Problems and Exercises Solutions

1. Using the example of a retail clothing store in a mall, list relevant data flows, data stores, processes, and sources/sinks. Observe several sales transactions. Draw a context diagram and a level-0 diagram that represent the selling system at the store. Explain why you chose certain elements as processes versus sources/sinks. A suggested context diagram and level-0 diagram are provided below.

Problem and Exercise 1 Context Diagram

Customer

Payment Receipt

0 Point of Sale System

Management Report

Store Manager

Problem and Exercise 1 Level-0 Diagram Receipt Customer Payment 1 Transform Customer Purchase Sales Data Goods Sold Inventory Data 2 Update Goods Sold File 3 Update Inventory File 4 Update Sales Total File Formatted Goods Sold Amount Formatted Inventory Amount Formatted Sales Total Amount Goods Sold File Inventory File Sales Total File Goods Sold Amounts 5 Produce Management Reports Inventory Amounts Sales Totals Management Report Store Manager .

students should continue the process of decomposition until they have reached the point where no sub-process can logically be broken down further (i. See the level-1 data flow diagram for this exercise.e. and develop a high-level DFD. Be sure that your diagrams are balanced. each process meets the definition of a primitive process). or context diagram. as discussed in this chapter. The (italicized) labels for processes and sources/sinks without borders represent the origin or destination of flows that pass between this subsystem and other system components. Choose an example like that in Problem and Exercise 2.2. . and draw a context diagram. Problem and Exercise 2 Context Diagram Problem and Exercise 2 Level-0 Diagram Receipt Student Cap & Gown Purchase Request 0 Order Entry System Cap and Gown Order Cap & Gown Company Receipt Student Cap and Gown Order Cap & Gown Company Cap & Gown Purchase Request 1 Validate Order Valid Order Information 2 Finalize Order Inventory Data 3 Update Inventory File Inventory Status Inventory File Formatted Inventory Data 4. Students may choose a variety of situations to use for the nth level data flow diagrams for this answer. or should possibly be treated as a sink. which shows a sample decomposition of the process titled Finalize Order from the level-0 data flow diagram provided for Problem and Exercise 3. Note that the Goods Sold File is a potential black hole. perhaps ordering a cap and gown for graduation. Basically. Decompose this diagram until it doesn’t make sense to continue. Choose a transaction that you are likely to encounter. A suggested context diagram and a level-0 diagram are provided below. Decompose this to a level-0 diagram..

flowing into it. thus these DFDs are not balanced. Class Roster. to indicate which.  Some students may also wonder if process 3 has input sufficient to produce its output. including different data stores.  Process 1 appears to accomplish nothing since its inflow and outflow are identical. it is possible that this process will become interesting when it is decomposed. where validation and error handling processes might appear. rather this data flow connects processes 2 and 3. Scheduled Classes. Further.  Process 2 does not appear to need Course Request as input in order to perform its function. . obsolete components have been eliminated.2 Log Goods Sold Data Receipt 2. the new logical data flow diagrams can then show any additional functionality necessary in the new system. such processes are uninteresting and probably unnecessary. Cap & Gown Company Validate Order Cap and Gown Order 2. for example. Identify and explain potential violations of rules and guidelines on these diagrams. which contains drafts of a context and a level-0 DFD for a university class registration system. if any. Some errors and peculiarities in these diagrams include:  In the level–0 diagram.Problem and Exercise #4 Level-1 Diagram 5. as implied by its name. The data flow diagrams for the new physical system can then be constructed with the data flow diagrams for the new logical system as a guide.1 Generate Receipt Receipt 2. regardless of actual physical form. the data store. Logical data flow diagrams help you better understand the essence of the system. where are prior class registrations kept so that process 3 can determine when a course is full? 6. and any changes in the logical flow of data between system components. does not have the data flow. Why should you develop both logical and physical DFDs for systems? What advantage is there for drawing a logical DFD before a physical DFD for a new information system? Physical data flow diagrams help you better understand the people and/or computer systems that are used in the overall system’s processing. the data and the processes that transform them.3 Generate Information For Shipping Valid Order Information Goods Sold Data Inventory Data Goods Sold File Validate Order Update Inventory File Refer to Figure 5-22.

This variety is best understood. For example. As information systems become larger and more complex. Consider the three DFDs in Figure 5-24.g.g. narrative is provided in the textbook.”  Data flow DF5 should not move directly from source E1 to data store DS1 without first going through a process. and data flow DF6 should not be on the level-1 diagram. not a number) are only that. process. Why do you think analysts have different types of diagrams and other documentation to depict different views (e. or view. Three major errors in Figure 5-23 are:  Process 1.0 has label P2 and the data store has only a label.2 has no inputs and is thus a “miracle. if you discover that the narrative is incomplete. logic. process. and managed by using diagrams and documentation that are specifically tailored for each view of the system. These diagrams show the decomposition of process P1 on the level-0 diagram. data) of an information system each have their own unique characteristics and provide the most relevant information to different information system specialists. namely the process view. making it a “black hole. logic. .4. data flow diagrams are useful for capturing the flow of data through business processes. should be represented on the level-1 diagram. of an information system.  Data flow DF1 should not move directly from source E1 to sink E2 without first going through a process. make up reasonable explanations to complete the story. (The Projects. and data) of an information system? The various views (e..” 10. it becomes even more important to use the right tool and technique to develop each component of an information system. List three errors (rule violations) on these DFDs.  Process P1. 8. expressed. This chapter has shown you how to model.0 (P2) has only inputs.  Data flow DF3 should be an outflow on the level-1 diagram. Starting with a context diagram. draw as many nested DFDs as you consider necessary to represent all the details of the employee hiring system described in the following narrative. just one aspect. Inc. 9. One technique that captured all aspects of an information system model on one diagram or in one notation would likely be too complex for systems professionals to handle. Supply these extra explanations along with the diagrams.  Other peculiarities (such as Process 1. not errors. Consider the DFD in Figure 5-23.7. but they are not useful for describing the forms and relationships among data. or structure. In drawing these diagrams. List three errors (rule violations) on this DFD. You must draw at least a context and a level-0 diagram. Three particular logical errors in Figure 5-24 are:  The data store DS1. not DS2.) A suggested context diagram and level-0 diagram are provided below.

draw as many nested DFDs as you . Starting with a context diagram. Qualified Applicant’s Application Job Descriptions Employees Approved Job Description 2 Receive Job Description Relevant Job Description 4 Evaluate and Hire Hiring Decision Letter Job Description Interview Evaluation Applicant a.Problem and Exercise #10 Context-Level Diagram Interview Schedule Applicant Qualified Applicant’s Application Engineering Manager Blank Non-Disclosure Form Completed Non-Disclosure Form Completed Application 0 Hiring System Interview Evaluation Job Description Hiring Decision Letter Problem and Exercise #10 Level-0 Diagram Blank Non-Disclosure Form Completed Non-Disclosure Form Completed Application Applicant 1 Receive Application Valid Application Purge Notice 5 Purge Year-Old Applications Year-Old Applications Applications Applications Related to Job Descriptions Applications for Interview Interview Schedule 3 Choose for Interview 6 Create Employee Record New Employee Data Hiring Decision Engineering Manager 11.