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TITLE PAGE

THE PLACE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF

SECRETARIAL SKILLS IN POLYTECHNICS

BY

OKEME ABDULKERIM U.
FPI/HND/OTM/08/017

A PROJECT REPORT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF


OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT (OTM) ,
FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC IDAH,
KOGI STATE.

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN OFFICE

TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT


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OCTOBER , 2010.

APPROVAL PAGE

This project report has been approved for the Department of


OfficeTechnology and Management Federal Polytechnic, Idah.

________________________ ____________________
M.E. EZE Date
Supervisor

_____________________ ____________________
M.E. EZE Date
Head of Department

_____________________ _____________________
External Examinar Date
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DEDICATION

This project report is dedicated to God Almighty for seeing me through in

this academic pursuit.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My sincere gratitude goes to God almighty for his wonderful guidance

from the beginning till the completion of this work and throughout the

pursuit of my academic programme.

My special thanks goes to my supervisor, Mr. M.E. Eze and Mr. M.O.

Ugwuanyi the project coordinator and all the lecturers in the department for

their valuable contribution to the success of this work, particularly to my

supervisor who despite his academic work read through the project and

made the necessary corrections.

My great appreciation goes to my parents, brothers, sisters and friends

for their assistance and encouragement and moral support throughout my

programme.

My special appreciation goes to Mr. Alih Yakubu a.k.a “BOGA”,

and the non teaching staff especially, Secretary to the department Mr.

Ugwuanyi, Mr Clement and Deborah for their cooperation and

understanding throughout my programme.

Finally, I can’t conclude this acknowledgement without giving thanks

to my one and only Miss Esther Ann Adegbe and her entire family

especially Fidelia, Jacinta, and Mama Victor who all sat by my side and
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never gave up in making sure I make a successful end to my programme.

Almighty God shall continue to strengthen you more and more in Jesus

name (amen), I love you all.


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ABSTRACT

This research is focused on the place of Information and Communication


Technology in the teaching and learning of Secretarial skills. The main
purpose of this research was to find out the teaching and learning of word
processing skills, the teaching and learning of internet skills, the teaching
and learning of Management information skills, the teaching and learning of
data processing skills. Four research questions were formulated and
questionnaires were used to obtain data from the population of 60. From the
data analysis the following findings were made: that ICT plays important
role in the teaching and learning of word processing skills in polytechnics,
that the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills include
acquisition of new ideas, helps in training of students in distance areas,
provide teachers with current teaching aids among others. That ICT helps in
the teaching and learning creation of document, storage of document,
retrieval of document, disposal of document and protection of document, all
these are the roles of ICT in Information Management system. That the roles
of ICT in the teaching and learning of data processing skills includes; the
teaching and learning of calculation skills, sorting of data, classification of
data, recording of data and the teaching and learning of storing of data.
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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page - - - - - - - - i

Approval Page - - - - - - - ii

Dedication - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv

Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi

List of Tables - - - - - - - vii

Abstract - - - - - - - - viil

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION - - - - - - 1

Background of the Study - - - - - - 1

Statement of the Problem- - - - - - 2

Purpose of the Study - - - - - - 2

Significant of the Study - - - - - - 3

Research Question - - - - - - - 3

Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 4

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - 5
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Conceptual Frame Work - - - - - 5

The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skill - 14

The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skill - - - - - - 16

The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management Information

(MIS) skill - - - - - - - - - - 19

The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skill - - 21

Summary of literature Review - - - - - - - - 23

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - - - - - - 24

Introduction - - - - - - - - - 24

Design of the Study and Method - - - - - - 24

Area of the Study - - - - - - - - - 24

Population of the Study - - - - - - - - 24

Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - - - 24

Validation of the Instrument Used - - - - - - 25

Method of data Collection - - - - - - - 25

Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - - 25

CHAPTER IV

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS - - -- - 25


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Research Question 1 - - - - - - - - 25

Research Question 2 - - - - - - - - 28

Research Question 3 - - - - - - - - 30

Research Question 4 - - - - - - - - 32

Findings of the study - - - - - - - - 34

Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - - 35

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION - - 37

Summary - - - - - - - - - - 37

Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 38

Recommendations - - - - - - - - - 38

Suggestion for Further Research - - - - - - 39

References - - - - - - - - - - 40

Appendix
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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of

Word processing skills - - - - - 27

Table 2: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of

Internet skills - - - - - - 29

Table 3: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of

Management Information System (MIS) skills - 31

Table 4: The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of

Data processing skills - - - - - 33


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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The world is undergoing drastic changes everyday due to
technological innovations. The change in technology especially in
information and communication technology (ICT) has a great impact on
secretarial profession and in the performance of their duties as a secretary as
well as their training. Information and communication technology of today
has made the work of a secretary to be carried out with a lesser fatique, it has
also served as a motivating factor for secretaries. The application of
information and communication technology tools in the teaching and
learning of secretarial skills, has made it very easy and less tasking in
becoming a professional secretary. Today, there are pools of information
resource site in the internet through the World Wide Web (www).
Information and communication technology equipments used in the
teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics have brought about
great revolution in the secretarial field, secretaries can now transmit
message, prepare itinerary for their boss no matter the distance within the
shortest period of time through the use of internet. ICT has globalised the
world. Ayeni (2005), said that ICT has reduced the world to a global village
turning all parts of the world to everybody’s neighborhood. Thus, events in
one part of the world are felt by the people and societies far away and vice-
versa.
The roles of secretaries have changed form the old fashioned
secretaries. Gone are those days where the job of secretaries depends only on
the use of manual typewriters, computers have succeeded in taking the place

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of the manual typewriters with the present development in the field of


management information system and information and communication
technology. Teaching and learning of secretarial skills via ICT became
inperative because of the wide spread of information and communication
technology of our time which has virtually affected every area of man’s life.
It is on the foregoing that this paper examined the place of ICT in the
teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics.
Statement of the Problems
It has been observed that polytechnic students in Nigeria cannot
operate the information and communication technology gadgets effectively.
Worst of it all, steady power supply is another vital problem. It was
also observed that some ICT instructors lack the competence to enhance
teaching and learning.
Also, the costs of acquisition of these ICT equipments are slowing the
pace of acquiring these secretarial skills.
If the above problems are not adequately solved, they will hinder the
students from acquiring the basic ICT secretarial skills that makes them to
contribute their quota to the development of their organization.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this research work is to determine the place of
information and communication technology in the teaching and learning of
secretarial skills in polytechnics.
This study will specifically seek to:
1 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and
learning of word processing skills in polytechnics
2 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and
learning of internet
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skills in Polytechnics
3 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and
learning of Management information system (MIS) skills in
polytechnics.
4 To determine the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of ICT in
the teaching and learning of data processing skills in polytechnics.

Significance of the Study


The result of this research work will be of great benefit to students in
polytechnics and other higher institutions of learning.
The research work will also be important to the government, since it
will educate them on the need to equip tertiary institutions with modern
information and communication technology equipments.
Lastly, it will also be of significance to the students as it provides a
fore-sight on their professional expectations in the modern business world
and as a research material for further studies on relevant topic.
Research Questions
1 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning word
processing skills in polytechnics?
2 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet
skills in polytechnics?
3 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of
Management information skills in polytechnics?
4 What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of data
processing skills in polytechnics?
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Scope of the Study


The study covers the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of
secretarial skills in polytechnics, the advances made in technology, cost of
acquiring ICT gadgets, competences on the side of the instructors, ability of
the students to operate ICT gadgets and the effect of poor power supply.
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CHAPTER II
Review of related literature
This chapter deals with the literature reviewed in connection with the
place of information and communication technology in the teaching and
learning of secretarial skills in the polytechnic. The review of related
literature would be discussed under the following headings
1. Conceptual framework
2. Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of word processing skills
3. Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills
4. Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management
information system (MIS) skills
5. Roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of data processing
skills
6. Summary of literature review.

Conceptual Framework
Teaching, according to Overbaugh (2003), is said to be the science
and art of assisting a person to learn. To him, the science in teaching entails
the use of acquired knowledge from natural and behavioural sciences in
order to help appreciate the circumstances and personality of the learner
while the art aspect of teaching involves the use of creative and
demonstrative skills in aiding the delivery of instruction.
Technically, Overbaugh (2003) also views teaching as assisting the
learner to develop insight into a problem or to form as association between a
response and a stimulus. In the words of Overbaugh (2003), Ogwo and

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Oranu (2006), they also viewed teaching as a partnership enterprise between


the teacher and the student, which ultimately leads to permanent changes in
behaviour of the student, the nature of teaching act is so complex and
interated that its dimensions, scope ans outcomes need to be planned
carefully and systematically ever before teaching commences.
According to Ajoma (2009), the central purpose of teaching is to
effect desirable changes in students behaviour (ie promotion of learning), for
learning to be promoted, students must respond to the learning experiences
to which they are exposed to enable the teachers determine whether or not
instructional objectives have been acquired. The teachers on the other hand
must be continuous learners as they cannot promote learning if they are
ignorant of what it takes to learn. They must therefore, know specific subject
matter areas such as shorthand, typing, Accounting, different computer
packages among other relevant requirement.
Learning as posited by Anderson and Block (1987), is a relative
permanent change in behaviour that manifests due to reinforced practices.
They maintained that the phrase “relatively permanent” excludes from the
definition changes in behaviour that result from temporary or transient
conditions such as fatique, influence of drugs or adaptation. They, from the
view point of development, further explain learning as “knowledge and
skills accumulated through out a life time.
Ajoma (2009), observed the fact that what we do today does not
depend only on our natural capabilities and maturational level, but also what
we leant in the past; he further said that learning is interactive and comes
through active interchange with the environment, either in movement and
manipulation or in observation and discrimination. Ogwo and Oranu (2006),
describe learning as “the process by which some activities enable the learner
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acquire experiences that tends to influence (change) his/her future


behaviour, provided that the characteristics of the change in behaviour
cannot be explained in a native response tendencies, maturation or
temporary state of the learner”. Ajoma (2009), viewed that it is a common
knowledge that for effective learning to take place, there must be learning
resources. These resources are devices, real objects or representations which
teachers use to communicate effectively with learners. Example include real
objects, models, projectors, overhead projectors, films, radio, slide
projectors, textbooks, pictures and charts, video taped instructions,
chalkboard and many more. These resources are very important, Nwoji
(1999), remarked that teaching and learning resources are very vital to
effective teaching and learning and should be employed by teachers in
teaching.
In addition to learning resources which makes learning effective,
effective learning follows some learning processes. Learning processes are
the various ways through which learning occurs. Igboke (2005), listed some
of these learning processes as follows;
Trial and error: to achieve competence in a thing, mistakes are often made
and corrections taken until learners attain “perfection”.
Learning by doing: for instance, mathematics and accounts are leant by
working exercises, typewriting by frequent practicing everyday.
Learning by demonstration: here, the teacher conducts the operation or
construction before the class and explains his actions as he proceeds.
Learning by thinking: learners or students learn when their instructions
allow thinking by asking questions and taking part in the discussions.
Learning by installment: new knowledge is best acquired in small doses
since human mind is capable of absorbing only a limited amount of
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information at a given time. Progress through a lesson should embrace series


of steps, with each step being understood or mastered before the next step is
taken.
Learning by observation: learners acquire information, collect data and
obtain ideas about things and events as they watch the teacher perform,
hence, the learner’s abilities are developed.
Strategies and principles for teaching and learning secretarial
education consist of those laws or consistent pattern of behaviour which
follows teaching and learning. These include those non teaching attributes
such as teacher’s personality, commitments, efficiency in the use of schedule
teaching (Eze, 1994 and Ogwo and Oranu, 2006). For example, a teacher
may prepare a good lesson but this is not a guarantee that the lesson will be
taught if he is nasty, wicked and uninterested in the students or work.
For teaching and learning of secretarial education to be effective, the
secretarial teacher should adhere strictly to these general rules (strategies
and principles) of teaching. Teaching as stated by Farrant (1982), Obi
(2005), should start from;
General knowledge to specific knowledge: for instance, the uses or
function/parts of a typewriter as a writing tool should be taught to learners
before teaching the importance of and handling of the cylinder of a
typewriter to them.
Concrete things to abstract things.
Known to unknown: teaching should be done with reference to a related
knowledge to the subject matter the learners already have.
Simple things to complex things: simple things are easier to remember than
complex ones.
Teaching should be learner centered
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Eze (1994), gave other teaching strategies to be employed by teachers


at a particular time in order to maximize the teaching and learning outcome.
Thus teachers should;
Ensure the suitability of curriculum content selected for the subject matter in
order to achieve its intended outcome. Thus, teachers should;

Ensure the suitability of curriculum content selected for the subject matter in
order to achieve its intended outcome;

Choose and define appropriate teaching methods,


Choose and define appropriate instructional material for actualization of
learning and best delivery of the subject matter, and
Choose and determine the most appropriate evaluation technique for
achievement of the intended learning outcome at the end of the teaching and
learning process.
Continuing on some general principles of teaching and learning,
Ogwo and Oranu (2006), further pointed out the following;
Law of maturation: learners should wait on maturation as a child cannot
learn until he/she is ready (matured) to learn.
Motivation: this is a prime mover in human behaviour and refers in a
classroom situation to something the teacher does to get students interested
or respond in designated or given ways. These includes word of praise, good
grades, smiles and comment of approval like keep it up, good, excellent,
carefully planned and well delivered lessons also sustain and energize
students interest in the planned material.
Learning experiences should be meaningful to the learners: students are
more likely to learn concepts, attitudes and skills that are meaningful to
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them. Secretarial education teachers should therefore relate their lectures to


issues and problems that have immediate and future concerns to learners and
the society.

Principles of open and effective communication lectures should be presented


in ways that encourage students to discuss and ask questions.
Teacher’s attitude: secretarial education teachers should be positive and
geared towards motivating learners through showing love and concern,
among other.
Duration: there should be a period of recess for fairly long periods of
workshop/laboratory practice for instance 5-6 hours. The secretarial
education teacher should plan the activities in such a way as to provide room
for recess after the first two or three hours of work.
Information refers to messages, facts or details about something or
somebody. According to Afeidia (2006), he defined information as data,
which has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful and useful to
the person who receives it. They refer to data as facts, activities and
transactions which have been recorded as raw materials from which
information is produced. According to Imolorihe (2006), information
involves facts that are collected which can be verbal, or written, through
story or observation.
Communication, according to Adebayo (2006), human
communication is a subtle and ingenious set of process. It is always thick
and thousands of ingredients, signals, cold, meaningful no matter how
simple the message or the transaction. It is a varied set of process; it can use
any one of a hundred different means, either words or gesture. Whenever
people interact, they communicate.
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Ojukwu (2004), defines communication as a means used to transfer a


message from one person to another in the case of automated system. He
further said that communication is a two way process, it is concerned with
understanding and for communication to be successful; the idea convened
must be received without being altered, confused or misunderstood.
Information and communication technology (ICT) therefore is a
communication process in which information (inputs) is recorded, stored and
retrieved, processed for decision making (output) on planning, operation and
controlling (Ajoma, 2009). Thus it guarantees effective and efficient
collection of information for easy transmission to appropriate areas for
immediate use in planning, implementation and evaluation processes in
educational programmes. Ater, Tiough and Nevkar (2006), citing Williams
and sawyer (2001), observed ICT to be; computers, auxiliary equipments,
software and firmware (hardware) and similar procedures, services and
related resources. It includes any equipment or interconnected system or
subsystem of acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement,
control, display, switching, interchange, transmission or reception of data or
information.
ICT has globalized the world. Ayeni, (2005), said that ICT has
reduced the world to a global village, turning all parts of world to
everybody’s neighborhood. Thus, events in one part of the world have on
people and societies far away and vice-versa.
The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills
cannot be over emphasized. Some of these roles include:
Acquisition of new ideas, knowledge, skills and methodology in teaching
and learning secretarial skills: Ajoma (2009), observed that with the help of
ICT, some ideas and skills adopted in developed countries like America and
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united kingdom can now be read and learned through internet and satellite
and be applied in Nigeria. Educators and students now update their
knowledge and methodology through ICT.

Information and communication technology encourages teamwork.


Employees in globalize enterprises need to work as a team. It encourages
educators and students to engage in teamwork in order to share ideas,
experiences and knowledge that will help them teach, learn and solve their
scientific problems. Supporting this view, Dede (2006), said that computer
supported collaborative learning (C.S.C,L) is one of the measures brought in
by ICT to help people learn and work in team in global networked visual
teams. CSCL also enhances team performance through communicating each
others ideas, creating group dialogue and decision.

Information and communication technology has changed the methodology


of teaching and learning secretarial skills in schools. Teaching and learning
has been changed from traditional chalkboard to electronic learning
requiring ICT skills for teachers. Nyahute (2006), observes that teachers
now can talk less, do less and achieve more. He also added that teaching and
learning have shifted from teacher centered to material centered, where the
teacher only guides students to use the available material to achieve learning
objectives.
In the same vain, it provides teachers with current teaching aids used in
teaching and learning process. Okoro (1993), recommended any equipment
used for instruction and learning secretarial skills must as much as possible,
be a replication of actual equipment used in industry. Such equipment
include; computers, multimedia, internets, video conferencing systems e.t.c
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.
Information and communication technology also helps in controlling
problems arising from enrolment of more students in to secretarial education
in our schools and colleges. With the increase in enrolment of more students
into secretarial departments, teachers have problem in teaching these
students with very limited equipments and traditional method of teaching.
However, ICT has orientated teachers to use audio and video equipments to
teach a very large number of students at a time (Ajoma, 2009).

ICT helps in training students in distance areas through the use of internet,
satellite dish, radio, television and many others. ICT is seen here as an
instrument of localization where teachers now teach without real contact
with the learners and learners now learn in their houses or work places.
Though ICT, the menace of space, time and distance has been broken. With
this, secretarial education can be taught and learned through distance
learning programmes to help participants update their educational
qualification (Aboho, Andurai and Aboho, 2006).

ICT increases motivation in both teachers and students and retain student’s
interest to learn, through engaging learners in productive work, increasing
their perception of what they are doing and what they need to do. Learners
are motivated to learn with greater interest when they see the reality of what
they are doing. This is, why Cogburn (2006), postulates that before now,
students had no much interest and motivation in the teaching and learning
process, but now, the use of telecommunications through ICT has aroused
and sustain their interest and motivation to work, while the teacher only
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guides and assists them on what to do and what not to do. ICT has now
saved teachers time to achieve learning objectives within a teaching period.

These and other numerous roles of ICT in teaching and learning


secretarial skills show the need for secretarial education teachers to join in
the ICT drive. But the questions are: how much of ITC does the teacher
know, and how much of it can he, use? How ready is the government to
support the use of ICT in education in Nigeria?

The role of Information and Communication Technology in the


teaching and learning of Word Processing Skills:

Word processing is a word – saving system of recording, storing and


retrieving typewritten data, utilizing correctable magnetic type or other
storage facility often with visual presentation on a screen (Eunice, 2004).
Eunice (2004), citing Azuka (1999), also asserts that word processing refers
to the use of computers to handle text and produce typed and/or printed
documents. He further said that word processing consists of processes,
which processes through drafting, laying out, correcting, storing, retrieving
communicating information and printing of documents. Igbinoba (2000) and
Nwosu (2001), are of the view that word processing is one of the basic skills
required by secretaries in technological environment as executives often rely
on secretaries to provide comprehensive, accurate and up to date information
promptly to enable them arrive at quality management decisions. Supporting
this view, Chukwumezie (2001), adds that the secretary needs this skills so
as to be able to find, select and write simple programs, and type, modify,
rearrange, print and even ease and proficiency. Nwogwugwu (2000),
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observed many benefits accruable from acquisition of word processing skills


and competence. These include;
Reducing the length of time required to do work.
Ensuring accuracy and efficiency.
Eliminate drudgery
Ensure standardization of work
Accelerating the speed and capacity of office work done etc
The role of ICT in teaching and learning word processing skills includes:
Teaching and learning Creation of Document: with the role of ICT in
word processing skills, most of the secretaries have now known how to
create mail able document using the computer. According to French (2006),
a document refers to anything that is produced using word processing
programs such Microsoft word. Document creation is a text entry operation.
According to Oyewole and Obeta (2002), every living being is
involved directly or indirectly in word processing which is the process
whereby documents such as letters, report, memos are produced manually
either by hand (hand writing) or manually operated machines (manual
typewriters) and electronic word processing which is the art of preparing
documents with the aid of an electronic device such as word processor and
computers using available word processing software.
Teaching and learning Editing of Document: Editing involves the process
of effecting correction on already keyed in documents and this may require
addition of text to the document or removal of text from the document. ICT
has made editing to be possible and fast using the computer because many
word processing packages are supported with electronic dictionaries and
processing routines that carryout automatic checking of errors (Oyewole,
2003).
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Teaching and learning Formatting of Document: with the role of ICT in


word processing, virtually all secretaries have realized the easiest and fastest
way of displaying their work. Eunice (2004), viewed formatting of
documents to be the means of rearranging the layout for final printout. He
further said that, formatting function permits choice of styles and pitches,
automatic page numbering, margin justification, line spacing, italicizing,
underscore, bold to mention but a few.
Teaching and learning Saving of document: this is the process of filing
using computers. According to Kolawole (2000), saving to a secretary is the
act of keeping valuable document to aid other needed facts for future use or
in a case where the needs of such document arise. Before now, the
traditional way of saving documents is by filling and keeping them in the
file cabinet but with the introduction of ICT, documents are now saved
electronically using computer.
Teaching and learning Printing of Document: according to Levin (2000),
the final phase of word processing involves savings and ultimately printing
your work. Printing is the act of issuing a command to the word processor
coupled with a printer to produce a hard copy of the processed data for
organizational use. ICT has made it possible for documents to be produce in
hard copy with a simple touch on the keyboard. Idoko and Zubairu (2002),
viewed word processing as the corner stone of office automation.

The Role of ICT in The Teaching And Learning Of Internet Skills


The internet is the greatest developmental endeavour in the last
millennium. According to Ohakwe (2004), he described the internet as the
major breakthrough in technology, a revolution, and the wonders of the
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millennium and indeed the most flexible medium of communication


currently available in this technological era.
The internet is the greatest development which has affected all human
endeavour in the last millennium. The internet is an international network of
computers, the world largest communication network which links hundreds
of nation, thousands of companies and over fifty millions of computers all
over the world (Chukwudebe, 2000). The internet has become the largest
and most important network today and has evolved into global information
super highway. Umaru (2006), described internet as a vast information super
highway that facilitates computer users both nationally and internationally to
communicate directly as if they were part of a giant global computing
machines. Ayeni (2005), observed that ICT has reduced the world to a
global village turning all parts of the world to everybody’s neighbourhood.
Some of the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills
includes.
Acquisition of new ideas: Ajoma (2009), observed that with the help of
ICT, some ideas and skills adopted in developed countries like America and
united kingdom can now be real and learned through internet and satellite
and be applied in Nigeria. Educators and students now update their
knowledge and methodology through ICT. They can now shift from their old
and cultural methods of impacting knowledge to more scientific and new
methods. There is hope that business education through ICT would provide
skilled workers, current skills and knowledge to meet the needs of new
industries, productions pattern and teaching and learning methods.
ICT helps in training students in distance areas: ICT helps in the training
of students in distance area through the use of internet, satellite dish, radio,
television and many others. ICT is seen here as an instrument of localization,
28

where teachers now teach with out real contact with the learners and learners
now learn in their houses or work places. Through ICT, the menace of space,
time and distance has been broken. With this, business education (secretarial
skills) can be taught and learned through distance learning programmes to
help participants update their educational qualifications (Aboho, Andural
and Aboho, 2006).
Provide teachers with current teaching aids: it provides teachers with
current teaching aids used in teaching and learning process. Okoro (1993),
recommended any equipment used for instruction and learning secretarial
skills must as much as possible, be a replication of actual equipment used in
industry. Such equipment include; computers, multimedia, internets, video
conferencing systems e.t.c
ICT aids teaching large number: information and communication
technology also helps in controlling problems arising from enrolment of
more students into office technology and management department.
According to Ajoma (2009), he viewed that, with the increase in enrolment
of more students into the department of office technology and management
(OTM), teachers have problems in teaching these students with very limited
equipments and traditional method of teaching. However, ICT has orientated
teachers to use audio and video equipments to teach a very large number of
students at a time.
Changing the methodology of teaching and learning: ICT has changed
the methodology of teaching and learning of secretarial skills in schools.
Teaching and learning has been changed from traditional chalkboard to
electronic learning requiring ICT skills for teachers. Nyahute (2006),
observes that teachers can now talk less, do less and achieve more. He also
added that teaching and learning have shifted from teachers centered to
29

material centered, where the teachers only guides students to use the
available materials to achieve learning objectives.

The Role of ICT In The Teaching And Learning of Management


Information System (MIS) Skills

MIS is an information system designed to provide information needed


for effective decision making by managers. Information is required to
identify as many alternative goals ass possible, to appreciate the relationship
between alternatives and compute the trade off included in the choice to be
made (Eze, 2010). Management information system is the way by which
records are managed in an organization. The role of ICT in teaching and
learning management information system skills includes;
Teaching and learning Creation of Records: according to Osuala and
Okeke (2006), record creation involves determining what forms or report to
use and developing procedure for records control. Records are the collection
of data or information for smooth running of the institution and they are kept
for further actions or future reference. The data or information to be
processed by the computer must be presented in a machine sensible from
that is, the language of the particular input device.
According to French (2006), input is the first step in producing
information collected and introducing data into computer. A transaction is a
business event such as sales, purchases, employing new staff, hiring of
workers and the liker. These transactions are recorded on paper and later
entered into the computer or they may be directly recorded through terminals
of transaction processing (TPSs), such as cash registers and order entry
terminals. A TPSs is any given system that records transactions. Often, the
30

same system also processes the transactions, summarizing and routine


information to other systems, therefore, these systems transaction processing
systems, not just transaction recording systems.
Teaching and learning Storage of Records: laudon and Laudon (2002),
describe information storage as the process of retaining information for
future use. Information is stored for reference or future purposes. ICT has
helped in storing record in computer.
O’Brien (2003), said data are processed and stored in a computer
system through the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals in
the computer’s circuits such as magnetic disks, magnetic tape, floppy
diskettes. Records are stored in the computer memory. The memory of a
computer is made up from many thousands of storage cells called bytes.
Each has a unique address in memory. It is a storage unit where all
information and data going into and coming from the computer system are
temporarily stored prior to or after processing.
Teaching and learning Retrieval of Records: According to Nwosu (2005),
saving is said to be efficient only if the material or document saved can be
retrieved in terms of need without skirmish.
French (2006), viewed that ultimately, information in its various
forms is stored on backing storage in computer files of various types. This
stored information can be retrieved through file base system. File base
systems used the standard file facilities provided by operation system. The
application or application package is built using such facilities.
Teaching and learning Record Disposals: According to Elendu (2000),
record disposal refers to such treatment that is given to document in the
office in order to get ride of them or put them in positions for further use.
31

After records have been in existence for a long time by retention schedule,
they should be considered ready for destruction.
Osuala and Okeke (2006), stated that stored records that are no longer
of value shall be destroyed without delay. Elendu (2000), opined that
destruction of records is a matter of policies. It is the responsibility of every
business organization to draw up regulations governing disposal of its
records, the date of disposal should be determined when records, the date of
disposal should be determined when records are put into storage and this
should be properly noted.
Teaching and learning Protection of Records: the 1984 Data Protection
Act was intended to regulate the use of automatically processed information
relating to individuals and the provision of services in respect of such
information. The Act defines a number of terms including, data about
individuals which held for processing must have been obtained fairly for a
specific lawful purpose. The data must only be used for the specific purpose
and may only be disclosed in accordance with the specific purpose. The data
must not be excessive for the purpose but merely adequate and relevant. The
data must be accurate, up to date and kept no longer than necessary and the
data must be protected and hold securely against unauthorized access or less
but must be accessible to data on request (Effy, 2002).

The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Data Processing Skills
In practice, most data processing nowadays involves the use of some
electronic aid such as calculators and computers which increases in
sophistication year by year. Olowo (2003), defined computer and data
processing as the process of producing meaningful information by collecting
32

all items of data together and performing operations on them to extract the
required information from them using computer system.
According to Idoko and Zubairu (2002), data processing is the
procedure or process involved in the conversion of data into information,
whether manual, mechanical or electronic. Viewing it more as subsystem of
information processing. Osuswa (2002), said that electronic data processing
is the process of processing data by a computer which carries out
mathematical and other logical manipulations. According to Talabi (2005),
data processing may be divided into five separate but related steps. They are:
a. Origination
b. Input
c. Manipulation
d. Output
e. Storage

Oyewole and Obeta (2002), viewed data processing as “system”. A


system in data processing is defined as a group of interrelated functional
units seeking the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and
processing the inputs to produce organized output in form of information.
Some of the roles of ICT in data processing include;
Teaching and learning Calculation skills: Calculating is the arithmetic
manipulation, (that is adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing) and
comparing of raw data to produce usable result. (Oyewole and Obeta,
2002).
Teaching and learning Sorting of data: According to French (2002),
the transaction file must be sorted into the dequence of the master file
before processing can take place. Oyewole and Obeta (2002), asserted
33

that this is arranging of data into sequence according to a common


characteristics. It can either be an alphabetic or numeric sequence.
Teaching and learning Classification of data: This operation for
placing data in specified categories such as size, types, customer’s
locality and class, to mention but few (Oyewole and Obeta, 2002). Talabi
(2005), see it to be one of the manipulation functions.
Teaching and learning Recording data: This transcribing of data from
a source documents (handwritten) into a machine readable medium.
Machine readable medium include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, Mano
(2006), supported that magnetic tape are used mostly for storing files of
data for example, company payroll records.
Teaching and learning Storing of data: According to Oyewole and
Obeta (2002), this entails placing data into some media such as magnetic
tape, disk and so on, where it can be retrieved when needed. Talabi
(2005), said that data resulting from the processing steps can be stored,
either temporarily or permanently for future reference and usage.

Summary of Literature Review


Having reviewed the work of different authors and research materials,
the process of teaching and learning of secretarial skills, strategies and
principle for teaching and learning, the roles of ICT in the teaching and
learning of secretarial skills, the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning
of word processing skills, internet skills, management information system
skills and data processing skills were reviewed. For effective use of ICT
tools in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics, the
teachers should endeavour to update their knowledge and be conversant
with the rapid innovations in the technological world.
34

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter focuses on the method and procedure employed by the
researcher in the course of the study. The method comprises of the
following headings: Design of the study, area of the study, population of
the study, instrument for the data collection, validation of instrument for
data collection, method of data analysis, method of data collection.
Design of the study
The study adopted a survey design. The study sought the opinion of
the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in
Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State. Design survey studies people,
beliefs, behaviour and opinions.
Area of the study
The study was carried out in Federal Polytechnic Idah in the North
central geopolitical zone of Nigeria
Population for the study
The population of the study consists of 63 (HND II) graduating
students of OTM department in the Federal Polytechnic Idah
Instrument for Data Collection
Questionnaire was the main instrument used for the study. The
questionnaire was divided into two sections, A and B. Section A was to
collect personal data involving the name of the students and sex (male or
female), section B treated the main questionnaire items and contains a

24
35

total of 20 questionnaire items. The likert type of rating scale


questionnaire was adopted. The responses categories were designed to
make the students to answer the questions from personal point of view.
The five responses categories are:`
Strongly Agreed = 5
Agreed = 4
Undecided = 3
Disagreed = 2
Strongly Disagree = 1
Validation of the instrument
The questionnaire was prepared by the researcher and submitted to the
19 for validation. After examination
supervisor and two other senior lecturers
and corrections, the questionnaire was approved for production and
distribution.
Method of Data collection
The questionnaire was distributed personally by the researcher, 63
were distributed and 60 were completed and returned.
Method of Data Analysis
The method of data analysis used in the study is the mean statistics.
The mean was used to answer the research questions.
The formula used is shown below
X = ∑fx
f
Where X = mean score
F = frequency of response
X = the numeric value
∑ = summation.

Decision Rule
36

The mean value of 3.0 was used as the decision rule; the mean value
of 3.0 and above was accepted and those with mean below were rejected. I
arrived at 3.0 adding the scores and divided by the number of occurrences
e.g.

5+4+3+2+1 = 3.0
CHAPTER IV

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS


This chapter presents the result of data based on the data collected
from respondents. The following table shows the responses of respondents
and the mean of the responses.

Research Question 1
What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of word
processing skills?
Questionnaire items numbered 1 – 5 were used to answer the research
questions.
37

26
Table 1
The roles of ICT in teaching and learning of word processing skills
S/NO Items 5 4 3 2 1 Total Mean Remarks
SA A UD D SD
1 Teaching 26 7 8 12 7 213 3.55 Accepted
and learning
Creation of
Document
2 Teaching 51 7 1 1 257 4.24 Accepted
and learning
Editing of
Document
3 Teaching 30 16 12 1 1 253 4.22 Accepted
and learning
Formatting
of Document
4 Teaching 26 17 8 8 1 239 3.98 Accepted
and learning
saving of
document
5 Teaching 36 24 276 4.6 Accepted
and learning
Printing of
document
38

Grand mean 4.12


From table 1, the analysis shows that teaching and learning creation of
document is accepted with a mean of 3.55, teaching and learning editing of
document has the mean of 4.24, teaching and learning formatting of
document has a mean of 4.22, teaching and learning saving of document
with the mean of 3.98, teaching and learning printing of document has the
mean of 4.6 were all accepted by the OTM graduating (HND II) students
with grand mean of 4.12.
Research question 2
What are roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills?
Questionnaire items number 6 – 10 were used to answer the research
questions
39

Table 2
The role of ICT in teaching and learning of internet skills
S/NO Items 5 4 3 2 1 Total Mean Remarks
SA A UD D SD
6 Acquisition 48 8 2 2 278 4.63 Accepted
of new ideas
7 Helps in 35 20 5 270 4.5 Accepted
training
27
students in
distance
areas
8 Provides 20 7 17 16 151 2.52 rejected
teachers with
current
teaching aids
9 Aids teaching 33 27 275 4.55 Accepted
large
numbers
10 ICT changes 35 12 2 3 8 243 4.05 Accepted
the
methodology
of teaching
and learning
Grand mean 3.24
Analysis from data in table 2 shows that not all the roles of ICT in the
teaching and learning of internet skills are accepted by OTM graduating
students. Acquisition of new ideas with mean 4.63, helps in training students
in distance areas with 4.5, increases motivation with mean of 2.52 was
40

considered rejected with mean less than 3.0 which is the decision rule, aids
teaching large numbers with mean of 4.55, ICT changes the methodology of
teaching and learning with mean of 4.05 were all accepted by the OTM
(HND II) graduating students with grand mean of 3.24.

Research question 3

What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management
information system?

Questionnaire items number 11 – 15 were used to answer the research


questions.

Table 3
41

The roles of ICT in teaching and learning of Management Information


skills
S/NO Items 5 4 3 2 1 Total Mean Remarks
SA A UD D SD
11 Teaching 47 10 3 285 4.73 Accepted
and learning
creation of
records
12 Teaching 42 18 282 4.7 Accepted
and learning
storage of
records
13 Teaching 46 14 286 4.77 Accepted
and learning
retrieval of
records
14 Teaching 39 18 3 276 4.6 Accepted
and learning
record
disposal
15 Teaching 35 25 275 4.58 Accepted
and learning
protection of
records
Grand mean 4.68
From table 3, analysis shows that teaching and learning creation of

document has a mean of 4.73, teaching and learning storage of records with

mean 4.7, teaching and learning retrieval of records with mean 4.77,

teaching and learning records disposal with mean of 4.6, and teaching and
42

learning protection of records with mean 4.58 were all accepted with a grand

mean of 4.68

Research question 4

What are the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data
processing skills?

Questionnaire items number 16 – 20 were used to answer the research


questions.

Table 4
The role of ICT in teaching and learning of Data processing skills.
S/NO Items 5 4 3 2 1 Total Mean Remarks
SA A UD D SD
16 Teaching and 30 15 15 255 4.25 Accepted
learning of
43

Calculation
skills
17 Teaching and 28 18 6 8 246 4.1 Accepted
learning
sorting of
data.
18 Teaching and 34 20 6 268 4.47 Accepted
learning
Classification
of data.
19 Teaching and 16 27 12 2 3 231 3.85 Accepted
learning
Recording of
data.
20 Teaching and 33 18 9 264 4.4 Accepted
learning
storing of
data.
Grand mean 4.21
The analysis of the data in table 4 shows that teaching and learning of
calculation skills has a mean of 4.25, teaching and learning sorting of data
has a mean of 4.1, teaching and learning classification of data with mean of
4.47, teaching and learning of recording data with mean 3.85, and teaching
and learning storing of data with mean 4.4 were all accepted by OTM
graduating students (HND II) with the grand mean of 4.21.

Findings of the study


44

Based on the analysis of data collected on the graduating student’s


assessment of the place of ICT in the teaching and learning of secretarial
skills, the following findings were made.
1. It was discovered that ICT plays important role in the teaching and
learning of word processing skills in polytechnics. These roles
include the teaching and learning creation of document, teaching and
learning editing of document, teaching and learning formatting of
document, teaching and learning saving of document and the teaching
and learning printing of document.
2. It was also discovered that the role of ICT in the teaching and
learning of internet skills include acquisition of new ideas, ICT helps
in training students in distance areas, provide teachers with current
teaching aids, ICT aids teaching large number, ICT changes the
methodology of teaching and learning.
3. The study further discovered that the role of ICT in the teaching and
learning of Management Information System (MIS) skills include
teaching and learning creation of records, teaching and learning
storage of records, teaching and learning retrieval records, teaching
and learning record disposal and the teaching and learning protection
of records.
4. Lastly, it was discovered that the roles of ICT in the teaching and
learning of Data processing skills include the teaching and learning of
calculation skills, teaching and learning sorting of Data, teaching and
learning classification of Data, teaching and learning recording of
Data and teaching and learning storing of Data.
Discussion of Findings
45

The data analyzed according to responses from the graduating students


(HND II) of OTM shows that the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of
Word processing skills, Internet skills, Management Information skills and
Data processing skills are found very necessary for effective teaching and
learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics.
Table 1, shows the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of word
processing skills to include teaching and learning creation of document with
a mean of 3.55, teaching and learning editing of document has the mean of
4.24, teaching and learning formatting of document with mean of 4.22,
teaching and learning saving of document with mean of 3.98, teaching and
learning printing of document with mean of 4.6 and a grand mean of 4.12.
Analysis in table 2 shows that not all the roles of ICT in the teaching
and learning of internet skills were accepted by OTM graduating students.
Acquisition of new ideas with mean 4.63, helps in training students in
distance areas with mean 4.5, provides teachers with current teaching aids
with mean of 2.52 was considered rejected with mean less than 3.0 which is
the decision rule, aids teaching large numbers with mean of 4.55, ICT
changes the methodology of teaching and learning with mean of 4.05 and a
grand mean of 3.24.
From table 3, analysis shows that teaching and learning creation

of document has a mean of 4.73, teaching and learning storage of records

with mean 4.7, teaching and learning retrieval of records with mean 4.77,

teaching and learning records disposal with mean of 4.6, and teaching and

learning protection of records with mean 4.58 and a grand mean of 4.68.
46

Table 4 shows that teaching and learning of calculation skills has a


mean of 4.25, teaching and learning sorting of data has a mean of 4.1,
teaching and learning classification of data with mean of 4.47, teaching and
learning of recording data with mean 3.85, and teaching and learning storing
of data with mean 4.4 and a grand mean of 4.21.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarizes the findings and conclusion on the research
work and recommendations against the background of the findings made in
the work.
Summary of Findings
47

The findings of this research work are summarized as follows:


The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Word Processing
skills are found to be:
1. teaching and learning creation of document
2. teaching and learning editing of document
3. teaching and learning formatting of document
4. teaching and learning saving of document
5. teaching and learning printing of document

The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of internet skills are:
1. acquisition of new ideas
2. ICT helps in training students in distance areas
3. provides teachers with current teaching aids
4. ICT aids teaching large number
5. changes the methodology of teaching and learning
The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Management
Information system skills are:
1. teaching and learning creation of records
2. teaching and learning storage of records

3. teaching and learning retrieval of records


4. teaching and learning disposal of records
5. teaching and learning protection of
37records
The roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of Data processing skills
are:
1. teaching and learning calculation skills
2. teaching and learning sorting of Data
3. teaching and learning classification of Data
48

4. teaching and learning recording of Data


5. teaching and learning storing of Data

Conclusions
Information and Communication Technology has played important
role in the teaching and learning of secretarial skills in polytechnics. These
roles were found to be relevant to the graduate of office technology and
management department and the polytechnics in general, the roles are the
teaching and learning of word processing skills, the teaching and learning of
Internet skills, the teaching and learning of Management Information
Systems and the teaching and learning of Data processing skills were
identified in this study to be so important for the graduates in order to
perform effectively in this era of ICT.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations
were made
a. That teacher’s should update their knowledge to meet up
with the ICT challenges if not; the objectives of teaching
and learning of word processing skills will not be achieved.
b. That government should provide polytechnics with internet
facilities to enable teachers and students carryout more
consultations on the teaching and learning of internet skills.
c. National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) should make the
teaching and learning of Management Information System (MIS)
compulsory in all tertiary institutions especially OTM department
49

so as to impact the knowledge of handling information to the


students.
d. That the teaching and learning of Data processing skills should be
taught more practically.

Suggestion for Further Study


a. Information security in this ICT era
b. Effective use and maintenance of ICT equipment.

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APPENDIX 1

The Department of Office Technology and Management,


Federal Polytechnic,
P.M.B 1037
Idah,
Kogi State.
21st September, 2010.

Dear Sir/Madam,
54

REQUEST FOR COMPLETION OF PROJECT QUESTIONNAIRE

I am a final year Higher National Diploma (HND) student of the above named
department and institution.

I am undertaking a research work on the PLACE OF INFORMATION AND


COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF
SECRETARIAL SKILLS IN THE POLYTECHNIC.

It is on this note that I request you to answer the attached questions. This exercise is
solely for academic purpose. I therefore guarantee that the information supplied will be
treated confidential.

Thanks for your co-operation.

Yours Faithfully,

OKEME ABDULKERIM U.

SECTION A

GENERAL INFORMATION
Questionnaire on the Place of Information and Communication Technology in the
Teaching and Learning of Secretarial Skills in Polytechnic.

Please tick ( ) where appropriate


1. Name of Organization …………………………………………………................

.................................................................................................................................
55

2.. Sex a. Male ( ) b. Female ( )

3. Level ………………………………………………………………………………

4. Year of Graduation ………………………………………....................................

SECTION B
Questionnaires
The instrument below is a Likert Rating Scale Questionnaire. It is designed in a
five point rating scale, viz: Strongly Agreed, Agreed, Undecided, Disagreed and Strongly
Disagreed.
Please tick, as you deem appropriate in the column below.

AgreedStrongly

Agreed

Disagreed

Disagreed
Undecided
S/N THE ROLE OF ICT IN

Strongly
TEACHING AND
LEARNING OF WORD
PROCESSING SKILLS

1 Teaching and learning


Creation of document
2 Teaching and learning
Editing of document
3 Teaching and learning
Formatting of document
4 Teaching and learning
Saving of document
5 Teaching and learning
Printing of document
B THE ROLES OF ICT IN
TEACHING AND
LEARNING INTERNET
SKILLS.
6 Acquisition of new ideas
7 Training students in
distance learning
8 Provides teachers with
current teaching aids
9 Aids teaching large
numbers
10 Changes the methodology
of teaching and learning
C THE ROLE OF ICT IN
THE TEACHING AND
LEARNING OF
56

MANAGEMENT
INFORMATION
SKILLS
11 Teaching and learning
Creation of records
12 Teaching and learning
Storage of records
13 Teaching and learning
Retrieval of records
14 Teaching and learning
Record disposal
15 Teaching and learning
Protection of records
D THE ROLE OF ICT IN
TEACHING AND
LEARNING DATA
PROCESSING SKILLS
16 Teaching and learning
Calculating skills
17 Teaching and learning
Sorting of data
18 Teaching and learning
Classification of data
19 Teaching and learning
Recording of data
20 Teaching and learning
Storing of data