A FRAMEWORK TO ANALYZE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

YOU, THE MARKETER TARGETING POSITIONING MKTG MIX OTHER ACTIONS OTHER EXTERNAL INFLUENCES CULTURE & SUB~ DEMOGRAPHICS & SOCIAL STRATA FAMILY GROUPS & REFERENCE ~ ETC. INTERNAL INFLUENCES PERCEPTION LEARNING MOTIVATION PERSONALITY EMOTIONS ATTITUDES ETC. DECISION PROCESS(ES) THE CONSUMER

PRE-PURCHASE

ACTION (S) POST-PURCHASE

DEFER/ REJECT

TASTE. ORGANISATION & INTERPRETATION INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM THE ENVIRONMENT THROUGH OUR SENSES. IT IS NOT JUST THE SOUNDS WE HEAR OR THE COLORS WE SEE. INSTEAD. OBJECTS (COLOURS & SHAPES INTERPRETED) AND SO ON & SO FORTH. (VISION. PERCEPTION OCCURS THROUGH THE FOLLOWING PROCESS: STIMULI SENSATIONS PERCEPTIONS   Stimuli impinge on the sensory organs of the Subject Stimuli reach Subject s brain resulting in sensations Brain processes the sensations and creates perceptions Some psychologists argue that Sensations & Perceptions are the same .INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS WHAT IS PERCEPTION?  PERCEPTION IS THE INTEGRATION. TOUCH & SMELL). PERCEPTION IS ABOUT MUSIC (SOUNDS INTERPRETED). HEARING.

A bill board appearing by the roadside. Examples of stimuli are: Telephone ringing. A TV commercial.INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS STIMULI  STIMULI OCCUR ALL THE TIME IN OUR VISCINITY. THEY ARE UBIQUITOUS. Aroma of food wafting from neighbor's kitchen etc. . A sudden & loud noise.  ATTRIBUTES OF A STIMULUS ARE:  SIZE (VISUAL)  INTENSITY  FREQUENCY  COLOUR (VISUAL)  MOVEMENT  POSITION  SPACING  FORMAT  CONTRAST ETC. THESE ARE NOT NECESSARILY AIMED AT GETTING OUR ATTENTION. A bird chirping at the window. A news item in the news paper.

head lights etc)  TOP DOWN APPROACH: Start with the whole and move to the individual parts (For instance McDonalds is a clean restaurant. WE PAY ATTENTION TO A SELECTIVE FEW.INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS STIMULI  OF THE HUNDREDS ARE STIMULI WE ARE EXPOSED TO. THIS SELECTIVITY IS DETERMINED BY:  THE CHARACTERISTICS / ATTRIBUTES OF THE STIMULI  OUR SELF (MOODS. we try to guess who is the villain by piecing together a character s clothes. NEEDS. INTEREST. his surroundings etc. his dialogs.)  THE CONTEXT/ SITUATION PERCEPTIONS PERCEPTIONS CAN BE FORMED IN TWO WAYS:  BOTTOM UP APPROACH: Start with the smaller pieces of information and arrive at the larger picture (For instance. We may form an opinion about a car by looking at the body. Any food served by it must therefore be hygienic)  . grill. SENSITIVITIES. in some cleverly scripted movies. MOTIVATIONS. AWARENESS ETC. his looks.

 . an unhappy experience with one product (say soap) of a particular company might lead to a negative perception of another product (say shampoo) of the same company. Even if a few pieces of information are missing. EDUCATION. For example. even though the shampoo was good. even though we have no information on the fuel economy of a car. we tend to perceive it as a good car if looks good and feels good during a test drive. THIS CAUSES US TO FORM PERCEPTUAL SETS WHICH ARE BASED ON PRE-CONCEIVED NOTIONS RATHER THAN REALITY.  PERCEPTIONS ARE INFLUENCED BY OUR CULTURE.INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS PERCEPTIONS  PERCEPTIONS FOLLOW LAW OF SIMPLICITY Perceptions often tend to be meaningful. we tend to perceive the whole. PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES ETC. wholes . For instance.

Com-paq etc)  CREATIVE USE OF LOGOS (Apple)  CO-BRANDING  PACKAGE DESIGN  APPROPRIATE WARNING LABELS & POSTERS (Consult your physician. Hero Honda s environment consciousness )  INNOVATIVE NAMING (Air-Tel. SOME POSSIBILITIES:  DESIGNING INNOVATIVE STIMULI  EFFECTIVE PLACEMENT (LOCATION) / DEPLOYMENT (FREQUENCY) OF STIMULI MEDIA STRATEGY  THROUGH POSITIVE ASSOCIATIONS (Airtel s save tiger campaign.INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS PERCEPTIONS & MARKETING STRATEGY  MARKETERS CAN TRY TO CREATE POSITIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE PRODUCTS/ COMPANY AND LEVERAGE THE SAME IN A VARIETY OF WAYS. Child warnings on plastic packing) .

INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS .

INTERNAL INFLUENCES: PERCEPTIONS .

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