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vdwfapmif.

aeif. 1373 Am. vm'JOf[m;
April 2011

• • • •

ndrfScsrfSa&S awGmif;w&sm;a&S xdefSodrfSavGS obm0t&GD;tckd.ta&S xmSxD.xmSao vdGKif.uGKefSa&S

twG,fS (1) trJkif (1)

uwl.pJOf.
owifS
• wvDSoefxGm.wJif oJkifSacg0fukd vrf;Am. (40)vdGKS uJkif_yJifS • xJkif.tpdk.& tD.axwomaz.,if; xmSrmSom; vdufrwf • ajzm0fScrf;e,f.udk ref;tpdk.&vdkSwefzHk. uDGtH.vGOfS ,m_cHtcGOf.

vdwfrJhig

2 2 2

cGefom'Gef;
z0Zmwf&O.f J
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ttJOf.

obm0t&GD;tcdk.
• [0faoxdGKufig. xDw&Du&dkS vdkSoD;z0 twefoGKwfSwef.zdkS • ytdk0f.ay.vkdS,GJpGdKS uxGwfax avGS'g. “tqdyfoifhwdrfrsm;” vdwfapmif.tausmifS 3

uzefqifSvGOfaz.'g. acwfwom ytdk0f.aig0f;oScsifS,dk t&D;oGwfSyk*~dKvf.aem0fS “cGefom'Gef;” 'sm.oGL? cGefom'Gef;aem0fS c&pfaeif. 1944 Am. vmpufwifbm (24)eDSaem0fS a0ifSeJ.awmif;uDS/ 'HkzmrGKef;udk ut0f.tHkaomhS'g. Adkvf[defarmif (ytrz=OuU Ï vD S ) wG r f . emif . vG O f . oD ; vG L ;zG m vif S xG L awG m h S yd k ( 7)jzmStud k xGm'kwd,twefoGwfS ydkcdkaem0fSoGL? vdwfrJhig = 6

7

ynm.a&S
• rOf.&ufrsKdSvJh ygif.xdkaoGmh cdGKSynm.a&S 8 oxGHK.ay. = cGefAefcsm 10
ynm.a&Su&kdSaem0fS avmuukd avmuom;wm. tusdKSxGmtD tusdKSuJkiftD/ ,kdaem0fStrJOf. ,kdaem0fStrm./ ,kdaem0fSta[m0f ,kdaem0fStuJkif/ ,kdaem0fSrmSxGKdufrmSoifS vdwfrJhig = 8

erf;xmS,l. xmSxD.
• pdGK;cdGKSwcdGKSwGrf. vSyJif.cGifS

_cJKif;ajymifStHkvGOfSxmSrmSudpP
• [dkShay.trdef;awmf. 4

ytdk0f.ay.vkdS,GJpGdKS uxGwfaxavGS'g. “tqdyfoifhwdrfrsm;” vdwfapmif.tausmifS
cGefxGef;wif

z0Zmwf&JOf. ttJOf.
• cGefom'Gef; 6

uAsm
• ytdk0f.zHk.a[G; 6

2011 Am.aeif. vmZEM0g&Daem0fS ytdk0f.ay.vdkS,JGpGdKS (PYO) xGwfaxavGS “tqdyfoifhwdrfrsm;” u&kdS'g. vdwfapmif. aem0fSoGL? vdwapmif.,kaem0fS az:.xef.,D;e,favGS uGyyKdG ;pGO. vH;k oGm. f d f f atmif (ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;) awGmhS a0ifSe,f.yifavmifS 'Hkwcsudk uatm0f.'g. 'Hkom; &yfom;zHk.wGrf. a'.oukd uatm0f.'g. obm0taomift&ifSzHk. vdwfrJhig = 10

vdwfrJhig = 2

wvDSoefxGm.wJif oJkifSacg0fukd vrf;t_zHK. 40 vGKd uJkifjyifS
1372Am./ vm'JOf[m;

ajzm0fScrf;udk ref;tpdk.&vkdSwefzHk. uGDtH.vGOfS ,m_cH tcGOf.
1373 Am. vm'JOf&kwfS

aeif. 1372 Am./ 'JO[m;avmif; 5 eDS/ f (2011/ {_yDvm 23) pae.eDSaem0fS uGyfwvDSwef axmif;oefvGOfwJif a0if S e,f . oD . oJ i f . / a0if S e,f . cG,Sf oJiSf acg0udk vrf;yg. t_zKH .aygiS k f f 40 vGdK&yf uJkifjyifSxkdStausmifS aoxGSvGOfSAm.oGL?

"gwfyGKH.= EMG

uGyfwvDSxGm.oefvGOfwJif ucGdKif;Am.'g.vrf; t_zHK.aygifS 40 tudk/ 11 _zHK. aem0fS 0SjyifSvDvm xkdSvkd@xGLawGmhS vGdKuatm0f.uJkif'g. 29 _zHK.aem0fS vrf;toS taqif.zHk. uJkifjyifSxdkS wcl;wacg0ftausmifS &yfom;wjzmS a'ghSavGSEJkif;aem0fSoGL? 

xJkif.tpdk.& tD.xGwfaxwomaz.,if; xmSrmSom;vdwfrwf
1373 Am./ vm'JOf&kwfS

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awmifSaoS =

oSwifS,de0fS vGKd ufx.xGL oSwifStOfwmeJpavmif; k l f awGmhS wJrf;csm.ytkd0f.,if;

tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

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aeif. 2006 Am. yG,fSusdK.qGKrf.xD a0ifS[dkykHSwuGOf. o#if.ay.aumifxsS

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twG,fS (1) trJkif (1)

vdwfrJhig = 4

cGefxGef;wif (yD0dkiftdk)
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twG,fS (1) trJkif (1)

vdwfrJhig = 6 [ef.oeDS,dk y&dwfowfoD; wAGdK.tefSaEGmifSw0f; a0GSaig0f;oScsifSaem0fS “wD;&D;&D;a&sm” aem0fSoGL? rOf.wdKG .vGOf aeif.rJwef vmrJwef wGr.yG,SvrfSzH. h h h f f k cg &yfa'.orJkifSw&dkSw0f; xD.armhSwao.ao.pGOf. t0f.&Gpfypdk.a&mifvGpGOf. “wD;&D;&D;a&smh” aig0f;oScsifSzHk.aem0fSoGL? cGefom'Gef; uygaomhS&GpfnDS'g. aig0f;oScsifSacG.aem0fS t0f.(4)acG.aem0fSoGL? uxdGKif.vSxGLbJG@ 1972 Am.aeif.aem0fS oJifSvGOfcsm,if; Zm.wd&yf&m. xGLawGmhS oGOfcsmaz.cef; vdkSay.vdwf a0ifSe,f.awmif;uDS/ 'HkvHk;[D;udk waeif. aem0fSoGL? taeif.aem0fSaem0fS awm.vrf;awm.yg.cef;wGrf. a0ifSawmif;uD/ ausmif;}uD;pk&yfudk ut0f.tHk'g. q&m.pHwGrf. emif. AJoD; tydkrl. emif.oef;pD aem0fSoGL? 1973 Am.aeif.aem0fS EdGK@xl.wm.0Gef. axif;xrf.cef; a0ifSyif.w&m. “_rdK@e,fO;D pD;rª;” vGL;wd&pmef.a&S navGS (4) d > aeif. aem0fSoGL? 1976 Am.aeif.aem0fS ajymifSavGScef; bef;a,ef.qSaem0fS axif;xrf.orf;,if; erf;[lSqdGK@S&Jkifa&SwGrf. vGL;yGmSa&SawGmhS xl.cef; XmeOD;pD;rª;wm.0Gef.aem0fSoGL? 1978 Am.aeif.aem0fS xGmcef; a0ifSe,f. oD.oJif. “jynfolaumifpD/ jynfol@vkyfief; ppfaq;a&;” tpdGKSEdGK@wGrf. ytdk0f. vdwfvJkifSa,ef.iJ;a&StpdGKSEdGK@ aem0fSoGL? aeif. 1978 Am. vmEdk0ifbm (14) eDS rGL;[mcdk. (7) em;&D.tcdef.&yf t0f. tHkavGS a0ifSoD.oJif. jruefom&yfuGufudkut0f.'g. a0GSvrf;ukdtwGifS uGefjrLepf0g.' uxGKrf;AOf.'g. &vvzpGdKS pJhSay.wjzmS wGrf.wewfawGmhS vGOfacsmifScSwJif cGefom'Gef;wjzmS b0oGKrfSuJkifxkdScef;'sm. aem0fSoGL? twGiSe0fScgaem0fS cGeom'Ge;f ,dk touf pvSuGKd @S'sm. (34) aeif. vGKrfSoGL? f f aem0fSrSwJif uxGm'g. ydkcdk cGefodef;/ cGefAnm. wGrf.ydkrl. emif.omomaxG; oD ; zH k . ,d k t0f ; tH k u J k i f q J k i f S cef ; 'sm. wG r f . a0G S rmrl . aem0f S oG L ? uusrf . wuJioxSdk 'g. cGeom'Ge;f EJi;f ,daem0fS ytd0.pdKG ;cdKG Stwm. xJraomhScGKefScsm kf D f k k kf f wvSw0f; oGKrfSuJirSwAm.aem0fSoGL? uG,.wJiawGmS cGeom'Ge;f uazmf. kf k f f h f xef. wJrf;&GpfcgSaz.'g. ytdk0f.aig0f;oScsifSacwfwomzHk.aem0fS ASwdGK.[ef. oeDS t0f.rGefAefavGSae'dGKef.uwJif ay:urBm.[H.wef,dk t0f.rGefAefaeuvJh a0GSaig0f;oScsifSzHk.,kd tD.rGefAefavGSxJif;xJif;aeu aem0fSoGL?     

cGefom'Gef;
z0Zmwf&O.f J ttJOf.
AGmoS&m. “cGefom'Gef;” ,dk xGmt&D;oGKwfSyk*~dKvf. aumuzefqifSvGOfaz.'g. ytdk0f. aig0f;oScsifSacwfwomaem0fSoGL? cGefom'Gef;aem0fS a0ifSe,f.awmif;uDS 'HzmrGKef;udk ut0f.tHaomhS'g. Adv[earmif (ytrz=OuUÏvDS) wGr. emif. k k k f d f f vGOf.oD; vGL;zGmSvifS c&mpfaeif. 1944 Am. vmpufwifbm (24) eDSwJif wzl;wa0; (7) jzmStudk a0GS,kd xGm'kwd,twefoGKwfS ydkcdkaem0fSoGL? cGefom'Gef; oufxdGKif.vS (7)aeif.aem0fS oGOfxl.pavGSynm. a0ifSuavmfS *sd e f ; pf 0 wf E ê p f j cif ; c&mpf , mef . ausmif S uk d aem0f S oG L ? ut0f . oG O f x l . ynm. “yOPr&ef;” tcdef.aem0fS aumuxGmtzm Adkvf[defa rmif,dk cH.Am.0ifSqGrfSusS rmSoDawhSxdkSxGLwum.w0f; uzHkSvGrfS'g. toJif.cJifSvJh AS,kcg waoxGSvGOSw0f;aem0fSoGL? oGOx.ynm. “e0r&ef;” aeif.aem0fS d f f l ajz.vdufatmif.w0f; orf;xJhoGKrfSxdkSwJif “acGaem0fS tH.trsmS'JOf[ef.u qyfcsm,if; trsmS'JOfauSZlSrS” &dkSxGLEJkif;aem0fSwJif tif;xef.w_cdKxdkS ausmif S awG m h S a&.oJ i f S rmScef ; ausmif S q&m. a0if S e,f . awmif ; uD S 'Hem;aAmifukd aem0fSoGL? a0GSutif;xef.xd'g.ausmifS,dk a0GSzmjzm; jzm;xGOS k k f oSazmfSwl.w0f;wJif tGOf.a0GSoGOfoGKwfSoGKwfSavGS,if; ynm. aem0fSoGL? a0GStouf&G,f.uxdGKif.vS (18) aeif.aem0fS xif.oGOfoGKyfig,if;ynm. trJkif (2) t&ef;xdkausmifS a0ifSawmif;uDSudk aem0fSoGL? xdGKif.wdGK. 1966 Am.aeif.aem0fS xif.oGOfxl.aEGmifScef;ynm. trJkif (2) woD.wuUodkvf. a0ifS&ef.uGKef.udk aem0fSoGL? aem0fSrSwJif 1972 Am.aeif.aem0fS 'JhSxl. aEGmifScef; bDADGtJufpf wd=arG;=uk wd&dp>mef.q&m.0Gef.bJG@ woD.wuUodkvf. aem0fSoGL? aeif . 1971=72 Am.aem0f S t0f . oG O f x l . ynm. woD . wuU o d k v f . wG i f S “wuU o d k v f r sm;&ef u k e f ” ud k a em0f S ytd k 0 f . ausmif S om;rl . cd k z H k . uaxxef.'g. yxrtvJi. “ytd0;f pmayr*~Zif.” aem0fS cGeom'Ge;f xl.cef; f k f t,f'Dwm wm.0Gef. vdufytdk0f.u¾udk aem0fSoGL? aem0fSvGKrfSrum. “wuU o d k v f r sm;&ef u k e f ” uk d ,H a z.uxG m aEG m if S avG S yG , f S usKd . qG K rf . ausmifSom;wom ta&Swm. cGefom'Gef. t"dutGOfigavGSaz.aem0fSoGL? uxGm'g. ytdk0f.*DwtpdGKS (2) pdGKS “rsKdScGefcdGKS” wGrf. “aum0f.wJkifrHGS” ,dkaem0fS cGefom'Gef; w,f.axmif.aoScgSaz.'sm. aem0fSoGL? cGefom'Gef; uwJrf;&Gpf'g. t&D;oGKwfSaig0f;oScsifSaem0fS “aemif&GD.” wJifawGmhS/ aig0f;oScsifS,dkaem0fS azm.xef.az. ytdk0f.vGdKqefa&S aem0fSoGL? ASwdGK.pGOf.
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

0ifSu&kdSe0fS crf;vJhtD.ukJif xDvJhtD.yS e0fSrh,kdcg eDemSytkd0f. a&.a&mfSrGKef;'GKrf om.oem.a&S rOf.axmifavGSe0fS uAŠnf;avmif;uD t0f.'sm.eDvGKrfS? ?
eifSaom,D(erfhpif)



vdwfrJhig = 7

ytdk0f.ay.vkdS,GJpGdKS uxGwfaxavGS'g. “tqdyfoifhwdrfrsm;” vdwfapmif.tausmifS
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twG,fS (1) trJkif (1)

vdwfrJhig = 8

oxGHK.ay. = cGefAefcsm
“ynm.a&Su&kdSaem0fS” avmuuk d avmuom;wm. tusd K SxG m tD tusd K SuJ k i f t D / ,kdaem0fStrJOf. ,kdaem0fStrm./ ,kdaem0fSta[m0f ,kdaem0fStuJkif/ ,kdaem0fSrmSxGKdufrmSoifS ,kdaem0fSrmxGdKufrmSoifSawm0f; up'g. ta&Sum;uatm0f. tavmif;,kd/ uxD.uao uuOfSpmS ua0G.zef. ueyfxGm; uqGHKSzswfaEGmifS'g. xmSaoxmS'g. A[kokwzHk. um;uatm0f. aem0fS [JhSynm.a&SoGL? rOf . a'gh S Am.xJ i f ; wrsd K SvJ h txG m tuJ k i f u d p P w pG d K ;wrsd K S tavmif ; ,k d az.uaotusKd StausmifSaem0fS ae;wGr.uwl.cD;wJif u,l.uawGS uyJi. f f csmSaEGmifS'g. up'g. xmSqif.csif.rkSzHk.vJh xGmynm.a&S'sm.aeaeoGL? aem0fSxGLwum.awm0f; eDvkdSoD;tpktAl.zHk.tukd uatm0f.ajymifSvJkif. vG O f ' g. vk d S rk S tH k a tm0f . a&SzH k . w&k d S awm0f ; / cG K rf r mSqk d @ S&J k i f a &SwG r f . uGKef.oGKyfoG,f.ajzSpmulSum;a&SzHk. w&kdSawm0f;/ pGdK;cGdKSvGpfxef.a&S &JkifSwoGdK;rkS pGdK;cGdKStrsdKSomS woGKefawGmif;nD.rkSwGrf. crf;xD vGKrf;AOf. pGKrf.eDSvkdScrf;ukd eDvdkSoD;uxl.oHkS cGKrfpH.'g. a[m0frJkifS&mS ,HusrJkifS&mS plcKG rfpp. ttH.ttGS tuStuGOf pwJiuKG ef.w_cdKSrsKd SpGKrf.zH.,kd atm0f.'sm. l H f k ynm.a&S vGL;zGmSxef.vGOfwJif tpGefSowWdSrsdKSu,HvGdKwJ0g;xJif;'g. ynm.a&StpGefSowdWSaem0fS atm0f.awm0f;'GKrfoGL? “crf;xDuxif.xkdAm. uGyfynm.” rOf.xGm;csm eDvkdSoD;orJifSwAm.vGKrf;tukd acwfuwkdSwufajymifSvJkif. vGOf EkJif;[ef.oeDS,kd uGyfyGdK;'sm. eDvkdSoD; xmSxGm;xGKrf.axGaxmifrkS/ xmSoGOfusifS'g.vsif.rkS/ xmSrOfao rOf'g. xmSaomif.om usdKSpmSrkSwGrf. vGL;wJifoGL xGmaEGmifSawm0f;tJOfaxm0f; u&dkS'g.xmS,GKrf;tH.csuf,kdwJif cGKrfwOf.avGS oSiGLSEdkufSrkS up'g. eDvkdSoD. A[kokw xmSaoxmS'g. xmSw,f.xGif.zefqifSrkS u&kdS'g. ynm.a&S'sm. vGOf;vGOf;oGL? [ef . eD S um.v urB m .wef w _zH K .vG K rf ; tavmif ; ,k d vk d S rsd K SwG r f . Ek d i f . iH.crf;xD uwaoGmif; uxif.xkdvJOf;0gifS/ vGKrf;AOf.om.,m. e,fSynm. xmS'g. u,HusvGdKxJif;0gifS/ Ycif;_cdKSplcGKrf wGrf.vkdSrkS tHkatm0f.a&S

eDytkd0f.vkdSrsdKS ynm.a&S ,HwaoGmif;tDtwm. ausmifSoGOfaomhSvdwf,kd xGmta&Swef Xm.ewrsdKSoGL?
om.,m.a&S up'g.crf; xD (Eki.iH.) a&SzH.w&kSawm0f;/ crf;om;vkSxrfSomS df k d d tcGifS ta&S,Hatm0f.a&SwGrf. obm0 taomift&ifS oGrf.oOfa&S up'g. vkdSrkSa&S &JkifSwoGdK;rkSzHk.w&kdSawm0f;/ eDvkdSoD;erf;wGrf.oS cEPm. tavmif; uwGdK;awifvGOf uxJhvifSvGOfvl;'g. abSb,a&m.*g. up'g. erf;oSYcif.oefSa&SzHk.w&kdSawm0f;/ urBm.avmif;tukd cGdKif;um;wJif uatm0f . tH k w J i f uatm0f . a0h w yef . avG S 'g. txG m tuJ k i f p epf z H k . ,k d uGyfyGdK;wrJkifawGmhS txGmvGOf uGyfyg.wrJkifSawGmhS tajymifSvJkif.vGOf up'g. tausmifSw&mSt&GD;tckd.,kd oSukd xmSrOfao rOfxD. rOf[GdKef rOf'g.wJif uaxGaxmifxKG rf.xGm; uusKd SpmSaomif.om uoGOusiS (avhusi) up'g. f f hf eDoSxmS[kd@Scdk;A[kokwzHk.,kdvJh xGm'sm.ynm.a&SoGL? “ynm.u&kdS eDvkdSoD;tikdSwefoGKwfSw_cdKS” aem0fSrSwJif udpwrsKd SrsKd S txGmtuJiwpGKd ;pGKd ; uxGmvGOf uuJivOAm.'g. P kf kf Gf tusdKStausmifStxsStaxmifS csmwGrf.ig,kd wGrf.xmS,l. xmSa0G.zef. uOfSpmS^m%f.tm./ wGrf.xmS&dwfac. xmScwfu,fSrkSwJif ua0G.zef. ueyfxGm.aEGmifS'g. xmS'g.aem0fS xGmeDvkdSoD; wef.zkdStatm0f.oGKwfS Ycif;_cdKSu&kdS'g. “ynm.a&S” aem0fSoGL? uGyfpJif;pJhaoem. ynm.a&Swef.zkdSwJif pGdK;cdGKS vkdSrsdKS crf;xD uaotGOf.a&S Ycif;uGOfuS'g. ynm.Ycif;_cdKSaem0fS cH.pmSavGSAm. ynm.Ycif;_cdKSuaz.vGOf'g. tusdKSauSZlSw&mSzHk.oGL?
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

u,HvGdKvJOf.'g.0gifSwGrf. -oZm.tm.%m. uwefvGdKxJif;'g.0gifSaem0fS uGyfyGdK;awm0f;tavmif.tvif/ uGyfyGdK;'sm. a0GSoD; tGOf.a&S ynm.a&S/ uG y f y g.'sm.a0G S oD ; xmS,l . xmSpd w f u l S / uwl . cD ; erf ; uJ O f rG e f A ef r k S tusdKSausSZlSw&mS'sm.aem0fSoGL? Ekdif.iH.crf;xDukd uatm0f.'g.crf;om;zHk. ,HvufSvJOfvdrRm. xmS'g.,Huav xmSao,HuvJkif;vGOfaem0fS txGL.twGKrfwAm. a0GSoD;ygif.xkd 'gif. waoGmif;ynm.a&Stqif.t&ef.aem0fSoGL? uGyfynmSa&S tqif.t&ef. wefxkdwJ0g;wJif vkdS'g. vkdS,H vdkSpGefSxif ynm.osif.oD;zHk.vJh vGdKif. uGKefSvGOf/ qJkifSoGKwfStusdKSoGKyfaem0fS crf;ukd crf;om;vkdSxrfSomSoD; vkSrkStHatm0f.a&St&ef;vJh waoGmif;,Hus crf;xDa&S&m.udpvhJ om.,m. d k P cGSndrfSAm. aem0fSoGL? “eDytkd0f.t&ef; az.uwaoGmif;aem0fS” eDemSytkd0f.oD; az.uvS az.uyJif.qJif.vGOf eDvkdSoD;wef.zdkStatm0f. oGKwfStYcif;tYcS u&kdS'g. “ynm.a&S” ,kdvJh xl.tcdef.oGOfusifS axteDSt&ifS xGm.xGKrf.axGaxmif cH.vk@d &Owif yGKd ufavGSAm.eDytd0.vkSay. Gf J kf d zHk.oGL? xl.tcdef.wJif uxGm;xGKrf.axGaxmif uoGOfusifS uyGdKufaEGmifS'g. cgif.vrf;a'.oaem0fS atm0f.'sm. ausmifSoGOfaomhSvdwfukdaem0fSoGL? eDytkd0f.vkdSrsdKS ynm.a&S ,HwaoGmif;tDtwm. ausmifSoGOfaomhSvdwf,kd xG m ta&Swef Xm.ewrsd K SoG L ? t&G , f . oG O f x l . ynm.wG d K . eD y tk d 0 f .

vdwfrJhig = 9 vkdSay.pGKrf.jzmS tqif.ajy.ajy. ,HuoGOfxl.aEGmifS xmSao xmS'g. ynm.a&Saem0fS eDytkd0f.&yf&m.a'.oukd a0ifS tGdKif. 'Hkaqmif.wGdKifS ausmifSoGOfaomhSvdwfwGrf. uaopJif;'g.vsif.'g. ausmifSq&m.ckdrl.zHk. ,Huatm0f.aem0fS yxrta&Swefig.oGL? uxGm'g.eDytkd0f.rGdK;zmoD;zHk.vJh ykdckd ykdrl. xmS,l.,HaAG xmSao,HvGdKif. vGOftwGufwm.aem0fS vGL;wJifvGAm. oSxmSvkd.qEN urOfaz.'g. ykdckdydkrl. xmS'g.ynm.zHk.oGL? ykdckdydkrl. az.uvufSvJOf az.uAGdK uwl.cD;,HurGefAef xmS,l.xmSpdwfulStpGefSowWdSaz.uoefaem0fS 0wW&mStae. wm.0ef. aus.aus. cGKrfrmS aqmif.&GufavGSAm. az:.avGSAm. ykdckdykdrl.ynm.a&S terf;_cHKaem0fSoGL?

vdwfapmif.xef.aEGmifSa&StpGdKSaig0f;tGOf.[GKef
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.,dke0fS tD.xGwfaxavGS wvmwvJif. oGL? vdwfapmif.udk uygavGS'g. tausmifSc&m.zHk.e0fS vdwfrJhig'dk@S qSigzJhSavmif; uyg'g.u¾ uwl.pJOf.zHk.e0fStwdGKifSoGL? vdwfapmif.,dke0fS yk*~dKvf./ tpktAl./ tpGdKSwGrf. vdkSrsdKSzHk; tusdKSuuJkif tusdKSu,GKuftD'g. oSap.wem. t0f.w0f;&ifSoGL? acwfum.vtavGmufS yuwduxGmvGOf uuJkifvGOf uajymifSvJkif. vGOf'g. eDvdkSoD;z0tHkt0f.a&S/ crf;xDa&S/ z0vGKrf;AOf.a&S/ ynm.a&S/ Ycif ; oef S a&S/ vd k S tcG i f S ta&SwG r f . obm0taomif t &if S ud p P pwJifta&SzHk.avmif; "rR"dXmef.e,fStvS wGrf.vdwfydGKufa'Ggif;a'Ggif; tc&m.pGKrf.pGKrf.wJif xGKrf.&Grf wGrfjcGOf. wJrf;_cJKif; zef;a0G.avGSaz.'sm. eDytkd0f.crf;om;vkdSxrfSomS oD;zHk.e0fSoGL? uxGwaxavGSAm.'g. tm.&k%.womvdwapmif. t"dua&.rd;k csue0fS f f f f (1) acwftavGmufS ytdk0f.aig0f;iGga0g[m&zHk. ,HuwdkSyGmS vdGKif.uGKefS wOf.acGgifvGOf/ (2) ytd0.a'.oudk yuwduxGmvGO'g. Zmwf&O.t[0ftuJiz.Hk twdKG ifS kf f Jf kf wGrf.rwfwefSt*Fg.vuQ%m. taAGwAm.wJif ,HuwJrf;uJpfS wJpfSrJkif ,HtGOf.uJkifcgSaEGmifS pGdK;cGdKSorJifSrwfwefS/ (3) txD.t[GKef A[kokw wGrf.&Jkif;[efrkSzHk. ,Haz.upGKrf;xGwfS aomhStmvGOf eDytkd0f.vkdStzl.tAl.tukd/ (4) uawGmif;w&sm;'g. w&mSOya'.ta[hS,dk crf;om;oD;pGKrf.jzmS cGScGSoSoS ,Haz.ucH.pmSAm.vGOf/ (5) uGyfawufSEsSrmSaEGmifSrkSzHk.wJif oSxmSirf;w&sdK;rkS uatm0f. wG d K ;awif ' g. crf ; om;vk d S xrf S omSoD ; erf ; avmif ; uD z H k . ,d k ,HuazhxdkSrm.vGOf/ up'g. EJkif;e0fSzHk.oGL?

a0ifSyif.vkH ausmifSom;ay. abmf'gaqmif txlSwAm.aem0fS eDytkd0f.ynm.a&St&ef. az.uxif.xkdvGOfta&SudpP,kd atm0f.aemifatm0f.zGdK@ atm0f.cGdKif;0GdK@ AGdK@SpyfSavGS eDytkd0f.tGOfigom;oD; oSap.wem.w&mSaAGpGKrf.rkS/ pGdK;cGdKStavmif; xGL.xGL.wGKrfwGKrf wm.0ef. aocsmrk S / xD . aoavG S crf ; xD w G r f . vk d S rsd K Stavmif ; ynmSa&Su¾ ta&SwefrkSwGrf. a0GSoD; xmSzefqifSaEGmifSrkS&JifStm. wGrf.tpGefSowWdSzHk. tavmif;aem0fSoGL? “ynm.u&dkS atm0f.awm0f; wvSawm0f;w_cdKS” avmuvk d S crf ; urB m .wef a vmif ; ,k d eD y tk d 0 f . trsd K SomS vk d S yk * ~ d K vf . wjzmStae.w&kdSawm0f;/ em;[dGKefS (rdom;pk) wAm.tae.w&kdSawm0f;/ vkdSrsdKSwrsdKSvGKrf;tae.w&kdSawm0f;/ crf;xDwAm.vGKrf;tae.w&kdSawm0f; wGrf.[dwf wGrf.[ef wGrf.*k%f.oduQm.atm0f.atm0f.wJif &Jkif;&Jkif;xifxif wif . wif . w,f . w,f . nd r f S nd r f S csrf S csrf S ,H a z.ae; utH k w J i f waEGmif;aEGmifStwGuf trGdKifoGKwfSwAm. eDuatm0f;vkd.xl.a&SrGOf;zsif/ ao.acgi;f ao.csm. eDuatm0f.vk.zefqifS/ twOf.tacGgiwAm. eDuatm0f. d f vkd. wnf.qkd@SavGSoefig.vJOf;aem0fS xGmpGdK;cGdKS ynm.a&SoGL? aem0fSrS pGdK;cGdKStwm. ynm.a&S,kd uGyfta&SwefarG;wJif xGL.xGL.wGKrfwGKrf eDrOf.tGOf.a&S ynm.a&SvJh/ xGL.xGL.wGKrfwGKrf ynm.a&S tD.tGOf.a&Scsm eDvkdSrsdKStavmif;aem0fSoGL? ta&Sum;uatm0f.tukd pGdK;cGdKSynm.a&S,kd tGOf.yxr ta&SwefoGKwfStcsufwJif acGoDeDemS eDytkd0f.cGdKStmoD; vkd. tGOf.ta&S az:.xef.avGSvJOf;terf;_cHKaem0fSoGL?  rwfvm 2011 

twG,fS (1) trJkif (1)

vdwfrJhig = 10

,uQCG%f (ol&d,crf;) eD v d k S yd k o D ; vG K rf S arG ; w0f ; owW 0 g.oD ; zH k . vJ h t0f . wG r f . tcd G K S tHkwGrf.tpdGKSaem0fSoGL? vdkSoD;zHk.,dk utHkAm.wGrf. tzl.tAl. ut0f. Am.wG r f . tcd G K Stpd G K Su&d k S ,d k a em0f S ,H a z.ucH . Am.rG e f . wzJ h S om;ol S vGOepurmSqmaem0fSrS vdSoD;zH.,dk tHwr.tzl.tAl. wGr.cdKG SawGmS w,f. f d P f k k k G f f h axmif.Am.tpdGKS ae;aem0fSoGL? crf;aygifSpk ref;crf;Edkif.iH.udk vdkSrsKdS (135) rsKdStudk eDytdk0f.,dk xGmpdGK;cdGKSwcdGKSaeae aem0fSoGL? ydGK;xmSrJkifS eDytdk0f. pdGK;cdGKS,dk xGmvGOfAm.wdGK. pdGK;cdGKS (National) wcdGKSu&dkSaem0fS uGyfpGOf.'sm. pdGK;cdGKSt*Fg.vuQ%m. (5) Am.,dk aAGpGKrf.aem0fSrS [JhSxdGKuf [J@SoifSAm. pdGK;cdGKSwcdGKSaem0fSoGL? pdGK;cdGKSt*Fg.vuQ%m. (5) Am.u&dkSaem0fS eDpdGK;cdGKSwcdGKS vGKrf;vGKrf;tudk,dk= (1) wcdKG SvGKrf; utHt0f.'g. cgi.vrf;[H.e,f. tultem.,dk t0f. (Territory k f
and Boundary)

(2) wcdGKSvGKrf; uAGdKefyD'g. aig0f;iGgwGrf. vdwfvJkif,dk t0f. (Common
Language and Literature)

(3) wcdGKSvGKrf; uAdGKefyD'g. a,ef.iJrkS,dk t0f. (Common Culture) (4) pdKG ;cdKG SwGuwm. crf;xDa&SxmSxD.xmSao xdKG if.&JirS,dk t0f. (Political f kfk
Desire)

(5) wcdGKSvGKrf; AdGKefyD'g. iif;cH.orJifSwzlSajcmifS,dk t0f. (Common History) aem0fSoGL? eDytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKS t*Fg.vuQ%m. EJkif;'sm.qSuDSzHk.,dk uaAGpGKrf. Am.xmSaem0fS tvifSarG;w0f;/ uGyfpGOf.'sm. eDrdGK;jzm; zmjzm;oD;pdk;olS ytdk0f.zHk.avGmif.Al.rkS&JifStm. aqGmhS[0fig.aem0fSrS [ef.oSeDS eDytdk0f.,dk [JSxdKG ufoifSAm. ytd0.pdKG ;cdKG S aem0fSoGL? aem0fSrS upJi;f pJh wOf.acGgivO;f 'g. h k f f J pdGK;cdGKSvuQ%m.,dk ,HxdkS warm0f ; azh o l . opf x d k S Am.rG K ef ; w0f ; aem0f S acGoeemSpGKrf.jzmS,dk aEGmifS&mSwm.0Ge. vd.,Sxl.vGig.vd@k 0ifSzH.aem0fSoGL? D D f k k uxd G K if . qJ k i f ; vD a xmif c smAm. orJ i f S vd w f r J h i gavmif ; aem0f S ytd k 0 f . pdGK;cdGKSzHk. tpdGKStAl. uayg.xef.vGOfAm.xmS,dk t"du tif.a&.csuf txsStaxmif S aem0f S ytd k 0 f . vd k S rsKd S ,d k wG r f . crf ; &if S om;tvif z H k . crf;xD (Ekdif.iH.) a&StvS awGmif;wodGKefcGifSwGrf. erf;yJif.ysSÏmef.cGifS ,Haz.ut0f.vGOf ae;aem0fSoGL? (wJrf;vdwfom;acGoGOf;tae; aoem. ae;aem0f S )? erf ; yJ i f . ysSÏmef . cG i f S u&d k S aem0f S eJ i f . iH . crf ; xD w crf ; tud k ut0f.'g.crf;&ifSom;vdkSrsKdSwrsKdSoD; tcGifSa&SwGrf. tusKdSw&mS,dk rdOf. wxdcdGKufw0f;/ vdGKqefw0f; crf;&ifSom;vdkSrsKdSvif tusKdSw&mSaem0fS erf ; yJ i f . ysSÏmef . cG i f S ,d k vG p f v G p f w jcif j cif xl . usif S oH G K SaEG m if S tD t 0f . tausmifS Ekdif.iH.a&Sody`H t0f._cJKif;apcge,fS t"dy`,f. ae;aem0fSoGL? ygarmuQ a'gufwm*sKd;Zufaq;aygvfpwdkif; aig0f;a'ghStvS erf;yJif.ysSÏmef. cGifSu&dkSaem0fS vdkSrsKdSwrsKdS,dk wGrf.a0GSoD;Oya'.awGmhS xdefSwDcsm'sm. a0GSoD;vdkSrsKdStcGifSa&S,dkt0f.Am. ae;aem0fSoGL? erf;yJif.ysSÏmef.cGifSu&dkSaem0fS pdGK;cdGKSt*Fg.vuQ%m. aAGpGKrf;'sm. vdkSrsKdSwrsKdS,dk avGmufSzuf'sm. pdGK;cdGKSwcdGKSwJif rdOf.xGmvGOfvJOf. crf;aygifSpk Ekdif.iH.crf;xDtzl.tAl.udk tpdGKSEdGK@aem0fS pdGK;cdGKSwcdGKS,dk tusKdSw&mS ,Haz. vdGKif.udGKefvGOfwGufwm. vdGKSqefw0f; pdGK;cdGKSviftusKdSw&mSwJifawGmhS crf;aygifSpk utGOf.axGmhSaz.'g. tm.%m.zzef;rkSwazGmifStudk qJif.&mS wJrf.xef.xGwfaxavGSOya'.a&S/ yGdKif.csKyfxdefSwDa&S/ pD.&if.w&mSa&S
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

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