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Biological processes which stimulate children s physical development While biological processes are occurring, children are talked to and handed by caregivers who provide them with food and protect them from physical harm
THE PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATION
Long and complicated process of social interaction through which the child learns the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a number of the society Observation and imitation self identity conception of who we are
Fichter: Socialization is a process of mutual influence between a person and his fellowmen results in an acceptance of, adaptation to, patterns of social behavior
Socialization s Two Points of View Objective society acting upon the child Subjective takes on the habits of the society ± Society transmits its culture from one generation to the next and adapts the individual to the accepted and approved ways of organized social life .
To instill the aspirations and values and the design for living which the particular society s processes 3. To teach the social roles which individuals must enact in society .Functions of Socialization 1. To develop the skills and disciplines which are needed by the individual 2.
From infancy an individual becomes socially broken An immigrant the person becomes sociologically naturalized .
± Society transmits culture to succeeding generations ± Example: Cultural disintegration during Dark Ages .Importance of Socialization Socialization is vital to culture.
Importance of Socialization Socialization is vital to personality. ± Plays a vital role in personality formation and development ± The element of isolationism affects the personality development of an individual ± Example: The Case of Isabelle .
± Provides every individual the expected role he or she is to play in the society according to their sexes ± In early years. men and women. ± Biological factors . were inborn and natural . it is believed that differences between boys and girls.Importance of Socialization Socialization is vital to sex-role differentiation.
instincts of gentleness. organizing Women ability to bear children. domesticity . fighting. Men endowed with instincts for hunting.
men were submissive . Margaret Mead world renowned anthropologists. studied primitive societies of sex roles ± Exhibit A : men and women were equally maternal towards children ± Exhibit B: men and women were fierce and aggressive ± Exhibit C: women were more dominant.
Mead concluded masculine and feminine behavior was not inborn but was learned Upbringing may have more impact than biology in shaping sex roles .
imbibes by an individual from the inside and continues to influence his conduct Example: values. ideas results of the socialization process Interpret current happenings in the light of his past experiences .The Social Frame of Reference Social experiences of the individual as its content Culture becomes internalized .
shaking hands . embrace. A storehouse in which a person readily finds how he is expected to behave in the usual and frequently repeated situations of social life Fichter: Social experience is: ± common to all human beings ± unique to each person ± specific to a particular culture and society ± Example: Friendship and the Primary Group unique manner in different culture kiss on the cheek.
.SOCIAL LEARNING Shared knowledge which has social significance The difference between simple learning and social learning is not in who learns. but what he learns. subconscious wish. or in how he learns. There is the drive the biological impulse. or conscious desire to acquire certain satisfactions.
object. It is what occurs when the particular drive in the individual is coordinated with particular cue in the object. Reward refers to any object or even which strengthens or makes easier the responses of the individual in striving to learn. Cue is the characteristic of the idea. Response the interaction between the learner and the thing learned. or situation to which the person is drawn. .
It is found in the works and actions of those who are attempting to change the behavior of the learner. ± Suggestion from the conscious and deliberate persuasion . ± Children ape their parents 2. Imitation is the human action by which one tends to duplicate more or less or exactly the behavior of others.The following are some of the numerous sub-processes in social learning: 1. Suggestion is a process outside the learner.
± Example: Children desire to obtain for the approval of others ± Competitive learning is a clear indication that people tend to learn and to conform to the approved ways of behaving in society and to shun the ways that are disapproved. .3. Competition is a stimulative process in which two or more individuals vie with one another in achieving knowledge.
Symbol is anything that is used to represent something else. Contact and Communication are essential prerequisites of social learning ± Human life is quite different from that of other animals because people are able to use languages or symbols systems to communicate. .
. Goal is the state of affairs one wishes to achieve. Goals and motivations are often related and used interchangeably.COMPONENTS OF SOCIALIZATION The process of social interaction has at least four major components: 1. Motivation is a person s wish or intention to achieve a goal.
Hall identified three elements that define the context of a social interaction: 1. happening simultaneously with it.2. and coming after it . ± Edward T. Activities surrounding the interaction preceding it. Contexts where a social interaction takes place makes in what it means. Physical setting or place 2. Social environment 3.
± Rules for proper behavior that guides people in their interactions ± Patterns are quite predictable . Norms refer to rules that regulate the process of social interaction.3.
Focused two or more individuals agree (explicitly or implicitly) to sustain an interaction with one or more particular goals in mind. ± Example: two people playing cards.TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION I. enjoying a conversation .
II. ± Example: two people waiting in a doctor s waiting room cannot help noticing each other s clothing. and other characteristics . behavior. posture. Unfocused Interaction interaction happens only simply because two or more people happen to be in each other s presence.
± Almost unconscious part of daily life .± Has little by way of goals other that to catalogue other people and make a decent impression on them.
Exchange when people do something for each other with the expressed purpose of receiving a reward or return ± Example : Employee and Employer relationship Employee: salary Employer: gratitude .Four basic types of focused interaction A.
± Example: Teamwork exhibited by basketball players . Cooperation is a form of social interaction in which people act together to promote common interests or achieve shared goals.B.
Four Types of Cooperation by Robert A. Nisbet 1. and most common form of cooperation ± Arises from the needs of a particular situation ± Example: Stand-by s may chase and run a robber . Spontaneous Cooperation oldest. most natural.
Traditional Cooperation is a form of cooperation that is tied to custom and passed on from one generation to the next ± Example: barn raising.2. bayanihan .
Example: Agreement between an author of a book and the publisher . 4. Directed Cooperation .3. Contractual Cooperation is a form of planned cooperation in which each person s specific obligation are clearly spelled out.characterized by a joint effort that is under the control of people in authority.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION Family Peer groups Media School Work place ± Resocialization and Desocialization Church Neighborhood .
Stages of Socialization 1. Erik Erikson (psychological development) ± The feelings of people develop toward themselves and the world around them ± Eight (8) stages of human development crises ± Growth and successful resolution at each stage depend on the growth and degree of resolution at each stage .
Young Adulthood intimacy versus isolation 7. Infancy trust versus mistrust 2. Middle Adulthood generativity versus stagnation 8.Eight Stages of Human Development 1. Play Stage initiative versus guilt 4. Early Childhood autonomy versus shame and doubt 3. Adolescence identity versus role confusion 6. Old Age integrity versus despair . School age industry versus inferiority 5.
and anal : anus)were not satisfactorily resolved. a person could become arrested (fixed) at that stage.2) Sigmund Freud Theory of psychoanalysis ± What happens to people during childhood affects them later as adults ± If problem during early stages (oral : mouth. .
Jean Piaget Thinking or cognitive development stages ± The process of learning to talk. and to reason (social and psychological phenomenon) ± Through interaction with their environment. to think. children acquire new ways of thinking and new schemes ± Involve increasingly greater complexity of thought and shift from egocentric perspective to perspective which take others into account .3.
Sensorimotor Language acquisition Concrete operations Abstract thinking . 3. Outlined the process and stages into following 1. 4. 2.
± Children appear to be unable to understand anyone else s perspective except their own . George H.4. developed a theoretical scheme of conceptualizing the development of the social being or self. Mead the founder of symbolic interaction perspective in sociology.
. Mead points out the stages (play and game) involved in being able to maintain a personal perspective and at the same time to take others perspective into account. ± Game is a stage when they are able to understand multiple perspectives including the abstract perspective of the generalized other. ± Play is a stage of social development when a child can imitate or play at being another person.
2.5. The child begins to realize that conforming to rules can bring rewards. Lawrence Kohlberg (moral development) ± Formulated six (6) stages of moral development 1. A child first judges the morality of an act by its physical consequences. not just the avoidance of punishment. .
The child progresses to a level known as good child morality when they judge the morality of an act according to how much it conforms to the standards of other individuals. thereby gaining their approval and good will. .3. Ideas about right and wrong behavior develop.
Emphasis is on one s doing his duty. . strict compliance and conformity to the social order is accepted as right and any deviation as wrong. The person recognizes that while it its important to adhere to social rules. it is also possible to change those rules if such as change would benefit greater number of people. The stage that emphasizes law and order.4. 5.
A person internalizes ideals of justice. compassion. 6. and equality and conforms both these ideals and to social standards.± Morality is seen as rooted in basic human rights such as life and liberty. .
Pilapis . Epitacio S. Source: ± Textboook: Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology by Dr.