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RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments

RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments

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Published by: American Library Association on May 11, 2011
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RDA

Designed for current and future environments
Chris Oliver McGill University chris.oliver@mcgill.ca May 11, 2011

RDA = Resource Description and Access
y y y

new metadata standard replaces AACR2 designed for the web environment better metadata to support better resource discovery

Designed for now and the future
Now
y

Future
y

designed to work in the current environment compatible with AACR2 records can encode in MARC 21 and store in current databases

y

y

designed to work in future environments y new database structures y data on the web y linked data in the semantic web environment y library data visible in the web alongside other types of metadata

Plan for the webinar
1. 2.

What is RDA? What makes RDA different?
x x RDA as a content standard RDA·s underlying framework - data model - data elements

Questions, comments
3.

Bibliographic and authority data in new environments
x x x RDA data beyond MARC records RDA data beyond the current catalog RDA data on the web

Questions, comments

What is RDA?
‡ relationship to AACR2

‡ a content standard

AACR2
y y y

RDA

continue to record title continue to record edition continue to record date of publication

But «
y y

new vocabulary new way of thinking about how we do these steps

Relationship to AACR2
RDA 0.2 ´instructions derived from AACR have been reworkedµ
‡ many instructions originate from AACR2 ‡ instructions are reworded and organized differently ‡ within a new theoretical framework every word has changed

many instructions show visible continuity with AACR2

AACR2

RDA
AACR2 deconstructed new concepts new structure new vocabulary some new instructions some changed instructions

What makes RDA different?
some continuity with AACR2 But «
y

RDA as a content standard
flexibility adaptability

y y

theoretical framework bibliographic and authority information as ´dataµ

RDA = content standard
RDA not an encoding standard not a presentation standard RDA what data do I record?

RDA 0.4.2 Objectives 0.4.2.3 Flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data.They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments.

RDA = content standard
RDA data can be encoded using: ‡ MARC 21 ‡ encoding schema such as Dublin Core, MODS, and others ‡ web friendly encoding schema based on XML RDA data can be presented using : ‡ ISBD conventions ‡ labelled display ‡ newly developed display conventions ‡ display conventions used in other metadata communities

Examples in RDA
examples show what the data should be:
RDA 2.4.1.4 Recording Statements of Responsibility Transcribe a statement of responsibility in the form in which it appears on the source of information. EXAMPLE by Walter de la Mare Fats Waller by Dr. Johnson by Sir Richard Acland by Alfred, Lord Tennyson by a Lady of Quality par Charles M. Schultz directed and produced by the Beatles

Examples in RDA
AACR2 2.1F1. Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to persons or bodies as instructed in 1.1F Shut up in Paris / by Nathan Sheppard Great Britain : handbook for travellers / by Karl Baedecker Vas-y, Charlie Brown / par Charles M. Schulz MARC 21 manual 245 $c statement of responsibility «

245 04 $a The plays of Oscar Wilde /$c Alan Bird. 245 10 $a How to play chess /$c Kevin Wicker ; with a foreword by David Pritchard ; illustrated by Karel Feuerstein.

RDA as a content standard
record reliable data y how to encode data ² not part of the standard
y

RDA says:

record person·s date of birth 1978

Many possibilities for encoding: $d 1978MARC 21 MARCXML <subfield code="d">1978- .</subfield> <mods:namePart type="date">1978- </mods:namePart> <dob>1978</dob> <xs:element name="rdaDateOfBirth´>1978</xs:element>

RDA as a content standard
record reliable data y how to display data ² not part of the standard
y

RDA says:

record person·s date of birth 1978

Many possibilities for display: born 1978 b. 1978 1978date of birth: 1978

RDA as a content standard
y y

designed for use by libraries designed to be flexible and adaptable to many environments 
not tied to library-specific encoding not tied to library-specific display of data data that can interact and co-exist with metadata of other cultural heritage communities data that can be used in the web environment

Day 1 of implementation
y y

most ² in MARC 21 environment most ² in conventional library databases ² bibliographic records, authority records + holdings records

RDA records in MARC 21 Library of Congress catalog US RDA Test documentation OCLC WorldCat Libraries that participated in the US Test

Example: RDA in MARC 21
020 $a 9780521440080 100 1 $a Adrian, R. J. $q (Ronald J.), $e author 245 10 $a Particle image velocimetry / $c Ronald J. Adrian, Jerry Westerweel. 260 $a New York : $b Cambridge University Press, $c 2011, ©2011. 300 $a xxvi, 558 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 26 cm. 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 490 1 $a Cambridge Aerospace series ; $v 30 700 1 $a Westerweel, J., $e author 830 0 $a Cambridge Aerospace series ; $v 30

Example: RDA in MARC 21
020 $a 9780521440080 100 1 $a Adrian, R. J. $q (Ronald J.), $e author 245 10 $a Particle image velocimetry / $c Ronald J. Adrian, Jerry Westerweel. 260 $a New York : $b Cambridge University Press, $c 2011, ©2011. 300 $a xxvi, 558 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 26 cm. 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 490 1 $a Cambridge Aerospace series ; $v 30 700 1 $a Westerweel, J., $e author 830 0 $a Cambridge Aerospace series ; $v 30

Example: RDA in MARC 21
110 2 $a Indian Map Service. 245 00 $a Assam tourist road atlas & state distance guide / $c designed, cartographed, printed & published by Indian Map Service ; editors, R.P. Arya [and three others]. 246 3 $a Assam tourist road atlas and state distance guide 255 $a Scales differ. 260 $a Jodhpur, India : $b Indian Map Service, $c 2010, ©2010. 300 $a 1 atlas (40 pages) : $b color illustrations, color maps ; $c 25 cm. 336 $a cartographic image $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 700 1 $a Arya, R. P.

Example: RDA in MARC 21
110 2 $a Indian Map Service. 245 00 $a Assam tourist road atlas & state distance guide / $c designed, cartographed, printed & published by Indian Map Service ; editors, R.P. Arya [and three others]. 246 3 $a Assam tourist road atlas and state distance guide 255 $a Scales differ. 260 $a Jodhpur, India : $b Indian Map Service, $c 2010, ©2010. 300 $a 1 atlas (40 pages) : $b color illustrations, color maps ; $c 25 cm. 336 $a cartographic image $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 700 1 $a Arya, R. P.

Look beyond day 1
day 1 implementation  task is completed day 1 beginning on a new track making the point of transition as smooth as possible emphasizing continuity

Us and our legacy data

RDA «
y

takes us from where we are moves us to a new track allows us to change direction start travelling along a new track

y

y

y

RDA·s framework
the data model the data elements

RDA·s framework
the data model

Explicit RDA data model
y

ERD = entity relationship diagram in RDA Toolkit

or available at: http://www.rdatoolkit.org/background

Aligned with IFLA conceptual models
FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records 1998 Functional Requirements for Authority Data 2009 Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data approved 2010)

FRAD

(FRSAD

y

FRAD and FRSAD are extensions of the FRBR model

FRBR + FRAD
y

based on the analysis of bibliographic and authority records entity-relationship models IFLA task forces world-wide consultation international consensus

y y y y

Why are the models important?
y

internationally shared conceptual model 
broad international support for the explanatory power of the models  common international language and conceptual understanding of the bibliographic universe

y

entity-relationship model 
widely used data modeling technique  understood by other metadata and data modeling communities
e.g. software engineers, information systems and database designers

Why are the models important?
as the foundation for a standard: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ provides a logically consistent underlying framework makes it easier for other metadata communities to understand the structure of our data makes it easier to apply in an international context makes it easier for our data to interoperate with data modeled similarly ‡ other data that aligns with a FRBR/FRAD model
‡ other data that conforms to a similar entityrelationship model

Entities - attributes - relationships
y y y

new vocabulary entity = the object of a user·s interest entities that are of interest to someone who uses bibliographic and authority data

RDA focuses on: bibliographic entities entities specific to authority control

Bibliographic entities (FRBR/FRAD)
work expression manifestation item person family corporate body concept object event place FRBR Group 1 products of intellectual or artistic endeavor FRBR Group 2 responsible for group 1 entities

FRBR Group 3 subjects (includes group 1 & 2)

Authority entities (FRAD)
bibliographic entities name identifier controlled access point entities on which authority data is focused entities for authority control

rules agency

entities that determine the content and form of access points

Authority entities (FRAD)
bibliographic entities name identifier controlled access point entities on which authority data is focused entities for authority control

rules agency

entities that determine the content and form of access points

Attributes
y

characteristics of the entity data to be recorded about the entity

examples of attributes: work: manifestation: item: person: corporate body: object: title, genre publisher, date of publication, extent identifier (e.g. barcode), provenance name, dates, gender place, dates, address term

Relationships: links between entities
y y y

link between one entity and another basis for navigation and support collocation explicitly defined

primary relationships: between work, expression, manifestation and item 3 other major types of relationships: 1. 2. 3. between a person, family or corporate body and a resource between one resource and another resource between a person, family or corporate body and another person, family or corporate body

Relationships: links between entities
work item manifestation work manifestation person family created by owned by produced by based on electronic reprod. member of founded person family corporate body work manifestation family corporate body

Organization and Structure of RDA 
2

main parts Recording attributes Recording relationships

sections 1-4 sections 5-10 

Divided

into 10 sections

sections are organized according to the bibliographic entities

Organization and Structure of RDA
Section 1-4 = Recording attributes
Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Recording attributes of manifestation and item Recording attributes of work and expression Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place [placeholder]

Organization and Structure of RDA
Sections 5-10 = Recording Relationships
Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section 8. Section 9. Section 10. Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource Recording the subject of a work [placeholder] Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places [placeholder]

Entities - attributes - relationships
y y

new vocabulary new way of thinking about bibliographic and authority information careful separation of content and carrier that a human can read and interpret that is machine actionable

y

data

RDA·s framework
the data elements

Elements in RDA and AACR2
RDA element = A word, character, or group of words and/or characters representing a distinct unit of bibliographic information.

AACR2 element = similar definition plus « and forming part of an area of the description.
y

AACR2 elements are organized and embedded into areas

RDA data elements
y

move away from:

‡ paragraph style (ISBD areas)
‡ data embedded in long character strings ‡ data stored in ambiguous elements
y

move towards: ‡ independent, separate units of data ‡ precisely defined or ´parsedµ ‡ each element contains data about a single attribute or a single relationship ‡ increased use of controlled vocabulary

RDA data elements
y

distinct and defined elements for each kind of data illustrative content encoding format production method sound content applied material base material reduction ratio

different element for each type of data

Elements in AACR2
AACR2: information embedded in ´other physical detailsµ (or a non-specific note) illustrative content encoding format production method sound content applied material base material reduction ratio

other physical details MARC 300 $b

Controlled vocabulary
y

controlled vocabulary recommended for many elements DAISY, MP3, Access, XML, JPEG, TIFF, CAD, PDF, Blu-Ray, VCD blueline, blueprint, engraving, etching, lithograph, photocopy, photoengraving, woodcut Bristol board, canvas, cardboard, ceramic, glass, leather, paper, parchment, vellum

encoding format

production method

base material

RDA data elements
y

distinct and defined elements for each kind of data = groundwork for the future illustrative content encoding format production method sound content applied material base material reduction ratio

currently map to MARC 300 $b

day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment ² data will still be ambiguous

RDA data elements
y

only one kind of data in an element AACR2: MARC 21: RDA: date of publication, distribution, etc. 260 $c 4 different elements: date of production date of publication date of distribution date of copyright

Dates of publication and copyright
AACR2:
Published: New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

RDA:
Published: New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, ©2011. Published: Cambridge, Massachusetts : Candlewick Press, [2006], ©2006.

Published: Cambridge, Mass. : Candlewick Press, c2006.

day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment ± new proposal for less ambiguity: 2011-DP01

RDA data elements
y

remove ambiguity
1.7B13. Dissertations ‡ information embedded in a note ‡ note about academic degree, granting institution or
faculty and year degree granted

AACR2: AACR2

RDA:

7.9.1 Recording Dissertation or Thesis Information

‡ separate elements for: academic degree granting institution or faculty year degree granted
day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment ± subfields for 502 already implemented

Thesis information
RDA elements: Academic degree Granting institution or faculty Year degree granted Ph.D. McGill University 2009

Already have 2 options in MARC 21: 502 $a Thesis (Ph.D.)³McGill University, 2009. 502 $b Ph.D. $c McGill University $d 2009

Thinking ´dataµ
y

even within the MARC environment, we·re thinking about parsing information strings into data elements more granularity for: thesis information place and date of capture in progress dates of pub., dist., man., prod. date of copyright in progress form of work medium of performance even for display: 260 $a [San Francisco?] : $b [publisher not identified], $c [2009?].

y

Identifiers
from FRAD: entities are known by their names and/or are assigned identifiers RDA has an element defined for recording the identifier of each bibliographic entity: item manifestation expression work person family corporate body RDA has option to use identifiers to reference relationships

Identifiers
y

name = more suitable for humans to read and interpret eye-readable data: name, date « Shields, Carol, 1953-2003

y

identifier = more suitable for machines to make links = scope to use a URI as an identifier = machine actionable data 0101A6635 http://viaf.org/viaf/4944537/#Shields,_Carol

Relationship designators
y

specify nature of relationships specify roles e.g. cartographer performer broadcaster former owner specify relationship between resources e.g. adaptation of musical setting of paraphrased as

Access points for automated env. env.
AACR2 RDA Aesop·s fables. Polyglot. Aesop·s fables. Greek Aesop·s fables. Latin Aesop·s fables. English Aesop·s fables. German

AACR2 RDA

Aesop·s fables. English & German Aesop·s fables. English Aesop·s fables. German

RDA data elements
y

still recording the same kind of information title edition date of publication record in distinct data elements record with more precision data that a human can use data that is machine actionable each element has the potential to be used: - to search - to navigate - to retrieve - to build meaningful displays of data

y y y y y

Questions, comments

???

Bibliographic and authority data in new environments
‡ RDA data beyond MARC records ‡ RDA beyond the current catalog ‡ RDA data on the web

RDA = ´well-formedµ metadata ´welly y

instructions on how to record data for each element controlled vocabulary is used as the value recorded in many elements underlying model for the data elements defined in the way that other metadata communities expect RDA data can interoperate with data modeled similarly preparation for use of RDA data on the web, in linked data environment of the future ² the next two sessions

y

¥ ¥ ¥

RDA in XML
y y

not an abstract goal for the future US test included testing RDA for descriptions encoded using Dublin Core and MODS RDA Toolkit includes a section on schemas download RDA element sets as XML schema core enhanced specialized universal

y y

Part of MODS record - US test data
[snip]

<titleInfo displayLabel="Title"> <title>Edward P. Bailey, Jr.</title> </titleInfo> <note displayLabel="Source of title">Transcribed from verso</note>
[snip]

</relatedItem> <relatedItem type="host" displayLabel="Part of"> <titleInfo> <title>University Archives Photograph Collection</title> </titleInfo> </relatedItem>
[snip]

<form authority="rdamedia" type="media">computer</form> <form authority="rdacarrier" type="carrier">online resource</form> <form authority="rdacontent" type="content">still image</form>

Part of MODS record - US test data
[snip]

<mods:title>Inside Poor Monkey's</mods:title> </mods:titleInfo> <mods:name type="personal" authority="naf" ID="n_86039806"> <mods:namePart>Brown, Luther</mods:namePart> <mods:namePart type="date">1951-</mods:namePart> <mods:affiliation>Delta State University</mods:affiliation> <mods:role> <mods:roleTerm authority="marcrelator">author</mods:roleTerm> </mods:role> </mods:name>
[snip]

<mods:issuance>monographic</mods:issuance>
[snip]

<mods:form type="filetype" authority="rda">text file</mods:form> <mods:form type="filetype" authority="rda">image file</mods:form> <mods:form type="filetype" authority="rda">video file</mods:form> <mods:form authority="rda" type="encodingformat">HTML</mods:form>
[snip]

Beyond the traditional catalog
y

online catalog = closed database
abundance of metadata invisible to web search engines ´dark dataµ

y

MARC 21 = library specific record format
developed before concept of relational databases used in closed databases of the library world web cannot access and use MARC data many ILS cannot fully use MARC data not used in other cultural heritage communities

Squeezing into MARC 21

« it can be done « but more comfortable fit elsewhere?

RDA data in current databases
bibliographic records = description + access points + authority records ² linked to access points + holdings records ² linked to bib records
diagram by Tom Delsey from his presentation to the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Frankfurt, Germany, June 2nd, 2009: http://www.rda-jsc.org/docs/td20090602.pdf

Authority Bibliographic Authority

Holdings

RDA data is flexible
‡ in new types of database structures
e.g. object oriented database database mirroring FRBR/FRAD model cluster of data pertaining to each entity manifestation record + item record + work record + expression record + record for person, family, corporate body + relationships = links between the above entities

illustration: from Tom Delsey·s presentation to the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Frankfurt, Germany, June 2nd, 2009: http://www.rda-jsc.org/docs/td20090602.pdf

AACR2 + MARC 21
for example name of a person ------- title of a resource AACR2 + MARC 21
y

type of relationship embedded in text of bibliographic description bibliographic record contains name of person and title may have an authority record that also ties together name of person and title of work

y y

AACR2 + MARC 21
bibliographic record for the animated film 245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$cHanna-Barbera Productions. 700 1# $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alice's adventures in Wonderland.
y

record may or may not include text in a note that explains the relationship between Lewis Carroll and the film

RDA + MARC 21
for example name of a person ------- title of book RDA + MARC 21
y

type of relationship embedded in text of bibliographic description bibliographic record contains name of person and title may have an authority record that also ties together name of person and title of work relationship designators in bibliographic records ($e, 4, i)

y y

y

RDA + MARC 21
bibliographic record 245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$cHanna-Barbera Productions. 700 1# $i parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alice's adventures in Wonderland. suggested display of data :
(MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic data)

Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? / Hanna-Barbera Productions. Parody of Carroll, Lewis, 1832-1898. Alice's adventures in Wonderland.

RDA + MARC 21
bibliographic record 100 1# $a Verdi, Giuseppe, $d1813-1901. 245 10 $a Otello :$b in full score / $c Giuseppe Verdi. 700 1# $i libretto based on (work) $a Shakespeare, William, $d 1564-1616. $t Othello. 787 08 $i reproduction of (manifestation) $a Verdi, Giuseppe, $d 1813-1901. $t Otello. $d Milan: Ricordi, c1913

day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment ² can record data about many types of relationships

RDA + MARC 21
authority record for a work: 100 1# $a Stoppard, Tom. $t Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead 500 1# $w r $i based on (work) $a Shakespeare, William, $d 1564-1616. $t Hamlet authority record for a person: 100 1# $a Clemens, Samuel, $d 1835-1910 500 ## $w r $i alternate identity $a Twain, Mark, $d 18351910

RDA + post MARC 21
for example name of a person ------- title of a resource RDA + post MARC 21 record environment
y

data about entities: ´recordµ or cluster of data for person, work, expression (as needed), manifestation, item «

y y

explicitly defined relationships between entities explicitly defined relationships means that MARC record structure is no longer required

RDA data
data inside MARC record wrapper bibliographic data data outside MARC record wrapper
work data manifestation data manifestation data data about item data of another work person data

data of another work

Where is the future?
y y y y

data that supports resource discovery data that is visible on the web data that enables machine-actionable processing of data data that can be stored and used in new database structures data that can connect us with other communities

y

RDA moves us forward
RDA «
takes us from where we are moves us to a new track opens up possibilities for the future

Images from Flickr
Creative Commons attribution license
Dinner train by Slideshow Bruce http://www.flickr.com/photos/springfieldhomer/95614622/ Cross track ² iPhone wall paper by CJ Schmit http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjschmit/4623783487/ Behind the big red ball by Christopher Woo http://www.flickr.com/photos/deks/3618803169/ Tracks by eirikref http://www.flickr.com/photos/eirikref/432088535/

Thank you Questions, comments

???
contact info: chris.oliver@mcgill.ca

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