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OKEME ABDULKERIM U. FPI/HND/OTM/08/017
A PROJECT REPORT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT (OTM) , FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC IDAH, KOGI STATE.
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
OCTOBER , 2010. APPROVAL PAGE
This project report has been approved for the Department of OfficeTechnology and Management Federal Polytechnic, Idah.
________________________ M.E. EZE Supervisor
_____________________ M.E. EZE Head of Department
_____________________ External Examinar
DEDICATION This project report is dedicated to God Almighty for seeing me through in this academic pursuit.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My sincere gratitude goes to God almighty for his wonderful guidance from the beginning till the completion of this work and throughout the pursuit of my academic programme. My special thanks goes to my supervisor, Mr. M.E. Eze and Mr. M.O. Ugwuanyi the project coordinator and all the lecturers in the department for their valuable contribution to the success of this work, particularly to my supervisor who despite his academic work read through the project and made the necessary corrections. My great appreciation goes to my parents, brothers, sisters and friends for their assistance and encouragement and moral support throughout my programme. My special appreciation goes to Mr. Alih Yakubu a.k.a “BOGA”, and the non teaching staff especially, Secretary to the department Mr. Ugwuanyi, Mr Clement and Deborah for their cooperation and understanding throughout my programme. Finally, I can’t conclude this acknowledgement without giving thanks to my one and only Miss Esther Ann Adegbe and her entire family especially Fidelia, Jacinta, and Mama Victor who all sat by my side and
never gave up in making sure I make a successful end to my programme. Almighty God shall continue to strengthen you more and more in Jesus name (amen), I love you all.
that the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills include acquisition of new ideas. the teaching and learning of calculation skills. helps in training of students in distance areas. recording of data and the teaching and learning of storing of data. classification of data. sorting of data.6 ABSTRACT This research is focused on the place of Information and Communication Technology in the teaching and learning of Secretarial skills. storage of document. Four research questions were formulated and questionnaires were used to obtain data from the population of 60. the teaching and learning of internet skills. That ICT helps in the teaching and learning creation of document. disposal of document and protection of document. retrieval of document. The main purpose of this research was to find out the teaching and learning of word processing skills. provide teachers with current teaching aids among others. From the data analysis the following findings were made: that ICT plays important role in the teaching and learning of word processing skills in polytechnics. all these are the roles of ICT in Information Management system. . the teaching and learning of data processing skills. the teaching and learning of Management information skills. That the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of data processing skills includes.
7 TABLE OF CONTENT Title page i ii iii iv vi vii viil Approval Page Dedication - Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Tables Abstract - CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 Background of the Study Statement of the ProblemPurpose of the Study - Significant of the Study Research Question Scope of the Study CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - 5 .
14 The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skill ..CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction - 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 Design of the Study and Method Area of the Study - Population of the Study - Instrument for Data Collection Validation of the Instrument Used Method of data Collection Method of Data Analysis - CHAPTER IV DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS -25 ....Summary of literature Review .19 21 23 The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skill ..16 The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management Information (MIS) skill .8 Conceptual Frame Work - - - - - 5 The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skill .
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary 37 37 38 38 39 40 Conclusion - Recommendations - Suggestion for Further Research References Appendix - .9 Research Question 1 Research Question 2 Research Question 3 Research Question 4 Findings of the study Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - - 25 28 30 32 34 35 CHAPTER V SUMMARY.
10 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Word Table 2: processing skills 27 The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Internet skills 29 Table 3: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management Information System (MIS) skills 31 Table 4: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skills 33 .
said that ICT has reduced the world to a global village turning all parts of the world to everybody’s neighborhood. events in one part of the world are felt by the people and societies far away and viceversa. has made it very easy and less tasking in becoming a professional secretary. Ayeni (2005). Gone are those days where the job of secretaries depends only on the use of manual typewriters. it has also served as a motivating factor for secretaries. prepare itinerary for their boss no matter the distance within the shortest period of time through the use of internet. Information and communication technology equipments used in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics have brought about great revolution in the secretarial field. secretaries can now transmit message. there are pools of information resource site in the internet through the World Wide Web (www). computers have succeeded in taking the place 1 . Thus. Today. Information and communication technology of today has made the work of a secretary to be carried out with a lesser fatique. The change in technology especially in information and communication technology (ICT) has a great impact on secretarial profession and in the performance of their duties as a secretary as well as their training.11 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The world is undergoing drastic changes everyday due to technological innovations. ICT has globalised the world. The roles of secretaries have changed form the old fashioned secretaries. The application of information and communication technology tools in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills.
Teaching and learning of secretarial skills via ICT became inperative because of the wide spread of information and communication technology of our time which has virtually affected every area of man’s life. they will hinder the students from acquiring the basic ICT secretarial skills that makes them to contribute their quota to the development of their organization. It was also observed that some ICT instructors lack the competence to enhance teaching and learning. Also. Worst of it all. If the above problems are not adequately solved. This study will specifically seek to: 1 2 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skills in polytechnics To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet . steady power supply is another vital problem. It is on the foregoing that this paper examined the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics. Statement of the Problems It has been observed that polytechnic students in Nigeria cannot operate the information and communication technology gadgets effectively.12 of the manual typewriters with the present development in the field of management information system and information and communication technology. the costs of acquisition of these ICT equipments are slowing the pace of acquiring these secretarial skills. Purpose of the Study The major purpose of this research work is to determine the place of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics.
4 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of ICT in the teaching and learning of data processing skills in polytechnics. Research Questions 1 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning word processing skills in polytechnics? What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills in polytechnics? What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management information skills in polytechnics? What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of data processing skills in polytechnics? 2 3 4 . it will also be of significance to the students as it provides a fore-sight on their professional expectations in the modern business world and as a research material for further studies on relevant topic. since it will educate them on the need to equip tertiary institutions with modern information and communication technology equipments. The research work will also be important to the government.13 skills in Polytechnics 3 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management information system (MIS) skills in polytechnics. Significance of the Study The result of this research work will be of great benefit to students in polytechnics and other higher institutions of learning. Lastly.
cost of acquiring ICT gadgets. competences on the side of the instructors. the advances made in technology. . ability of the students to operate ICT gadgets and the effect of poor power supply.14 Scope of the Study The study covers the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics.
5. 5 . Conceptual Framework Teaching. is said to be the science and art of assisting a person to learn. Overbaugh (2003) also views teaching as assisting the learner to develop insight into a problem or to form as association between a response and a stimulus. The review of related literature would be discussed under the following headings 1. the science in teaching entails the use of acquired knowledge from natural and behavioural sciences in order to help appreciate the circumstances and personality of the learner while the art aspect of teaching involves the use of creative and demonstrative skills in aiding the delivery of instruction. Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management information system (MIS) skills Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of data processing skills Summary of literature review. Ogwo and 3. Conceptual framework Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skills Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills 4.15 CHAPTER II Review of related literature This chapter deals with the literature reviewed in connection with the place of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in the polytechnic. Technically. according to Overbaugh (2003). To him. In the words of Overbaugh (2003). 2. 6.
the nature of teaching act is so complex and interated that its dimensions. the central purpose of teaching is to effect desirable changes in students behaviour (ie promotion of learning). scope ans outcomes need to be planned carefully and systematically ever before teaching commences. but also what we leant in the past. they also viewed teaching as a partnership enterprise between the teacher and the student. Learning as posited by Anderson and Block (1987). further explain learning as “knowledge and skills accumulated through out a life time. The teachers on the other hand must be continuous learners as they cannot promote learning if they are ignorant of what it takes to learn. According to Ajoma (2009). Accounting. They maintained that the phrase “relatively permanent” excludes from the definition changes in behaviour that result from temporary or transient conditions such as fatique. students must respond to the learning experiences to which they are exposed to enable the teachers determine whether or not instructional objectives have been acquired. They must therefore. They. for learning to be promoted. observed the fact that what we do today does not depend only on our natural capabilities and maturational level. different computer packages among other relevant requirement. know specific subject matter areas such as shorthand. Ajoma (2009). he further said that learning is interactive and comes through active interchange with the environment. either in movement and manipulation or in observation and discrimination. is a relative permanent change in behaviour that manifests due to reinforced practices. describe learning as “the process by which some activities enable the learner . Ogwo and Oranu (2006).16 Oranu (2006). typing. from the view point of development. which ultimately leads to permanent changes in behaviour of the student. influence of drugs or adaptation.
Ajoma (2009).17 acquire experiences that tends to influence (change) his/her future behaviour. there must be learning resources. provided that the characteristics of the change in behaviour cannot be explained in a native response tendencies. maturation or temporary state of the learner”. real objects or representations which teachers use to communicate effectively with learners. textbooks. mathematics and accounts are leant by working exercises. chalkboard and many more. projectors. Nwoji (1999). Trial and error: to achieve competence in a thing. viewed that it is a common knowledge that for effective learning to take place. overhead projectors. slide projectors. In addition to learning resources which makes learning effective. the teacher conducts the operation or construction before the class and explains his actions as he proceeds. pictures and charts. listed some of these learning processes as follows. mistakes are often made and corrections taken until learners attain “perfection”. radio. Learning processes are the various ways through which learning occurs. Example include real objects. Learning by installment: new knowledge is best acquired in small doses since human mind is capable of absorbing only a limited amount of . remarked that teaching and learning resources are very vital to effective teaching and learning and should be employed by teachers in teaching. These resources are very important. Learning by thinking: learners or students learn when their instructions allow thinking by asking questions and taking part in the discussions. films. Learning by demonstration: here. video taped instructions. These resources are devices. Learning by doing: for instance. typewriting by frequent practicing everyday. Igboke (2005). effective learning follows some learning processes. models.
General knowledge to specific knowledge: for instance. Progress through a lesson should embrace series of steps. commitments. Concrete things to abstract things. the secretarial teacher should adhere strictly to these general rules (strategies and principles) of teaching. Learning by observation: learners acquire information. with each step being understood or mastered before the next step is taken. Teaching as stated by Farrant (1982). the learner’s abilities are developed.18 information at a given time. Strategies and principles for teaching and learning secretarial education consist of those laws or consistent pattern of behaviour which follows teaching and learning. efficiency in the use of schedule teaching (Eze. 2006). hence. wicked and uninterested in the students or work. Simple things to complex things: simple things are easier to remember than complex ones. collect data and obtain ideas about things and events as they watch the teacher perform. For example. the uses or function/parts of a typewriter as a writing tool should be taught to learners before teaching the importance of and handling of the cylinder of a typewriter to them. a teacher may prepare a good lesson but this is not a guarantee that the lesson will be taught if he is nasty. should start from. Obi (2005). These include those non teaching attributes such as teacher’s personality. Teaching should be learner centered . Known to unknown: teaching should be done with reference to a related knowledge to the subject matter the learners already have. For teaching and learning of secretarial education to be effective. 1994 and Ogwo and Oranu.
Learning experiences should be meaningful to the learners: students are more likely to learn concepts. good. Continuing on some general principles of teaching and learning. Law of maturation: learners should wait on maturation as a child cannot learn until he/she is ready (matured) to learn. Choose and define appropriate instructional material for actualization of learning and best delivery of the subject matter. Thus. further pointed out the following. attitudes and skills that are meaningful to . carefully planned and well delivered lessons also sustain and energize students interest in the planned material. Motivation: this is a prime mover in human behaviour and refers in a classroom situation to something the teacher does to get students interested or respond in designated or given ways.19 Eze (1994). Ogwo and Oranu (2006). Ensure the suitability of curriculum content selected for the subject matter in order to achieve its intended outcome. Ensure the suitability of curriculum content selected for the subject matter in order to achieve its intended outcome. smiles and comment of approval like keep it up. and Choose and determine the most appropriate evaluation technique for achievement of the intended learning outcome at the end of the teaching and learning process. good grades. Choose and define appropriate teaching methods. excellent. teachers should. Thus teachers should. gave other teaching strategies to be employed by teachers at a particular time in order to maximize the teaching and learning outcome. These includes word of praise.
The secretarial education teacher should plan the activities in such a way as to provide room for recess after the first two or three hours of work. . It is always thick and thousands of ingredients. through story or observation. cold. he defined information as data. it can use any one of a hundred different means. Whenever people interact. information involves facts that are collected which can be verbal. signals. or written. Principles of open and effective communication lectures should be presented in ways that encourage students to discuss and ask questions. activities and transactions which have been recorded as raw materials from which information is produced. Information refers to messages. Teacher’s attitude: secretarial education teachers should be positive and geared towards motivating learners through showing love and concern. meaningful no matter how simple the message or the transaction. According to Imolorihe (2006).20 them. According to Afeidia (2006). either words or gesture. It is a varied set of process. human communication is a subtle and ingenious set of process. which has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful and useful to the person who receives it. according to Adebayo (2006). Secretarial education teachers should therefore relate their lectures to issues and problems that have immediate and future concerns to learners and the society. facts or details about something or somebody. They refer to data as facts. they communicate. Communication. Duration: there should be a period of recess for fairly long periods of workshop/laboratory practice for instance 5-6 hours. among other.
operation and controlling (Ajoma. manipulation. 2009). computers. implementation and evaluation processes in educational programmes. Ayeni. some ideas and skills adopted in developed countries like America and . confused or misunderstood. auxiliary equipments. observed ICT to be. the idea convened must be received without being altered. movement. said that ICT has reduced the world to a global village. (2005). control. interchange. defines communication as a means used to transfer a message from one person to another in the case of automated system. citing Williams and sawyer (2001). The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills cannot be over emphasized.21 Ojukwu (2004). transmission or reception of data or information. ICT has globalized the world. Ater. storage. turning all parts of world to everybody’s neighborhood. software and firmware (hardware) and similar procedures. Tiough and Nevkar (2006). Information and communication technology (ICT) therefore is a communication process in which information (inputs) is recorded. knowledge. switching. management. skills and methodology in teaching and learning secretarial skills: Ajoma (2009). display. Thus. events in one part of the world have on people and societies far away and vice-versa. it is concerned with understanding and for communication to be successful. stored and retrieved. Thus it guarantees effective and efficient collection of information for easy transmission to appropriate areas for immediate use in planning. Some of these roles include: Acquisition of new ideas. processed for decision making (output) on planning. services and related resources. He further said that communication is a two way process. observed that with the help of ICT. It includes any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of acquisition.
said that computer supported collaborative learning (C.c . Educators and students now update their knowledge and methodology through ICT. it provides teachers with current teaching aids used in teaching and learning process. experiences and knowledge that will help them teach. Information and communication technology encourages teamwork. Such equipment include. where the teacher only guides students to use the available material to achieve learning objectives. Teaching and learning has been changed from traditional chalkboard to electronic learning requiring ICT skills for teachers. creating group dialogue and decision. multimedia. It encourages educators and students to engage in teamwork in order to share ideas.22 united kingdom can now be read and learned through internet and satellite and be applied in Nigeria. learn and solve their scientific problems.t. He also added that teaching and learning have shifted from teacher centered to material centered.S. Employees in globalize enterprises need to work as a team. do less and achieve more. video conferencing systems e. CSCL also enhances team performance through communicating each others ideas. computers. Okoro (1993). observes that teachers now can talk less. Dede (2006). Nyahute (2006).L) is one of the measures brought in by ICT to help people learn and work in team in global networked visual teams. internets. recommended any equipment used for instruction and learning secretarial skills must as much as possible. In the same vain. Information and communication technology has changed the methodology of teaching and learning secretarial skills in schools. Supporting this view. be a replication of actual equipment used in industry.C.
ICT has orientated teachers to use audio and video equipments to teach a very large number of students at a time (Ajoma. Though ICT. This is. students had no much interest and motivation in the teaching and learning process. but now. time and distance has been broken. postulates that before now. through engaging learners in productive work.23 . ICT is seen here as an instrument of localization where teachers now teach without real contact with the learners and learners now learn in their houses or work places. increasing their perception of what they are doing and what they need to do. while the teacher only . ICT increases motivation in both teachers and students and retain student’s interest to learn. 2006). However. teachers have problem in teaching these students with very limited equipments and traditional method of teaching. television and many others. 2009). ICT helps in training students in distance areas through the use of internet. Information and communication technology also helps in controlling problems arising from enrolment of more students in to secretarial education in our schools and colleges. radio. Learners are motivated to learn with greater interest when they see the reality of what they are doing. Andurai and Aboho. secretarial education can be taught and learned through distance learning programmes to help participants update their educational qualification (Aboho. With this. With the increase in enrolment of more students into secretarial departments. satellite dish. the use of telecommunications through ICT has aroused and sustain their interest and motivation to work. why Cogburn (2006). the menace of space.
also asserts that word processing refers to the use of computers to handle text and produce typed and/or printed documents. are of the view that word processing is one of the basic skills required by secretaries in technological environment as executives often rely on secretaries to provide comprehensive. Eunice (2004). select and write simple programs. and type. laying out. storing and retrieving typewritten data. But the questions are: how much of ITC does the teacher know. and how much of it can he. Nwogwugwu (2000). utilizing correctable magnetic type or other storage facility often with visual presentation on a screen (Eunice. Supporting this view. modify. rearrange. storing.24 guides and assists them on what to do and what not to do. These and other numerous roles of ICT in teaching and learning secretarial skills show the need for secretarial education teachers to join in the ICT drive. Chukwumezie (2001). accurate and up to date information promptly to enable them arrive at quality management decisions. . ICT has now saved teachers time to achieve learning objectives within a teaching period. use? How ready is the government to support the use of ICT in education in Nigeria? The role of Information and Communication Technology in the teaching and learning of Word Processing Skills: Word processing is a word – saving system of recording. adds that the secretary needs this skills so as to be able to find. He further said that word processing consists of processes. correcting. Igbinoba (2000) and Nwosu (2001). retrieving communicating information and printing of documents. which processes through drafting. print and even ease and proficiency. citing Azuka (1999). 2004).
25 observed many benefits accruable from acquisition of word processing skills and competence. These include. a document refers to anything that is produced using word processing programs such Microsoft word. report. According to French (2006). According to Oyewole and Obeta (2002). most of the secretaries have now known how to create mail able document using the computer. Eliminate drudgery Ensure standardization of work Accelerating the speed and capacity of office work done etc The role of ICT in teaching and learning word processing skills includes: Teaching and learning Creation of Document: with the role of ICT in word processing skills. Reducing the length of time required to do work. . Teaching and learning Editing of Document: Editing involves the process of effecting correction on already keyed in documents and this may require addition of text to the document or removal of text from the document. memos are produced manually either by hand (hand writing) or manually operated machines (manual typewriters) and electronic word processing which is the art of preparing documents with the aid of an electronic device such as word processor and computers using available word processing software. ICT has made editing to be possible and fast using the computer because many word processing packages are supported with electronic dictionaries and processing routines that carryout automatic checking of errors (Oyewole. Document creation is a text entry operation. every living being is involved directly or indirectly in word processing which is the process whereby documents such as letters. 2003). Ensuring accuracy and efficiency.
he described the internet as the major breakthrough in technology. Before now. Teaching and learning Saving of document: this is the process of filing using computers. margin justification. viewed formatting of documents to be the means of rearranging the layout for final printout. The Role of ICT in The Teaching And Learning Of Internet Skills The internet is the greatest developmental endeavour in the last millennium. According to Kolawole (2000). the traditional way of saving documents is by filling and keeping them in the file cabinet but with the introduction of ICT. Printing is the act of issuing a command to the word processor coupled with a printer to produce a hard copy of the processed data for organizational use. formatting function permits choice of styles and pitches. Teaching and learning Printing of Document: according to Levin (2000). According to Ohakwe (2004). line spacing. virtually all secretaries have realized the easiest and fastest way of displaying their work. Eunice (2004).26 Teaching and learning Formatting of Document: with the role of ICT in word processing. underscore. Idoko and Zubairu (2002). He further said that. and the wonders of the . italicizing. a revolution. viewed word processing as the corner stone of office automation. the final phase of word processing involves savings and ultimately printing your work. ICT has made it possible for documents to be produce in hard copy with a simple touch on the keyboard. documents are now saved electronically using computer. bold to mention but a few. automatic page numbering. saving to a secretary is the act of keeping valuable document to aid other needed facts for future use or in a case where the needs of such document arise.
some ideas and skills adopted in developed countries like America and united kingdom can now be real and learned through internet and satellite and be applied in Nigeria. Umaru (2006). productions pattern and teaching and learning methods. Acquisition of new ideas: Ajoma (2009). radio. satellite dish. Ayeni (2005). described internet as a vast information super highway that facilitates computer users both nationally and internationally to communicate directly as if they were part of a giant global computing machines. Some of the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills includes. observed that ICT has reduced the world to a global village turning all parts of the world to everybody’s neighbourhood. The internet has become the largest and most important network today and has evolved into global information super highway. thousands of companies and over fifty millions of computers all over the world (Chukwudebe. ICT is seen here as an instrument of localization. 2000). The internet is an international network of computers. the world largest communication network which links hundreds of nation. . ICT helps in training students in distance areas: ICT helps in the training of students in distance area through the use of internet.27 millennium and indeed the most flexible medium of communication currently available in this technological era. The internet is the greatest development which has affected all human endeavour in the last millennium. observed that with the help of ICT. Educators and students now update their knowledge and methodology through ICT. They can now shift from their old and cultural methods of impacting knowledge to more scientific and new methods. There is hope that business education through ICT would provide skilled workers. current skills and knowledge to meet the needs of new industries. television and many others.
Nyahute (2006).t. Provide teachers with current teaching aids: it provides teachers with current teaching aids used in teaching and learning process. Through ICT. he viewed that.c ICT aids teaching large number: information and communication technology also helps in controlling problems arising from enrolment of more students into office technology and management department. 2006). Okoro (1993). According to Ajoma (2009). do less and achieve more. observes that teachers can now talk less. multimedia. be a replication of actual equipment used in industry. Andural and Aboho. teachers have problems in teaching these students with very limited equipments and traditional method of teaching. With this. Teaching and learning has been changed from traditional chalkboard to electronic learning requiring ICT skills for teachers. the menace of space. computers. with the increase in enrolment of more students into the department of office technology and management (OTM). recommended any equipment used for instruction and learning secretarial skills must as much as possible. video conferencing systems e. Such equipment include. business education (secretarial skills) can be taught and learned through distance learning programmes to help participants update their educational qualifications (Aboho. time and distance has been broken. ICT has orientated teachers to use audio and video equipments to teach a very large number of students at a time. However. internets. Changing the methodology of teaching and learning: ICT has changed the methodology of teaching and learning of secretarial skills in schools.28 where teachers now teach with out real contact with the learners and learners now learn in their houses or work places. He also added that teaching and learning have shifted from teachers centered to .
The Role of ICT In The Teaching And Learning of Management Information System (MIS) Skills MIS is an information system designed to provide information needed for effective decision making by managers. such as cash registers and order entry terminals. A transaction is a business event such as sales. Records are the collection of data or information for smooth running of the institution and they are kept for further actions or future reference. The data or information to be processed by the computer must be presented in a machine sensible from that is. the language of the particular input device. the . 2010). These transactions are recorded on paper and later entered into the computer or they may be directly recorded through terminals of transaction processing (TPSs). input is the first step in producing information collected and introducing data into computer. to appreciate the relationship between alternatives and compute the trade off included in the choice to be made (Eze. Often. Teaching and learning Creation of Records: according to Osuala and Okeke (2006). According to French (2006). Information is required to identify as many alternative goals ass possible. record creation involves determining what forms or report to use and developing procedure for records control. where the teachers only guides students to use the available materials to achieve learning objectives.29 material centered. hiring of workers and the liker. The role of ICT in teaching and learning management information system skills includes. Management information system is the way by which records are managed in an organization. A TPSs is any given system that records transactions. employing new staff. purchases.
not just transaction recording systems. The application or application package is built using such facilities. The memory of a computer is made up from many thousands of storage cells called bytes. Teaching and learning Retrieval of Records: According to Nwosu (2005). File base systems used the standard file facilities provided by operation system. saving is said to be efficient only if the material or document saved can be retrieved in terms of need without skirmish. Information is stored for reference or future purposes. Each has a unique address in memory. French (2006). record disposal refers to such treatment that is given to document in the office in order to get ride of them or put them in positions for further use. describe information storage as the process of retaining information for future use. Records are stored in the computer memory. ICT has helped in storing record in computer. magnetic tape. therefore. summarizing and routine information to other systems. Teaching and learning Record Disposals: According to Elendu (2000). Teaching and learning Storage of Records: laudon and Laudon (2002). viewed that ultimately. said data are processed and stored in a computer system through the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals in the computer’s circuits such as magnetic disks. It is a storage unit where all information and data going into and coming from the computer system are temporarily stored prior to or after processing. O’Brien (2003). This stored information can be retrieved through file base system. information in its various forms is stored on backing storage in computer files of various types. . floppy diskettes.30 same system also processes the transactions. these systems transaction processing systems.
Elendu (2000). The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Data Processing Skills In practice. 2002). Olowo (2003). The data must be accurate. The data must not be excessive for the purpose but merely adequate and relevant. opined that destruction of records is a matter of policies. most data processing nowadays involves the use of some electronic aid such as calculators and computers which increases in sophistication year by year. up to date and kept no longer than necessary and the data must be protected and hold securely against unauthorized access or less but must be accessible to data on request (Effy. The data must only be used for the specific purpose and may only be disclosed in accordance with the specific purpose.31 After records have been in existence for a long time by retention schedule. Teaching and learning Protection of Records: the 1984 Data Protection Act was intended to regulate the use of automatically processed information relating to individuals and the provision of services in respect of such information. defined computer and data processing as the process of producing meaningful information by collecting . It is the responsibility of every business organization to draw up regulations governing disposal of its records. stated that stored records that are no longer of value shall be destroyed without delay. data about individuals which held for processing must have been obtained fairly for a specific lawful purpose. the date of disposal should be determined when records are put into storage and this should be properly noted. the date of disposal should be determined when records. Osuala and Okeke (2006). The Act defines a number of terms including. they should be considered ready for destruction.
subtracting. A system in data processing is defined as a group of interrelated functional units seeking the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and processing the inputs to produce organized output in form of information. According to Talabi (2005). Manipulation d. whether manual.32 all items of data together and performing operations on them to extract the required information from them using computer system. (that is adding. According to Idoko and Zubairu (2002). viewed data processing as “system”. Storage Oyewole and Obeta (2002). Teaching and learning Calculation skills: Calculating is the arithmetic manipulation. They are: a. the transaction file must be sorted into the dequence of the master file before processing can take place. data processing may be divided into five separate but related steps. Osuswa (2002). (Oyewole and Obeta. multiplying or dividing) and comparing of raw data to produce usable result. Viewing it more as subsystem of information processing. Oyewole and Obeta (2002). mechanical or electronic. Origination b. Output e. data processing is the procedure or process involved in the conversion of data into information. asserted . Teaching and learning Sorting of data: According to French (2002). 2002). Some of the roles of ICT in data processing include. Input c. said that electronic data processing is the process of processing data by a computer which carries out mathematical and other logical manipulations.
Machine readable medium include magnetic tape. the teachers should endeavour to update their knowledge and be conversant with the rapid innovations in the technological world. disk and so on. Teaching and learning Storing of data: According to Oyewole and Obeta (2002). supported that magnetic tape are used mostly for storing files of data for example. management information system skills and data processing skills were reviewed. Summary of Literature Review Having reviewed the work of different authors and research materials. see it to be one of the manipulation functions. strategies and principle for teaching and learning. to mention but few (Oyewole and Obeta. either temporarily or permanently for future reference and usage. the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills. Teaching and learning Classification of data: This operation for placing data in specified categories such as size. For effective use of ICT tools in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics. Talabi (2005). Teaching and learning Recording data: This transcribing of data from a source documents (handwritten) into a machine readable medium. the process of teaching and learning of secretarial skills.33 that this is arranging of data into sequence according to a common characteristics. . where it can be retrieved when needed. 2002). this entails placing data into some media such as magnetic tape. magnetic disk. Talabi (2005). types. It can either be an alphabetic or numeric sequence. said that data resulting from the processing steps can be stored. internet skills. company payroll records. the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skills. Mano (2006). customer’s locality and class.
Area of the study The study was carried out in Federal Polytechnic Idah in the North central geopolitical zone of Nigeria Population for the study The population of the study consists of 63 (HND II) graduating students of OTM department in the Federal Polytechnic Idah Instrument for Data Collection Questionnaire was the main instrument used for the study. behaviour and opinions. Design survey studies people. instrument for the data collection. method of data analysis. Section A was to collect personal data involving the name of the students and sex (male or female).34 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter focuses on the method and procedure employed by the researcher in the course of the study. area of the study. A and B. Kogi State. The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The method comprises of the following headings: Design of the study. beliefs. Design of the study The study adopted a survey design. population of the study. method of data collection. The study sought the opinion of the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in Federal Polytechnic Idah. section B treated the main questionnaire items and contains a 24 . validation of instrument for data collection.
the questionnaire was approved for production and distribution. 63 were distributed and 60 were completed and returned.35 total of 20 questionnaire items. Method of Data Analysis The method of data analysis used in the study is the mean statistics. Decision Rule . The five responses categories are:` Strongly Agreed Agreed Undecided Disagreed = = = = 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree = Validation of the instrument The questionnaire was prepared by the researcher and submitted to the 19 supervisor and two other senior lecturers for validation. The responses categories were designed to make the students to answer the questions from personal point of view. After examination and corrections. The formula used is shown below X = ∑fx f Where X = mean score F = frequency of response X = the numeric value ∑ = summation. Method of Data collection The questionnaire was distributed personally by the researcher. The mean was used to answer the research questions. The likert type of rating scale questionnaire was adopted.
0 adding the scores and divided by the number of occurrences e. the mean value of 3. 5+4+3+2+1 = 3.36 The mean value of 3. Research Question 1 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skills? Questionnaire items numbered 1 – 5 were used to answer the research questions. The following table shows the responses of respondents and the mean of the responses.g.0 and above was accepted and those with mean below were rejected. I arrived at 3.0 CHAPTER IV DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS This chapter presents the result of data based on the data collected from respondents.0 was used as the decision rule. .
37 Table 1 S/NO Items 1 Teaching and learning Creation of 2 Document Teaching and learning Editing of 3 Document Teaching and learning Formatting 4 of Document Teaching 26 and learning saving of 5 document Teaching and learning Printing of document 36 24 17 8 30 16 12 51 7 1 5 4 SA A 26 7 26 The roles of ICT in teaching and learning of word processing skills 3 2 1 UD D SD 8 12 7 Total Mean Remarks 213 3.6 Accepted .55 Accepted 1 257 4.24 Accepted 1 1 253 4.22 Accepted 8 1 239 3.98 Accepted 276 4.
12 From table 1.55.22. teaching and learning printing of document has the mean of 4. teaching and learning editing of document has the mean of 4.98. teaching and learning formatting of document has a mean of 4.12. the analysis shows that teaching and learning creation of document is accepted with a mean of 3.38 Grand mean 4. Research question 2 What are roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills? Questionnaire items number 6 – 10 were used to answer the research questions . teaching and learning saving of document with the mean of 3.24.6 were all accepted by the OTM graduating (HND II) students with grand mean of 4.
5 Accepted Accepted .39 Table 2 The role of ICT in teaching and learning of internet skills S/NO Items 6 7 Acquisition of new ideas Helps in training students in distance 8 areas Provides teachers with current 9 teaching aids Aids teaching 33 large 10 numbers ICT changes the methodology of teaching and learning Grand mean 3. increases motivation with mean of 2.24 Analysis from data in table 2 shows that not all the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills are accepted by OTM graduating students.63.52 rejected 27 5 4 SA A 48 8 35 20 3 2 UD D 2 5 1 SD 2 Total Mean Remarks 278 270 4.55 Accepted 20 7 17 16 151 2.63 4. helps in training students in distance areas with 4.05 Accepted 27 275 4.5.52 was 35 12 2 3 8 243 4. Acquisition of new ideas with mean 4.
0 which is the decision rule.24. Research question 3 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management information system? Questionnaire items number 11 – 15 were used to answer the research questions. ICT changes the methodology of teaching and learning with mean of 4. Table 3 .55.40 considered rejected with mean less than 3.05 were all accepted by the OTM (HND II) graduating students with grand mean of 3. aids teaching large numbers with mean of 4.
58 Accepted 39 18 3 276 4. analysis shows that teaching and learning creation of document has a mean of 4.7.73. and teaching and 35 25 275 4. teaching and learning retrieval of records with mean 4.77 Accepted 42 18 282 4.7 Accepted . teaching and learning storage of records with mean 4.6.73 Accepted and learning creation of 12 records Teaching and learning storage of 13 records Teaching and learning retrieval of 14 records Teaching and learning record 15 disposal Teaching and learning protection of records Grand mean 4.77.41 The roles of ICT in teaching and learning of Management Information skills S/NO Items 5 4 3 2 1 Total Mean Remarks SA A UD D SD 11 Teaching 47 10 3 285 4. teaching and learning records disposal with mean of 4.68 From table 3.6 Accepted 46 14 286 4.
58 were all accepted with a grand mean of 4.68 Research question 4 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skills? Questionnaire items number 16 – 20 were used to answer the research questions. S/NO Items 5 4 3 2 1 Total Mean Remarks SA A UD D SD 16 Teaching and 30 15 15 255 4. Table 4 The role of ICT in teaching and learning of Data processing skills.25 Accepted learning of .42 learning protection of records with mean 4.
Teaching and 16 learning Recording of 20 data. teaching and learning sorting of data has a mean of 4.47 Accepted 18 6 8 246 4.21 The analysis of the data in table 4 shows that teaching and learning of calculation skills has a mean of 4.1 Accepted .85 Accepted 20 6 268 4.21. teaching and learning classification of data with mean of 4.85. teaching and learning of recording data with mean 3. Teaching and 34 learning Classification 19 of data.4 Accepted 27 12 2 3 231 3. Findings of the study 18 9 264 4.43 Calculation 17 skills Teaching and 28 learning sorting of 18 data.4 were all accepted by OTM graduating students (HND II) with the grand mean of 4. Teaching and 33 learning storing of data.25.47.1. and teaching and learning storing of data with mean 4. Grand mean 4.
44 Based on the analysis of data collected on the graduating student’s assessment of the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills. ICT changes the methodology of teaching and learning. teaching and learning record disposal and the teaching and learning protection of records. teaching and learning storage of records. The study further discovered that the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management Information System (MIS) skills include teaching and learning creation of records. it was discovered that the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skills include the teaching and learning of calculation skills. It was also discovered that the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills include acquisition of new ideas. ICT aids teaching large number. the following findings were made. teaching and learning sorting of Data. ICT helps in training students in distance areas. 1. These roles include the teaching and learning creation of document. teaching and learning formatting of document. Lastly. It was discovered that ICT plays important role in the teaching and learning of word processing skills in polytechnics. 2. teaching and learning saving of document and the teaching and learning printing of document. teaching and learning retrieval records. Discussion of Findings . teaching and learning editing of document. 3. teaching and learning classification of Data. 4. teaching and learning recording of Data and teaching and learning storing of Data. provide teachers with current teaching aids.
55.5.45 The data analyzed according to responses from the graduating students (HND II) of OTM shows that the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Word processing skills. ICT changes the methodology of teaching and learning with mean of 4. teaching and learning storage of records with mean 4. From table 3. shows the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skills to include teaching and learning creation of document with a mean of 3. teaching and learning editing of document has the mean of 4. Management Information skills and Data processing skills are found very necessary for effective teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics. teaching and learning formatting of document with mean of 4.98.77. teaching and learning retrieval of records with mean 4. and teaching and learning protection of records with mean 4. provides teachers with current teaching aids with mean of 2.05 and a grand mean of 3.24.73. . teaching and learning saving of document with mean of 3.24. analysis shows that teaching and learning creation of document has a mean of 4.0 which is the decision rule.12. teaching and learning records disposal with mean of 4. helps in training students in distance areas with mean 4. aids teaching large numbers with mean of 4. Analysis in table 2 shows that not all the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills were accepted by OTM graduating students.52 was considered rejected with mean less than 3. Acquisition of new ideas with mean 4. Internet skills.6.63.6 and a grand mean of 4. teaching and learning printing of document with mean of 4.55. Table 18.104.22.168.58 and a grand mean of 4.
Summary of Findings . CHAPTER V SUMMARY. teaching and learning classification of data with mean of 4. and teaching and learning storing of data with mean 22.214.171.124.46 Table 4 shows that teaching and learning of calculation skills has a mean of 4.1.4 and a grand mean of 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the findings and conclusion on the research work and recommendations against the background of the findings made in the work. teaching and learning sorting of data has a mean of 4.25. teaching and learning of recording data with mean 3.
5. 3. teaching and learning storage of records 3. 3. 2. teaching and learning creation of records 2.47 The findings of this research work are summarized as follows: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Word Processing skills are found to be: 1. teaching and learning retrieval of records 4. teaching and learning calculation skills teaching and learning sorting of Data teaching and learning classification of Data . teaching and learning editing of document 3. teaching and learning saving of document 5. acquisition of new ideas ICT helps in training students in distance areas provides teachers with current teaching aids ICT aids teaching large number changes the methodology of teaching and learning The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management Information system skills are: 1. teaching and learning formatting of document 4. 4. teaching and learning printing of document The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills are: 1. teaching and learning creation of document 2. teaching and learning disposal of records 5. teaching and learning protection of records 37 The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skills are: 1. 2.
the teaching and learning of Internet skills.48 4. the roles are the teaching and learning of word processing skills. teaching and learning recording of Data teaching and learning storing of Data Conclusions Information and Communication Technology has played important role in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics. 5. That teacher’s should update their knowledge to meet up with the ICT challenges if not. the teaching and learning of Management Information Systems and the teaching and learning of Data processing skills were identified in this study to be so important for the graduates in order to perform effectively in this era of ICT. the following recommendations were made a. c. the objectives of teaching and learning of word processing skills will not be achieved. These roles were found to be relevant to the graduate of office technology and management department and the polytechnics in general. National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) should make the teaching and learning of Management Information System (MIS) compulsory in all tertiary institutions especially OTM department . That government should provide polytechnics with internet facilities to enable teachers and students carryout more consultations on the teaching and learning of internet skills. Recommendations Based on the findings of this study. b.
Effective use and maintenance of ICT equipment. A. . (BSUJE). Andural. Benue State University Journal of Education. Information security in this ICT era b. d. That the teaching and learning of Data processing skills should be taught more practically. Information Technology for Enhancement of Distance Learning: the way forward..I and Aboho.49 so as to impact the knowledge of handling information to the students. S.M (2006). REFERENCES Abolio. D. Suggestion for Further Study a. R.
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.. It is on this note that I request you to answer the attached questions........ Yours Faithfully......................... ....................... .... I am undertaking a research work on the PLACE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SECRETARIAL SKILLS IN THE POLYTECHNIC................54 REQUEST FOR COMPLETION OF PROJECT QUESTIONNAIRE I am a final year Higher National Diploma (HND) student of the above named department and institution............. SECTION A GENERAL INFORMATION Questionnaire on the Place of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Secretarial Skills in Polytechnic............. I therefore guarantee that the information supplied will be treated confidential..... Please tick ( ) where appropriate 1.. This exercise is solely for academic purpose. Name of Organization …………………………………………………................. Thanks for your co-operation.............. OKEME ABDULKERIM U.............
as you deem appropriate in the column below. Agreed..... SECTION B Questionnaires The instrument below is a Likert Rating Scale Questionnaire.. Disagreed and Strongly Disagreed.. viz: Strongly Agreed...... Male ( ) b. AgreedStrongly Agreed Disagreed S/N THE ROLE OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF WORD PROCESSING SKILLS Teaching and learning Creation of document Teaching and learning Editing of document Teaching and learning Formatting of document Teaching and learning Saving of document Teaching and learning Printing of document THE ROLES OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING INTERNET SKILLS... Acquisition of new ideas Training students in distance learning Provides teachers with current teaching aids Aids teaching large numbers Changes the methodology of teaching and learning THE ROLE OF ICT IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF Undecided Strongly Disagreed 1 2 3 4 5 B 6 7 8 9 10 C . Female ( ) Level ……………………………………………………………………………… Year of Graduation ………………………………………............ It is designed in a five point rating scale..55 2. 4.. Undecided.. Please tick........ 3... Sex a.
56 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SKILLS Teaching and learning Creation of records Teaching and learning Storage of records Teaching and learning Retrieval of records Teaching and learning Record disposal Teaching and learning Protection of records THE ROLE OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING DATA PROCESSING SKILLS Teaching and learning Calculating skills Teaching and learning Sorting of data Teaching and learning Classification of data Teaching and learning Recording of data Teaching and learning Storing of data 11 12 13 14 15 D 16 17 18 19 20 .
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