# EXPERIMENT NO

AIM :APPARATUS :Measuring weights , aggregates immersed in water for 24 hrs , oven . FORMULA :Water absorption in % Where Weight of empty container Weight of soaked aggregate + Weight of container = W1 = _____ Gm = W2 = _____ Gm = [ ( W1- W3 ) / ( W2- W1 ) ] x 100 To perform water absorption test on given aggregate sample by oven drying method.

Weight of oven dried aggregate + Weight of container = W3 = _____ Gm FIGURE :THEORY :Stones having higher water absorption values are porous and hence weak . They are generally suitable unless found acceptable based on crushing and grinding . The sample is weighted on water and the buoyant weight is found . The aggregate is taken out and weighted after the surface is dried . The specific gravity can be calculated by diving dry weight of aggregate by weight of equal volume of water. The water absorption is expressed as percentage water absorption in terms of oven dried weight of aggregate . The specific gravity of rock varies from 2.6 to 2.9 . Rock specimen having more than 0.6 percent of water absorption are considered unsatisfactory values found acceptable based upon strength tests . However slightly higher value of porosity may be acceptable for aggregate used in bitumen pavement construction of the aggregate are otherwise suitable PROCEDURE :1)About 2 Kg of dry aggregate sample is placed in wire basket and immersed in water for 24 Hrs. 2) The weight of the sample is taken . 3)The aggregate sample is placed in oven ( 100 – 110 0 C ) for 24 Hrs. 4)After complete drying dry weight of the sample is taken . 5)Percentage of water absorption is calculated . OBSERVATION :-

Weight of empty container Weight of soaked aggregate + Weight of container

= W1 = _____ Gm = W2 = _____ Gm

Weight of oven dried aggregate + Weight of container = W3 = _____ Gm

CALCULATION :-

Water absorption in %

=

[ ( W1- W3 ) / ( W2- W1 ) ] x 100

RESULT :Percentage of water absorption for a given sample of aggregate is found to be _________ %. PRECAUTION :1) The aggregate must be immersed properly in water for 24 Hrs . 2)The water from surface of aggregate must be dried . 3)Weight the aggregate carefully in spring balance. DISCUSSION :Rock specimen having more than 0.6 % water absorption values are considered unsatisfactory unless found acceptable based on strength test . However slightly higher value of porosity may be acceptable for aggregate used in bituminous pavement construction if aggregate is found otherwise suitable.

set of sieves. tray.6 times their mean dimension. 2) Now to separate the flaky material . The test is applicable to size larger than 6. . the aggregate which pass through the appropriate elongated slot of thickness guage are found .The width of the appropriate slot would be 0.3 mm standard thickness is used to guage the thickness of sample . 3) The flaky material passing the appropriate slot from each size range of test aggregate are added up and let the weight be W1.6 of the average of the sieve size range. 4) If the total weight of sample take from different size range is w. The flakiness index of aggregate is the percentage by weight of aggregate particles whose least dimensional thickness is less than 0. PROCEDURE :1) The sample of aggregate to be tested is sieved through a set of sieves and separated into a specified size ranges. The evaluation of shape of particles made of flakiness index and elongated index and angularity numbers . weight box etc.EXPERIMENT NO AIM :APPARATUS :Aggregate. w = Weight of aggregate passing W = Weight of aggregate retained FIGURE :THEORY :The principal shape of Aggregate mass is determine by the percentage of flaky and elongated particles contained in it and by its angularity . FORMULA :flakiness index = [ ∑ w / ∑ W ] X 100 Where. the flakiness index is given by Flakiness Index = [ W1 / W ] X 100 To determine flakiness index of aggregate .

flakiness index values in excess of 15 % are generally consider undesirable . So it is not desirable to use aggregate of higher flakiness index is permanent . = [ ∑ w / ∑ W ] X 100 CALCULATION :flakiness index = [ ∑ w / ∑ W ] X 100 RESULT :The Flakiness Index of a given aggregate sample is found to be _______ %. . (mm) Weight Retained W(Gm) Weight of Aggregate passing appropriate slot (gm) ∑W (gm) F. they are also likely to break under smaller loads than the aggregate which are spherical or cubical . If is desirable that flakiness index of aggregate used in road construction is less than 15 % and normally does not exceed 25 %.I. APPLICATION :If the flakiness index is more than the aggregate can take less loads and are liable to fail under less load .OBSERVATION TABLE :- Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sieve No. DISCUSSION :Elongated aggregate are less workable .

Weight –box.EXPERIMENT NO AIM:APPARATUS:Pycnometer balance. aggregate To determine specific gravity of a given aggregate sample by Pycnometer FORMULA:- (W2-W1) Specific gravity = (W2-W1) – (W3-W4) Where Weight of empty Pycnometer Weight of Pycnometer + aggregate Weight of Pycnometer + aggregate +Water Weight of Pycnometer + Water Weight of aggregate = W1 gms = W2 gms = W3 gms = W4 gms = (W2-W1) gm. Weight of equal volume of distilled water = (W2-W1) – (W3-W4) gms (W2-W1) Specific gravity = (W2-W1) – (W3-W4) . Let (i) Weight of empty Pycnometer (ii) Weight of Pycnometer + aggregate (iii)Weight of Pycnometer + aggregate +Water (iv)Weight of Pycnometer + Water Weight of aggregate = W1 gms = W2gms = W3 gms = W4 gms = (W2-W1) gm. gms Weight of equal volume of distilled water = (W2-W1) – (W3-W4) FIGURE :THEORY :- Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of given volume of dry aggregate to the weight of equal volume of distilled water.

Stone having higher water absorptions values are porous and this weaker specific gravity also indicates strong specimen. There should be no air bubble inside the bottle. Take the weight carefully.PROCEDURE:(1)Make the Pycnometer dry &Weight it with its cap &ring (2)Unscrew the cap &Rut 200 gms of aggregate &Weight it (3)Add water to the top of brass cap. = . Pycnometer must be dry for use. Remove all the trapped dir by pouring additional water (4)Dry the Pycnometer & fell it to the top with & weight it (5)Repeat the Procedure (6)Find the average specific gravity by using formula OBSERVATION TABLE :SR No Weight of Weight of Weight of Weight of Weight of Specific aggregates empty pycnometer pycnometer Pycnometer gravity pycnometer +aggregate +water +water +aggrate (W2) gm (W3) gm (W4) gm (W1)gm 1 2 3 4 Average specific gravity = SAMPLE CALCULATION:(W2-W1) Specific gravity = (W2-W1) – (W3-W4) G RESULT:Average specific gravity is found to be ___________ PRECAUTIONS:(1) (2) (3) DISCUSSIONS:The value of specific gravity of aggregate is required for concrete mix design and useful for calculating water content.

These volatile catch fire causing a flash. The first flash as applied at test 170 C below actual flash point. heating arrangement etc. PRECAUTION: If the candle is used as a flame then it should be seen that flame should not fall in the bitumen.The sample is heated at rate of 50to60 0C/min.e. APPLICATION: Bitumen is used in construction of pavements so the flash & fire point is determined to check for the amount of heating to avoid any accidents. Flash Point:-The temperature at which the volatile material i. The heating is continuous till the material’s ignited. This condition is very hazardous. otherwise it would give flame at less Temperature as wax will catch fire.All accessories including thermometers are fixed . DISCUSSION:The bitumen material leaves out volatile at high temperature depending up on their grades. bitumen emits vapours and it catches fire momentarily in the form of flash. FIGURE:THEORY: This test gives up the indications of the critical temperature at which the suitable precautions should be taken while heating bitumen .e. The flash point as taken as the temperature reading on the thermometer at the time of applications of flame that causes bright flash in the interior of cup. This gives the fire point. Fire Point :-The temperature at which the volatile nature i. RESULT: i) Flash Point = ii) Fire Point = To determine the Flash &Fire point for the sample of bitumen taken. bitumen emits vapours get ignited and burns PROCEDURE: The material is filled up to the mark of filling in the cup liquid is placed too dose to the cup . . thermometer.EXPERIMENT NO AIM: APPARATUS: Flash point set up.

aggregates.25 mm sieve FIGURE :To Determine the impact value of a given a aggregate sample . weight box. sieves. weighing balance FORMULA:Impact Value = W3 / (W2 – W1) X100 Where.EXPERIMENT NO AIM:APPARTAUS:Impact testing machine. W3= wt of fines passing through 2. W1 = empty wt of cylinder. W2= wt of Cylinder + aggregate.

The aggregates should not have impact value more then 30 % & if it is used to say to be weaker for base course the value should not exceed 40% .2 cm and a depth of 5 cm in which the aggregate specimen is placed A hammer of weight 13. the crashed aggregate is sieved from 2. The aggregate impact value indicates relative measures of resistance of aggregate to impact. PROCEDURE: (1)Aggregate specimen passing through 12mm sieve retained on 10mm sieve is filled in the cylinder in 3 layers by tamping each other or each layer by 25 flows and then measures it. which has a different effect then the résistance to gradually increased compressive stress. DISCUSSION:The impact value indicates the relative measurement of resistance of aggregate to impact. The value less then 10 % to 20 % is satisfactory for wads. (2)Hammer should be properly handed otherwise it may cause physical damage or injury. PRECAUTIONS:(1)The aggregate used should be of good quality.36 mm sieve and the sieved weight is noted. (2)The sample is transferred from balance to cap of the aggregate impacttesting machine.THEORY: A test designed for to evaluate the toughness of stone or the resistance of aggregate to fracture under repeated impact is called impact test. which has different effect then the resistance to gradually increasing compression stress. OBSERVATION:(1)Weight of empty mould (2)Weight of mould + aggregate = W1 = = W2 = (3)Weight of tines passing through = W3 = CALCULATION:Impact Value = W3 / (W2 – W1) X100 RESULT: The impact value of given sample of aggregate found out to be __________.5 to 14 kg having a free fall from height 38 cm is arranged to drop through a vertical height. The metal hammer is raised to a height of 38cm. The aggregate impact testing machine consists of a metal case and a cylindrical cap of internal dia of 10.Above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cap and is allowed to fall freely on the cap specimen After subjected to15blows of metal hammer.

EXPERIMENT NO AIM:To Determine California Bearing ratio [CBR] value and sub grade thickness for compacted soil under given traffic load. a 50mm dia. APPARTAUS:CBR apparatus consisting of mould of 150mm dia with a base plate and a collar. gauge for measuring expansion soaking and penetration FIGURE :- .

OBSERVATIONS:(i) Weight of rammer (ii) Drop of rammer (iii) No. Test end of specimen = 1 div Proving ring constant = 1 div PENETRTIO N PROVING RING CONSTANT PROVING RING READING LOAD ON PLUNGER (KG) STANDARD LOAD (KG ) = = = = = = = = = = = = = CBR = TEST LOAD X 100 STD. LOAD CORREC TED TEST LOAD CORREC TED CBR VALUR CALCULATION:(1) For penetration 2. Of layers computed (iv) Blows per layers (v) Wt. of empty tray Plunger Dia Surcharge Wt. of empty mould (vi)Wt.5 mm (corrected) CBR = 1376 X 100 = (2) For penetration 5mm (corrected) % CBR = 2055 X 100 = . of mould + compacted soil (vii) Volume of mould (viii)Water content of soil (by oven dried method) (ix) Wt.

45 44 45 .The sub grade thickness is given by 1.150 50 150 .1500 64 1500 . 31 0 . The CBR Test values are made use if an imperial method of flexible pavement design Grade of load Depth of construction on Traffic density No.5mm penetration is found to be = _______ (2) The CBR value for 5mm penetration is found to be = ________ APPLICATION :This test is meant for soils and also carried out on the sub base and granular base coarse material .75P t = CBR - A 9 Where t = CBR Sub grade thickness = CBR Value P A = = Wheel Load = 4500 kn Area of sub grade contact P A = p p = 6.4500 70 Above 4500 A B C D E F G .450 56 450 .15 38 15 .5kg/cm2 RESULT:(1) The CBR value for 2. of commercial in cm vehicle per day exceeding 3 + loaded wt.

is taken into a container . OBSERVATION TABLE :Sr Initial Reading No. PROCEDURE :A bitumen sample of depth about 15mm. Now initial reading is taken and the needle is released for 5 sec. Three reading should be taken.EXPERIMENT NO AIM: APPARATUS :Penetrometer is penetration test apparatus FIGURE :THEORY :The penetration test determines the hardness and softness of bitumen by measuring the depth of needle in mm to which a standard loaded needle penetrates vertically 5 sec . The sample is maintained at 250 C. and the final reading is taken on the dial gauge . 1/10 mm 1 2 3 4 5 Final Reading 1/10 mm Difference 1/10 mm Penetration Value Average Penetration Value To perform penetration test on the given sample of bitumen . Each test should be performed for at least 10 min apart from each other and the mean value is taken . The dial is set to zero . The sample is arranged on the instrument that the standard needle just touches the surface of the bitumen sample .

PRECAUTION :1)The needle should be cleared properly before taking next reading . . APPLICATION :It is the most adopted test for bitumen depending on climate condition .RESULT :The average penetration of the given sample (bitumen ) is found to be _____________ mm. 3)Minimum 10 min should be maintained between the reading . 2)The needle should just touch the bitumen. type of construction Various bitumen used in permanent constant range between 20 to 25 .

aggregate etc. FORMULA :- % Crushing Value = [W3 / (W2 – W1 )] x 100 Where W1 = Weight of empty mould = __________ Kg W2 = Weight of mould + Aggregate = __________ Kg W3 = Weight of pan + crushed aggregate = ___________ Kg FIGURE :- . sieves .EXPERIMENT NO AIM :To determine the crushing value of aggregate by aggregate crushed test APPARATUS :Steel cylinder of 152 cm diameter with a base plate and and plunger compression testing machine .

APPLICATION :Stone aggregate gives low crushing value . Each layer being compacted by 25 blows of tamping rod of diameter 16 mm. The crushing value of good quality aggregate to be used in base coarse should not exceed 45 % and the value for the surface coarse should not be less than 30 %. The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure resistance to the crushing order .35 mm sieve .35 mm sieve in term of original weight of specimen . 4)Sieving should be done carefully. The value of aggregate is in percentage of crushing material passing through 2. The material which passes through this sieve is weighed (Ws ).THEORY :The strength of coarse aggregate may be determine by aggregate crushing strength test .Gradually applied compression load . 3)Mould should be perfectly dry and clean . to achieve a high resistance to crushing or low aggregate crushing value are performed .Then the plunger is placed on the top of the specimen and a load of 40 tones/ min is applied by the compression machine . 2)Aggregate should be perfectly dry .5 mm sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve is filled in the cylinder in three layers . .The crushed aggregate are removed and sieved in 2. PROCEDURE :Dry aggregate passing through 12. OBSERVATION :W1 = Weight of empty mould W2 = Weight of mould + Aggregate W3 = Weight of pan + crushed aggregate CALCULATION := ___________Kg = __________ Kg = ___________Kg % Crushing Value = [W3 / (W2 – W1 )] x 100 RESULT :The crushing value of the given aggregate is found to be ___________ % PRECAUTION :1)Length of the three layers should be approximately equal .

Maximum weight of steel ball is limited to 5 Kg . The total weight of sample depends upon the size of aggregate and number of steel balls and weight of each steel balls . PROCEDURE :The test procedure consists of a rotating drum . In this cylinder the sample along with the balls is added .EXPERIMENT NO AIM :To determine abrasion value of coarse aggregate by Los Angelis Abrasion Testing Machine. the sample is taken . spear . 17 mm sieve FIGURE :- THEORY :The principle of Los Angelis Abrasion Test is to find out percentage value due to the relative rubbing action between the aggregate and the steel ball which are used as an abrasion charge . aggregate . APPARATUS :Los Angelis Abrasion Testing Machine . cast iron . After completion of revolution . The sample and the steel ball are rotated upto 500 revolution . It is rotated at a speed of 20 – 30 rpm .

The Los Angelis Abrasion value of good quality accepted for cement concrete . PRECAUTION :1) Aggregate should be taken by specific size because number and weight of steel balls depends upon size of aggregate . This test is carried out to test the hardness properly of coarse aggregate and to decide whether they are suitable for road construction work The test is the best to found out the hardness of aggregate Sieve Size (mm) Weight Retained W(gm) Cumulative Weight retained (gm) %Cumulative Weight % Finess .7 mm sieve size . which is less than 30 % and hence given specimen is accepted . 2) Revolution of rotating drum should be rotated and noted perfectly. bituminous concrete or other high quality bituminous material should be less than 30% . OBSERVATION TABLE :Weight of aggregate = _________ gm (W1 ) Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weight of sample passing through 1. The percentage weight passing is called abrasion value of aggregate. APPLICATION :Abrasion are carried out to test the hardness properly of coarse aggregate and decide whether they are suitable for different road construction work.out .7 mm Sieve (W2 ) = _________ gm CALCULATION :Abrasion value of a given aggregate sample = RESULT :Abrasion value is found to be _________ % of given aggregate sample by Los Angelis Abrasion Testing Machine. It is allowed to pass through 1. Here percentage of fines or abrasion value is 10 % .

The softening point of bitumen is generally found out by using ring and ball apparatus. The liquid is heated after due coarse of time the steel ball fall down because the bitumen is very soft .EXPERIMENT NO AIM :To determine the softening point for the given sample of bitumen APPARATUS :Softening point test set up . The temperature at which the ball falls is called as softening point . FIGURE :- THEORY :The softening point of any substance is the temperature at which the substance attain a particular degree of softening under specified condition of test . . Hard bitumen softens at high temperature. PROCEDURE :A brass ring containing test sample of bitumen is suspended in liquid like water . Some times glycerin can be taken at a given bitumen sample and set up is placed in liquid .

. 2)The stirrer should be used. This temperature must be kept in mind by the engineer while construction works. In slippery the bitumen may even slide down if the softening point is less . Temperature at which ball falls CALCULATION :Softening Point = RESULT :The softening point of given of bitumen sample is found to be ______ 0C . PRECAUTION :1)The rate of increase of temperature should be uniform . Hard grade bitumen posses higher softening than soft grade bitumen . Therefore the grade of bitumen can be determine by the test .else the bitumen may get slippery .OBSERVATION TABLE :Ball No. APPLICATION :The softening point of bitumen is found to check whether is above the highest surface temperature . DISCUSSION :Temperature at which the substance attends a particular degree of softening .

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