer electron
6 O shown
2

Fluorine Sodium ion Charge shown


atom, F 7
F Na+
2
Na
+
2 8

Neon
atom, Ne 8
Ne
2 Outer electron lost

Outer shell is complete with 8 electrons in 4 pairs.


The next element (sodium) would have a Lewis Try the WORKSHEET at end of section
Formula similar to lithium’s.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 17 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Equations for Ion Formation Here is another example, but more complicated.
As well representing atoms and ions by various diagrams
and formulas, you must learn that any change that occurs It demonstrates the importance of balancing chemical
can be represented by an equation. Examples follow: equations:
Formation of an Oxide Ion (from an atom)
Formation of a Fluoride Ion (from an atom):
- - O + 2 e- O-2
F + e F
Oxygen atom + 2 extra electrons Oxide ion
Fluorine atom + extra electron Fluoride ion
However, just like fluorine, oxygen always exists in nature
In fact, Fluorine exists in nature as F2 molecules, not single as O2 molecules, so the usual reaction would be:
atoms. If a molecule of F2 formed ions, the equation is: Formation of Oxide Ions (from an O2 molecule)
- -
F2 + 2e 2F O2 + 4 e- 2 O-2
Fluorine + 2 extra 2 Fluoride ions
Oxygen molecule + 4 extra electrons 2 Oxide ions
molecule electrons

Where might the extra electrons have come from?


In a chemical reaction, they would normally come from a
Formation of a Magnesium Ion: metal atom which needs to lose electron(s) to achieve its
best energy state.
Mg Mg+2 + 2e- Let’s assume the metal is Lithium:
Magnesium atom Magnesium ion + 2 electrons Formation of a Lithium Ion
(Since Mg atoms have 2 electrons in their outer shell, they must
lose them to form the normal ion with (+2) charge Li Li+ + e-
Lithium atom Lithium ion + electron

(Since Li atoms have 1 electron in their outer shell, they must lose
Note that in ALL cases the total amount of electric it to form the normal ion with (+1) charge
charge on each side of the equation is equal.
However, in a real situation where lithium is reacting with
oxygen, each O2 molecule needs 4 electrons. Therefore, it
Formation of Magnesium Fluoride from its Elements: will take 4 lithium atoms to supply them...
The last 2 equations can be simply added together to Previous Equation Multiplied by 4
describe the formation of the ionic compound Magnesium
fluoride (formula MgF2) from its elements. 4 Li 4 Li+ + 4 e-
F2 + 2e- 2 F- 4 Lithium atoms 4 Lithium ions + 4 electrons
add these together
Mg Mg+2 + 2e-
Now add together the equations for lithium and oxygen:
- +2 - -
Mg + F2 + 2e Mg +2e + 2F
notice how 2 electrons occur on both sides, so they cancel out. O2 + 4e- 4 O-2
add these together
Mg + F2 MgF2 4Li 4Li+ + 4e-
These equations show how for each magnesium ion there
needs to be 2 fluoride ions, so that everything “balances”. 4Li + O2 + 4e- 4Li+ +4e- + 2O-2
There are 4 electrons on both sides, so they cancel out.

The correct formula for lithium oxide is Li2O, so this


combination of ions is enough to make “2 lots” of ions.

Try the WORKSHEET at end of section 4 Li + O2 2 Li2O


This equation is “balanced”... it shows the same
number of each atom on both sides of the equation.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 18 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Covalent Bonding Hydrogen... the Weirdo
The gaining and losing of electrons to form ions is not the Hydrogen is the smallest atom of all, with only 1 electron.
only way for atoms to achieve a full outer shell, and the best
possible energy state that goes with that.
Sometimes hydrogen loses this
If atoms have 4, 5, 6 or 7 electrons in their outer orbit, they + electron, forming a hydrogen ion H+.
1p
When this happens it is behaving
can also achieve a full outer shell by sharing electrons. This
chemically like a metal in Group 1.
is called “covalent bonding”.

Not only do many compounds form this way, but many However, hydrogen atoms can also share electrons
elements exist as 2 or more atoms covalently bonded covalently. Elemental hydrogen is always H2 molecules:
together. Don’t forget that the 1st
orbit holds a maximum of 2
Example: the element Fluorine, F2 electrons, so both atoms
1p+ 1p+ achieve a full outer shell by
7 7 sharing.

2 2
Hydrogen, and all the non-metals and semi-metals, not only
bond with atoms of the same type in the the element state,
but will share electrons with different atoms to form
covalent compounds.
Two atoms of fluorine will always bond
together by sharing a pair of electrons
(As always, leave Group 8 out of this...
Each atom can count the the “Inert Gases” have full outer shells already)
shared electron pair as A covalent bond
part of its outer shell, is always the sharing of A Note About “Molecules”
making a total of 8. a pair of electrons You need to be aware of the precise definition of the
word “molecule”.
Definition: A molecule is the smallest particle of a
substance that can have a separate existence, and
can move around independently of other particles.

6 2 2 Examples:
2 6
Inert gases have “molecules”
of just one atom.

One molecule of fluorine, F2 Hydrogen has “diatomic”


molecules (di=2)

These atoms must remain tightly attached to each other in Lattice structures (ionic or covalent) are not molecules.
order to share the electrons... they are bonded together very
strongly, forming a molecule of F2. A Covalent Lattice Element; Silicon
Atoms of all the non-metals and the semi-metals, (except Si Si Si Si

Group 8 the “Inert Gases”) bond together covalently when Each


in the pure elemental state: chemical
bond is
formed by
Elements Molecules atoms
Si Si Si Si
Group 7 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 sharing 2
electrons
with each
Nitrogen, Oxygen N2 O2 neighbour

Sulfur S8 Si Si Si Si

Phosphorus P4 The shape of the lattice is not square as like this 2-


dimentional diagram. In 3-dimensions, the atoms surround
Carbon, Silicon covalent lattices each other in a pyramid pattern, called a “tetrahedron”.
and others
Pure silicon forms hard crystals made of billions of atoms
covalently bonded in a lattice.
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 19 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Lewis Formulas with Covalent Bonding Covalent Compounds
You were introduced to the Lewis Formula (“electron-dot” Many common and important substances are formed by
diagram) previously. Lewis Formulas are actually more covalent bonding between atoms of 2 or more different
useful for covalent situations than they are for ions. elements.

A covalent bond is always a pair of electrons being shared Everyone knows that water is H2O. You now need to
between 2 atoms. In a Lewis Formula the shared pair are understand exactly how this compound forms.
usually emphasized by drawing a little oval around them.
1 Oxygen atom 1 molecule of H2O
H
Example: Fluorine molecule 2 Hydrogen atoms
F2 O H O
H
Lewis formula H
6 2 2 2 6 Structural formula
H O Model

H
Look carefully at the Lewis formula above to see how all
the atoms involved have achieved full outer shells of
electrons by sharing pairs in covalent bonds.
Lewis Formula F F
Another well known covalent molecular compound is
carbon dioxide CO2
Carbon atom
Shared pair of electrons CO2 molecule
O
C
O C O
O
The F2 Fluorine molecule could also be represented by a
2 Oxygen atoms
simple structural formula, showing that it contains 2 atoms
of fluorine which are connected by a single covalent bond.
The CO2 molecule contains double covalent bonds.
Molecular Lewis Structural These involve atoms sharing 2 pairs of electrons. The
Formula Formula Formula structural formula for this would be: O=C=O
F2 F F F F
It’s also possible to have a triple covalent bond; 3 pairs=6
electrons being shared between 2 atoms. This occurs in the
This represents a single covalent bond nitrogen (N2) molecule N N
(Remember this involves sharing 2 electrons) as well as some compounds.

Predicting Formulas
Model of the molecule for Covalent Compounds
The formulas of the examples above are quite predictable
You need to be able to interpret, and construct, all of these if you know how many electrons are in each atom’s outer
different ways to represent atoms and molecules. shell, and understand how sharing electrons can achieve a
full outer shell.

However, not all covalent compounds are so predictable,


because the the “rule” about achieving a full shell of 8
Model of a electrons is not always followed with covalent bonding.
molecule of (It is always followed with ionic bonding.)
Fluorine
For example, if oxygen & sulfur O S
combine covalently, the compound
formed is sulfur dioxide (SO2). O

Study this Lewis Formula and you’ll see that the “rule of 8
Try the WORKSHEET at end of section electrons” has NOT been followed for the sulfur atom!

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 20 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Naming Covalent Compounds More on Writing Equations
The first problem you face here is that (for historical You previously studied examples of equations describing
reasons) many covalent compounds have “common the formation of ions and ionic compounds. The same
names” that follow no rule or system, and must be learnt by principles of equation writing apply to the formation of
heart. covalent compounds.
Common Names
To keep this as simple as possible (K.I.S.S. Principle!) start If the elements oxygen and hydrogen react with each other,
with just these three common, important compounds: they form the compound water:
Word Equation “Product”
Water H2O H O Hydrogen + Oxygen Water
“Reactants” Arrow indicates that a change occurred
H (Starting chemicals)

Ammonia NH3 H N H To re-write this in chemical symbols, you must recall that
both oxygen and hydrogen occur as diatomic molecules.
(Not to be confused H
with the Symbol Equation
+ H2 + O2 H2O
ammonium polyatomic ion (NH4 )
These elements always The formula for water is
Methane CH4 H occur as molecules of 2 one you need to memorize
atoms
(This is the simplest H C H
of a huge range of The equation now shows all the correct formulas, but is
covalent compounds of NOT balanced... to be fully correct a chemical equation
H must show the same number of atoms of every element,
carbon... more in later topics)
on both sides of the arrow. Each atom you start with must
More Than One Compound be accounted for in the products.
The second problem is that, quite often, there is more than
one possible compound formed from the same elements in A common error is to change a formula to make it balance:
a covalent compound. Some examples:
H2 + O2 H2O2 Wrong!
Elements Different Compounds Possible H2O2 is NOT water!
Sulfur & oxygen SO2 and SO3
NEVER BALANCE EQUATIONS BY CHANGING A
FORMULA
Carbon & oxygen CO and CO2

To cope with this, a naming system has developed which The key is to realize that, since you start with 2 oxygen
uses prefixes to state how many atoms of each element are atoms, you must end up with 2 molecules of water. To do
in one molecule. this you must begin with 4 atoms of hydrogen.
The Prefixes ( i.e. 2 molecules of H2)
1= mono 2= di 3= tri
4= tetra 5=penta 6= hexa Balanced Equation
2 H2 + O2 2 H2O
How to Name a Simple Covalent Compound
From its Molecular Formula This can be visualized by atom models...

• Name the elements in the same order as in the formula


• Alter the name of the 2nd element to end -IDE
• Attach a prefix to the front of both names, indicating
how many atoms are present in each molecule. 1 Molecule
2 Molecules 2 Molecules
(Important exception: If there is only one atom of the of H2 + of O2 of H2O
first-named element, do not attach a prefix to it.)

Examples: P2O5 = diphosphorus pentoxide


SO3 = sulfur trioxide
N2S3 = dinitrogen trisulfide
Try the WORKSHEET at end of section

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 21 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Worksheet 3

Part A Fill in the blanks.


Check answers at the back.

All atoms are composed of 3 types of particles: Generally, metallic elements v).........................
in the centre of the atom is the a)..........................., electrons and form w)..................................... ions.
containing b)............................ and ........................... Non-metals always form x)....................................
In orbit around this are the c)................................... ions when they y)...................... electrons. Once
ions form, the opposite electric charges
d)................................... have a positive electric z)........................................... each other, so the ions
charge. Neutrons are e)......................................., become “bonded” together. In the solid state, all
while f)..................................... have a negative ionic compounds form aa).......................................
electric charge. lattices of billions of ions.

The atoms of one element are Generally, the position of an element in the
g)............................... as each other, but differ from Periodic Table allows easy prediction of the
atoms of h)...................................... in the numbers ab)........................... on its ion. This value
of i)......................................., ........................... and (including charge) is also known as the
....................................... they contain. “ac).....................................” of the element, and
indicates its “combining ratio”. Metals of the
In any atom there are always the same number of “ad)....................................” block are not easily
j).................................. and ......................................... predicted, and many can produce more than one
This number is called the “k)............................. ae).......................... Polyatomic ions are
..............................” and this defines the order of af)............................... of bonded atoms which
the elements in the l).............................................. carry electric charges and act like a single ion.
Table.
ag)...................................... bonding occurs when
The weight or mass of an atom is due to the atoms ah)........................................... electrons to
m)................................ and ......................................... achieve full outer shells, and the best energy state.
(The n)........................................... can be ignored All the non-metals and the ai)..................-
because their mass is insignificant) The sum of ................................ elements will form covalent
protons + neutrons is called the bonds, except (as usual) the gases of group
“o)....................................................................” aj)................

Electrons orbit the nucleus in different Many non-metals in their elemental state are
p).............................. levels. When an atom’s made up of covalent ak)............................... of 2 or
q).............................. orbit contains r)........... more atoms joined. Some form covalent
electrons (or 2 electrons in the 1st shell) it al)............................................. of billions of atoms.
achieves maximum stability. All atoms attempt to
achieve this “best energy state” by Covalent compounds form when atoms of
s)................................. or ................................ different elements bond covalently. A single
electrons to form ions, or by covalent bond always involves
t)..................................... electrons. The exception am)................................................................................
are the elements of Group 8 (the
“u).................................... Gases”) which already
have complete outer shells.

WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS


BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 22 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Worksheet 3 b) From their electron configurations (Q2 (b))


Part B Questions and Practice Problems write the electric charge you would expect on an ion of
each of the first 20 elements.
1. Atomic Number and Mass Number (Elements blanked out do not normally form ions)
a) Complete all the blank spaces in this table He
H
No. No. No. Atomic Mass
Protons Electrons Neutrons Number Number O
Li Be B C N F Ne
19 20

27 32
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
5 4

11 23 K Ca
What pattern is apparent in the vertical
35 80 columns?

b) Use the Periodic Table to identify each element in the REFER TO THE “VALENCY TABLE”
table above. (AT THE END OF THE NOTES)
c) Find each of the following elements in the Periodic TO HELP WITH THE FOLLOWING
Table, (Boron, Iodine, Strontium, Iron, Xenon) then
state how many protons, electrons & neutrons in an atom 4. Simple Ionic Compounds
of each. Write the name, and predict the formula, for a compound
formed from ions of:
2. Electron Configuration
a) The first 20 elements of the Periodic Table are shown a) potassium and chlorine
below by their symbol, and relative position in the table. b) magnesium and sulfur
For each, write its electron configuration. c) oxygen and lithium
b) Describe the pattern apparent in each vertical column. d) bromine and zinc
H He e) calcium and fluorine
f) iodine and aluminium
g) beryllium and oxygen
Li Be B C N O F Ne h) silver and phosphorus
i) hydrogen and sulfur
j) fluorine and sodium

Na K Al Si P S Cl Ar 5. Ionic Compounds with Multi-Valency Metal Ions

a) Give the name for each of these:


K Ca i) CuCl ii) CuCl2
iii) FeO iv) Fe2O3
3. Formation of Ions v) SnBr2 vi) SnBr4
a) The electron configurations for various elements are
given. State whether each atom would gain or lose b) Write the name and formula for the compound of:
electrons, and how many electrons. Also state the charge i) Fe+2 ion with sulfur
on the ion formed. ii) Pb+4 ion with chlorine
Elect. Gain/Lose? How Ion iii) Cu+ ion with oxygen
Configuration many? Charge? iv) fluorine with the tin(IV) ion
v) nitrogen and the iron(III) ion
i) 2.8.8.1
ii) 2.8.6
iii) 2.5
iv) 2.8.8
v) 2.2 WORKSHEET PROBLEMS CONTINUE next page
vi) 2.8.3
vii) 2.6
viii) 2.8.7

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 23 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
6. Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 8. Lewis Formulas
a) Name each compound and write symbols for the two Draw a Lewis Formula for
ions present. a) an atom of phosphorus b) a phosphide ion (P-3)
i) MgSO4 ii) ZnCO3 iii) AgNO3 c) an atom of calcium d) a calcium ion (Ca+2)
iv) KOH v) NH4Cl vi) Fe(OH)3 e) an atom of neon f) a sulfide ion (S-2)
g) the covalent compound PH3
b) Write the formula for (hint: start with the individual atoms, then join them
i) calcium nitrate with covalent bonds)
ii) copper(II) hydroxide h) the covalent compound OBr2
iii) silver sulfate i) the covalent compound ammonia, NH3
iv) ammonium bromide j) carbon tetrachloride, CCl4
v) lithium carbonate
vi) aluminium nitrate 9. Names & Formulas of Covalent Compounds
vii) lead(IV) sulfate a) Write an appropriate name for:
viii) iron(III) hydroxide i) CH4 ii) H2O
ix) potassium nitrate iii) SO3 iv) N2O3
x) ammonium carbonate v) PBr5 vi) OCl2

7. Equations for Ion Formation b) Write a formula for


Write an equation to describe the formation of: i) sulfur difluoride ii) phosporus tri-iodide
a) a lithium ion from a lithium atom. iii) nitrogen monoxide iv) silicon tetrafluoride
v) diboron trioxide vi) ammonia
b) a bromide ion from a bromine atom.
10. Balancing Equations
c) bromide ions from a molecule of Br2. a) Balance the following equations.

d) an aluminium ion from an aluminium atom. Ca + O2 CaO

e) a sulfide ion from a sulfur atom Ag + Cl2 AgCl

f) Combine equations (a) & (c) to form an equation Al + O2 Al2O3


describing the formation of lithium bromide from its
elements. C + H2 CH4
(hint: the equations must contain the same number of electrons,
so that when added the electrons will cancel out. This will require S + O2 SO3
one equation to be multiplied by 2 before adding)
b) Write equations in words and in symbols (then balance)
to describe the formation of:

i) potassium bromide, from its elements (bromine is Br2)


g) Combine equations (a) & (e) to describe the formation
of lithium sulfide. (similar hint)

ii) copper(II) oxide, from its elements (oxygen is O2)

h) Combine equations (d) & (c) to describe the formation


of aluminium bromide. iii) nitrogen dioxide, from its elements (both diatomic)
(need to multiply one equation x2, the other x3, so they have same
number of electrons, to cancel out)

iv) silicon tetrachloride, from its elements.

i) Combine equations (d) & (e) to describe the formation


of aluminium sulfide.
(you figure it out!)

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 24 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

4. PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES

The Moving Particle Model of Matter Liquid Water


We have good reason to believe that all substances are
composed of tiny particles which are always either
vibrating or moving around.

The “particles” are, of course, atoms and molecules.


Exactly which particles are present is determined by
whether a substance is an element, a compound or a
mixture. Regardless of this, however, it is known that the
particles are constantly in motion.

As an example, consider the familiar compound water.


The “particles” in water are molecules of H2O.
• The molecules are still very close together;
Model Structural Lewis that’s why it is very difficult to compress a liquid.
Formula Formula • The inter-molecular forces are still there, but are
unable to hold the molecules in one place;
H O H O that’s why liquids have no shape, but take the shape of
the container they’re in.
H H • As temperature increases, the molecules move faster and
faster. They collide harder and push each other apart.
In solid water (ice) the H2O molecules are packed closely That’s why substances expand when heated.
together and held in place by forces of attraction between
the molecules. In fact, ice is a “molecular lattice”. Some molecules always have more energy than the average,
and these will move fast enough to escape totally from the
Solid Water liquid surface; we say that some of the liquid has
evaporated.

At a certain temperature (called the “boiling point”) many


molecules begin evaporating, not just at the surface, but
within the liquid. This forms bubbles of gas...

...we say the liquid is boiling to form a gas

Gaseous Water (Water vapour)

Each molecule is held in place; Forces of attraction


between molecules...
that’s why solids have a
inter-molecular force
definite shape.
Each molecule vibrates due to its heat energy.

“Temperature” is our measurement of the vibration of the


particles. As the temperature increases, the molecules have
more energy and vibrate more and more.

At a certain temperature, (we call it the “melting point”) the • The molecules are now very far apart;
vibration of the molecules becomes strong enough to that’s why gases are easy to compress.
overcome the inter-molecular forces, and the molecules • They fly rapidly in all directions;
begin moving around, colliding with each other and so gases always totally fill the container.
bouncing off again. • The high speed collisions occurring cause gas pressure,
which increases as temperature rises, because they get
...we say the solid has melted to become a liquid. faster and faster.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 25 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Physical Changes Chemical Changes
A physical change occurs when (for example) A chemical change occurs when (for example)

• a substance changes state. • a substance burns (“combustion”)


(e.g. melts, freezes, condenses, etc) (e.g. magnesium burns in air)
• objects change their shape or size. • Two elements combine to form a compound
(e.g. a rock is broken into smaller pieces) (e.g. sodium + chlorine sodium chloride)
• one substance dissolves in another. • A new substance forms
(e.g. salt dissolves in water) (e.g. when 2 solutions are mixed and a precipitate forms)
• the parts of a mixture are separated. • When a substance “disappears”
(e.g. during filtration, or distillation, etc) (e.g. when zinc metal is “eaten away” by acid)

In all of these physical changes, no new substances are ... and many other examples.
created. In terms of the particles present, nothing has really
changed. In all these chemical changes new substances and new
particles are formed. The atoms present are still the same,
For example, if you melt some ice and then boil the water but they have been rearranged into new molecules and/or
to vapour, the “particles” within it are still the same H2O ion combinations.
molecules... there’s nothing new been formed.
For example, consider what happens if an active metal such
Imagine the particles within a mixture: as sodium, is dropped into water.

Atoms of Sodium

Molecules
of Water H2O
+

Now you might filter Violent reaction occurs


the mixture so that
it is separated into
2 fractions: -
+ -
+

-
- +
molecules of H2 gas
but notice that these are + are given off
still exactly the same
particles. Ions of sodium (Na+)
and hydroxide (OH-)
dissolve in the water
The 2 different kinds were
mixed together, and now
are separated, but they are Sodium + Water Hydrogen + Sodium
still exactly the same hydroxide
particles. 2 Na + 2 H2O H2 + 2 NaOH

Chemical Changes
Physical Changes do NOT Create New Substances,
Create any New Substances, by
or Rearranging the Same Atoms
any New Particles into New Combinations
of Molecules and/or Ions

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 26 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Boiling Water Compared with Electrolysis of Water
The syllabus specifies that you study and compare these two processes.
You will have done simple practical work in the laboratory, as follows:

Oxygen
Similarities &
Hydrogen
Both these processes gases
collecting
• Start with the same
substance... water
Electrodes
• add energy to the
water...
heat in one case, Power
electricity in the supply
other

• In both cases,
bubbles of gas are
formed in the liquid

Differences

Boiling Water Electrolysis of Water


results in a Physical Change only. results in a Chemical Change.

The bubbles are water vapour forming within the liquid. You may have collected the gases produced at each
electrode and carried out simple flame tests on each. This
The result is a change of state. would clearly establish that the gases are hydrogen (H2) and
oxygen (O2).
H2O(l) H2O(g)
liquid water gaseous water 2 H2O(l) 2 H2(g) + O2(g)
liquid water hydrogen oxygen
No new substances have been produced. gas gas
The particles (molecules of H2O) remain unchanged. No new atoms have been formed, but the molecules of
water have been broken up to form molecules of the
elements hydrogen and oxygen.

You may have built models to visualize what happened during electrolysis

1 Molecule 2 Molecules
2 Molecules
of
of
Oxygen
+ of
Hydrogen
Water
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 27 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Energy & Chemical Reactions Decomposition Reactions - Practical Work
When chemical reactions occur there is often a large energy You will have carried out some practical work to investigate
change, either released or absorbed For example: the decomposition of carbonate compounds.

• when substances burn, there is a lot of light and heat Delivery tube
energy (flames!) produced.
• in a battery, electricity is produced by chemical reactions. Limewater
• to extract the metal from a mineral ore, large amounts of
heat or electricity must be applied.
• To cook food (a chemical change) you apply heat.

Notice that the types of energy most commonly involved


with chemical change are heat (& light) and electricity.

Endothermic Reactions (“Endo” = to go in)


are the reactions that absorb energy... those where you
must supply energy to make it happen.
Products have
MORE energy
Energy Content

Energy
absorbed by
chemicals
during
reaction

Reactants Energy Carbonate compound Bunsen


Level

During this reaction you might have observed:


Exothermic Reactions (“Exo”= to go out)
are the reactions that produce and release energy. • a colour change in the solid in the test tube.
Reactants Energy
• that a gas was produced. This is seen as bubbling and
Level “fluffing-up” of the dry powder solid, and bubbles of
Energy gas coming out of the delivery tube.
released by
Energy Content

chemicals • that the limewater became cloudy (“milky”) when the gas
during bubbled through it.
reaction

The limewater test shows that the gas released is CO2.


Products have
LESS energy
copper(II) copper(II) + carbon
carbonate oxide dioxide
Synthesis Reactions (“Synthesis” = to make)
CuCO3 CuO + CO2
are reactions where simple chemical substances combine to
make a more complex substance. For example, when 2 It is the (polyatomic) carbonate ion that has “broken
elements react to form a compound: down” into CO2 gas and left an oxide ion bonded to the
copper ion.
sodium + chlorine sodium chloride
2 Na + Cl2 2 NaCl Other carbonate compounds follow the same pattern.
Synthesis reactions are often exothermic... release energy.

Decomposition Reactions (“Decompose”= break down)


are those reactions where a compound breaks apart into
simpler compounds or elements.

Examples are given on this page. Try the WORKSHEET at end of section

Decomposition reactions are usually endothermic... energy


must be supplied to make the change happen.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 28 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Decomposition by Light Energy Energy Required Relates to
Some compounds will decompose if exposed to sunlight. Bonding Strength
If you carried out a variety of decomposition experiments,
You may have carried out simple experiments with you will have noticed that some compounds decomposed
compounds of silver, such as silver chloride or silver “easily” (e.g. silver compounds needing only a little light)
nitrate. A common experiment involves placing a few while others required strong heating with a bunsen. There
drops of silver nitrate solution on 2 filter papers. One is are many compounds that, if you had tried, would not
placed in a dark cupboard, the other exposed to sunlight. decompose in a bunsen flame because it is just not hot
enough.

Why are some easily decomposed, and others more


difficult?

It all depends on the strength of the chemical bonds


holding the atoms or ions together in the compound.

Atoms or ions in a compound

Ionic or covalent bond holds ions or atoms together


The dark colours which “develop” on the paper exposed to
sunlight are due to a decomposition reaction:
The stronger that bond, the more energy is required to
silver silver + nitrogen + oxygen break up the compound.
nitrate dioxide (gas) (gas)
AgNO3 Ag + NO2(g) + O2(g) Therefore, it follows that the bonding within the
compound silver nitrate must be quite weak. In copper(II)
The dark colour is due to microscopic crystals of metallic nitrate it must be stronger, while in (say) sodium sulfate
silver, too small to be seen as shiny and silvery. (which cannot be decomposed by bunsen heat) the bonding
is very strong.
Decomposition of Siver Compounds
is the basis of Film Photography.

The Photo Image is “Developed”


by chemical processing after the
light falling on the film has caused
changes in the film,
by DECOMPOSITION.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 29 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Worksheet 4 A synthesis reaction is when small, simple chemicals are


ak).......................................... to make al).....................................
Part A Fill in the blanks. Check answers at the back. products. When, for example, elements combine to form
compounds, the reaction often releases energy and so it is
All substances are composed of “particles” which are am)...................................................
constantly a).......................................... In a solid, the
particles are close together and b)............................................. Decomposition reactions occur when an)...............................
by forces of attraction. This explains why solids have a ........................................................................................................
definite c)................................... Heat energy causes the This is usually ao)................................................ because
particles to d)....................................... and as temperature energy must be supplied. A good example is the heating of
increases the particles e)............................................................. carbonate compounds. These will often break down to
At the “f)...................................... point”, the vibration is form ap)..................................................... gas and the
strong enough to allow particles to begin g)........................... aq)....................................... compound. Silver compounds
..................................... will often decompose if exposed to ar)...................................
This is the basis of as)...............................................................
In liquids, the particles are still h).............................................
(that’s why liquids are difficult to i).........................................) The amount of energy needed for decomposition is related
but are able to move around freely. This explains why to the at)........................................................................................
liquids have no fixed j)................................. As temperature within the substance.
increases the particles move k)......................................
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS
In a gas the particles are very l)................................................ BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
and moving rapidly in m)............................................................
This explains why gases are easy to n).....................................
and always o).......................... the container. Part B Questions and Problems

Examples of Physical Changes include changes of For each of the following decompositions, write a word
p)............................ (e.g. melting) or separating the parts of a equation AND a balanced, symbol equation.
mixture. New substances q)............................ (are/are not)
formed and new particles r)............................ (are/are not) 1. When calcium carbonate is heated, it decomposes into
created. carbon dioxide and calcium oxide.

Chemical Changes include s)..........................................


(when things burn) or when 2 elements combine to form a 2. Silver carbonate decomposes (in sunlight) to form silver,
t).................................... This u).......................... (does/does carbon dioxide and oxygen gases.
not) create any new atoms, but results in new
v)..................................... being formed as the atoms are
rearranged into new w)........................................... of 3. Zinc carbonate decomposes into zinc oxide and a gas (?)
molecules and/or ions. when heated.

When water is boiled, a x).................................... change


occurs. The particles before and after are y)............................ 4. If calcium nitrate is heated it decomposes. The products
......................................., being molecules of z).................... are calcium oxide, nitrogen dioxide gas and oxygen gas.
(formula). In contrast, the aa)...................................................
of water is a ab)............................................ change. The
molecules of water are broken up, forming ac)...................... 5. If magnesium sulfate is heated strongly it breaks down.
and .............................. One product is the gas sulfur trioxide. There is one other
product which is a white solid.
When chemical changes occur there is usually a lot of
ad).............................. either absorbed or released.
Commonly, the energy is either ae)................................ or 6. When ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3 is heated it
electricity. In an endothermic reaction, energy is decomposes into 3 gases... water vapour, carbon dioxide
af)......................................, so that the product(s) end up and ammonia gas.
with ag)......................... (more/less) energy than the
reactant(s). In ah).............................................. reactions,
energy is ai)................................................... so the products
contain aj)............................... energy than reactants.
Check your answers at the back.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 30 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

5. BONDING, STRUCTURES & PROPERTIES

Physical and Chemical Properties Properties of a Compound


How do you recognise things and tell them apart? Compared to Its Elements
You may have done practical work to investigate whether
How, for example, do you tell an orange from a banana? or not the properties of a compound are related to the
You look at its colour and shape and (if blind-folded) you’ll properties of the elements it contains.
go by smell and taste. You are using the properties of
different things to identify them. A simple example is to examine a piece of magnesium
(element) and note some simple physical properties. Then
In Chemistry it’s exactly the same... we identify substances, consider the observable properties of the element oxygen,
and classify different chemicals according to their in the air around us.
properties. What are the properties we use?
Then burn the magnesium in air. The product of the
Physical Properties reaction is the compound magnesium oxide, which can be
• Melting & Boiling Points (which determine state at SLC) collected and its properties noted.
• Electrical Conductivity
• “Hardness” and flexibility Magnesium: metallic solid... shiny, flexible, conductor.
(including malleability and ductility) Oxygen: colourless, odourless, non-conducting gas.

There are many other properties, such as density and Magnesium oxide: brittle, powdery, white, non-
colour, but the three above are by far the most useful when conducting solid.
surveying and classifying matter in a general way (and using
the K.I.S.S Principle!). Consider the compound sucrose (table sugar) and the
elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen it is made from.
Chemical Properties include things like
• how reactive the substance is. Carbon: black, brittle solid.
• whether it is acidic, basic or neutral. Hydrogen: colourless, explosive gas.
• which types of reactions it will undergo. Oxygen: colourless, odourless gas
(e.g. whether it will burn or corrode)
Sucrose: clear, crystalline solid, with a sweet taste.
Chemical properties are not so important when surveying
and classifying matter in a general way, but will become You may have examined and considered many other
important in later topics. examples. The general conclusion is:

Properties of Elements, Compounds Generally,


& Mixtures the properties of a Compound
Elements and Compounds are all pure substances. Each are totally different to
element, and each compound has its own unique properties the properties of its Elements
which are characteristic and do NOT vary.

For example, pure water has a fixed melting point, boiling


point, density, acidity, conductivity, etc. It is these unique,
fixed properties which allow us to recognise and identify
water, and every other pure substance. Oxygen -
colourless gas
Mixtures are not pure. The properties of mixtures are Magnesium
usually a “blend” of the properties of its parts, and vary Magnesium - Oxide -
according to its exact composition. For example, salt water shiny metal white powder
has properties of both water and salt, and its density,
boiling point, conductivity (and taste) vary according to
the proportions of the mixture.
Elements & Compounds are Pure Substances
with Unique, Fixed Properties. Despite mentioning “taste” several times on this page.
Mixtures are Impure tasting is NOT safe or appropriate in the laboratory.
and have “blended”, Variable Properties Don’t taste the chemicals!!
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 31 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Bonding Within Substances


To survey and understand the general categories of matter, it is important to know the different
forces that operate to hold substances together. It is this “bonding” within substances that often
determines the general physical properties by which we classify matter into types.

Ionic Compounds
are a lattice of (+ve) and (-ve) ions. Covalent Lattice Substances
Some elements (e.g. Carbon and Silicon) and some covalent
compounds (e.g. silicon dioxide, SiO2) form a lattice of atoms
covalently bonded, in a 3-dimensional crystal structure.

Silicon dioxide forms the mineral


“silica”, the most common on Earth.
A grain of sand
is a crystal of silica.
The “Ionic Bonds” are actually electrical
attractions between opposite charges, and The “Covalent Bonds” are formed when a pair of electrons is being
are very strong. shared, and are very strong.
Since these bonds are strong, it requires a Since these bonds are strong, it requires a lot of energy to break them
lot of energy to break them so that the so that the particles can begin moving around.
particles can begin moving around.
Therefore, the melting and boiling point is usually very high.
Therefore, the melting and boiling
point is usually quite high.
Covalent Molecular Substances
Some elements (e.g. oxygen, chlorine, etc) and many compounds
(e.g. water, carbon dioxide, etc) are composed of covalent molecules.

To understand these substances you must know about


“intra-molecular” and “inter-molecular” forces.
Bonding Within Metals
Why are most metals hard, with quite high melting points?
There must be some strong bond holding the atoms together, yet allowing
them to change shape (malleable & ductile) when hammered or stretched.

Metal atoms do not “intra” = inside


+ + + + + + +
e-
e - -
e hold onto their outer
e- e- “inter” = between
e- e- - e- e- (valence) electrons.
+ + e +
+ + + + Each atom is actually
e- e- e- - a (+ve) ion.
e- e- e- e e- e-
+
e-
+ + + + Loose electrons
+ +
- e- e- - wander between the The Covalent Bonds
e- e e- e
e- ions, in a shifting
e- e- - inside the molecules are
e -
+ + + + + + e + “sea of electrons” very strong and require
a lot of energy to break.
The “Metallic Bond” is the electrical attraction between the (+ve) ions and
the surrounding “sea” of negative charges. This bond can be very strong in It may take a lot of energy to
some metals, so the metal is strong, with a high melting point. (e.g. iron melts decompose the compound.
around 1500oC) In other metals the bond is weaker, so some metals are
softer and melt at lower temperatures. (e.g. lead melts around 320oC) The forces between the molecules will be
explained in a later topic. For now, be aware
However, while the metallic bond can be very strong, it is not rigid. The sea that they exist and are (generally) very weak.
of electrons shifts and flows, so the ions can be pushed or pulled to different They hold the molecules in place in the solid
places without breaking the substance. This is why metals are malleable and state (see “Solid Water” p25) but are easily
ductile, unlike the hard, but brittle ionic or covalent lattices. broken by heat energy causing the molecules
to move around... the solid melts easily.

Since the “inter-molecular” forces are weak, covalent molecular


substances generally have low melting and boiling points, and many are
liquids or gases at normal temperature and pressure (SLC).

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 32 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
A Note About the Inert Gases Molecular and Empirical Formulas
On the previous page the bonding in Ionic, Covalent When we say that the formula for water is H2O, we mean
Molecular, Covalent Lattice and Metallic substances was that each molecule of water contains 2 atoms of hydrogen
discussed. How do the elements of Group 8, the “Inert and 1 atom of oxygen. “H2O” is a molecular formula
Gases”, fit into this scheme? which describes the molecules.

These elements have full outer shells of electrons, so they Salt is an ionic compound. Each crystal contains billions of
do not normally form ions, nor share electrons covalently. sodium and chloride ions, but they are in the ratio of 1:1.
Therefore, they always exist as single-atom molecules. The formula is NaCl, which is an empirical formula. It does
(Remember the exact definition of a “molecule”, p19) not describe molecules (there aren’t any!) but gives the
simplest ratio of the elements present.

Similarly, silicon dioxide has the formula SiO2, but there are
no molecules. This compound is a covalent lattice of
billions of atoms bonded together. The atoms are in the
ratio of 1 silicon atom to every 2 oxygen atoms. SiO2 is an
empirical formula.

Comparing the Properties


of Different Substances
You may have done some practical work to study the
properties of a variety of substances in the laboratory. The
properties studied would have been;
Technically, therefore, they are molecular substances. When • mp & bp (from Chemical Data book or table)
we write “He” for helium this is both the atomic symbol • electrical conductivity, in solid & liquid states,
and the molecular formula. and in solution if possible, by experiment.
• hardness and flexibility of the solid, by expt.
In this case there are no covalent bond within molecules.
There are, however, some extremely weak inter-molecular
forces which can hold the atoms in a solid lattice at
extremely low temperatures. Even very tiny amounts of
heat can overpower these forces, so helium melts and boils
to a gas at a temperature around -270oC.

The forces get stronger as the atoms get bigger, but even
so, all the elements of Group 8 are gases at room
temperature because of very low m.p.’s and b.p.’s. Conductivity testing

Typical General Conclusions

Category Meltingo Boiling Electrical Conductivity Hardness/Flexibility


Point ( C) Point (oC) Solid Liquid Solution of solid

Metals
(e.g. Iron, Lead) Medium High Good Good N/A Most hard, malleable &
to High ductile

Ionic Compounds
(e.g. Salt NaCl Medium High Poor Good Good Hard & brittle
Sodium hydroxide) to High

Covalent Lattices
(e.g. Silicon dioxide Very High Very High Poor * Poor N/A Hard* & brittle
diamond (carbon) (Si, Ge are semi-conductors)

Covalent Molecules
(e.g. water Low Low Poor Poor Poor Solids often soft & waxy
carbon dioxide) to medium If hard, then brittle.
(e.g. water ice)
Exceptions & Anomalies:
* Carbon, in the form of graphite, is a good conductor, and is soft and slippery.
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 33 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Explaining Electrical Conductivity Properties Determine Usefulness
The melting and boiling points, and the hardness and It is the properties of a substance that make it useful for a
flexibility properties of the different categories was particular purpose.
explained previously in “Bonding Within Substances”. (p32)
Copper is used for electrical wiring, because it is
How can the electrical conductivity be explained? a good conductor of electricity, and is
ductile, so can be made into wire easily.
Any substance will conduct electricity if it contains
• electrically charged particles which can Diamond (a form of carbon, a covalent lattice element)
• move independently of each other. is used for drill bits and high-speed saw blade tips
because it
Metals is extremely hard and has an
contain metal ions and a mobile “sea” of free electrons. extremely high melting point
When a voltage is applied, electrical current is carried
readily by the electrons flowing among the metal ions. Plastics (covalent molecular compounds)
are used for electrical insulation, packaging, etc
Metals are good conductors in both solid and liquid states. because they are
non-conductors of electricity
Covalent Lattices and Covalent Molecules soft and flexible
do NOT contain any charged particles that can separate not soluble in water (and waterproof)
from each other and move independently..
Copper sulfate (an ionic compound)
These substances are generally poor conductors whether is used in the purification of copper metal
solid, liquid or in water solution. because, when dissolved in water
(Exceptions: Graphite is a good conductor. The “semi- it conducts electricity to allow the electrical
metal” elements (notably Si & Ge) are semi-conductors) process to occur.

Ionic Compounds Limitations of Our Models of Substances


are the trickiest to understand! Right through this topic you have used models of atoms,
In the solid state the ions are fixed in the lattice and cannot ions, molecules and lattices to help you visualize and
move freely. understand the structure of matter. These notes have used
diagram models, and you may have used physical ball-and-
+ - + - + Solid ionic lattices stick models in class.
will NOT
conduct because
- + - - ions cannot move
+
freely.

+ - + - +

However, if an ionic compound is melted, the (+ve) and


(-ve) ions can move freely and independently. If a voltage
is applied, a current will be carried by the ions migrating in
opposite directions. What are the limitations of these models?

Many ionic compounds are soluble in water. When they • Ionic and covalent bonds are not stick-like structures, but
dissolve, the lattice disintegrates and the ions can move are invisible forces of attraction.
freely.. (This will be explained fully in a later topic) • Real atoms and ions are not solid balls.
• The proportional sizes of our models are often all wrong.
+ - - • We often use colours to distinguish parts of the models,
+ + but this is quite unrealistic.
Ionic compounds
- -
become good
+ - OK, so our models are not very realistic and far from
conductors in the perfect. Despite these limitations, they remain valuable as
liquid state, and in
+ - + ways to help us visualize and understand the “particles” of
solution. + + matter which are beyond our direct vision and often
- - beyond the “common sense” of the everyday world.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 34 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Worksheet 5

Fill in the blanks. Check answers at the back.

It is the a)............................................ of substances The electrical attraction between the ions and this
that allow us to identify and classify them. “aa)................... of electrons” holds the metal
Physical properties include together quite strongly and gives it a fairly
b).................................... and ...................................... ab)............................... (high/low) melting point,
points, c)............................................. conductivity, but also allows flexibility. This is why metals have
and the hardness and flexibility of each the properties of ac)................................................
substance. and ............................................................

d).................................... properties include • Covalent ad)...................................... substances


chemical reactivity and the types of include some elements, such as
e)..................................... a substance will undergo. ae)................................................ and many
compounds such as af)................................... Each
Each element or f).................................. is a pure molecule is held together internally by
substance with a set of properties which are ag)............................... bonds which are very
g)................................... and ....................................... ah)................................ (strong/weak) These are
Mixtures are not pure, so their properties the “ai)................... - molecular” forces. However,
h)......................................................... Generally, the it is NOT these that must be broken in a change
properties of a compound are of state. There are also very aj)......................
i)......................................... when compared to the (strong/weak) forces between the molecules.
properties of the j).............................. it is made These are the “ak).................... -molecular” forces
from. which are broken by heat energy in a change of
state. Since these are al)................................, the
It is often the k)......................................... within a melting points are generally very
substance that determines its general physical am).............................
properties:
The property of electrical
• Ionic compounds are a l)................................. of an).......................................... is very important in
ions. The “m).................................... bonds” which classifying matter. In general terms, a substance
hold the ions together are actually will conduct if it contains ao).................................
n)................................................................ between ............................. which are able to
opposite electrical o)....................................... ap).............................. independently of each other.
These bonds are very p)...................................
(strong/weak), so these substances generally Covalent lattice and covalent molecular
have high q).................................... substances aq)................................(do/do not)
conduct because they do not contain any
• r).......................................... Lattice substances ar).....................................................................
include some elements, such as
s)......................................., and some compounds, Metals are always as).......................... conductors
such as t).................................... The lattice is because of the mobile at)..........................................
composed of atoms which are within.
u)............................................ bonded together.
These bonds are very v).............................. Ionic compounds do not conduct in the
(strong/weak) so these substances have very high au)........................ state because the av)....................
w)........................................................ cannot aw)........................... However, when they
are ax)....................................... or when
• Metals are held together by ay).................................... they become conductors
“x)......................................... bonding”. Each atom because their ions are az).......................................
is really a y)................................... (charge) ion ........................................
because it fails to hold its outer
z).................................., which wander freely.
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS
continued... BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 35 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic
helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts.
Practise on this blank version.

THE ELEMENTS

The Composition of Matter...


MIXTURES

THE COMPOUNDS
Ionic & Covalent
CHEMICAL Bonding
EARTH

BONDING
DETERMINES PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES &
CHEMICAL
CHANGES

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 36 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science

Practice Questions 6.
These are not intended to be "HSC style" questions, but to An element is described as: “solid at SLC, with a shiny
challenge your basic knowledge and understanding of the appearance. It is hard and brittle and conducts electricity
topic, and remind you of what you NEED to know at the slightly.” This element is probably a member of the:
K.I.S.S. principle level. A. metals B. semi-metals
C. non-metals D. inert gases
When you have confidently mastered this level, it is
strongly recommended you work on questions from past 7.
exam papers. Atoms of silver contain 47 protons, 47 electrons and 61
neutrons. The Atomic Number and the Mass Number,
Part A Multiple Choice respectively, would be:
A. 47 & 94 B. 61 & 108
1. C. 47 & 108 D. 47 & 155
The diagram shows
the particles within 8.
a substance. The electron configuration of a certain element is 2.8.6
You would expect that this element would:
Which of the A. form ions with charge +2
following is the B. form ions with charge -2
best description of C. be unlikely to form ions
this substance? D. form ions with charge +6
A. a pure mixture of 2 elements.
B. a pure compound of 2 elements. 9.
C. an impure mixture of 2 elements. Which of the following is a correct formula for an ionic
D. an impure compound of 2 elements. compound?
A. AlBr3 B. CaCl3
2. C. MgO2 D. KSO4
The Earth’s atmosphere is predominantly:
A. mixture of elements. 10.
B. a mixture of compounds. The correct name for the compound CuCO3 is
C. a compound of oxygen and nitrogen. A. copper carbon trioxide
D. unbonded atoms. B. copper carbonate
C. copper(I) carbonate
The following information refers to Q3 & Q4.
A dry mixture of pebbles, sand and salt was separated as D. copper(II) carbonate
follows:
Step 1: Dry mix was shaken in a sieve 11.
Step 2: The material that passed through the sieve was Which of the following chemical species (A, B, C or D) has
stirred into water. exactly the same electron configuration as a chloride ion?
Step 3: The water mixture was filtered. A. an atom of argon
Step 4: Part of the filtrate was evaporated B. a fluoride ion
Step 5: The remainder of the filtrate was distilled. C. a sodium ion
D. an atom of chlorine
3.
The material collected at Step 4 would have been:
12.
A. water only. B. sand only.
C. a mixture of sand & salt. D. salt only. A “double covalent bond” involves:
A. the transfer of 2 electrons from one atom to another.
4. B. the sharing of an electron between 2 atoms.
The “difference in properties” which allows a separation to C. the sharing of 2 electrons.
occur at step 3 and at step 4, respectively, is: D. the sharing of 4 electrons.
A. particle size and boiling point.
B. solubility and melting point. 13.
C. melting point and boiling point. A molecular compound with formula N2O4 would be best
D. particle size and melting point. named as:
A. dinitrogen 4-oxide
5.
B. nitrogen(II) tetra-oxide
The elements which are found uncombined in nature are:
A. mostly metals from the left of the Periodic Table. C. dinitrogen tetra-oxide
B. mainly semi-metals such as silicon. D. nitrogen tetroxide
C. mostly elements of low chemical activity.
D. mainly non-metals which need to gain electrons.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 37 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
14. Longer Response Questions
Which of the following equations shows correctly the Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you
formation of ammonia (NH3) from its elements? an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate.
A. N + H3 NH3
21. ( 4 marks)
B. N2 + H2 NH3 You have been given a mixture of potassium chloride
(which is highly soluble in water) and insoluble copper(II)
C. 2N2 + 3H2 2 NH3 oxide. Your task is to use simple laboratory procedures to
prepare pure, dry samples of each chemical.
D. N2 + H2 N2H2
Construct a flow chart of the procedure you would use.
15.
Which of the following statements about matter is fully 22. (8 marks)
correct? A soil sample was subjected to gravimetric analysis as
A. Substances expand when heated because the particles follows:
get bigger. Step 1: an evaporating dish was weighed accurately.
B. It is difficult to compress solids & liquids because the mass= 42.85g
particles in both are quite close together. Step 2: The soil sample was placed in it and weighed.
C. Heating a solid decreases the forces of attraction, until total mass = 54.27g
the particles can move freely as a liquid. Step 3: Then placed in oven at 80oC until mass constant.
D. Gases are easily compressed because the particles are mass = 52.66g
moving very quickly. Step 4: Then into oven at extremely high temperature.
(this burns away all the organic (plant) matter,
16. leaving only the minerals.) Cooled, re-weighed.
The 4 processes listed (A, B, C and D) are either physical mass = 46.72g
or chemical changes. Which one is the “odd one out”, a) Calculate the mass of:
different to the other 3? i) the soil sample.
A. Dissolving sugar in water. ii) the water in the sample.
B. Steam condensing to liquid. iii) the organic matter in the sample.
C. Filtering a liquid mixture. iv) the minerals in the sample.
D. Steel rusting. b) Showing working, calculate the percentage composition
of the soil sample.
17. c) Which step in the analysis involved a chemical change?
The electrolysis of water is: d) Why was it important, in Step 3, for the dish to be left in
A. an endothermic decomposition. the oven until the mass was constant?
B. an exothermic decomposition.
C. an endothermic synthesis. 23. (4 marks)
D. an exothermic synthesis. a) Name an element, other than oxygen, which can be
found naturally in an uncombined state on Earth. Also state
18. which “sphere” of the Earth this element is most likely to
Most covalent molecular substances (e.g. water) have: occur in.
A. strong inter-molecular forces only. b) Explain why this element is found uncombined, rather
B. weak intra-molcular forces only. than combined in compounds.
C. strong inter-molecular and weak intra-molecular forces. c) Explain why oxygen is found uncombined. (It makes up
D. strong intra-molecular and weak inter-molecular forces. approx. 21% of air)

19. 24. (6 marks)


The compound silicon disulfide has a very high melting Answer this entire question by constructing a suitable table.
point. Its chemical formula is SiS2. It is very likely that:
A. this compound has an ionic lattice structure. You have been given a sample of a pure, solid element.
B. “SiS2” is an empirical formula for a covalent lattice. a) State 3 simple tests and/or observations you would carry
C. this is a covalent molecular compound. out to classify this substance as a metal or non-metal.
D. the compound would conduct electricity when liquid. b) For each test/observation, state the expected result for
i) a metal
20. ii) a non-metal
A substance is found to be a good conductor in both solid
and liquid (molten) states. You would expect it to: 25. (5 marks)
A. be brittle. Find the element potassium on the Periodic Table, and state:
B. have a very low melting point. a) the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in a
C. be malleable potassium atom.
D. be soluble in water. b) the electron configuration.
c) what this atom would do to form an ion, and the electric
charge on the ion.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 38 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
26. (10 marks) 31. (6 marks)
a) Give the correct name for each compound. Compare and contrast the boiling of water with the
i) CaS electrolysis of water, in order to explain the difference
ii) CaSO4 between physical and chemical changes.
iii) Cu(NO3)2
iv) As2O3 32. (2 marks)
v) (NH4)2CO3 Differentiate between exothermic and endothermic
chemical reactions.
b) Write the formula for:
i) silver sulfate 33. (8 marks)
ii) iron(III) iodide a) Write a word equation and a balanced symbol equation
iii) germanium dioxide to describe the decomposition of:
iv) aluminium hydroxide i) barium carbonate
ii) silver carbonate, in which the products are 2 different
v) lead(IV) sulfide gases and a metal.
b) Barium carbonate decomposes after strong heating in a
27. (5 marks) bunsen flame. Silver carbonate decomposes on exposure to
Sketch a Lewis formula for: sunlight. What does this indicate about the relative strength
a) an atom of neon of the bonding in each compound?
b) an atom of phosphorus
c) a chloride ion 34. (10 marks)
d) an oxygen molecule (O2) The following are descriptions of 2 elements:
e) a water molecule Chlorine: mp = -101oC, poisonous green-yellow gas, highly
reactive, valency -1.
28. (8 marks) Silicon: mp=1,410oC, grey crystalline solid semi-conductor,
Write balanced symbol equations for valency -4, does not form ions but will share
a) formation of a chloride ion from a chlorine atom. electrons covalently.
b) formation of chloride ions from a molecule of Cl2
c) formation of a potassium ion from a potassium atom a) List 2 chemical properties of chlorine mentioned above.
d) formation of the compound potassium chloride from its b) Silicon and chlorine can combine to form a compound
elements in their normal state. in which each atom achieves an outer electron shell of 8.

29. (5 marks) i) is it likely to be an ionic or covalent compound?


a) Sketch a Lewis Formula for a nitrogen atom. ii) Suggest a likely formula and name for this compound.
b) Nitrogen and chlorine can form a compound NCl3 by iii) Are the lists of properties above likely to be of any help
sharing electrons so that every atom achieves an outer shell in predicting the properties of the compound? Explain.
of 8. Sketch the Lewis Formula for a molecule of NCl3.
c) Give the name for this compound. c) Sketch a Lewis Formula and structural formula for the
d) Sketch a structural formula for the molecule. compound.
d) Given the information that the compound is molecular
30. (4 marks) rather than a lattice structure, predict (in general terms) its:
Explain how a solid melts to become a liquid, with
reference to how the particles are arranged in a substance, i) mp & bp. (high, low?)
the forces between them, and the effect of heat on the ii) electrical conductivity.
particles. iii) hardness & flexibility of the solid.

NOTICE ANY ERRORS?

Our material is carefully proof-read


but we’re only human

If you notice any errors, please let us know

Need to contact us? PO Box 2575


PORT MACQUARIE NSW 2444
(02) 6583 4333 FAX (02) 6583 9467

keep it simple science www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


TM

mail@keepitsimplescience.com.au
ABN 54 406 994 557

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 39 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Answer Section u) yes v) no
w) can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets.
Worksheet 1 x) can be drawn out into wires.
Part A y) silicon & germanium z) semi-metals
a) pure b) one type aa) hydrogen ab) non-metal
c) cannot d) physical or chemical ac) metal ad) non-metals
e) Compounds f) pure ae) left af) metals
g) chemically h) fixed ag) semi-metal ah) hydrogen
i) physical j) elements ai) solids aj) Standard Lab.Conditions
k) impure l) elements & compounds ak) mercury & bromine al) inert
m) bonded n) vary am) right an) oxygen (others)
o) solid (rocky) p) mixtures ao) diatomic ap) O2
q) Hydrosphere r) water aq) electrical wiring ar) conductivity & ductility
s) elements & compounds t) salt as) lack of chemical activity at) corroding
u) gases v) nitrogen & oxygen
w) water x) compounds Part B Practice Questions
y) proteins & carbonhydrates, also fats, DNA, etc. 1. a) Rb is Group 1 metal... v.active. Would not be found
z) properties aa) separate uncombined. Ne is Inert Gas... no compounds; would be
ab) physical found as uncombined element.
ac) filtration, evaporation & distillation b) i) Rb: shiny & metallic solid. Ne: colourless gas.
ad) Gravimetric ae) weighing ii) Rb: good conductor. Ne: poor conductor.
Part B iii) Rb: good ductility & malleability. Ne: poor.
1. 2. P = solid, non-metal. Q = solid, metal. R = liquid, non-
a) distillation b) filtration (filtrate) metal. S = solid (just), metal. T = gas, non-metal.
c) filtration (residue) d) evaporation 3. a) shiny, non-corrosive, beautiful appearance.
e) use a separating funnel b) semi-conductor, can turn circuits on or off.
2. c) high-density, soft, easily moulded, non-corrosive.
a) Add water to mixture. d) lower density than air. (H is better, but explosive)
Stir well e) good conductor, very high melting point
Worksheet 3
Part A
Residue FILTER Filtrate a) nucleus b) protons & neutrons
in filter paper passes through c) electrons d) Protons
e) neutral (no charge) f) Electrons
DRY g) the same h) other elements
EVAPORATE i) protons, neutrons& electrons
j) protons & electrons k) Atomic Number
Flour l) Periodic m) protons& neutrons
Sugar n) electrons o) Mass Number
p) energy q) outer
b) A sieve with appropriate mesh size. r) 8 s) gaining or losing
3. t) sharing u) Inert
a) manganese dioxide v) lose w) positive
b) 3.04 - 0.16 = 2.88g x) negative y) gain
c) % composition = 2.88 x 100 = 58.1% z) attract aa) ionic crystal
4.96 ab) charge ac) valency
d) potassium sulfate ad) Transition ae) ion
e) 30.70 - 28.62 = 2.08g af) groups ag) Covalent
f) % composition = 2.08 x 100 = 41.9% ah) share ai) semi-metal
4.96 aj) 8 ak) molecules
g) The 2 percentages add to exactly 100%. al) lattices am) sharing 2 electrons.
h) Washing the residue with a little extra pure water. Part B
or Drying substances until their mass does not change, to 1. a)
ensure they are fully dry.
protons electrons neutrons At. No. Mass No.
Worksheet 2
Part A 19 19 20 19 39
a) compounds b) elements
c) reacted d) compounds 27 27 32 27 59
e) uncombined f) chemical reactivity
g) gold h) neon,argon, etc
i) oxygen j) active 4 4 5 4 9
k) plants keep extracting it from compounds and returning
it to the air (photosynthesis) 11 11 12 11 23
l) 100 m) properties
n) metals or non-metals 35 35 45 35 80
o) yes p) no
q) yes r) no b) In order, potassium, cobalt, beryllium, sodium, bromine
s) yes t) no
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 40 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Worksheet 3 Part B (continued) 4.
1. a) potassium chloride, KCl
c) Protons Electrons Neutrons b) magnesium sulfide, MgS
Boron 5 5 6 c) lithium oxide, Li2O
Iodine 53 53 74 d) zinc bromide, ZnBr2
Strontium 38 38 50 e) calcium fluoride, CaF2
Iron 26 26 30 f) aluminium iodide, AlI3
Xenon 54 54 77 g) beryllium oxide, BeO
h) silver phosphide, Ag3P
2. i) hydrogen sulfide, H2S
a) j) sodium fluoride, NaF

1 2 5.
a) i) copper(I) chloride ii) copper(II) chloride
iii) iron(II) oxide iv) iron(III) oxide
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 v) tin(II) bromide vi) tin(IV) bromide
b)
i) iron(II) sulfide, FeS ii) lead(IV) chloride, PbCl4
iii) copper(I) oxide, Cu2O iv) tin(IV) fluoride, SnF4
2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8 v) iron(III) nitride, FeN

6.
a) i) magnesium sulfate, Mg+2, SO4
-2
2.8.8.1
+2 -2
2.8.8.2 ii) zinc carbonate, Zn , CO3
iii) silver nitrate, Ag+, NO3
-

iv) potassium hydroxide, K , OH-


+
b) The elements in each column have the same number of
v) ammonium chloride, NH4 , Cl-
+
electrons in their outer shell.
vi) iron(III) hydroxide, Fe , OH-
+3

3. b) i) Ca(NO3)2 ii) Cu(OH)2


a) iii) Ag2SO4 iv) NH4Br
Elect. Gain/Lose? How Ion v) Li2CO3 vi) Al(NO3)3
Configuration many? Charge? vii) Pb(SO4)2 viii) Fe(OH)3
ix) KNO3 x) (NH4)2CO3
i) 2.8.8.1 lose 1 +1
7.
ii) 2.8.6 gain 2 -2
a) Li Li+ + e-
iii) 2.5 gain 3 -3 b) Br + e -
Br-
iv) 2.8.8 will not form ions c) Br2 + 2e -
2Br-
v) 2.2 lose 2 +2 d) Al Al+3 + 3e-
-
vi) 2.8.3 lose 3 +3 e) S + 2e S-2
vii) 2.6 gain 2 -2 f) (multiply eqn.(a)x2, then add (c)
viii) 2.8.7 gain 1 -1 2Li + Br2 + 2e- 2Li+ +2e- + 2Br-
2Li + Br2 2 LiBr
b) g) multiply eqn(a) x2. Add to (e). Electrons cancel.
He 2Li + S Li2S
H
h) multiply (c)x3 and (d)x2, so both contain 6 electrons,
+1
then combine:
Li Be B C N O F Ne 2Al + 3Br2 + 6e- 2Al+3 + 6e- + 6Br-
+1 +2 -3 -2 -1 2Al + 3Br2 2AlBr3
i) multiply (d)x2 and (e)x3 so both have 6 electrons.
2Al + 3S Al2S3
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
+1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 8. -3
(a) P (b) P (c) Ca
K Ca Elements in a vertical column form ions
+1 +2 with the same charge. +2 -2
(d) Ca (e) Ne (f) S

continued...

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 41 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Worksheet 3 ak) combined al) more complex
Part B am) exothermic
8. (continued) an) chemicals break down into simpler substances
ao) endothermic ap) carbon dioxide
g) H P H h) Br O aq) oxide ar) light
as) photography at) strength of the bonds
H Br
Part B
1. calcium carbon + calcium
Cl carbonate dioxide oxide
i) H N H j) CaCO3 CO2 CaO
Cl 2.
C Cl
H silver silver + carbon + oxygen
carbonate dioxide
Cl 2 Ag2CO3 4 Ag + 2 CO2 + O2
3.
9. zinc zinc + carbon
a) i) methane (memorize!) ii) water carbonate oxide dioxide
iii) sulfur trioxide iv) dinitrogen trioxide ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2
v) phosphorus pentabromide vi) oxygen dichloride 4.
b) i) SF2 ii) PI3 iii) NO calium calcium + nitrogen + oxygen
iv) SiF4 v) B2O3 vi) NH3 (learn!) nitrate oxide dioxide
2 Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4 NO2 + O2
5.
10. a) magnesium sulfur + magnesium
2 Ca + O2 2 CaO sulfate trioxide oxide
MgSO4 SO3 + MgO
2 Ag + Cl2 2 AgCl 6.
ammonium water + carbon + ammonia
carbonate dioxide
4Al + 3 O2 2Al2O3 (NH4)2CO3 H2O + CO2 + 2 NH3
C + 2H2 CH4 Worksheet 5
a) properties b) melting & boiling
2S + 3O2 2SO3 c) electrical d) Chemical
e) reactions f) compound
b) g) fixed & characteristic (or unique)
i) potassium + bromine potassium bromide h) vary i) totally different
2K + Br2 2 KBr j) elements k) bonding
ii) copper + oxygen copper(II) oxide l) lattice m) ionic
2C + O2 2 CuO n) electrical attractions o) charges
p) strong q) mp’s & bp’s
iii) nitrogen + oxygen nitrogen dioxide r) Covalent s) carbon
N2 + 2 O2 2 NO2 t) silicon dioxide (silica) u) covalently
iv) silicon + chlorine silicon tetrachloride v) strong w) mp’s & bp’s
Si + 2 Cl2 SiCl4 x) metallic y) positive
z) electron(s) aa) sea
Worksheet 4 ab) high ac) malleability & ductility
Part A ad) molecular ae) oxygen/hydrogen, etc.
af) water ag) covalent
a) moving b) held in place ah) strong ai) intra-
c) shape d) vibrate aj) weak ak) inter-
e) vibrate faster f) melting al) weak am) low
g) moving around h) close together an) conductivity ao) charged particles
i) compress j) shape ap) move aq) do not
k) faster l) far apart ar) mobile charges as) good
m) all directions n) compress at) sea of electrons au) solid
o) fill p) state av) ions aw move
q) are not r) are not ax) melted ay) dissolved (in water)
s) combustion t) compound az) free to move independently
u) does not v) substances
w) combinations x) physical Practice Questions
y) exactly the same z) H2O
Part A Multiple Choice
aa) electrolysis ab) chemical
1. B 5. C 9. A 13. C 17. A
ac) hydrogen and oxygen ad) energy
2. A 6. B 10. D 14. C 18. D
ae) heat af) absorbed
3. D 7. C 11. A 15. B 19. B
ag) more ah) exothermic
4. A 8. B 12. D 16. D 20. C
ai) released aj) less
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 42 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
Part B Longer Response 28.
In some cases there may be more than one a) Cl + e- - Cl- -
correct answer possible. The following “model” b) Cl2 + 2e 2Cl
answers are correct, but not necessarily perfect. c) K K+ + e-
21. d) 2K + Cl2 2 KCl
Add water to mixture.
Stir well 29.
a) N N b) Cl N Cl

Residue FILTER Filtrate (triple covalent bond) Cl


in filter paper passes through c) nitrogen trichloride
d) Cl N Cl
DRY EVAPORATE Cl
30.
In a solid, the particles (atoms, ions or molecules) are
copper(II) oxide potassium chloride packed closely together and held in place by forces of
attraction. Heat causes them to vibrate. As the temperature
22. rises they vibrate more and more until, at the melting point,
a) i) Soil sample = 54.27 - 42.85 = 11.42g they break free of the forces and move around freely. The
ii) Water = 54.27 - 52.66g = 1.61g substance has melted to a liquid.
iii) Organic = 52.66 - 46.72 = 5.94g 31.
iv) Minerals = 46.72 - 42.85 = 3.87g “Compare & contrast” means to identify similarities and
b) %water = (1.61/11.42)x100 = 14.1% differences.
% organic = (5.94/11.42)x100 = 52.0% The processes are similar in that both involve adding
% minerals = (3.87/11.42)x100 = 33.9% energy to liquid water so that bubbles of gas form.
c) Step 4. Burning (combustion) is a chemical change. The process are very different in terms of what hapens to
d) To ensure that it was thoroughly dried before weighing. the particles:
Boiling causes water molecules to move fast enough to
23. become gaseous. Bubbles of water vapour form in the
a) Gold (lithosphere) or argon (atmosphere) liquid. These are still the same molecules, so this is a
b) Gold has a very low chemical activity, so tends not to physical change.
react and combine. Electrolysis causes water molecules to decompose into
c) Oxygen is quite highly active, but it is constantly produced hydrogen and oxygen. The same atoms are present, but
by plants (photosynthesis) and returned to the air. they have been rearranged into new molecules. This is a
chemical change since new particles & substances have
24. formed.
Test Result for Result for 32.
Conducted Metal Non-metal “Differentiate” means to explain the difference.
appearance (lustre) shiny dull Exothermic reactions are those which release energy (e.g.
electrical conductivity good poor heat) from the chemicals, while endothermic reactions
hit with hammer malleable brittle absorb energy.
33.
25. a) i) barium barium + carbon
a) 19 electrons, 19 protons, 20 neutrons carbonate oxide dioxide
b) 2.8.8.1 BaCO3 BaO + CO2
c) lose 1 electron. Charge +1 ii) silver silver + carbon + oxygen
carbonate dioxide
26. 2Ag2CO3 4Ag + 2CO2 + O2
a) i) calcium sulfide ii) calcium sulfate b) Barium carbonate requires much more energy, so the bonding
iii) copper(II) nitrate iv) diarsenic trioxide within it must be much stronger than in silver carbonate.
v) ammonium carbonate 34.
a) highly reactive. valency -1.
b) i) Ag2SO4 ii) FeI3 (“poisonous” could also be considered a chemical property,
iii) GeO2 iv) Al(OH)3
v) PbS2 since toxicity is due to chemical action)
b) i) covalent (no metal present to form +ve ions)
27. ii) SiCl4 silicon tetrachloride
a) Ne b) P c) - iii) No. Compounds usually have totally different properties
Cl to their elements.
c) Cl
d) i) low
d) e) H O
ii) poor
O O
Cl iii) possibly soft, but if hard it
Si Cl
will be brittle.
H
Cl

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 43 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
TM
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
keep it simple science
VALENCY TABLE
of common ions

Name Symbol Electrons in Charge Name Symbol Electrons in Charge


outer shell on Ion outer shell on Ion

Simple Metal Ions Simple Non-Metal Ions (name changes to -IDE)


Hydrogen H 1 +1 Fluorine F 7 -1
Lithium Li 1 +1 Chlorine Cl 7 -1
Sodium Na 1 +1 Bromine Br 7 -1
Potassium K 1 +1 Iodine I 7 -1
• Silver Ag 1 +1
Oxygen O 6 -2
Sulfur S 6 -2

Magnesium Mg 2 +2
Calcium Ca 2 +2 Nitrogen N 5 -3
Barium Ba 2 +2 Phosphorus P 5 -3
• Zinc Zn 2 +2
Carbon C 4 -4

Aluminium Al 3 +3 Polyatomic Ions

Metals with More Than One Ion • Hydroxide OH- -1


• Nitrate NO3
-
-1
• Copper Cu 1 or 2 +1 or +2
• Iron Fe 2 or 3 +2 or +3
• Sulfate SO4
-2
-2
• Tin Sn 2 or 4 +2 or +4
• Carbonate CO3
-2
-2
• Lead Pb 2 or 4 +2 or +4

Polyatomic Ion

• Ammonium NH4
+
+1

Species marked “•” need to be memorized.


All others can be easily read from the Periodic Table.
As you encounter new ions (especially polyatomic), add to this table

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 1 44 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science