Version 7.

1
Refresher Manual for the
SAT
*
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 1 11/15/05 3:28:25 PM
Copyright © 2006 by The Princeton Review, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced for distribution to a third party in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, record-
ing, or any information retrieval system, without the prior consent of the publisher,
The Princeton Review.
Permission to reprint this material does not constitute review or endorsement by
the Educational Testing Service, of this publication as a whole or of any other sam-
ple questions or testing information it may contain.
This Manual is for the exclusive use of Princeton Review course students, and is
not legal for resale.
Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of the Educational
Testing Service. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board.
The Princeton Review is not affliated with Princeton University or the Education-
al Testing Service.
866.TPR.PREP/ www.PrincetonReview.com
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 2 11/15/05 3:28:25 PM
Acknowledgments
These people rock:
Joan Afton, Jennifer Arias, Siddiq Bello, Fred Bernstein, Carol Brenneisen,
Lisa Buchman, Morgan Chase, Rob Cohen, Mariwyn Curtin, Jon Dohlin, Ken Dow,
Dan Edmonds, Alicia Ernst, Louise Favier, Michael Freedman, Len Galla, Jodie
Gaudet, Jay Glick, Andrea Goldfein, Andra Gordon, Effe Hadjiioannou, Peter
Hanink, Clayton Harding, Scott Karp, John Katzman, Meher Khambata, Jane
Lacher, Illeny Maaza, Tom Meltzer, Nikki Moss, Jefferson Nichols, John Pak, Chee
Pae, Isabel Parlett, Magda Pecsenye, Maria Quinlan, Valli Rajah, Carmine Raspaolo,
Joe Reddy, Jennifer Robbins, Jeff Rubenstein, Joe Sampson, Nick Schaffzin, Jon
Spaihts, Joshua Shaub, Graham Sultan, Rachael Unite, Eric Wertzer, Stephen
White, Jeannie Yoon, and the staff and students of The Princeton Review.
Special thanks to Adam Cadre, Alex Schaffer, Christine Parker, Dave Ragsdale,
and John Fulmer for their enormous contributions to this manual.
Special thanks to Adam Robinson, who conceived of and perfected the Joe
Bloggs approach to standardized testing, and many of the other techniques in this
manual.
Version 7.1
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 3 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 4 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. |
contents
Introduction ............................................................................................ 1
Math Introduction ...................................................................................5
Plugging In ............................................................................................. 11
Geometry ...............................................................................................17
Other Approaches .................................................................................25
What If I’m Stuck? .................................................................................35
POOD Review ........................................................................................45
Math Homework ................................................................................... 53
Critical Reading Introduction ............................................................... 81
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 5 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM
i | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
Reading Comprehension .......................................................................85
Sentence Completions ..........................................................................97
Critical Reading Homework ............................................................... 103
Writing Introduction ............................................................................ 121
The Essay, Revisited ........................................................................... 125
Improving Sentences .......................................................................... 135
Error IDs and Improving Paragraphs ................................................ 143
Grammar Homework .......................................................................... 153
Answers & Explanations ..................................................................... 161
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 6 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. |
IntroductIon
WelcoMe BAck!
Many of you are here because you took a course this summer and you are refresh-
ing your skills for an upcoming test. Others among you have already taken the SAT
and some of you have not yet improved as much as you would like. Fortunately, you
now have another chance!
Regardless of why you are here, we’re are going to do our best to help you im-
prove your score. If you have a problem—you’ve forgotten a technique, or perhaps
never even learned it—let us know. We’re here to help!
How tHe refresHer course Is dIfferent
Because you’ve already taken one of our courses, there’s no need for us to teach
you our techniques from scratch—you already have a pretty good idea of how to
use them! Instead we’ll re-familiarize you with the techniques and give you more
guided practice in using them effciently.
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 1 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM
| © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
wHAt score Improvement cAn You expect for tHIs course?
This will obviously vary. If you have already gone up more than 150 points, it is
still possible for you to squeeze out some more points. The lower your score is, the
more likely you are to improve dramatically. There are a number of ways that you
can improve your score. If you aren’t doing all of the following, you’re not getting
the highest score that you can.
• Answering the right number of questions
• Choosing the best questions to answer
• Using POE and guessing aggressively
• Practicing the techniques
• Learning more vocabulary
You can’t raise your score if you don’t put in the work. Come to class, ask ques-
tions, do your homework, take the diagnostic tests, analyze your performance....
Put in the work now, so you never have to take the SAT again!
STRucTuRe of The SAT
The SAT now has three Math sections, three Critical Reading sections, two multi-
ple-choice Grammar sections, and one essay. There is also one, 25-minute experi-
mental section, which could be reading, math, or grammar. The total testing time
is now 3 hours and 45 minutes.
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00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 2 11/15/05 3:28:27 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. |
Introduction
crItIcAl reAdIng
1
2
3
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13
14
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24
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13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Easy
Medium
Difficult
Short
Reading
Sentence
Completions
Long
Reading
Long
Reading
24 Questions
25-Minute Section
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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12
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14
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19
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24
Easy
Medium
Difficult
Short
Reading
Sentence
Completions
Long
Reading
24 Questions
25-Minute Section
19 Questions
20-Minute Section
Easy
Medium
Difficult
Sentence
Completions
grAmmAr
35 Questions
25-Minute Section
1
11
12
35
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Error
ID
Improving
Sentences
Improving
Paragraphs
1
14
14 Questions
10-Minute Section
Improving
Sentences
30
29
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Easy
Easy
Medium
Medium
Difficult
Difficult
Easy
Medium
Difficult
New! Grammar questions
are also ordered roughly
by diffculty.
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 3 11/15/05 3:28:29 PM
| © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
summArY
No matter when you frst prepped for the SAT, use your TPR techniques! A consis-
tent approach to the SAT will get you far.
00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 4 11/15/05 3:28:30 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. |
Math IntroductIon
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25 Minu|os
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If you think reading is important only on the Critical Reading section, you’re
wrong. Half of all Math section errors are caused by misreading—these are often
your “careless mistakes.” To help eliminate those “careless mistakes”:
• don’t do the math in your head—write everything down
• re-read the question before you bubble to be sure you are answering the
right question
01 Math Introduction 5 11/15/05 3:28:34 PM
Refresher Manual for the SAT
6 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
PACING
Your target score is the score you will aim for on your next diagnostic or the real
SAT. As your diagnostic score goes up, so will your target score.
So attempt this many questions
To get:
(scaled
score)
You need
to earn:
(raw
points)
20-
question
PS
8-
question
PS
Grid-Ins
16-
question
PS
Total # of
questions
to attempt
350 7 6 2 2 2 12
400 12 7 3 3 4 17
450 19 9 4 4 6 23
500 25 11 5 5 8 29
550 32 14 6 6 10 36
600 38 16 6 7 13 42
650 44 18 7 8 15 48
700 47 all all 9 all 53
750 52 all all all all 54
800 54 all all all all 54
Unless you’re shooting for a 700 or higher, do not do every question!
As you can see, you only need to do about half of the questions to get a 500. If
you’re doing more questions than you need to, you’re actually hurting your score.
By rushing through too many questions, you’ll have less time to concentrate on
each question, and you’ll make more careless errors.
Look at the pacing chart and memorize the number of questions you need to
answer to get the score you want. You should use all of your time to work on those
questions, rather than sitting around with ten minutes left at the end of every sec-
tion. Take more time per question and get more of them right. Slow down and
score more.
PERSONAL ORDER OF DIFFICULTY
Remember that the order of diffculty on the SAT is not perfect. You have your own
personal strengths and weaknesses, and you know a lot of strategies that take ad-
vantage of the way ETS writes the test.
Keep ETS’s order of diffculty in mind, but always remember that you control
which questions you answer, and the order in which you answer them. Go through
the section looking for questions that look easier for you.
01 Math Introduction 6 11/15/05 3:28:35 PM
Math Introduction
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 7
PROCESS OF ELIMINATION (POE)
Always look for ways to eliminate incorrect answers. If you can elimi-
nate even one, guess!
How many answer choices can you eliminate before solving the question?
3. If the sum of 5 consecutive integers is 100, what is
the middle number?
(A) 18
(B) 20
(C) 95
(D) 98
(E) 100
10. When a certain used-clothing store sells clothes, it
keeps 30 percent of the money, and gives the rest to
the original owner. If the original owner of an outfit
receives $98 from a sale, how much did the store
charge for the outfit?
(A) $66
(B) $100
(C) $136
(D) $140
(E) $163
JOE BLOGGS, HAVEN’T WE MET BEFORE?
Joe Bloggs gets diffcult questions wrong because he’s predictable.
Don’t be predictable. Don’t fall for ETS traps. Don’t be Joe.
How many JB answers can you eliminate before solving the problem?
18. If a car’s odometer reads 73,333 miles, what is the
LEAST number of miles that the car must travel be-
fore four digits on the odometer are identical again?
(A) 99
(B) 444
(C) 666
(D) 1,111
(E) 4,444
01 Math Introduction 7 11/15/05 3:28:35 PM
Refresher Manual for the SAT
8 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
19. A shop owner buys apples at wholesale cost and sells
each apple at a profit of 20 percent. If the shop owner
charges the same amount for each apple, and sells
all but 5 percent of his inventory, what percent profit
will he make on his investment?
(A) 10%
(B) 14%
(C) 15%
(D) 18%
(E) 25%
BALLPARKING
Ballparking will also help you eliminate answer choices.
10. Which one of the following numbers would be in-
creased by approximately 100 percent if the order of
its digits were reversed?
(A) 203
(B) 1,002
(C) 1,992
(D) 4,005
(E) 8,004
If you can eliminate any of the answer choices, guess.
01 Math Introduction 8 11/15/05 3:28:36 PM
Math Introduction
© The Princeton Review, Inc. |
THE PRINCETON REVIEW’S GUIDE TO GRIDDING
how to GrId
• Write your answer in the spaces at the top before gridding.
• Grid in answers as far to the left in the grid box as possible.
• Don’t reduce fractions if they already ft in the grid.
• Don’t round decimals.
• Don’t grid in mixed fractions.
18. Of 15 people who entered a store in a one-hour
period, two bought nothing, seven bought exactly one
item, and the rest bought two or more items. What
percent of the people who entered the store that hour
bought at least two items? (Ignore the percent sign
when gridding in your answer.)
what You can’t GrId In (EvEn If You wantEd to)
• Negatives
• Square roots
• π
• Variables
• % signs
• $ signs
01 Math Introduction 9 11/15/05 3:28:36 PM
01 Math Introduction 10 11/15/05 3:28:36 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 11
Remember that “in terms
of” is a needless phrase
that ETS uses to confuse
you. But, it’s our signal to
Plug In!
PLUGGING IN
Plugging In is the most important math technique. Plugging In turns algebra and
geometry problems into arithmetic problems. It’s the one thing that can help your
score the most.
WHEN TO PLUG IN
8. Charleneisc yearsoldandis5yearsyoungerthan
Derrick.IfDerrickishalfasoldasBlaine,then,in
termsofc,howmanyyearsoldisBlaine?
(A) c –10
(B) c +5
(C) c +10
(D) 2c +5
(E) 2c +10
• Do not Plug In numbers that appear in the answer choices or in the
question.
• Do not Plug In zero or one.
• Do not Plug In the same number for two different variables.
02 Plugging In 11 11/15/05 3:28:41 PM
12 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
12. Steveusuallyjogshkilometerseveryday.OnMon-
dayandWednesdayoflastweek,however,Steve
joggedtwicehisusualdailydistance,andonSat-
urdayStevejoggedhalfhisusualdailydistance.If
Stevejoggedhisusualdailydistanceoneachofthe
otherdays,howmanytotalkilometers,intermsofh,
didStevejoglastweek?
(A) 9h
(B) 8.5h
(C) 7h
(D) 6.5h
(E) 3.5h

Choose numbers that make the arithmetic as easy as possible.
17. If
g
h
isaninteger,whichofthefollowingmustalso
beaninteger?
(A)
h
g
(B) g
(C) gh
(D)
g
h
2
(E)
g
h
2
2
Remember that you can plug in on any problem that has variables in the an-
swers.


12. Inthefgureabove,whatisthevalueofbintermsof
a ?
(A) 90+ a
(B) 90+2a
(C) 180–2a
(D) 360–2a
(E) 2a
Always check all 5 answer
choices when you Plug In.
Don’t forget the rules
of geometry when
Plugging In!
02 Plugging In 12 11/15/05 3:28:42 PM
Plugging In
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 13
15. Inalaboratorysetting,thepopulationofacertain
bacteriadoublesevery3hours.Iftheinitialpopula-
tionwas12,whichofthefollowingexpressesthe
populationafterhhours?
(A) 2 3
2
×
h
(B) 3 12
2
×
h
(C) 12 2
3
×
h
(D) 12 2
3
×
h
(E)
12 2 ×
h
Sometimes, you can even plug in on Grid-Ins!
18. Amerchantreducestheoriginalpriceofapairof
shoesby10percent.Afterseveralweeks,themer-
chantincreasesthenewpriceoftheshoesby50per-
cent.Theresultingpriceoftheshoesiswhatpercent
greaterthantheoriginalpriceoftheshoes?(Disre-
gardthepercentsignwhengriddingyouranswer.)
02 Plugging In 13 11/15/05 3:28:45 PM
14 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
PLUGGING IN THE ANSWERS
On the SATs you’ll have plenty of chances to PITA. Just remember the following
rules:
Label your answers.
Starting with answer choice C, work the steps of the problem.
Look for something in the problem that tells you if the answer is correct.
When you find the correct answer, STOP.
16. ThecombinedcostofitemsX,Y,andZis$225.IfY
costs$10morethanX,andZcosts$10morethanY,
thenwhatisthecostofX ?
Label → ________ ________ _______
(A) $85
(B) $80
(C) $75
(D) $65
(E) $55
PLUGGING IN TIMED DRILL
See how well you do on this drill. Just remember all the different ways you can
plug in. If you’re having trouble, see what other techniques you can apply. It’s all
about POOD!
Time: 10 minutes
Target Score
# of Questions to
Attempt
< 450 3 or 4
460–550 4 or 5
560–650 6 or 7
> 650 All
6. AlexisthreetimesasoldasBetty.Infveyears,Alex
willbetwiceasoldasBetty.HowoldisBettynow?
(A) 5
(B) 10
(C) 15
(D)20
(E) 30
02 Plugging In 14 11/15/05 3:28:46 PM
Plugging In
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 15
7. Ifab=48and
a
b
=
3
4
,whichofthefollowingcould
bethevalueofa?
(A) 4
(B) 6
(C) 8
(D)12
(E) 16


10. Inthefgureabove,ifx=4y,whatisthevalueofy ?
(A) 4
(B) 16
(C) 18
(D) 36
(E) 72
11. If
1
2
s
t = and t
r
2
1
= ,whatisrintermsofs ?
(A) s
4
(B) s
(C) 4s
(D) s
2
(E) s
4
13. Jeromewonthelottery.Hepaidonequarterofhis
winningstothegovernmentintaxes.Hegave$3,000
tohismotherand$1,000tohisfriend.Ifhehad
$11,000left,howmuchmoneydidheoriginallywin?
(A) $12,000
(B) $15,000
(C) $18,000
(D) $20,000
(E) $45,000
16. Ifx iskpercentofy,whatpercentofyiskx?
(A)
k
100
%
(B)
100
k
%
(C) k%
(D) 100k%
(E) k
2
%
02 Plugging In 15 11/15/05 3:28:49 PM
16 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
A
B
C
x
18. InrighttriangleABC above,ABistwiceBC.If
AB=x,whatistheareaofABCintermsofx ?
(A)
x 2
8
(B)
x 3
8
(C)
x
2
2
4
(D)
x
2
3
4
(E)
x
2
3
8
19. Acarsalesmansellshalfofthecarsinhisshowroom
inoneweek.Thenextweek,hesellsone-thirdofthe
remainingcars.Attheendofthetwoweeks,what
fractionoftheoriginalnumberofcarsdidhesell?
(A)
1
6
(B)
1
2
(C)
2
3
(D)
3
4
(E)
5
6
02 Plugging In 16 11/15/05 3:28:52 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 17
Geometry
n

o

i

t

a

m

r

o

f

n

I



e

c

n

e

r

e

f

e

R

r
l
w
h
b l
w
h

A = r
2
C = 2 r
A = lw
A = bh
1
2
V = lw h
2 x
b
c

r
h
60
3 x
2 s
x
45
45
s
s
c = a + b
2 2 2
Special Right T riangles
30
V = r h
2
a
The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360.
The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.
Remember that you’re given many of the formulas you’ll need for the geometry.
Now all that’s left is to be able to use the information you’re given to your advan-
tage.
X¯ Z¯

Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
10. Inthefgureabove,ifz=110,thenz+y=
(A) 200
(B) 180
(C) 130
(D) 110
(E) 90
What information are you given?
What rules can help you?
Write any info from the
problem on the fgure.
Work from what you know
to what you don’t know.
03 Geometry 17 11/15/05 3:28:56 PM
18 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
!
"
#
$
% &
13. QuadrilateralABCDshownabovehasanareaof72.
IfED = BF = 6,whatisthelengthof AC ?
(A) 6
(B) 12
(C) 18
(D) 24
(E) 36
Write down the formula you need:
Now fll in what you already know:
What do you need to fnd to fnish the problem?
No fgure given? No problem! Just draw your own.
14. Inarighttriangle,oneleghaslengthx andtheother
hasalengthof
4
3
x .Whichofthefollowingexpress-
esthelengthofthehypotenuseintermsofx ?
(A)
3
5
x
(B)
3
4
x
(C)
4
5
x
(D)
5
4
x
(E)
5
3
x
Just keep applying the basic geometry advice, even if a question involves a num-
ber of steps.
Draw fgures that are
missing. Fill in anything
you already know.
03 Geometry 18 11/15/05 3:28:58 PM
Geometry
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 19
12. IfCircleOhasaradiusof4,whatistheratioofthe
circumferenceofCircleOtotheareaofCircleO?
(A) 1:4
(B) 1:2
(C) 1:1
(D) 2:1
(E) 4:1
What should you do frst?
What should you do next?
!
" #
$
ƒ
6. Inthefgureabove,ifAB=BC=8,whatisthearea
ofABCD?
(A) 144
(B) 128
(C) 96
(D) 64
(E) 48
10. Whatistheslopeofthelinethatpassesthroughthe
pointswithcoordinates(2,6)and(3,5)?
(A) –1
(B) –
1
2
(C)
1
2
(D) 1
(E) 2
Draw a line to create basic
shapes that have nice
formulas.
03 Geometry 19 11/15/05 3:28:59 PM
20 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
GEOMETRY TiMEd dRiLL
Test out your geometry skills. Choose the problems that you know how to do frst.
Then see what you can eliminate on the others.
Time: 10 minutes
Target Score # of Questions to
Attempt
< 450 3 or 4
460–550 4 or 5
560–650 6 or 7
> 650 All
b b
b a
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
·
· ·
·
·
·
B
E A F
C
D
3. Inthefgureabove,ifb=25,whatisthevalueofa?
(A) 15
(B) 75
(C) 90
(D) 105
(E) 155
0
1
2
3 ƒ
ƒ 4

4. Inthefgureabove,ifPT=TQ,QS=SR,thenz=
(A) 10
(B) 40
(C) 60
(D) 90
(E) 110
03 Geometry 20 11/15/05 3:28:59 PM
Geometry
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 21
L
1
L
2

(2X + 60)¯
10. Inthefgureabove,if l
1
|| l
2
,thenx=
(A) 180
(B) 110
(C) 60
(D) 40
(E) 30
1
0
2
3 4
/
s
11. Inthefgureabove,sidePSofrectanglePQRSis
tangenttothecirclewithcenterOatpointT.If
QR=k,whatistheareaofrectanglePQRSinterms
ofk ?
(A)
k
2
4
(B)
k
2
2
(C) k
2
(D) 2
2
k
(E) 4
2
k
03 Geometry 21 11/15/05 3:29:01 PM
22 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
L

L

L

X
Y

16. Lines l
1
, l
2
,and l
3
haveslopesofa, b,andc,respec-
tively,and l
2
isparalleltothexaxis.Whichofthe
followingisanegativenumber?
(A) b+c
(B) a+b
(C) c–a
(D) b
(E) 2c
17. Ifthevolumeofarectangularsolidis64,itslengthis
twiceitswidth,anditswidthistwiceitsheight,then
whatisitslength?
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 8
(D) 16
(E) 32
18. CubesAandBhavefaceswithareasxandy,respec-
tively.Iftheratioofxtoyis1to9,whatistheratio
ofthevolumeofcubeAtothevolumeofcubeB ?
(A) 1:3
(B) 1:9
(C) 1:27
(D) 1:81
(E) 1:729
03 Geometry 22 11/15/05 3:29:03 PM
Geometry
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 23
19. SquareABCD(notshown)hasvertexAat(–1,1),
vertexBat(–1,4),andvertexDat(2,1).Whatisthe
slopeofthelinepassingthroughvertexCandthe
origin?
(A) –2
(B) –
1
2
(C)
3
2
(D) 2
(E) 4
03 Geometry 23 11/15/05 3:29:04 PM
03 Geometry 24 11/15/05 3:29:04 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 25
Other ApprOAches
As soon as you see the
word average, draw an
average pie.
Want a better score? ETS expects you to complete problems the way that you were
taught in school. But, anytime that you do what the test writer expects, you don’t
get the best score that you could.
Arithmetic
Don’t do these the way that ETS expects!
17. A factory produces an average of 50 televisions per
day for 4 days, and an average of 20 televisions per
day for the next 8 days. What is the average number
of televisions produced per day by the factory over
the entire 12-day period?
(A) 12
(B) 20
(C) 30
(D) 35
(E) 36
04 Other app 25 11/15/05 3:29:08 PM
26 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher manual for the SAt
11. A fruit vendor sells 8 bananas for every 5 mangoes. If
the vendor sells 24 bananas, what is the total number
of pieces of fruit sold?
(A) 13
(B) 15
(C) 24
(D) 37
(E) 39
m
m
m
9. A team won 36 of the 60 games it played. If there
were no games tied or forfeited, what percent of the
games did the team lose?
(A) 24%
(B) 36%
(C) 40%
(D) 50%
(E) 60%
Translate the question into math:
What percent of the games did the team lose?
14. Kumar fnds that the number of mistakes that he
makes on a 50-question test varies inversely with the
amount of time that he spends studying. If Kumar
made 10 mistakes on his last 50-question test and
studied for 3 hours, how many mistakes can he ex-
pect to make on his next such test if he studies for 5
hours?
(A) 5
(B) 6
(C) 15
(D) 17
(E) 30
What’s the best formula to
use for inverse variation?
Use the ratio box for part
to part comparisons.
04 Other app 26 11/15/05 3:29:08 PM
Other Approaches
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 27
7. A store is encouraging business by giving away door
prizes. A prize is given to the second customer of the
day and to every ffth customer after that. Which one
of the following customers will receive a prize?
(A) 61
(B) 65
(C) 68
(D) 73
(E) 82
15. For all x ≥ 1, let f x x ( ) ( ) = + − 1 1
2
. For which of
the following values of x does f x ( ) = 9 ?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 9
10. All of the students enrolled in a certain school district
are between the ages of 5 and 19, inclusive. If a
student whose age is x enrolls in this school district,
which of the following most accurately expresses all
possible values for x ?
(A) x − ≤ 19 5
(B) x − ≤ 12 7
(C) x − ≤ 24 14
(D) x − ≤ 12 5
(E) x − ≤ 19 7
How do you discover a
pattern?
What technique will help
with this question?
What’s the best way to
handle this question?
04 Other app 27 11/15/05 3:29:10 PM
28 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher manual for the SAt
GrAphS
Here are some ways that ETS tests graphs. What’s the easiest way to do each of
these problems?
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
O
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13
y
y = f (x)
16. The fgure above shows the graph of y = f (x). The
function g is defned as g (x) = 2f (x + 3). If g (x) = 6,
which of the following could be the value of x ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 7
(E) 8
-
. ,
X
Y
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
14. The fgure above shows the graph of y f x = ( ) for
− ≤ ≤ 4 4 x . If f x x ( ) = − +
2
16, what is the area of
LMN(not shown)?
(A) 32
(B) 24
(C) 16
(D) 8
(E) 4
04 Other app 28 11/15/05 3:29:12 PM
Other Approaches
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 29

Y
X
/
s
11. The graph of y f x = ( ) is shown in the fgure above.
Which of the following shows the refection of the
graph of y f x = ( ) across the x-axis?
(A)
n
Y
X
/
s
(B)

Y
X
/
s
(C)
n
Y
X
/
s
(D)
n
Y
X
/
s
(E)
n
Y
X
/
s
04 Other app 29 11/15/05 3:29:13 PM
30 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher manual for the SAt

(–1, –1)
y
x
A

O
8. The graph of the equation f x x ( ) = + − 1 1 is shown
above. For which of the following equations would
point A be located at (1, 1) ?
(A) f x x ( ) = − + 1 1
(B) f x x ( ) = − − 1 1
(C) f x x ( ) = + + 1 1
(D) f x x ( ) = −1
(E) f x x ( ) = +1
Other ApprOAcheS timeD Drill
Try these.
Time: 10 minutes
Target Score # of Questions to
Attempt
< 450 3 or 4
460–550 5 or 6
560–650 7 or 8
> 650 All
7. At a certain time of day, a man 6 feet tall casts a
shadow 8 feet long. If, at the same time, a lamppost
casts a shadow 20 feet long, then how many feet tall
is the lamppost?
(A) 12
(B) 14
(C) 15
(D) 22
(E) 25
04 Other app 30 11/15/05 3:29:15 PM
Other Approaches
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 31
List S: 4, 9, 9, 4, 1, 9, 5
8. The median of the numbers in list S will remain un-
changed if which of the following numbers is added
to the list?
(A) 4
(B) 5
(C) 6
(D) 7
(E) 9
13. Will is selecting clothes to wear to school. He must
choose one pair of sneakers, one pair of jeans, and
one shirt. If Will has four pairs of sneakers, fve pairs
of jeans, and twelve shirts, how many different outfts
could he wear?
14. If the average (arithmetic mean) of the degree mea-
sures of two angles of a right triangle is 70, which of
the following must represent the degree measure of
one of the three angles of the triangle?
(A) 20
(B) 25
(C) 30
(D) 35
(E) 40
15. In 1995 the average price of CD players was $300. In
1999 the average price of CD players was $240. By
what percent did the average price of a CD player
change between 1995 and 1999?
(A) 60%
(B) 40%
(C) 25%
(D) 20%
(E) 5%
04 Other app 31 11/15/05 3:29:15 PM
32 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher manual for the SAt
16. Alice has a full box of purple, white, and green tennis
balls. There are twice as many purple balls as white
balls, and three times as many green balls as purple
balls. If Alice pulls out one ball at random, what is
the probability that it will be purple?
(A)
2
9
(B)
1
3
(C)
2
5
(D)
3
5
(E)
2
3
17. Let x @ y be equal to
x
y
+
+
1
2
. For which of the follow-
ing is x @ y the greatest?
(A) x = 6, y = –6
(B) x = 6, y = –1
(C) x = 5, y = 7
(D) x = 5, y = 2
(E) x = 4, y = 4
18. In the frst four months of their season, the Cooper-
stown baseball team won 3 games for every 4 it lost,
with no game ending in a tie. In the remainder of the
season, the team played 7 games and won all of them.
If at the end of the season its ratio of wins to losses
is 1 to 1, what is the total number of games that the
team has played?
04 Other app 32 11/15/05 3:29:17 PM
Other Approaches
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 33
y
y = bx
2
– 25
x
J K
0
y = x
2
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
20. The fgure above shows the graphs of y x =
2
and
y bx = −
2
25 for some constant b. If the length of JK
is equal to 10, what is the value of b ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 4
(D) 10
(E) 25
04 Other app 33 11/15/05 3:29:18 PM
04 Other app 34 11/15/05 3:29:18 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 35
What If I’m Stuck?
Even if you don’t know how to solve a problem, there are things that you can try.
POE
14. A compact disc is placed in a player that randomly
selects and plays songs from the compact disc. The
compact disc contains 3 ballads, 4 instrumental
pieces, x dance tracks, and no other pieces. If the
probability that the frst song played will be a ballad
is
1
4
, what is the value of x ?
(A) 1
(B) 4
(C) 5
(D) 9
(E) 12
Just ask Joe! Then,
eliminate his answer.
05 What if Stuck 35 11/15/05 3:29:22 PM
36 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT



Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
15. In the fgure above, three lines intersect as shown. If
a = 80, what is the value of b + c ?
(A) 100
(B) 180
(C) 260
(D) 340
(E) It cannot be determined from the
information given.
Joe also helps you to avoid picking answers too quickly on problems that you know
how to do. Careless errors can cost you a lot of points.
8. A candy store offers a 33
1
3
% discount on any pur-
chase of three boxes of chocolates. Sheila pays $12
for three boxes of chocolates. What was the amount
of her discount, in dollars?
(A) 3
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 9
(E) 12
What does Joe do?
Are any answers the
wrong size?
05 What if Stuck 36 11/15/05 3:29:22 PM
What If I’m Stuck?
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 37
"
! $
#
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
16. Rectangle ABCD has length 6 and width 8. What is
the area of the shaded region?
(A)
25
2
48
π

(B)
25
2
24
π

(C)
10π
(D) 25π
(E) 50 24 π −
ETS loves to include partial answers. Sometimes you can eliminate something
that is wrong even if you only work the frst step of the problem.
16. A factory produced 3,000 chairs on Monday, of
which 70 percent were painted. Of the chairs that
were painted, 40 percent were painted blue. How
many more chairs were NOT painted than were
painted blue?
(A) 60
(B) 360
(C) 840
(D) 900
(E) 1,260
Use the fgure. Ballpark!
How many partial
answers can you fnd in
this problem?
05 What if Stuck 37 11/15/05 3:29:24 PM
38 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
18. A radio antenna and a three-foot pole are installed 42
feet apart on a level fat roof. If a wire runs from the
top of the pole to the top of the antenna, and the wire
rises four feet for every three feet it travels horizon-
tally, what is the height of the antenna in feet?
(A) 42
(B) 45
(C) 56
(D) 59
(E) 70
MORE PluggIng In
Plugging In and Plugging In The Answers can save the day on lots of different
kinds of questions. How can you use the technique on these?
20. If
z
z z
+

=
2
3
8
, then what is one possible value of z ?
(A) −6
(B) −4
(C) −2
(D) 2
(E) 12
x 2 3 4 5
y 7 10 13 16
4. The table above represents a relationship between
x and y. Which of the following linear equations
describes the relationship?
(A) y = x + 1
(B) y = x + 5
(C) y = 3x
(D) y = 3x + 1
(E) y = 4x – 1
What answer could you
get by just doing simple
operations with the
numbers? Would the
answer really be that
easy?
05 What if Stuck 38 11/15/05 3:29:24 PM
What If I’m Stuck?
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 39
18. At a certain company, an employee’s salary s in dol-
lars is given by the function s(y) = 1,500y + 30,000,
where y is the number of years the employee has
worked at the company. If the value v in dollars of the
car that the employee owns is given by the function
v s
s
( )
,
=
−18 000
2
, and Kelly is an employee of this
company whose car has a value of $30,000, how
many years has Kelly worked for this company?
(A) 34
(B) 32
(C) 18
(D) 12
(E) 8
13. Let the function f be defned by f (x) = 2x – 9. If
f (a) = b, what is the difference between f (2a) and
f (a), in terms of b ?
(A) 2b – 9
(B) 2b
(C) b
(D) b + 9
(E) 2b + 9
05 What if Stuck 39 11/15/05 3:29:25 PM
40 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
TIMED DRIll
Time: 15 minutes
Target Score # of Questions to
Attempt
< 450 6 to 8
460–550 9 to 11
560–650 12 to 14
> 650 All
N
Nn

1. The areas are given for each of the
small rectangles in the fgure above.
What is the area of the entire fgure?
(A) n + 6
(B) n + 7
(C) 2n – 7
(D) 5n + 7
(E) 5n + 17
2. If the price of postcards ranges from
40 cents to 70 cents each, what is
the greatest number of postcards that
can be purchased with $3.00 ?
(A) 8
(B) 7
(C) 6
(D) 5
(E) 4
3. If a square of area 25 has vertices at
(–3, –1), (2, –1), and (–3, 4), what
are the coordinates of the remaining
vertex?
(A) (–3, –2)
(B) (–2, 4)
(C) (1, 4)
(D) (2, –3)
(E) (2, 4)
30°

75°
2a°
4. In the fgure above, what is the value
of a ?
(A) 60
(B) 85
(C) 170
(D) 180
(E) 255
05 What if Stuck 40 11/15/05 3:29:25 PM
What If I’m Stuck?
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 41
5. If y f x = ( ) , which of the following
could be the graph of y f x = ( ) ?
(A)
Y
X

(B)
Y
X

(C)
Y
X

(D)
Y
X

(E)
Y
X

NUMBER OF TOASTERS SOLD BY
1-
2-
3-
4-
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
N
u
m
b
e
r
s

o
f

T
o
a
s
t
e
r
s

S
o
l
d


(
i
n

t
h
o
u
s
a
n
d
s
)

TOSTIT CO., 1996-2001
6. According to the graph above, the
greatest annual percentage change in
the number of toasters sold by Tostit
Co. took place between the years
(A) 1996 and 1997
(B) 1997 and 1998
(C) 1998 and 1999
(D) 1999 and 2000
(E) 2000 and 2001
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
7. The laminated block shown above
consists of a layer of wood between
two layers of plastic. If each plastic
layer is one-third as thick as the
wooden layer, and the thickness of
each layer is an integer, what is one
possible height of a stack of such
blocks?
(A) 18
(B) 24
(C) 35
(D) 39
(E) 42
05 What if Stuck 41 11/15/05 3:29:27 PM
42 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
8. If x is divisible by 5, what is the
remainder when 3(x + 2) is divided
by 5 ?
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 4
(E) 6
9. If r and s are nonzero integers, and
r + s = 0, which of the following
must be true?
(A) 2r = 2s
(B) rs = r
2
(C) 2r – s = r + s
(D) r
2
+ s
2
= 0
(E)
r
s
2
2
1 =
10. If x is 3 times y, and y is 4 more than
x, then what is the sum of x and y ?
(A) –8
(B) –4
(C) 0
(D) 4
(E) 7
11. Set A consists of the positive odd
numbers, set B consists of the
integers between 2 and 12 inclusive,
set C consists of the positive prime
numbers less than or equal to 25,
and set D consists of the distinct
positive integer factors of 30. If
X A B = ∩ , and Y C D = ∩ , which
of the following is X Y ∪ ?
(A) {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
(B) {2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
(C) {3, 5}
(D) {2, 7, 9, 11}
(E) {2, 3, 5}
12. Lori is forming a team consisting
of a team leader, a researcher,
and an assistant to develop a new
laser. If she has 7 scientists from
which to choose, then how many
arrangements of scientists are
available?
(A) 21
(B) 35
(C) 210
(D) 314
(E) 343
05 What if Stuck 42 11/15/05 3:29:28 PM
What If I’m Stuck?
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 43
13. A certain artist’s income is directly
proportional to the number of
paintings she sells, and the number
of paintings she sells is directly
proportional to the number of art
shows she has per month. She must
distribute at least 30 fyers for each
show. Last month she earned $2,400
by selling 120 paintings during the
4 art shows she had. If she needs to
earn $3,600 this month, what is the
minimum number of fyers she can
distribute?
(A) 6
(B) 60
(C) 120
(D) 150
(E) 180
14. The wheels of a train each have a
radius of 9 inches. If the train is
traveling on a track with light posts
placed every 600 feet, how many
revolutions will each wheel make
between one light post and the next?
(A)
200
π
(approximately 63.66)
(B)
400
π
(approximately 127.32)
(C) 50π (approximately 157.08)
(D) 100π (approximately 314.16)
(E) 200π (approximately 628.32)
!
"
Gazebo Statue Fountain
15. The diagram above shows all paths
in a garden between gazebo A and
gazebo B. If each path segment is
30 feet long, what is the length in
feet of the longest path that can be
walked from gazebo A to gazebo B
without passing a statue or retracing
any path segment?
(A) 60
(B) 180
(C) 240
(D) 300
(E) 360
05 What if Stuck 43 11/15/05 3:29:29 PM
05 What if Stuck 44 11/15/05 3:29:29 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 45
POOD Review
It’s time to put it all together. Remember that good pacing and careful problem
selection have a huge impact on your score. Try these problems. If you can’t fg-
ure out how to solve it, can you eliminate any answer choices by ballparking? Are
there Joe Bloggs answers? Did you try to Plug In or PITA? Good test takers are
fexible in their approach.
6. Threesquares,eachwithaperimeterof12,arejoined
toformarectangle.Whatistheperimeterofthe
resultingrectangle?
(A) 18
(B) 24
(C) 27
(D) 36
(E) 48
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 45 11/15/05 3:29:33 PM
46 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
7. Duringacertainperiodinthegrowthofanorganism,
thenumberofcellscontainedinitsbodygrowsexpo-
nentially.Iftheorganismcontained1,500cellsatthe
beginningofthisperiod,andthenumberofcellsin
theorganismdoublesevery12hours,howmanycells
doestheorganismcontainafterxhours?
(A) 1500
2x
(B) 1500 2
12
×
x
(C) 1500 2 ×
x
(D) 2 1500
12
×
x
(E) 2 1500
12
×
x
8. Inadogshow,30percentofthemaledogsand15
percentofthefemaledogswonprizes.If30male
dogsand20femaledogsparticipatedinthecom-
petition,whatpercentofthedogsintheshowwon
prizes?
(A) 12%
(B) 22.5%
(C) 24%
(D) 45%
(E) 90%
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 46 11/15/05 3:29:34 PM
POOD Review
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 47
9. Jackietakes5daystoreadashortbook.Ifshereads
10pagesonthefrstday,nothingonthesecondday,
10morepagesonthethirdday,nothingonthefourth
day,and20pagesontheffthday,whichofthefol-
lowinggraphscouldbeusedtoshowherprogress
throughthebook?
(A)
Y
X
# of pages
Day
0 4 3 2 1 5
(B)
Y
X
# of pages
Day
0 4 3 2 1 5
(C)
Y
X
# of pages
Day
0 4 3 2 1 5
(D)
Y
X
# of pages
Day
0 4 3 2 1 5
(E)
Y
X
# of pages
Day
0 4 3 2 1 5
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 47 11/15/05 3:29:35 PM
48 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
M:{2,5,7}
N:{2,3,7,9}
10. Whichofthefollowingistheaverage
(arithmeticmean)ofthemembersof M N ∪ ?
(A) 4
(B) 4
1
2
(C) 5
(D) 5
1
5
(E) 5
2
3
11. If x

=
2
81,whatisthevalueof x
1
2
?
(A) −
1
9
(B)
1
9
(C)
1
3
(D) 3
(E) 9
12. Arighttrianglehasaperimeterof24andahypote-
nuseof10.Ifthelengthofallthreesidesareintegers,
whatisthetriangle’sarea?
(A) 6
(B) 12
(C) 14
(D) 24
(E) Itcannotbedeterminedfromthe
informationgiven.
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 48 11/15/05 3:29:37 PM
POOD Review
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 49
13. Ifthe y x = − 5 isgraphedinthexy-coordinatesys-
tem,whatisthedistancebetweenthex-intercepts?
(A) −5
(B) 0
(C) 2.5
(D) 5
(E) 10
14. If x
5 4
227 2 − = ,thenx=
(A) −211
5
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 16
(E) 243
15. Inafgure-skatingcompetition,eachcontestant
receives10scores.Afterthelowestandhighest
scoresareremoved,theaverage(arithmeticmean)of
theremaining8scoresiscalculated.Theaverageof
Jamie’stenscoresisbandtheaverageofherlowest
andhighestscoresisd.Intermsofbandd,whatis
theaverageofJamie’seightremainingscores?
(A)
10 2 b d −
(B)
b d −
8
(C)
5
5
b d −
(D)
8
4
b d −
(E)
5
4
b d −
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 49 11/15/05 3:29:40 PM
50 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
16. Abicyclisttravelsatarateofm milesperhourforz
hours.Ifz isgreaterthan3,thenthebicyclistwould
havetoincreasehisratebyhowmanymilesper
hour,intermsofm andz, inordertotravelthesame
distancein3fewerhours?
(A) m(z–3)
(B)
mz
z − 3
(C) z(m–3)
(D)
z
mz
− 3
(E)
mz
z
m


3
17. Anemptyfuel-storagetankwithacapacityofxgal-
lonsisflledcompletelybyasupplypumpatarate
of5gallonsperminute.Thetankisthenimmediately
drainedbyanexhaustpumpatarateof4gallonsper
minute.Iftheentireprocesstakes18hours,whatis
thevalueofx ?
(A) 2,000
(B) 2,400
(C) 3,000
(D) 3,600
(E) 5,400
18. Ifthegraphoff (x)=x
2
+mx+n intersectsthex-axis
exactlyonetime,andf (–3)=0,whatisthevalueof
m + n ?
(A) 15
(B) 9
(C) 3
(D) 0
(E) −3
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 50 11/15/05 3:29:41 PM
POOD Review
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 51
2 3
4 1

B
A
19. TheareaofrectangleQRSTinthefgureaboveis48.
If
6
6 a
a b
=
+
,whatisthevalueofa?
(A) 2
(B) 3.6
(C) 6.4
(D) 8
(E) 10
20. Thefrsttwotermsofasequenceare7and12.Be-
ginningwiththethirdterm,eachtermis3lessthan
thesumofthetwonumbersimmediatelyprecedingit.
Forexample,thethirdtermis16,because
(7+12)–3=16.Howmanyofthefrst100termsin
thissequenceareoddnumbers?
(A) 33
(B) 34
(C) 50
(D) 66
(E) 67
Do it
Skip it
Do it
Skip it
06 POOD Review 51 11/15/05 3:29:41 PM
06 POOD Review 52 11/15/05 3:29:41 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 53
mAth homeWorK
DENVER DAVE’S HOMEWORK REVIEW MODEL
Remember:ReviewEVERYquestionyouworkonwhetheryougetitrightorwrong,
andcategorizeeachquestionasfollows.
Nailed it. MarkaquestionwithanNifyougotthisquestionright
andtotallyunderstoodbothitandtheunderlyingcon-
cepts.Youknowthatyoucouldgetthistypeofquestion
rightregardlessofhowETSpresentsit.
Got it/Guessed. MarkaquestionwithaGifyougotthisquestionright
eitherbyguessingorinsomemysteriouswayyoucan’t
rememberafterwards.Whilewe’lltakeluckontestday,
notsomuchduringtheclass.Thepointistobeable
toreplicatetheprocessbywhichyoucorrectlyanswer
questionsontestday.Besuretoreviewthesequestions
sothatyouknowEXACTLYhowitisanswered.
Missed it—Doh! MarkaquestionwithanMifyoumissedit,butunder-
stoodituponreview.Thisisthebestkindoflearning.If
youmakeasillymistakeonceandrealizewhyyoudidso,
youarethatmuchclosertoNOTdoingitnexttime!
Faster Way? MarkaquestionwithanFifyougotthequestionright
butwanttoknowifthereisafasterwaytosolveit.
Huh? MarkaquestionwithanH ifyoumissedthisquestion
andcan’tfigureitoutonyourown.Thisisdefinitelythe
kindofquestionyouaskaboutduringhomeworkreview
atthebeginningofeachclass.
Onthehomeworkpagesthatfollow:
• Dothequestions,thencheckyouranswersagainsttheanswer
key.
• MarkeachquestionwithanN, G, M, F, orH,dependingon
whatcategoryitfallsinto.
• Getyourhandsonabrightlycoloredhighlighterand
CLEARLYMARKthosequestionsyouwanttoaskyourteacher
aboutinthenextclass.Thiswillmakethemeasierforyouto
find.
07 Math HW 53 11/15/05 3:29:47 PM
54 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
PLUGGING IN
6. The difference between (p + 5) and
(p – 7) is
(A) 2
(B) 12
(C) p – 2
(D) 2p – 2
(E) p + 12
6. In a certain store, small puppets cost
$1 each and large puppets cost $2
each. If the store sold 25 puppets
for a total of $30, how many small
puppets were sold?
(A) 25
(B) 20
(C) 15
(D) 10
(E) 5
6. On Tuesday, two-thirds of a large
block of ice melted. On Wednesday,
one-half of the remaining ice melted.
If the block of ice then weighed 60
pounds, how much did it weigh, in
pounds, at the beginning of the day
on Tuesday?
(A) 540
(B) 480
(C) 360
(D) 180
(E) 20
7. Printer A prints at a constant rate of x
pages per hour. Printer B’s constant
rate is one-third that of Printer A. If
the two printers worked together
for three hours, how many pages, in
terms of x, will they print?
(A) 4x
(B) 3x
(C) 2x
(D)
4
3
x
(E) x
8. The number of clients a certain
company serves triples for each year
the company is in business. After 5
years in business, the company now
serves 10,935 clients. If the company
originally served c clients when it
frst formed, what is the value of c ?
(A) 5
(B) 15
(C) 45
(D) 729
(E) 3,645
9. Alicia is 5 years younger than Jane,
who is currently j years old. In terms
of j, how old will Alicia be in 8
years?
(A) j + 3
(B) j – 1
(C) j – 3
(D) j – 5
(E) j – 8
F
G
C
A
s
s
s
s s
s
D
E



9. In the fgure above, CD intersects
AF at A and AF intersects CE at
G. What is the value of x in terms of
a and b?
(A) 90 + a − b
(B) 90 + a + b
(C) 180 + a − b
(D) 180 + a + b
(E) 180 − b
07 Math HW 54 11/15/05 3:29:48 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 55
9. If a is a positive integer, which of the
following must be a positive even
integer?
(A) (a + 2)
2
(B) 2a + 1
(C) 2a
(D) 3a + 2
(E)
a
3
10. Ernie is three times as old as Bert
and four years younger than Roger.
If Bert is b years old, which of the
following expresses Roger’s age?
(A)
1
3
b – 4
(B) b – 4
(C) b + 4
(D) 3b – 4
(E) 3b + 4
10. If one-fourth of a number is 3 less
than half of the number, what is the
number?
(A) –12
(B) 6
(C) 12
(D) 16
(E) 18
11. Marlene is m feet tall and Albert
is w inches tall. If Marlene is taller
than Albert, which of the following
formulas expresses, in feet, how
much taller Marlene is than Albert?
(A) m – 12w
(B) m – w
(C)
w m −12
12
(D)
12
12
m w −
(E) 12m – w
11. Circle A has a radius of v. The area
of Circle B is twice the area of
Circle A. If the radius of Circle B is
w, what is v in terms of w ?
(A)
w
2

(B)
w
2
(C) w 2
(D) 2w
(E) 4w
07 Math HW 55 11/15/05 3:29:50 PM
56 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
11. If x =
10 6
4
a +
, and y = 5a, what is x
in terms of y ?
(A)
y + 3
2
(B)
y + 6
2
(C)
y + 6
4
(D)
5 3
10
y +
(E) 20y – 6
12. If z
x
2
1
= , then x
2
=
(A)
4
2
z
(B)
z
2
(C)
1
2
z
(D)
1
4
z
(E)
1
2
4
z
12. If (2m)
2
= m
3
, what is the value of m?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 6
13. The weight of a barrel is
1
4
of the
weight of the water it contains when
full. If, when full, the barrel and
water weigh a total of 20 pounds,
what is the weight, in pounds, of the
empty barrel?
(A) 4
(B) 5
(C) 15
(D) 16
(E) 80
13. If 20% of the science students at
Central High study only physics,
25% study only chemistry and the
rest study only biology, what is the
smallest number of science students
who could be studying biology?
(A) 4
(B) 9
(C) 11
(D) 15
(E) 20
13. If
a
a
2 3
2
1 = , what is the value of a ?
(A)
1
8
(B)
1
2
(C) 2
(D) 2
(E) 8
14. If
1
2
4 8 a b c = = then, in terms of c,
what is the value of a + b ?
(A)
9
2
c
(B) 6c
(C) 8c
(D)
25
2
c
(E) 18c
07 Math HW 56 11/15/05 3:29:55 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 57
14. Jenn saved some money that she
earned working at a summer job.
She spent
2
5
of the money on
clothes and
1
4
of it on a DVD
player. If she has $350 remaining,
how much money had she originally
saved?
(A) $1,000
(B) $900
(C) $800
(D) $600
(E) $500
15. If n is a positive multiple of fve
and is less than 50, and a is an even
number greater than or equal to 100,
which of the following expressions
CANNOT be an integer?
(A)
n
a
(B)
a
n
(C)
a
n 2
(D)
2a
n
(E)
n
a
2
15. If
3
2
1
3
2
3
n
n

is an integer, which of the
following could be the value of n ?
I. 1
II. 2
III. 3
(A) None of the above
(B) I only
(C) II only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II, and III
16. If 2x = 3y = 4w, what is 5x + 6w in
terms of y ?
(A) 8y
(B) 9y
(C) 10y
(D) 12y
(E) 15y
16. If 0 < a < 1 and b < 0, which of the
following must be true?
I. a × a
−1
× b = b
II. a × b
−1
= −ab
III. a × a
−1
= −a
2
(A) None of the above
(B) I only
(C) II only
(D) III only
(E) II and III only
17. In a set of six consecutive integers,
the sum of the three smallest
integers is s. In terms of s, what is
the sum of the three greatest integers
in the set?
(A) s + 3
(B) s + 6
(C) s + 9
(D) 3s + 6
(E) 3s + 9
17. The score for a certain exam is
determined by awarding 3 points for
every correct answer and subtracting
1 point for every incorrect answer.
How many questions did a student
answer correctly if she answered all
of the 93 questions on the exam and
her fnal score was 247 ?
(A) 71
(B) 77
(C) 82
(D) 85
(E) 90
07 Math HW 57 11/15/05 3:29:58 PM
58 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
18. At a cost of t cents for 5 oranges,
how many oranges can be bought for
x dollars?
(A)
500x
t
(B)
500t
x
(C)
20x
t
(D)
20t
x
(E) 20tx
18. In sequence F, each term after the
frst term is found by multiplying
the previous term by a. If the second
term is 10 and the fourth term is 2.5,
what is the value of a?
(A)
1
8
(B)
1
2
(C) 2
(D) 4
(E) 8
18. Andy had four times as many dollars
as Chris. When Andy gave Chris ten
dollars, he then had twice as many
dollars as Chris. How many dollars
did Andy have originally?
(A) 20
(B) 40
(C) 50
(D) 60
(E) 80
19. If the local sales tax is 6%, and if t
is the price of an item after tax has
been added, which of the following
expressions could be used to fnd the
price of the item before taxation?
(A) 0.06t
(B) 0.94t
(C)
t
0 94 .
(D) 1.06t
(E)
t
1 06 .
07 Math HW 58 11/15/05 3:30:00 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 59
19. If 0 < x < 1, which of the following
statements must be true?
(A) x
2
< x < x
(B) x < x
2
< x
(C) x < x < x
2
(D) x < x < x
2
(E) x
2
< x < x
19. If the average (arithmetic mean) of
three numbers is 9, and two of the
numbers are greater than 11, which
of the following must be true?
I. The greatest number is less than 27.
II. The least number is less than 5.
III. The second greatest number is 12.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only
07 Math HW 59 11/15/05 3:30:01 PM
60 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
GEOMETRY
1. What is the measure of a right angle?
________________________________________________________________
2. What is the sum of the measures of the angles on one side of a straight line?
________________________________________________________________
3. What is the sum of the measures of the angles in a triangle?
________________________________________________________________
4. What is the sum of the measures of the angles in a quadrilateral?
________________________________________________________________
5. What is the sum of the measures of the angles at the center of a circle?
________________________________________________________________
6. What can you say about the measures of two angles across from each other
when two straight lines intersect?
________________________________________________________________
7. What does it mean to bisect an angle or a line segment?
________________________________________________________________
8. What does it mean for two lines to be perpendicular?
________________________________________________________________
9. What does it mean for two lines to be parallel?
________________________________________________________________
10. What can you say about the angle across from the longest side in a triangle?
________________________________________________________________
11. What can you say about the angle across from the shortest side in a triangle?
________________________________________________________________
07 Math HW 60 11/15/05 3:30:01 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 61
12. What can you say about the angles across from equal sides in a triangle?
________________________________________________________________
13. Name two important facts about an isosceles triangle:
________________________________________________________________
14. Name two important facts about an equilateral triangle:
________________________________________________________________
15. Name three important facts about a parallelogram:
________________________________________________________________
16. What makes a parallelogram a rectangle?
________________________________________________________________
17. What makes a rectangle a square?
________________________________________________________________
18. How does the diameter of a circle compare to the radius?
________________________________________________________________
19. What is the formula for the area of a parallelogram (which also applies to a
rectangle or a square)?
________________________________________________________________
20. What is the formula for the area of a triangle?
________________________________________________________________
21. How do the base and height have to be related?
________________________________________________________________
22. What is the formula for the area of a circle?
________________________________________________________________
23. How can you fnd the perimeter of any polygon?
________________________________________________________________
07 Math HW 61 11/15/05 3:30:01 PM
62 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
24. What is the formula for the circumference of a circle?
________________________________________________________________
25. What is the formula for the Pythagorean theorem, and what do the variables
represent?
________________________________________________________________
26. What are the ratios of the sides of ETS’s three favorite right triangles?
________________________________________________________________
27. What is the formula for the volume of a rectangular box?
________________________________________________________________
28. What is the formula for the slope of a line?
________________________________________________________________
29. What is the ratio of the sides of a 45°-45°-90° triangle?
________________________________________________________________
30. What is the ratio of the sides of a 30°-60°-90° triangle?
________________________________________________________________
31. Where can you fnd a lot of this information during the test?
________________________________________________________________
32. What should you do if a fgure is not drawn to scale?
________________________________________________________________
33. What should you do if no fgure is provided for a geometry question?
________________________________________________________________
34. What should you do if there are variables in the questions or answer choices?
________________________________________________________________
35. What is Ballparking?
________________________________________________________________
07 Math HW 62 11/15/05 3:30:02 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 63
Xƒ Xƒ

1. What is the value of x ? __________
ƒ

2. What is the value of x ? __________
ƒ

3. What is the value of y ? __________






a = 40, b = 30
4. What is the value of e + f ? __________
L

L


ƒ
l l
1 2
||
5. What is the value of x ? __________
ƒ


6. What is the value of y ? __________
07 Math HW 63 11/15/05 3:30:03 PM
64 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT

7. What is the area of the triangle? __________

8. What is the area of the triangle? __________
ƒ
ƒ


9. What is the value of x ? __________
s
R
10. If the circumference is 12π, what is the area
of the circle? __________
s

ƒ
11. What is the area of the shaded region?
__________
07 Math HW 64 11/15/05 3:30:03 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 65
X
Z
Y
)
))
X

Y

Z

7. If the lengths of the sides of
Triangles I and II above are as
shown, then the perimeter of
Triangle II is how many times the
perimeter of Triangle I ?
(A)
1
2
(B)
2
3
(C)
9
8
(D)
3
2
(E)
9
2



9. In the fgure above, if a =
1
2
b and
c = 30, then b =
(A) 30
(B) 45
(C) 50
(D) 60
(E) 100
10. A line has a slope of 3 and contains
a point with coordinates (2, 1).
Which of the following coordinates
also describes a point on that line?
(A) (0, –2)
(B) (1, 2)
(C) (2, 3)
(D) (4, 1)
(E) (3, 4)
l
m


49˚

l % m
11. In the fgure above, what is the value
of x + y ?
(A) 119
(B) 121
(C) 129
(D) 131
(E) 139
07 Math HW 65 11/15/05 3:30:05 PM
66 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
11. The fgure above represents a
cross-section of a set of stacked
proportional cones. If the smallest
cone has a height of 12 inches and
a base diameter of 3 inches, and
the largest cone has a base radius of
3 inches, what is the height of the
largest cone, in inches?
(A) 12
(B) 18
(C) 24
(D) 28
(E) 30
12. What is the volume of a cube that
has a surface area of 96 ?
(A) 24
(B) 32
(C) 48
(D) 64
(E) 72
" #
$ ! %


12. In the fgure above, ABCD is a
rectangle. If BE = CE, what is the
value of y in terms of x ?
(A)
x
2
(B)
180
2
− x
(C) 360 – 2x
(D) x
(E) 2x
" #
0
Y
X
$ !
/
s
s s
s
s
s
n
nn

12. In the fgure above, if Q is a point
(not shown) on the perimeter of
ABCD such that segment PQ bisects
the square region ABCD, what are
the coordinates of Q ?
(A) (–8, –3)
(B) (–8, 3)
(C) (3, –8)
(D) (8, –3)
(E) (3, 8)
07 Math HW 66 11/15/05 3:30:06 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 67
13. Rectangle ABCD (not shown) has a
perimeter of 20. If AB = 3, then what
is the area of ABCD ?
' $
% &
13. In the fgure above, the smaller
square has its vertices at the
midpoints of the sides of square
DEFG. If EF = 6, what is the
perimeter of the smaller square?
(A) 12
(B) 18
(C) 24
(D) 9 2 (approximately 12.73)
(E) 12 2 (approximately 16.97)
14. Points Q, R, S, and T lie on the same
line, not necessarily in that order. If
QR = 5, RS = 7, and ST = 4, which
of the following could NOT be the
value of QT ?
(A) 2
(B) 6
(C) 8
(D) 10
(E) 16
14. Circle A has a radius of 2. If a square
is drawn with all four of its vertices
on Circle A, what is the area of the
square?
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 8
(D) 2π
(E) 4π
1
0
/
3
2
14. In the fgure above, points P, Q, R,
and S lie on the circumference of a
circle with center O. If the measure
of ∠ SOP = 100°, what is the
measure of ∠ OPQ ?
(A) 100°
(B) 80°
(C) 70°
(D) 60°
(E) 50°
07 Math HW 67 11/15/05 3:30:08 PM
68 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
! "
%
#
$
14. If the ratio of AC to CD is 1 to
3, then the area of  ABC is what
fraction of the area of CDE ?
(A)
1
9
(B)
1
4
(C)
1
3
(D)
1
2
(E)
4
3
14. A fgure is formed by drawing
a rectangle and connecting the
midpoint of each side by line
segments to the midpoint of every
other side. How many triangles are
formed in the resulting fgure?
(A) 0
(B) 4
(C) 8
(D) 12
(E) 16
1 0
/

ƒ
s
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
15. In the fgure above, if O is the center
of the circle, then x =




15. In the fgure above, (x – z) + (y – w) =
07 Math HW 68 11/15/05 3:30:09 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 69
s
s
s s
16. In the fgure above, the four quarter-
circles share only the midpoints of
the sides of the square. If the length
of a side of the square is x, what
is the area of the shaded region, in
terms of x ?
(A) x
2
1
4
( ) −
π
(B) x
2
1
2
( ) −
π
(C) x
2
2 ( ) π −
(D) x( ) 4 − π
(E) 2 2 x( ) π −
17. In the coordinate plane, rectangle
ABCD has vertices A(−2, 6),
B (f, 6), C (f, −2), and D (−2, −2). If
the perimeter of ABCD is 38, which
of the following could be the value
of f ?
(A) 8
(B) 9
(C) 11
(D) 13
(E) 15
L

L


ƒ
ƒ
18. If l
1
is parallel to l
2
in the fgure
above, what is the value of x ?
X

3
4
5
6
18. In the fgure above, x =
(A) 7
(B) 6
(C) 4 2
(D) 30
(E) 5
07 Math HW 69 11/15/05 3:30:12 PM
70 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
#
"
Y
X
!
s

19. In the fgure above, if right triangle
ABC is rotated about the origin
counter-clockwise until point B lies
on the positive y-axis, what will be
the new coordinates of point B ?
(A) (0, 1)
(B) ( 3 , 0)
(C) (0, 2)
(D) (0, 3 )
(E) (0, 5 )
19. If line m has a slope of –
3
8
and
contains the points with coordinates
(–1, –2) and (x, –8), what is the
value of x ?
19. An isosceles triangle has a side of
length 9 and its perimeter is less
than 27. If the lengths of the sides of
the triangle are integers, what is the
greatest possible difference between
the lengths of any two sides?
07 Math HW 70 11/15/05 3:30:13 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 71
OTHER APPROACHES
AverAge (Arithmetic meAn), mediAn & mode
S = {14, 17, 12, 3, 4, 7, 20}
5. What is the difference between the
median of set S and the average
(arithmetic mean) of set S ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5
6. The average (arithmetic mean)
of three numbers is 8. If the third
number is 10, then the sum of the
frst two numbers is
(A) 16
(B) 14
(C) 12
(D) 10
(E) 7
8. If the average (arithmetic mean) of
21, 12, 37 and y is 20, what is the
value of y ?
(A) 10
(B) 16
(C) 20
(D) 22.5
(E) 40
10. If 26 is the average (arithmetic
mean) of 33, 17, and x, what is the
value of x ?
(A) 50
(B) 28
(C) 26
(D) 16
(E) 8
10. If 13 is the average (arithmetic
mean) of 22, 12, y, y, y, and y, what
is the value of y ?
(A) 11
(B) 13
(C) 16
(D) 22
(E) 44
11. Nine members of a baseball team
have batting averages of .280, .310,
.200, .280, .270, .280, .240, .270, and
.200, respectively. What is the mode
of these batting averages?
(A) .200
(B) .240
(C) .250
(D) .255
(E) .280
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12. If the sum of 4, 7, 19, x, and y is
60, what is the average (arithmetic
mean) of x and y ?
(A) 12
(B) 15
(C) 20
(D) 24
(E) 30
13. If the sum of 5, 17, 18, x, and y is 60,
what is the average of x and y ?
14. At the end of the season, the coach
of a basketball team analyzed the
number of points the team scored
in each game. If the median of
the scores was 54 points, and the
mode was 48 points, which of the
following must be true?
(A) There was at least one game in
which the team scored exactly 54
points.
(B) The average (arithmetic mean) of
the scores was less than 54 points.
(C) The score that occurred the most
frequently was 48 points.
(D) The number of games in which
the team scored less than 48
points was equal to the number of
games in which the team scored
more than 48 points.
(E) There were as many games in
which the team scored 60 points
as there were in which the team
scored 48 points.
16. If x y =
1
2
and x z =
1
3
, then the
average (arithmetic mean) of x, y,
and z in terms of z is
(A) 3z
(B) 2z
(C)
2
3
z
(D)
1
3
z
(E)
1
6
z
18. A group of 5 students whose ages
are 9, 7, 8, 13, and 17 are riding a
bus, which then stops to pick up a
sixth student. If the median age of
the new group is 10, what must be
the age of the sixth student?
(A) 5
(B) 6
(C) 8
(D) 10
(E) 11
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 73
Percents
6. What is 5% of 20% of 300 ?
(A) 0.3
(B) 3
(C) 30
(D) 300
(E) 3,000
10. The manager of a clothing store
decreases the price of a blouse 20%.
If the original price of the blouse
was $23.00, what is the new price?
(A) $27.60
(B) $18.40
(C) $18.30
(D) $17.40
(E) $4.60
11. If 3 of a dealership’s 24 cars
were sold, what percent of the
dealership’s cars remained unsold?
(A) 95%
(B) 87.5%
(C) 27%
(D) 21%
(E) 12.5%
13. To graduate, Jill must take a certain
number of credits. If Jill took 25%
of the required credits her frst year
at school, and 40% of the remainder
the following year, what percent of
the required credits does she have
left to complete?
(A) 15%
(B) 35%
(C) 45%
(D) 65%
(E) 75%
14. During a special promotion, a shoe
store offers customers a 30 percent
discount on a pair of shoes when
they purchase a pair of boots at full
price. If Julia buys a pair of shoes
that originally cost $20 and a pair of
boots that has a full price of $40, by
what percent is the cost of her total
purchase discounted?
(A) 3%
(B) 10%
(C) 20%
(D) 30%
(E) 90%
15. If m is
4
3
of n, then n is what
percent of m ?
(A) 133%
(B) 120%
(C) 90%
(D) 75%
(E) 33%
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16. The price of a book is increased
by 10 percent and the new price
is then increased by an additional
10 percent. The two increases are
equivalent to a single increase of
(A) 1%
(B) 11%
(C) 20%
(D) 21%
(E) 100%
17. If a television set cost $350 in 1980
and $385 in 1990, by what percent
did the cost increase from 1980 to
1990 ?
(A) 3.5%
(B) 10%
(C) 35%
(D) 65%
(E) 85%
14. Vikram lives in a state where the
sales tax is 7%. He purchases a piece
of exercise equipment and pays
$56.00 in sales tax. What was the
price of the equipment in dollars, not
including sales tax? (Disregard the
dollar sign when gridding in your
answer.)
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RATIOS
1. If the ratio of a to b is
7
3
, then the
ratio of 2a to b is
(A)
7
6
(B) 2
(C)
7
3
(D) 3
(E)
14
3
2. In a certain game, twelve players
form a team. If a team must have at
least one male player for every three
female players, what is the minimum
number of male players on any
team?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5
13. The recipe for Jim’s Punch calls for
6 cups of orange juice, 5 cups of
soda, and 3
1
2
cups of sherbet, and
serves 12 guests. If a bowl of punch
made in this proportion contains 8
3
4

cups of soda, how many guests will
it serve?
(A) 18
(B) 20
(C) 21
(D) 23
(E) 24
14. A line 120 meters long is divided
into two portions in a ratio of
1 : 5. The longer portion is how
many meters longer than the shorter
portion?
(A) 30
(B) 40
(C) 60
(D) 80
(E) 100
Red
Marbles
White
Marbles
Jar1 1 2
Jar2 5 7
Jar3 3 6
Jar4 2 3
Jar5 3 4
16. According to the chart above, in
which jar is the ratio of red marbles
to white marbles the greatest?
(A) Jar 1
(B) Jar 2
(C) Jar 3
(D) Jar 4
(E) Jar 5
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15. If a mixture requires 5 times as
much charcoal as sulfur, and
1
2
as
much saltpeter as sulfur, then what
fractional part of the mixture is
sulfur?
15. In a certain school, there are 4 boys
for every 5 girls, and 1 teacher for
every 4 boys. If there are 440 people
in the school, how many are boys?
18. A teacher spent $42 on books.
Hardcover books cost $4 each and
paperback books cost $2 each. If the
teacher purchased three hardcover
books for every paperback book,
how many books did the teacher
purchase all together?
(A) Three
(B) Seven
(C) Nine
(D) Twelve
(E) Fourteen
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Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 77
ProPortions
3. If the ratio of 3 to 5 is the same as
the ratio of 12 to x, what is the value
of x ?
(A) 6
(B) 10
(C) 15
(D) 20
(E) 24
4. In a restaurant where the sales tax on
a $4.00 lunch is $0.24, what will be
the sales tax on a $15.00 dinner?
(A) $0.60
(B) $0.75
(C) $0.90
(D) $1.20
(E) $1.74
13. A typist types at a constant rate of
155 words every 5 minutes. After 4
minutes, how many words has he
typed?
14. A race car completes a 450-mile
course in 3 hours. Another race car,
traveling at the same speed, would
take how many minutes to complete
a 90-mile course?
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GRAPHS
9. In the xy-coordinate system, (q, 0)
is one of the points of intersection
of the graphs of y x = −
2
16 , and
y x = −
1
4
4
2
. If q is negative, what
is the value of q ?
(A) –4
(B) –8
(C) –16
(D) –32
(E) –64
12. The graph of a linear function in
the xy coordinate plane is given by
the equation 2 3 7 y x = + . Which of
the following is the equation of the
refection of this graph across the
y-axis?
(A)
2 3 7 y x = − +
(B)
2 3 7 y x = −
(C)
2 3 7 y x = − −
(D) 3 2 7 y x = +
(E) 3 2 7 y x = − +
X
Y
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
8
9
10
11
12
2
3
4
5
6
7
s
s
s
s
s
13. The graph of y = g(x) is shown above.
If g(4) = d, which of the following
could be the value of g(d) ?
(A) 6
(B) 7
(C) 7
2
3
(D) 8
1
3
(E) 10
2
3
07 Math HW 78 11/15/05 3:30:21 PM
Math Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 79

Y
X
s
14. The graph of y f x = ( ) is shown
in the fgure above. Which of the
following could be the graph of
y f x = + − ( ) 5 2 ?
(A)

Y
X
/
(B)

Y
X
/
s
(C)

Y
X
/
s
(D)

Y
X
/
s
(E)

Y
X
/
s
"nA #A
$nA !nnA
Y
X
/
Note: Figure not drawn to scale.
18. In the fgure above, ABCD is a
rectangle. Points A and D lie on
the graph of y = –cx
4
, where c is a
constant. If the area of ABCD is 128,
what is the value of c ?
07 Math HW 79 11/15/05 3:30:22 PM
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 81
CritiCal reading
introduCtion
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Easy
Medium
Difficult
Short
Reading
Sentence
Completions
Long
Reading
Long
Reading
24 Questions
25-Minute Section
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Easy
Medium
Difficult
Short
Reading
Sentence
Completions
Long
Reading
24 Questions
25-Minute Section
19 Questions
20-Minute Section
Easy
Medium
Difficult
Sentence
Completions
As you know, the Critical Reading section of the SAT is made up of three types of
questions:
• Sentence Completions
• Short Passage-Based Reading
• Long Passage-Based Reading
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Critical Reading passages can vary in length from 100-word short passages to
950-word long dual passages, and come in four formats: single short, dual short,
single long, and dual long. Short passages aren’t “easier”; they are simply shorter.
PROCESS OF ELIMINATION (POE)
Remember, reading questions don’t really have a “right” answer, they have a “best”
answer. To fnd the best answer, begin by eliminating the worst answers. Always
consider every answer choice! Remember: if you’re not sure of the meaning of a
word in an answer choice, don’t eliminate that choice.
Be aggressive; with our techniques, you’ll be able to eliminate a few answer
choices on almost every question. And as long as you can eliminate at least one an-
swer choice, guess from among the remaining choices—the odds are in your favor.
PACING
Most people think that if they are unable to fnish a test, then they’ve really messed
up. This is not true on the SAT. It is much more important to go at a pace at which
you can answer questions correctly than it is to try to fnish the test.
So attempt this many questions
To get:
(scaled
score)
You need to
earn: (raw
points)
23–25
question
section
23–25
question
section
19-question
section
Total # of
questions to
attempt
300 5 6 6 3 15
350 9 8 8 4 20
400 14 11 11 8 30
450 21 15 15 12 42
500 29 20 20 14 54
550 38 23 23 18 64
600 46 all all all 67
650 53 all all all 67
700 59 all 24 all 67
750 63 all all all 67
800 67 all all all 67
After taking four or more diagnostic tests, you should have a good idea of what
your goal score should be. Look at the pacing chart and memorize the number of
questions you need to answer to get the score you want. You should use all of your
time to work on those questions rather than struggling to work all the questions
and making careless errors or worse, sitting around with ten minutes left at the
end of every section.
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Critical Reading Introduction
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 83
Take more time per question and get more questions right.
a Pood reMinder
Remember that order of diffculty pretty much goes out the window on the Critical
Reading section. You control which questions you answer, and the order in which
you answer them. Go through the section looking for questions that look easier for
you.
You’ll notice that the pacing chart tells you how many questions to do in each
section, but doesn’t tell you how many of each question type to do. That’s because
different people are better at different kinds of questions. If you have a strong
vocabulary, you may want to do more sentence completions. If you’ve developed
a knack for quickly fguring out the main idea of a long passage, you may want to
concentrate on the long reading questions. By looking at your score report, you
and your teacher can fgure out which kinds of questions you’re best at, and devise
a plan that suits you.
READING
Nothing will improve your score on the Critical Reading section of the SAT as much
as developing the ability to determine quickly what a piece of writing is trying to
say. The more practice you get, the better off you’ll be. Choose material whose
meaning isn’t evident at a glance and ask yourself:
• What did that sentence actually say?
• What is the author trying to get at in this paragraph?
• What is the main idea of this page?
VOCABULARY
The one thing that can make any Critical Reading question diffcult, whether it be
a sentence completion or a reading question, is not knowing all the words in the
question or the answer choices. If you haven’t learned all of the words in the Hit
Parade, you’re putting yourself at a disadvantage. Even if you know all of our tech-
niques, you won’t have much success if you don’t know many of the words.
The SAT tests the same words year after year, so you don’t have to memorize
the entire dictionary. If you come across any unfamiliar words in your manual, di-
agnostic tests, 11 Practice Tests book, or other practice materials, learn them.
It’s very likely that you’ll see some of them on the real test. If you’ve learned all of
these words and want more, your teacher can give you a longer vocabulary list—
just ask.
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 85
ReaDing
CoMpRehension
The ChoiCeS
The “best” answer on a reading question will not:
• offend anyone
• violate common sense
• use extreme language
• use deceptive language
• require outside knowledge of the topic
• suggest an extreme tone
11. According to the passage, the role played by Ameri-
can farmers in U.S. history has been
(A) generally insignifcant with a few excep-
tions during the nineteenth century
(B) somewhat overlooked and deserving of
further recognition by historians
(C) diffcult to discern from existing records
(D) more important than that of any other group
(E) different in several respects from the roles
played by European farmers
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12. The author characterizes the great wave of European
immigrants in the late nineteenth century as
(A) resulting from various religious, political
and economic factors
(B) a burden on American resources from
which the United States has yet to recover
(C) an event of only short-term importance to
the nation
(D) identical in every respect to the immigra-
tions of the early twentieth century
(E) a boon to American industrial development
13. The author’s attitude toward Thomas Jefferson’s
presidency can best be described as
(A) jubilant
(B) admiring
(C) indifferent
(D) critical
(E) embittered
The queSTionS
You always want to know what you’re looking for before you go to the passage. Are
you just fetching information, or are you reading between the lines? Translate
each of the questions below so you know exactly what you are being asked to do.
1. The author’s reaction to the photograph can best be
described as
2. The mention of the traffc light serves to
3. In the third paragraph (lines 12-16), the author sug-
gests that
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Reading Comprehension
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 87
4. On the morning described in the passage, Paul per-
forms all of the following actions EXCEPT
5. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken
the surveyor’s claim about the Albert Hall (lines 30-
31)?
Review: Question types
Questions fall into two main types: fetch information questions and reasoning
questions that ask you to read between the lines. The former require are pretty
straightforward, while the latter require more work interpreting the author’s in-
tent. All require you to paraphrase your own answer before going to the answers.
Here’s how to approach the most common tasks in Critical Reading:
Specifc Detail
Find the information the question is asking for. The answer will be nothing more
than a rewording of something in the passage.
Specifc Purpose
The best answer choice will be the one that explains why a particular part of the
passage was included.
Primary Purpose
Choose the answer choice that best describes what the passage is doing.
Main idea
Don’t get lost in details. Find the answer choice that summarizes the entire pas-
sage, not just a piece of it. Of course, don’t pick an answer choice that goes beyond
the passage, either.
Tone
Eliminate choices that are too extreme, then choose the best ft from the choices
that remain.
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Vocab in Context
Treat these like sentence completions. Remember, if the word looks easy, the pas-
sage will be using it in an unusual way, so be on your guard.
Weaken/Strengthen
Figure out the main point of the argument, then fnd the answer choice that best
supports your side (with the author on strengthens, against the author on weak-
ens).
inference
Pick the answer choice that sticks the closest to what must be true based on the
passage.
Analogous Reasoning
Paraphrase the relationship that the question is asking about, then eliminate any
answer choice that doesn’t share the same relationship.
Literary Terms
Make sure you’ve learned the defnitions of these terms: simile, metaphor, personi-
fcation, hyperbole, irony, and any others you’ve encountered in preparing for the
test. Use the context to determine what the author is trying to express through
the use of these devices.
Time Suck
For EXCEPT/NOT/LEAST questions, don’t look for what’s not there: if the problem
asks which one of the following fve things isn’t in the passage, fnd the four that
are. On I/II/III questions, use the choices to help you avoid unnecessary work.
PARAPhRASinG
Knowing that a particular line of the passage answers the question you’re work-
ing on doesn’t help if you don’t understand that line. Try to answer the question
in your own words before you go to the answer choices. For each of the excerpts
below, write a short paraphrase that shows what the passage is really saying.
1. The advent of chipboard, which is as cheap as par-
ticle board but equal in tensile strength and rigidity to
plywood, means that much of our home-construction
lumber will now come not from the giants of the for-
est but from replaceable saplings.
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Reading Comprehension
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 89
2. Architecture is doomed from the outset, as long as its
quest for modernity leads it toward globes, ellipses,
steep angles, and other “futuristic” shapes, and away
from the ideal shapes for human habitation: the rect-
angle and the cube.
3. The reversal of the trend toward mightier stonework,
thicker walls, and heavier armor was accomplished
by an agent far more subtle than an army of knights;
this change immediately followed the invention of
gunpowder.
4. The luminist school of American landscape painting
drenched the monumental vistas of the American
West in golden, surreal light, transforming already
striking scenes into glimpses of utopia.
5. Some argue that because Suppliants, in which the
chorus is the protagonist, was written later than Per-
sai and Septem, in which it is not, we can therefore
conclude that in early tragedy the chorus was passive,
its role limited to singing choral songs juxtaposed
with brief speeches; this notion may seem reasonable,
but in fact it is based on fawed logic.
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The BASiC APPRoACh
1. Read the italicized blurb that comes before the passage (if there is one).
2. Go straight to the questions. If you need to skim the passage to get your
bearings, do it quickly to get the GIST of the passage, but not for detail.
3. Read and translate the question. You can’t answer a question if you don’t
know what it’s really asking. Some ETS questions don’t even look like
questions, so make sure you know exactly what you’re looking for before
you move past this step.
4. Go to the passage and read what you need to fnd the answer. There’s only
one way to be sure that the answer you’re choosing is the best answer:
You should be able to point to the place in the passage that proves it cor-
rect. If you can’t put your fnger on the reason an answer is correct, it
probably isn’t.
Always go back to the passage to fnd the information that answers the
question. It’s in there!
5. Answer the question in your own words. Jot down your answer so you
don’t waste effort reciting it to yourself as you read the answer choices.
6. Use POE to eliminate wrong answers.
Question 14 is based on the following passage.
Each fock of migratory birds fies at the altitude that gets
the birds the best speed while using the least amount of en-
ergy. The birds also take advantage of updrafts and tail winds.
Some take a different route south from their route north, in
order to take advantage of the prevailing winds. Birds’ sen-
sitivity to atmospheric pressure gives them an innate ability
to forecast the weather, and migratory birds do most of their
fying during weather favorable for fight. One leading orni-
thologist said that migratory birds “reach a level of expertise
in fying that surpasses even the most skillful and experienced
human pilots.”
14. Which of the following statements can be inferred
from the above passage?
(A) Airplanes should fy at the same altitude as
birds do to in order to maximize effciency.
(B) No mammal can predict weather as accu-
rately as can migrating birds.
(C) Some believe human pilots to be less adept
at fying than migratory birds.
(D) Migratory birds prefer to fy in the direction
from which the wind is blowing.
(E) Ornithologists study both migratory and
non-migratory birds.
The GiST stands for the
General idea, Structure,
and Tone of the passage.
Line
5
10
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 91
shoRt Dual passages
Short dual passages will appear at least once per test. There will be 1-2 questions
that refer to a single passage, and 2-3 that ask about the relationship between the
passages.
Treat these just as you would other reading passages—read the question frst,
then go to the passages.
Questions 6-9 are based on the following passages.
Passage1
Popular in the 1960’s, the Language Acquisition Device
theory stated that humans used a unique part of the brain that
was “hard-wired” to acquire the rules necessary to speak a
language. Evolutionary biologists were always skeptical, as
new brain structures typically take a longer time to evolve
than the time from which humans became a distinct species.
Furthermore, modern studies showed that, while certain parts
of the brain are used to learn languages, these areas of the
brain are not unique to humans. The use of American Sign
Language by chimpanzees was the fnal bombshell which de-
stroyed the old theory in the eyes of all but a few stalwarts.
Passage2
The human vocal tract has evolved specifcally for the
demands of speech. The arrangement of our larynxes, vo-
cal tracts, mouths, and pharynxes gives humans the ability to
produce a greater range of sounds than is possible for other
animals. This specialization for language, however, makes
other basic uses of these organs such breathing, swallowing,
and chewing diffcult or even dangerous. Choking on food has
historically been a common cause of death in humans. The
evolutionary benefts of developing vocal language must have
been enormous in order to compensate for such a potentially
life-threatening drawback.
6. In Passage 1, the author’s main point about the Lan-
guage Acquisition Device theory is that
(A) it was a good model for studying the behav-
ior of chimpanzees
(B) nobody could have foreseen its quick de-
mise
(C) it proved the uniqueness of humans in the
evolutionary pyramid
(D) it was popular among evolutionary biolo-
gists
(E) it failed to hold up to rigorous scrutiny
Line
5
10
15
20
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7. Which of the following situations is most analogous
to the relationship of non-humans to vocal speech as
presented in the passages?
(A) An accomplished fute player attempts to
play a saxophone for the frst time and
cannot produce a song she knows how to
play well on the fute.
(B) A Chinese girl who was born in Australia
and only spoken to in English by her par-
ents cannot speak Chinese when she visits
the country in adolescence.
(C) A Czech poet residing in the United States
faces diffculty in articulating his refec-
tions in American English.
(D) A hobbyist who makes wooden models of
cars gathers all the parts needed to build
an engine and motor but cannot make the
car run in the confguration he has devised
for the equipment.
(E) With instruction, a human being can learn
many languages and dialects and therefore
communicate successfully in languages
other than his or her native tongue.
8. The author of Passage 2 mentions breathing, swal-
lowing and chewing in order to
(A) emphasize the danger of utilizing the vocal
tract for more than one process at a time
(B) imply that the ability to produce vocal commu-
nication is a basic necessity for humans
(C) highlight potential uses of the larynx and phar-
ynx that are more benefcial than is producing
verbal language
(D) demonstrate that unique parts of the body
developed to handle all the needs of humans
(E) refute the idea that it is impossible for animals
other than humans to produce vocal commu-
nication
9. Unlike the author of Passage 1, the author of Passage
2 does which of the following?
(A) Denies that human evolution could have led
to verbal speech
(B) Suggests one reason why verbal speech is
possible for humans, but not other animals
(C) States that the language-producing areas
of the brain are the same in humans and
animals
(D) Proves that humans are hard-wired to pro-
duce language
(E) Demonstrates that humans must choose to
utilize their vocal tract for only one activity
at a time
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Reading Comprehension
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 93
long passages
The chief diffculty posed by long passages is that it’s harder to fnd the informa-
tion you’re looking for. Resist the temptation to linger over the passage trying to
absorb every last detail; instead, use these techniques to fnd the relevant portion
of the passage quickly.
Line Reference
Go to the line the question indicates, then read from fve lines before that line to
fve lines after that line. The answer won’t be on the line the question directs you
to, but it’ll be nearby.
Lead Word
If there’s no line reference, hunt for a relevant word or phrase that will tell you that
you’re in the right area. Ask yourself what you’d type into a search engine if you
had one to help you.
Chronology
Don’t forget that the questions will appear in roughly the same order that their an-
swers appear in the passage. The exception is that general questions, such as main
idea and primary purpose, can appear anywhere; skip these when you encounter
them, and come back to them after you’ve fnished the specifc questions.
09 Reading Comp 93 11/15/05 3:30:33 PM
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Refresher Manual for the SAT
Questions 16-21 are based on the following passage.
50
55 Line
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
The following passage discusses the poets Langston
Hughes and Countee Cullen and their contributions
to the Harlem Renaissance.
It would not be far-fetched to say that a poem by
a black student, appearing in the De Witt Clinton
High School (New York City) literary magazine in
January, 1921, was the frst clear signal of the cultur-
al movement later known as the Harlem Renaissance.
“I Have A Rendezvous with Life (with Apologies
to Alan Seeger)” brought Countee Cullen to the at-
tention of the daily newspapers and became widely
quoted in classrooms and even pulpits.
This poem was followed just six months later
by the publication in The Crisis, the infuential and
widely read magazine of the NAACP, of a free-verse
poem, “The Negro Speaks of Rivers,” by another
black youth, Langston Hughes. Hughes had graduat-
ed from high school in Cleveland a year earlier, and
“Rivers” had been written directly after that event.
“Rendezvous” struck New York like a lonesome
meteor, burned brightly for a short time, then faded.
“Rivers” touched down more like twilight itself. That
both were harbingers is now evident, and it is no
surprise that when the literary and cultural move-
ment of the Harlem Renaissance won attention three
years later, these two poets, though still unpublished
in book form, were the new stars that caused the eyes
of both black and white intellectuals to blink. If, as
Emily Dickinson wrote, “one clover and a bee/and
reverie” is all it takes to make a prairie, an observer
might surmise that two such teenagers as Cullen and
Hughes could at least stir up a renaissance in the
right time and place.
Even though the two had not known each other
before they began to be noticed as part of the Harlem
Renaissance, only a few blocks separated them dur-
ing Hughes’s freshman year at Columbia University.
In their personalities and backgrounds, as in their
attitudes toward life, there was little to suggest the
role in which they were about to be cast. An orphan,
Cullen was adopted by a childless couple and his
gratitude to his adoptive parents never ceased to
be a part of his adult personality, a fact refected in
his poetry. Not even sad or tragic themes deprived
his lyrics of thankful overtones. In contrast to the
melancholy beginnings that brightened so abruptly
for Cullen, dilemmas clouded Hughes’s early years
and became more diffcult as he matured. Blessed
with charisma and an instinct for tolerance, he was
thwarted by parents who could not bear each other,
though each loved him jealously and possessively.
But out of the trying experiences of his adolescence
came the pensive interludes in which he conceived
“The Negro Speaks of Rivers.”
It might seem unlikely that two poets, so young
and so profoundly different in temperament, could
become the most striking voices of a cultural move-
ment, but Cullen and Hughes, already accomplished
artists in their teens, were exceptional poets at the
center of a twentieth-century renaissance.
16. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) describe two individuals whose
poetry shared a common signif-
cance
(B) contrast two viewpoints that
attempt to evaluate a cultural
movement
(C) link two apparently unrelated
events to a common cause
(D) discuss family life as an infuence
on creativity
(E) urge critical examination of
works by two young poets
17. The author’s use of the words “meteor” (line
18) and “twilight” (line 19) indicates the
(A) type of imagery used in each
poem
(B) loneliness felt by both Cullen and
Hughes
(C) imminent end of the Harlem
Renaissance
(D) author’s fascination with astrono-
my
(E) different ways in which the two
poems were received
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 95
18. The word “harbingers” is used by the author
in line 20 to mean something that
(A) poses a threat
(B) defes authority
(C) announces change
(D) leads a rebellion
(E) resists change
19. The author uses an image from
Emily Dickinson’s poetry (lines 26-
27) primarily to suggest that
(A) a capacity for daydreaming is es-
sential to artists
(B) a small beginning may lead to a
large result
(C) a cultural movement can be as
impressive as a natural wonder
(D) an inspiration is useful only if it
has a practical outcome
(E) an artist is inspired by nature
20. The passage suggests that Cullen and
Hughes did not become acquainted with
each other until
(A) Hughes’s work was published in
The Crisis
(B) Hughes enrolled as a freshman at
Columbia University
(C) both were recognized as partici-
pants in the Harlem Renaissance
(D) Cullen’s poem was quoted in
newspapers and pulpits
(E) both published their work in book
form
21. The author describes the childhoods of
Cullen and Hughes in order to
(A) trace the development of each
poet’s writing
(B) emphasize the similar experiences
of the two poets
(C) prove that adversity cannot stife
artistic genius
(D) account for the differing outlooks
of the two poets
(E) show that the two poets were
destined to work together
09 Reading Comp 95 11/15/05 3:30:34 PM
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 97
Sentence
completionS
Look Before You Leap
Fill in your own word or phrase for the each blank before looking at the available
answer choices.
1. Only since the nineteenth century have we come to
regard the wilderness as valuable and beautiful in
itself, not to be ------- but preserved.
(A) revered
(B) exploited
(C) depicted
(D) nurtured
(E) extolled
2. A moderate degree of insight is so ------- in human
interaction that we tend to take it for granted.
(A) dramatic
(B) common
(C) signifcant
(D) exaggerated
(E) hypothetical
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refresher Manual for the SaT
3. The architects agree that it would be ------- to recon-
struct the mansion exactly as it had been because the
few existing records provide only ------- information
about the structure.
(A) diffcult . . unavailable
(B) effcient . . historical
(C) impossible . . sketchy
(D) important . . reclassifed
(E) pointless . . detailed
THe CLue
The clue is a word or phrase that ETS gives you to help you anticipate the
word that will best fit in the blank. To help identify the clue, ask yourself:
• Who or what is the sentence talking about?
• What information does the sentence give you about that person or
thing?
1. Synthetic fuels and conventional fuels are chemically
alike and thus virtually -------.
(A) expendable
(B) dependable
(C) indefnable
(D) unobtainable
(E) interchangeable
2. Because Andy had always adhered to his principles in
the past, we were confdent he would remain ------- in
supporting what he thought was right.
(A) isolated
(B) cautious
(C) steadfast
(D) agreeable
(E) perplexed
3. Sometimes, when one cannot make a decision by
logical reasoning and careful deliberation, one must
rely on ------- and ------- instead.
(A) analysis . . scrutiny
(B) gullibility . . intelligence
(C) intuition . . impulse
(D) compliance . . argument
(E) dissent . . curiosity
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Sentence Completions
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 99
TrIGGerS
Triggers help you decide whether the blank will be a word similar in mean-
ing or opposite in meaning to the clue.
5. Although jubilant following their team’s victory, the
fans were ------- the next day when word of the star’s
serious injury was made public.
(A) enlightened
(B) amused
(C) dejected
(D) elated
(E) provoked
5. Contrary to the impression of slave traders that
African religions were -------, the peoples from which
American slaves were drawn possessed intricate
systems of religious beliefs.
(A) simple
(B) blasphemous
(C) sophisticated
(D) universal
(E) discernible
6. Unlike her colleagues, who tended to be introverted
and relatively uncommunicative, Dr. Phillips was
------- and quite -------.
(A) modest . . reticent
(B) dismayed . . nervous
(C) humble . . egotistical
(D) affable . . articulate
(E) steadfast . . loyal
7. Lynn, like her studious sisters, approached her school
work with great ------- and was rewarded with excel-
lent grades.
(A) trepidation
(B) diligence
(C) urgency
(D) renown
(E) skepticism
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refresher Manual for the SaT
Remember, sentences often direct you to the clue with punctuation trig-
gers such as colons (:) and semicolons (;). These are signals that the au-
thor is going to restate something or give an example, which will usually
help you pinpoint the clue.
5. The partners of that successful advertising agency
rarely grant interviews; in fact, they are so ------- that
only a few of their clients ever meet them.
(A) unpopular
(B) irresolute
(C) compliant
(D) democratic
(E) reclusive
TWo BLaNkS = TWICe aS eaSY
Two-blank sentence completions are easier if you work on one blank at a time.
5. It became obvious that if its opponents were to -------
the proposed legislation, their strategy would have to
be -------.
(A) justify . . implemented
(B) promote . . concealed
(C) amend . . impaired
(D) defeat . . revised
(E) repeal . . foiled
5. Some industries appear to ------- new techniques time
and time again, while others seem almost to shun
-------.
(A) forge . . decadence
(B) stymie . . creativity
(C) mobilize . . stagnation
(D) stifle . . modifcation
(E) generate . . innovation
7. The idea that most women stayed at home until the
feminist movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s is alto-
gether -------; in fact, throughout history women have
------- outside as well as inside the home.
(A) sacred . . contributed
(B) unethical . . investigated
(C) untrue . . attributed
(D) erroneous . . labored
(E) proven . . deplored
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Sentence Completions
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 101
reLaTIoNSHIp BeTWeeN THe BLaNkS
If the clue in a two-blank question has been blanked out, determine whether the
words in the blanks should be similar or opposite in meaning.
4. Since the judge has a reputation for being -------,
everyone was astonished when she imposed a -------
sentence on the convicted man.
(A) clement . . moderate
(B) lenient . . severe
(C) hostile . . harsh
(D) authoritative . . stringent
(E) austere . . strict
DrILL
1. Although the painter’s high-paying advertising work
brought her a great deal of -------, it did little to
increase her ------- as an artist.
(A) wealth . . reputation
(B) satisfaction . . generosity
(C) money . . obscurity
(D) uncertainty . . respect
(E) doubt . . experience
2. In the past, Hispanic novelists were rarely given
the recognition they deserved; today, however, the
literary world has come to regard these writers with
increased -------.
(A) intelligence
(B) appreciation
(C) complexity
(D) uniformity
(E) suspicion
3. Homelessness in America is no longer solely
------- issue; indeed, there are increasing numbers of
homeless people in our small towns and rural areas.
(A) an urban
(B) a peripheral
(C) a multifaceted
(D) an imperative
(E) an inconsequential
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4. The sculptor was ------- at the lack of illumination in
the gallery, so she brought in her own lighting equip-
ment to ------- the situation.
(A) unconcerned . . amend
(B) disconcerted . . worsen
(C) dismayed . . ameliorate
(D) enchanted . . alter
(E) affronted . . contaminate
5. Before documenting their peaceful behavior, Dian
Fossey had subscribed to the common belief that
mountain gorillas were ------- animals.
(A) tranquil
(B) malevolent
(C) adaptable
(D) unresponsive
(E) aggressive
6. The dread of being labeled ------- if we do not unhesi-
tatingly embrace new technologies prevents us from
disregarding new computer hardware that has no
advantages, but is simply -------.
(A) progressive . . attractive
(B) antediluvian . . superior
(C) enlightened . . unique
(D) reactionary . . novel
(E) defensive . . archaic
7. Stubborn to the last, the maverick physicist continued
to ------- her theory long after the rest of the scien-
tifc community had rejected it as inconsistent with
experimental evidence.
(A) revise
(B) expand
(C) espouse
(D) moderate
(E) discard
8. The emotional depth that so impressed readers of
Susannah Kaysen’s frst book is missing from her
second novel, which exhibits ------- that approaches
superfciality.
(A) a melancholy
(B) a glibness
(C) an intensity
(D) an optimism
(E) an inventiveness
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CritiCal reading
Homework
Passage-Based Reading
etS CompreHenSion
Use what you know about what makes for a “best” ETS answer to eliminate choices
that would almost never be correct.
21. The author is primarily concerned with which
of the following?
(A) Belittling the UN philosophy of
limited internationalism
(B) Condemning the United States for
its ungrateful response to the UN
(C) Implying that the hypocrisy of UN
offcials will be responsible for the
downfall of the organization
(D) Arguing for reduced United States
commitment in the UN and a con-
comitant reduction of the nation’s
infuence in the UN
(E) Deploring problems facing the UN
and urging renewal of the organi-
zation
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Refresher Manual for the saT
26. The author is mainly concerned with the
(A) eliminating of all standards in the
teaching of English
(B) distortion of language and what
might be done about it
(C) determined effort some people
make to destroy their own lan-
guage
(D) difference between everyday
speech and expository writing
(E) emerging need for government
regulation of writing
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Critical Reading Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 105
text CompreHenSion
Translate each of the following excerpts into your
own words:
1. While the Africanized bees are certainly
more defensive and more prone to follow
intruders a great distance than are their
European counterparts, in only very rare
instances is anyone seriously injured in an
attack by these so-called “killer bees.”
2. The story of the Confederacy is flled with
dramatic moments, but to the thoughtful
observer few are more dramatic than the con-
junction of these three men in the inaugura-
tion of the Confederate president. Beneath a
surface of apparent unanimity they carried,
like concealed weapons, points of view that
were in deadly antagonism. This antagonism
had not revealed itself hitherto. But it was
destined to reveal itself almost immediately.
3. But Edinburgh pays cruelly for her high seat
in one of the vilest climates under heaven.
She is liable to be beaten upon by all the
winds that blow, to be drenched with rain, to
be buried in cold sea fogs out of the east, and
powdered with the snow as it comes fying
southward from the Highland hills.
4. When a bird is in motion its wings (except when
fapping) are extended in a straight line at right
angles to its body. This brings a sharp, thin
edge against the air, offering the least possible
surface for resistance, while at the same time
a broad surface for support is afforded by the
fat underside of the wings. The same thing is
identically done in the construction of the fying
machine.
5. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels: taxes
have risen, our ability to pay has fallen, govern-
ment of all kinds is faced by serious curtail-
ment of income, the means of exchange are
frozen in the currents of trade, the withered
leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side,
farmers fnd no markets for their produce, the
savings of many years in thousands of families
are gone.
11 Crit Read 105 11/15/05 3:30:42 PM
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Refresher Manual for the saT
sHoRT Passage-Based Reading
Questions 12-13 are based on the following
passage.
Located off the coast of Papua New Guinea, the
Trobriand Islands have intrigued anthropologists for
nearly a century. Anthropologists are especially inter-
ested in the Kula exchange system in which virtually
every male Trobriander participates. Kula involves
a very intricate process whereby the men exchange
necklaces made of the most exquisite shells with
friends on other islands for armbands made of compa-
rably valued shells. Finding shells requires a lifetime
of dedication and patience; as a man establishes more
friendships on distant islands within the island chain,
he receives and redistributes shells of great variety,
thus enhancing his reputation.
12. Which of the following can be inferred from
the passage?
(A) The Trobriand Islanders have been
exchanging shells for nearly a
century.
(B) Shell exchange forms the founda-
tion of Trobriand culture.
(C) The value of shells is a function of
how diffcult they are to fnd.
(D) A male Trobriander who did not
participate in Kula would be an
outcast.
(E) Papua New Guinea is not land-
locked.
13. The author would be most likely to agree
with all of the following EXCEPT
(A) Male Trobrianders can develop
their reputations based upon
participation in the Kula system
(B) The Kula system is found on more
than one of the Trobriand Islands
(C) Women will never be able to
participate in the Kula system
(D) The shells received through the
Kula system can be fashioned
into more than one form of
decorative jewelry
(E) It is acceptable within the Kula
system to give shells that you
have received to someone else
Questions 14-15 are based on the following
passage.
While we tend to think of pizza as the ultimate
Italian food, it is in fact a multicultural and, indeed,
multi-continental collaboration that has evolved over
the centuries since its invention. The earliest versions
of pizza were probably eaten in ancient Greece where
a fat piece of bread served as an “edible plate” for
various toppings and relishes. While the Greeks con-
tributed the idea of toppings, the base was improved
by the nearby Etruscans’ method of baking oil-basted
dough on the hearth of the freplace. A fnal ingredi-
ent, tomato sauce, required quite a wait; the tomato is
indigenous to America and didn’t even reach Europe
until the 1500’s.
14. The passage seeks to prove that pizza
(A) has been falsely claimed as a
national dish by the Italians
(B) was invented in the 16th century
after tomatoes had been discov-
ered
(C) was actually invented by the Etrus-
cans
(D) is derived from a number of differ-
ent backgrounds and places
(E) was a favorite dish of the early
Greeks
15. Which of the following would most support
the author’s conclusion?
(A) A previously unknown civilization
with no ties to the outside world
eats a dish similar to pizza.
(B) Pizza is the most popular dish
among half of the world’s popu-
lation.
(C) There were many differences
between the “edible plate” of the
Greeks and today’s pizza.
(D) The “deep-dish” style of pizza
originated in restaurants in Chi-
cago.
(E) Pizza’s popularity has remained
high even though it is high in fat
and carbohydrates.
Line
5
10
Line
5
10
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Critical Reading Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 107
Questions 16-17 are based on the following
passage.
It is commonly acknowledged that human habita-
tion necessarily has a negative effect on the surround-
ing biome. Take, for instance, the San Joaquin kit fox.
As their territory has increasingly been populated by
strip malls and housing developments, kit fox popula-
tions have seen their numbers drop. But at the same
time, it appears that the foxes may actually beneft
somewhat from human relations. Kit foxes fnd aban-
doned construction pipes and storm-water storage
sumps to be suitable replacements for their lost ter-
ritory, and the young have even been spotted playing
with abandoned golf balls and paintbrushes. Thus it
appears that humans and animals may be able to cre-
ate new, mutually benefcial, economies.
16. Which of the following is the best description
of how the passage is structured?
(A) A theory is outlined, a counterex-
ample is presented, and the theory
is disproved.
(B) A principle is presented, a specifc
example is evaluated, and a dif-
fering interpretation is proposed.
(C) A predicament is described, com-
mon solutions are discussed, and
new measures are suggested.
(D) A stereotype is attacked, its param-
eters are defned, and a rebuttal is
articulated.
(E) A common belief is introduced,
then quantifed, then miscon-
strued.
17. In line 14, “economies” most nearly means
(A) preserved resources
(B) functional arrangements
(C) effcient uses
(D) ecological concerns
(E) negotiated transactions
Questions 18-19 are based on the following
passage.
Imagine yourself as a backyard astronomer gaz-
ing up into the sky. Mars, an angry red light in the
darkness, returns your stare. What would you make
of this strange crimson object? To early civilizations,
especially the Greeks and Romans, this dusky red
point of light betokened the tides of war. It seems
only natural that some cultures would associate the
hue of the planet with the passion and bloodshed of
battle. Of course, scientists now know that the planet’s
ruddy complexion results not from any ill will toward
man but from the large quantity of iron oxide on the
planet’s surface.
18. The author uses personifcation in describing
the appearance of Mars (line 3 and line 10) in
order to
(A) explain why the surface of Mars is
red
(B) provide additional contrast
between the mythological and
scientifc images of Mars
(C) justify why the Greeks and Ro-
mans considered Mars the god of
war
(D) enable to the reader to imagine the
exact hue of the planet
(E) support the notion that Mars’ pres-
ence in the sky is threatening
19. In line 6, “betokened” most nearly means
(A) controlled
(B) resisted
(C) foretold
(D) refected
(E) bemoaned
Line
5
10
Line
5
10
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Questions 6-9 are based on the following
passages.
Passage 1
Of the fve main themes in the ancient Epic of
Gilgamesh, Man’s quest for immortality is the most
prominent, as is evident from the primary thrust
of the narrative. After his friend Enkidu is killed,
Gilgamesh, fearing his own death, leaves his kingdom
to search for the secret of immortality. The culmina-
tion of the epic deals with this journey. A seemingly
unrelated episode in Tablet XII of the epic reinforces
the point that even if there is no eternal life, a sort of
permanence can be achieved through the memory of
one’s descendants.
Passage 2
To see for ourselves the meaning of a story, we
need to look carefully at what happens in the story, at
a character’s actions, and at the implications of their
consequences. But we need to consider, too, how a
story is put together—how it uses the conventions of
language, of events with beginnings and endings, of
description, and of character. We read Gilgamesh,
four thousand years after it was written, in part be-
cause we wish to learn something about human his-
tory. We read it as well because we want to know the
meaning of life.
6. Which of the following, if true, would most
weaken the author’s main point in Passage 1?
(A) Many ancient epics other than Gil-
gamesh were heavily concerned
with the quest for eternal life.
(B) Scholars doubt the authenticity
of Tablet XII, which appears to
date from a later century than do
the other tablets which constitute
Gilgamesh.
(C) A recently discovered missing
tablet describes Gilgamesh’s
journey as motivated primarily by
his feelings of loss after Enkidu’s
death.
(D) In the story, the Bull of Heaven
attacks Gilgamesh and Enkidu
because Gilgamesh has rejected
the goddess Ishtar.
(E) Gilgamesh is written in cuneiform,
which only a handful experts can
read.
7. The author of Passage 2 would most likely
respond to Passage 1 by
(A) agreeing with the author of Pas-
sage 1 regarding the main theme
of Gilgamesh
(B) expressing skepticism that the
meaning of Gilgamesh can be
reduced to a single plot device
(C) criticizing the author of Passage 1
for misinterpreting the meaning
of Gilgamesh’s journey
(D) arguing that there are more than
the fve themes mentioned in Pas-
sage 1 present in Gilgamesh
(E) claiming that the historical sig-
nifcance of Gilgamesh is more
important than its signifcance as
literature
8. Both passages imply that the Epic of
Gilgamesh
(A) is very old
(B) was originally an oral history
before it was written down
(C) is based on a real person
(D) is primarily a story about avoiding
death
(E) cannot be truly understood by the
modern reader
9. Which best expresses the relationship
between Passage 1 and Passage 2?
(A) Passage 1 is a factual description
of the plot of Gilgamesh, while
Passage 2 offers a more subjec-
tive summary of the story.
(B) Passage 1 was written for histori-
ans, while Passage 2 was written
more for specialists in literature.
(C) Passage 1 discusses thematic
elements of Gilgamesh, while
Passage 2 explicitly denies the
presence of any concrete theme
in the story.
(D) Passage 1 is specifcally about Gil-
gamesh, while Passage 2 uses the
example of Gilgamesh to make a
broader point about narratives.
(E) Passage 1 and Passage 2 both refer
to the importance of Gilgamesh
in world literature.
Line
5
10
15
20
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Critical Reading Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 109
Long Passage-Based Reading
Questions 10-18 are based on the following
passage.
The fourteenth century saw the beginning of the
renaissance of Italian art. The following passage
discusses the changes in art that occurred during this
period.
At the turn of the fourteenth century the infuence
of Gothic sculpture descended into Italy from north-
ern Europe and revivifed all the arts. Gothic sculptors
emphasized realism in their carvings of religious sub-
jects, and this new realistic bent soon overcame the
abstract, symbolic Byzantine style that had previously
been dominant in most of Italy. Pisan and Florentine
sculptors began to imitate the Gothic style. Giotto, a
Florentine, painted frescoes that had a new realism
and vitality. Dante, a fellow Florentine and poet, ex-
celled in the dolce stil nuovo, the “sweet new style” of
writing verse that focused on the experiences of real,
even ordinary, people.
Realistic portrayals of the lives and acts of or-
dinary people are not the only things that art can
produce, and it is not what art traditionally had ac-
complished throughout the centuries leading up to this
time. And even during the fourteenth century, there
were artists who held out against the new style. The
painters of the Sienese school, in particular, continued
to produce works that were notably Byzantine in style
with their quiet, stylized faces and forms and their ob-
vious religious symbolism. For this reason we usually
do not think of the fourteenth-century Sienese paint-
ers, great as they were, as being part of the Italian
Renaissance. They were great painters, but they were
not Renaissance artists.
As the Renaissance spread throughout Europe, it
everywhere produced a new style in art that em-
phasized realism, naturalness, and verisimilitude.
The subjects often remained the same as in the old
Byzantine symbolic style: the Annunciation, the
Crucifxion, the Deposition, the Marriage at Cana,
and the like*. But now the people depicted refected
the viewer’s world, expressed feelings like his own,
and moved him, as a consequence, in an entirely new
way.
Giotto, though a master, was not wholly a
Renaissance painter, in that he did not experiment
with perspective as the Florentine artists of the
ffteenth century did (the quattrocento, as Italians
say). The discovery of the possibilities of perspec-
tive helped to produce works of art that are decidedly
more familiar to us than those of Giotto, and more
“Renaissance-looking.” Perspective provided the paint-
ers of the century after the death of Giotto and Dante
with expanded opportunities to emphasize realism
and to bring the viewer into the picture. Again, the
Sienese resisted, refusing to employ perspective for a
century.
Let us be sure that we understand the meaning of
perspective. In such a painting straight lines (often
imaginary) converge in what is called a vanishing
point, located somewhere in the background (often
at the center of the horizon). This gives the impres-
sion of a real scene that is visible to the viewer. This
approach had never been used before in any art. The
new art of perspective said something radically dif-
ferent and new about the position and role of human
beings in the cosmos, in the world picture. In pre-
Renaissance art, the scene depicted is seen not from
the viewpoint of the beholder, an ordinary human, but
from the viewpoint of God, from a point at infnity.
* The Annunciation, the Crucifxion, the Deposition, and the Marriage at Cana
are episodes from the Bible.
10. The frst paragraph (lines 1-13) implies that
in pre-fourteenth-century Italy, realistic
portrayals of life were
(A) the exclusive domain of artists
(B) valued more in writing than in
painting
(C) not considered the purpose of art
(D) rare but highly valued
(E) imbued with religious symbolism
11. The author mentions the Sienese school of
painting (line 20) in order to
(A) illustrate the accomplishments of
painters of the new style
(B) describe the pre–fourteenth cen-
tury ideal of painting
(C) criticize the resistance of this
school to the new developments
in art
(D) show that the new style in painting
was not universally adopted
(E) describe the variety of styles of
painting that are considered part
of the Renaissance
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12. The word “verisimilitude” (line 30) most
nearly means
(A) the appearance of truthfulness
(B) the refection of light
(C) the making of comparisons
(D) the portrayal of crowds
(E) the skill of artistry
13. It can be inferred from the passage that which
of the following would most likely be an
example of an early Renaissance painting?
(A) A stiff and subdued scene of a family
having dinner
(B) A symbolic portrait of a man in a
position of power
(C) An abstract rendering of a street scene
(D) A natural depiction of a scene from
the Bible
(E) A stylized image of a peasant woman
14. Which of the following best describes the
relationship between the new sense of
realism that appeared during the fourteenth
century and the use of perspective?
(A) The emphasis on realism and the
use of perspective were essen-
tially the same thing.
(B) The use of perspective followed
the introduction of a more realis-
tic style of art.
(C) The use of more realistic repre-
sentation was superseded by the
adoption of perspective.
(D) The use of perspective was re-
sponsible for the new importance
given to realism.
(E) The depiction of realistic scenes
and the use of perspective were in
opposition to each other.
15. Which of the following statements could be
accurately applied to Giotto?
(A) His use of perspective separated him
from the Sienese school of painting.
(B) His frescoes were close imitations of
Gothic styles of sculpture.
(C) He moved to Florence from Pisa.
(D) His lack of use of perspective
distinguished him from later
Renaissance painters.
(E) His mastery of painting faltered only
when he attempted to use perspective.
16. The author’s use of quotation marks in line
45 serves to indicate
(A) his disapproval of the use of labels
(B) his confusion about the characteris-
tics of Renaissance painting
(C) the diffculty of establishing precisely
what makes a painting Renaissance
(D) his criticism of Giotto’s work
(E) his adoption of a conversational tone
17. According to the fnal paragraph (lines
51-63), the most important result of the use of
perspective was
(A) a more accessible style of poetry
as seen in the works of Dante
(B) the ability to create a scene that
more closely resembled images a
person would actually see
(C) a depiction of people in their ordi-
nary lives
(D) the departure from the overly calm
style of Byzantine art
(E) the depiction of scenes that caused
viewers to feel as though they
were actually in them rather than
viewing them
18. It can be inferred from the passage that prior
to the Renaissance
(A) art did not succeed in moving people
(B) man’s perspective on the universe
was given less value than that of
God
(C) art had at times explored Biblical
themes
(D) the Sienese school had been con-
sidered the foremost in Italy
(E) Dante had already written in the
dolce stil nuovo of verse
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Questions 7-18 are based on the following
passage.
The following passage describes some of the factors
that brought about the decline of the All-American
League, a women’s professional baseball league that
formed in the 1940s.
No one realized at the end of 1948 that the
All-American League had reached its high point.
Women’s baseball seemed be on a roll, riding an ever-
upward curve of popularity. Attendance had risen
steadily since 1943; surely it would continue to do so.
The League made decisions based on this optimistic
outlook, but Fred Leo acknowledges that they were
whistling in the dark; churning out public relations
hype that a close look at hard fgures failed to warrant.
But the fgures were hard to read; the decline wasn’t
absolute. Some cities continued to rack up phenom-
enal attendance, given the size of the population base.
The league’s head offce and the club directors kept
telling each other that all their woes were simply
growing pains, that a tighter control on the fnances
would put them in the black. But they were wrong.
The summer of 1948 was the last time the League
moved forward. Soon it would slip, slowly at frst, and
then with ever-gathering momentum.
None of the problems that had plagued the League
in 1948 were to be resolved. Training and recruitment
procedures failed to provide an adequate number of
promising players. Teams were aging in place, relying
on longtime veterans. Even winning teams believed
they’d done well despite, not because of, the system.
Expansion hadn’t worked in 1944, and it didn’t work
in 1948, either.
In 1948, the League would claim that overall at-
tendance had reached one million, but even this was
an exaggeration—the actual fgure was 910,000. This
was about 120,000 more than in 1947, but two-thirds
of that increase was accounted for by home games in
Springfeld and Chicago. In other words, both expan-
sion teams together added a mere 80,000 people all
season long—a pitiful showing, especially consider-
ing the potential audience in a city the size of Chicago.
Only half the other teams showed any increase in
attendance at all. In Muskegon, where unemployment
continued to rise because of postwar layoffs, 60,000
fewer people came out to the ballpark to see the
Lassies play in 1949. Rockford, the playoff champi-
ons, ran an $11,000 defcit. The League grossed more
money than ever before but several teams had peaked,
for any number of reasons, and had nowhere to go
but down. The League could make money by adding
cities, or by extending both the regular season and the
playoffs. But an individual club had to face the fact
that an extended season would do it no good, that its
dwindling audience would be spread too thin over too
long a period of time.
Still, the clubs wanted to believe that solutions
were possible. They sought a scapegoat and decided
that poor fnancial management coupled with poor
direction were the major culprits. The clubs’ response
was to tighten the League’s belt. They cut expenses
for administration, publicity and scouting. As of 1949,
collective spring training was abolished. That deci-
sion had far-reaching consequences. Spring training—
along with preseason exhibition games—had provided
the game with a surefre kickoff each season, attracted
the national press, and unearthed at least some worth-
while talent.
As the League pursued its relentless cutbacks, sala-
ries failed to keep pace with infation. To a woman
in her twenties, her playing days numbered, a steady
job of any kind began to look attractive. No one could
make long-term plans. For the majority of players,
staying in the All-American meant putting the rest
of their lives on hold. This sacrifce would eventually
become too great.
All in all, 1949 was not a good year for the All-
American. Only two clubs showed a proft, and fve
registered losses ranging between $15,000 and $27,000.
One broke even. Rockford had, predictably, won the
championship, and cutbacks continued unabated. The
League board members argued over whether or not
players should take a salary cut. The 1950 season was a
debacle. The Muskegon Lassies folded halfway through,
and the team was relocated to Kalamazoo. Racine—a
founding city—called it quits after the 1950 season,
and the Belles moved to Battle Creek, Michigan. The
trickle of departing players became a food. Over the
course of two seasons, the All-American lost some-
thing like two dozen experienced veterans, and many
who replaced them weren’t of the same quality.
And so the League straggled on, locked in a los-
ing battle. Attendance and revenues continued their
downward slide. But somehow the clubs endured,
sustained by never-say-die fans and players for whom
the League continued to exert appeal. A new crop
of rookies kept appearing, year after year. The post-
1948 period had its own stars, who were as beloved
by fans as those of the glory days. The League was
still something to aim for: the top of the pole, and the
only game in town. But those who dreamed of playing
had realized the fragility of their ambition. Marilyn
Jenkins, the Grand Rapids bat girl, remembers hoping
that the League would last long enough for her to play.
It did, and she became the Grand Rapids catcher until
the League’s demise.
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7. In line 9, the word “warrant” most nearly
means
(A) arrest
(B) justify
(C) guarantee
(D) combat
(E) question
8. According to the author, optimism about
the future of the League in 1948 was strong
because
(A) profts had remained consistently
high
(B) after a disturbing drop, attendance
at games had stabilized
(C) publicity had effectively convinced
the public of the League’s stabil-
ity
(D) attendance at games had consis-
tently risen
(E) the attendance-to-proft ratio had
steadily improved
9. The author most likely uses the phrase
“Teams were aging in place” (line 23) in order
to
(A) demonstrate the toll that professional
baseball took on the players
(B) establish that the average age of a
new player had increased
(C) comment on the insuffcient number
of talented new players in the League
(D) prove that women’s teams were
failing to make progress
(E) delineate the difference between
successful and unsuccessful
teams
10. The author would probably view the
League’s claim that “attendance had reached
one million” (lines 28-29) as
(A) a regrettable but understandable
error
(B) an example of the League’s inef-
fective management
(C) the result of an optimistic over-
sight
(D) a malicious attempt to deceive the public
(E) an example of publicity hype
11. According to the third paragraph (lines
28-50), expansion teams are described as
having
(A) made an insignifcant contribution
to overall attendance at League
games
(B) severely drained the League’s
already strained fnances
(C) spread a limited audience too thin
(D) brought less-skilled talent into the
League
(E) been a primary reason for the
League’s decline
12. The author’s attitude toward the players who
left the League for fnancial reasons is most
likely one of
(A) concern
(B) bemusement
(C) disapproval
(D) understanding
(E) disappointment
13. The “two clubs” that registered a proft in
1949 (line 72) are presented as
(A) typical of the success of previous
years
(B) exceptions to the otherwise bleak
fnancial performance of League
teams
(C) representative of teams that suc-
ceed fnancially but not on the
playing feld
(D) examples of what could be accom-
plished with proper management
(E) proof of the impossible task faced
by League teams
14. The passage suggests that the decline of the
All-American League can be attributed to all
of the following EXCEPT
(A) the effect of postwar unemployment
on attendance fgures
(B) a lack of new talent to replace retiring
veteran players
(C) inadequate restriction of expenditures
(D) the failure of expansion teams to bring
in large numbers of spectators
(E) the large number of individual
teams that registered signifcant
losses
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15. The author implies that the League’s
abolition of “collective spring training” (line
57)
(A) discouraged players from putting
their full concentration into their
playing
(B) caused the eventual collapse of the
Muskegon Lassies
(C) allowed the League to minimize
pay cuts to the players
(D) lowered morale among the
younger, less experienced players
(E) deprived the League of an impor-
tant source of publicity
16. The reason that the author describes
the ambition of women wanting to play
professional baseball after 1948 as “fragile”
(line 97) is that
(A) society at that time viewed women
as physically less strong than
men
(B) it was uncertain how long the All-
American League would continue
to exist
(C) a high level of skill was required of
players in order to be accepted into
the League
(D) women were unwilling to sacrifce
fnancial comfort for the chance to
play professional baseball
(E) many women quit baseball after
enduring its rigors for several years
17. Which of the following would most justify
the author’s description of the League as “the
only game in town” (lines 94-95)?
(A) Playing for the League had more
prestige than many other occupa-
tions.
(B) Playing professional baseball
allowed women to leave rural
areas and to move to more urban
settings.
(C) Participation in baseball was more
acceptable than participation in
sports such as boxing or golf.
(D) Playing baseball was the only way
for women to be publicly ac-
claimed.
(E) Women had few opportunities to
participate in professional sports
in the 1940’s and 1950’s.
18. It can be inferred from the passage that
Marilyn Jenkins
(A) was one of the founding team
members
(B) was one of the stars of the post-
1948 period
(C) was optimistic about the future of
the League
(D) was not among the frst women to
play for the League
(E) contributed to the demise of the
All-American League
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Questions 1-13 are based on the following
passages.
The following two passages presents views of the
public’s perception of air pollution and the validity of
certain methods used to curtail that pollution.
Passage 1
We may legitimately ask: Who are environmental-
ists? Are they generous enough that they are ready
to give up the quest for material goods and distrib-
ute their wealth among the poor? Are they virtuous
enough to be ready to renounce their possessions
and pursue only spiritual values? At a time when the
average income in the world, if distributed perfectly
equally, would put us all at a rather low standard of
living, who are these people that feel that we are so
wealthy that we can now let slip the long human quest
for material improvement?
Let me approach the problem from another angle.
In recent years, the Environmental Protection Agency
has been trying to set minimum standards for clean,
healthy air. Most people assume that this means that
the average person would be able to breathe this air
without being adversely affected. Congress was per-
suaded, however, to protect small subgroups as well.
As a result, the Environmental Protection Agency has
set the standard so that the air must be clean enough
not to affect asthmatics. These people have special
breathing problems that are not caused by air pollu-
tion but are aggravated by a variety of environmen-
tal insults, the most notable being the pollen that is
produced each year by plants. Asthmatics constitute
about 4 percent of the population. Nevertheless, the
EPA has decided that the rest of the society must pay
the price for redesigning the industrial system to pro-
tect a few individuals.
This might seem like a signifcant sacrifce for a
society to make, since the costs are not small, and
the resources devoted to this task must be taken away
from producing other goods. But environmental lob-
bying groups in Washington are still not satisfed. For
some time, the Environmental Defense Fund, one
of the three or four major environmental lobbying
groups, has been pressuring the EPA to tighten the
clean-air standards to make the air safe for people
suffering from cystic fbrosis. This is an inherited dis-
ease that affects .005 percent of the population, about
eleven thousand people. It is not caused by air pollu-
tion but is only aggravated by it. The costs of achiev-
ing this kind of cleanliness would be rather high.
So, once again, we can ask the question: Who
are the citizens of a country who are able to demand
such extraordinarily high standards from the indus-
trial system? Who are the people who are willing to
make such sacrifces in material production in order
to achieve such marginal gains in public health and
safety? And why, it might be added, is their crusad-
ing always aimed so directly at the industrial system?
There are other environmental factors, after all, that
contribute to such health problems. One of the best
ways to improve the air for asthmatics, it might be
argued, would be to eliminate all the pollen-produc-
ing weeds and fowers with an aggressive herbicidal
spraying program. These natural sources cause much
more suffering among asthmatics than does industrial
air pollution.
Passage 2
Everyone knows about air pollution, and no one
likes it. Even without dramatic incidents such as
the tragic deaths of seventeen persons in Donora,
Pennsylvania, within a single four-day period of
intense smog, everyone who lives in or near a big
city—and many who live in rural areas—is aware of
air pollution. There is nothing obscure about it. Daily
they see it, feel it, and breathe it. And they do not like
it.
They may be people living in New York City,
where the normal cost of air pollution in lost working
time because of pollution-related illness and in extra
painting and cleaning averages several thousand dol-
lars per family, according to a study done by the state.
They may be the residents near Garrison, Montana
who complained about the fuoride gases released into
the air from a phosphate plant. They may be farm-
ers whose crops have been ruined by air pollution. Or
they may be persons living in the northern portion of
Staten Island, New York, where a study made by the
U.S. Public Health Service indicated a close relation-
ship between air pollution and a high incidence of
death from lung cancer.
Setting aside economic and aesthetic consider-
ations, our health alone should give us great concern
about air pollution. Much remains to be learned about
the relationship between various diseases and the
contaminants in the air, and the experts often dis-
agree on what causes what and to how great a degree.
Nevertheless, the Senate’s Committee on Public
Works minced no words when it reported on the
problem. “From the standpoint of public health,” the
committee stated, “the information available concern-
ing the acute air pollution episodes that have occurred
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and the laboratory evidence of the effects of exposure
to various pollutants that are in the air puts an excla-
mation mark by the word ‘urgency’ in relation to this
problem.
“In any given instance, there may be several rea-
sons why a particular situation may result in chronic
disease. But there is no question that the pollutants in
the air are contributing factors to the chronic respi-
ratory diseases, lung cancer, emphysema, bronchi-
tis, and asthma. When considering mortality in this
country, it is this group that is showing a rapid rise
as a cause of death and disability. These subtler, less
dramatic long-range effects of air pollution are of
much more serious consequence to the population as a
whole than the occasional major tragedy.”
1. In line 11, the word “material” most nearly
means
(A) fabricated
(B) substantive
(C) monetary
(D) textile
(E) synthetic
2. The author of Passage 1 poses the questions
in lines 1-11 in order to
(A) denounce the environmentalists for
their reckless disregard of ethical
realities
(B) praise the environmentalists for
their charitable natures
(C) suggest that the views of environ-
mentalists are hypocritical and
impractical
(D) point out to the world’s population
that there are not limitless funds
with which they may achieve
their goals
(E) imply that environmentalists have
a hidden agenda and are only
interested in their own material
gain
3. In Passage 1, the reference to EPA standards
that maintain that air must be “clean enough
not to affect asthmatics” (lines 20-21) serves
to
(A) suggest that certain environmental
legislation is not extreme enough
(B) applaud the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency’s efforts at cleaning
up the nation’s air
(C) concede that some environmental
legislation is good and necessary
(D) question the practice of allowing
special interests to shape legisla-
tion
(E) imply that greater care should be
taken to protect citizens with
certain respiratory ailments
4. The word “aggravated” in line 42 most nearly
means
(A) angered
(B) annoyed
(C) worsened
(D) degraded
(E) polluted
5. For which of the following reasons does
the author of Passage 1 fault the “lobbying
groups” mentioned in lines 33-34?
(A) Their narrow range of experience
(B) Their limited resources
(C) Their ineffective practices
(D) Their unethical motives
(E) Their lack of concern for other
interests
95
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6. The reference in line 49 to “marginal gains”
serves to
(A) prove that measures taken by envi-
ronmentalists are ineffcient and
unnecessarily extreme
(B) suggest that even a small amount
of improvement is desirable in
the face of deplorable environ-
mental conditions
(C) imply that some standards are not
worth the resources required to
enforce them
(D) highlight the disparity between
the attention paid to certain small
subgroups and that paid to the
industrial system
(E) establish that eliminating certain
pollen producing weeds and
fowers would be a more effective
means of improving the air for
asthmatics
7. According to the author of Passage 2, the
“intense smog” mentioned in line 64 was
responsible for which of the following?
(A) A greater awareness of the prob-
lems of air pollution
(B) A growing dissatisfaction with big
city life
(C) A considerable number of fatali-
ties
(D) Increased diagnoses of asthma
(E) Begrudging acceptance of poor air
quality
8. Which of the following does NOT support
the contention expressed in Passage 2
that there are non-health-related costs to
pollution?
(A) Citizens of New York City spend a
great deal of money on air flter-
ing systems.
(B) The destruction of agricultural
crops causes farmers to purchase
goods that they would normally
grow for themselves.
(C) A Montana phosphate plant loses
a great deal of costly fuoride gas
every year.
(D) Pollution causes the U.S. Public
Health Service to conduct many
expensive studies.
(E) New York City has the highest
number of workdays lost due
to pollen-related respiratory ill-
nesses.
9. By putting an “exclamation mark by the
word ‘urgency’ ”, (Passage 2, lines 95-96) the
Senate’s Committee on Public Works means
to
(A) use needless hyperbole in report-
ing the effects of air pollution
(B) show the disparity between actual
air pollution episodes and certain
laboratory evidence
(C) strongly question the fndings of
the Senate committee
(D) emphasize the dangerous effects
that certain pollutants have on
public health
(E) question the accuracy of laboratory
evidence when dealing with pol-
lution and issues of public health
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10. According to the quotation at the end of
Passage 2, what is the difference between
the “long-range effects of air pollution” (line
106) and “the occasional major tragedy” (line
108)?
(A) The second is more psychological-
ly threatening to the population
because of its dramatic impact.
(B) The frst is more threatening to
the population than the second
because the long-term effect on
chronic disease could lead to a
greater number of fatalities.
(C) The frst is more threatening be-
cause the major tragedies usually
involve lesser forms of pollution.
(D) The second is more severe because
major environmental tragedies
usually involve tens of thousands
of people.
(E) The second is more life-threaten-
ing to a greater percentage of
the population because it affects
people without chronic respira-
tory diseases.
11. One distinction between the attitudes of the
two authors is that
(A) the author of Passage 1 believes
that only a small percentage of
the public is affected by pollution,
while the author of Passage 2
believes that pollution has a more
universal impact
(B) the author of Passage 2 fails to
take into account as many crucial
statistics supplied by the govern-
ment that affect the public as
does the author of Passage 1
(C) the author of Passage 1 doesn’t
care about the public’s interest
while the author of Passage 2
does
(D) the author of Passage 1 regards the
public with more suspicion than
the author of Passage 2, believing
that the small minority of pollu-
tion sufferers demand unreason-
able and questionable changes
(E) the author of Passage 1 thinks that
not enough citizens consider the
environmental dangers they cause,
while the author of Passage 2
feels that people knowingly jeop-
ardize the health of the planet
12. Which of the following represents the
fundamental difference in the arguments of
the two authors?
(A) While the author of Passage 1 is
concerned with monetary issues,
the author of Passage 2 concen-
trates on health issues.
(B) While both of the authors con-
cern themselves with issues of
expense, the author of Passage
1 believes the money is worth
spending.
(C) While the author of Passage 1
recognizes air pollution as a nec-
essary evil, the author of Passage
2 believes in the eradication of all
air pollution.
(D) While the author of Passage 2 has
little respect for environmen-
talists, the author of Passage 1
reveres them.
(E) While neither of the authors
believes the problem of air pol-
lution is as bad as is commonly
believed, the author of Passage 2
recognizes it as a greater threat
than does the author of Passage 1.
13. Which of the following does the author of
Passage 2 use in the construction of his
argument that the author of Passage 1 does
not?
(A) A direct quotation
(B) A hypothetical question
(C) A reference to a medical condition
(D) A discussion of social issue
(E) A specifc example
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senTenCe CoMPLeTions
Fill in tHe Blank
On each of the following questions, substitute your
own word or phrase to complete the sentence. Pay
close attention to clues and triggers.
1. Few teams had endured such a ------- season,
losing every game by a landslide.
1. Shirley’s giggling was entirely inappropriate
given the ------- of the situation.
2. Despite his higher salary, Owen felt that his
new job lacked the ------- of his previous po-
sition; he could fnd absolutely no excitement
in the work that the job entailed.
3. The school did not have a ------- grading pol-
icy; each teacher was free to mark students
according to any system he or she thought
appropriate.
5. The declining neighborhood underwent a
------- when a group of investors bought sev-
eral crumbling tenements and turned them
into attractive apartment buildings.
5. Although she usually insisted upon having
things her own way, Lori would sometimes
------- her position in order to promote har-
mony among her friends.
6. Although he tried to never raise his voice,
James frequently came close to ------- in
response to his older sister’s teasing.
7. The ------- of new immigrants around the
turn of the century produced a culture of
many different customs and languages.
7. When shopping, Marlene was one of the most
------- people I knew; most of her purchases
were never even used.
7. Environmentalists argued that the chemical
wastes being dumped in the river were so
lethal as to threaten the fsh with -------.
7. The clever forgery fooled the museum cura-
tor but did not withstand the ------- of the
experts; after studying it for several weeks,
the panel of art historians pronounced the
painting a fake.
9. Despite the appearance of prosperity, at his
death Colin Farnsworth left his family -------,
ruined by secret gambling debts.
10. Having shown up without the ------- number
of players, the team was forced to forfeit the
game.
10. Her questions regarding her son’s where-
abouts the night before were -------; she sim-
ply did not give up until he told her every-
thing.
one Blank at a time
Approach two-blank sentence completions one
blank at a time. We’ve made it easier for you by
eliminating answer choices for one of the blanks.
Eliminate as many wrong answers as possible.
4. While most environmental activists ------- the
ravaging of the South American rain forests,
governments continue to insist that reshaping
the land is ------- to economic growth.
(A) encourage . . ????
(B) deny . . ????
(C) deplore . . ????
(D) epitomize . . ????
(E) support . . ????
6. The elderly woman had enjoyed -------
most of her adult life, but memories of
her impoverished childhood had made her
excessively -------.
(A) ???? . . thrifty
(B) ???? . . sociable
(C) ???? . . afraid
(D) ???? . . knowledgeable
(E) ???? . . provincial
7. The ------- of foreign pronunciations makes
one overlook the common heritage of all
languages, whose bond becomes obvious when
one discovers the countless spelling -------.
(A) ???? . . irregularities
(B) ???? . . similarities
(C) ???? . . corrections
(D) ???? . . intricacies
(E) ???? . . variations
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Critical Reading Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 119
8. Although this book about Brazilian poets
is, in general, accurate and consistent, it
presents some ------- arguments that it never
really -------.
(A) similar . . ????
(B) precise . . ????
(C) conficting . . ????
(D) paradoxical . . ????
(E) erroneous . . ????
10. The phenomenon of jazz is remarkable;
somehow an otherwise ------- cascade of
sounds becomes organized into a -------
whole.
(A) disparate . . ????
(B) consistent . . ????
(C) discordant . . ????
(D) fractional . . ????
(E) signifcant . . ????
putting it all togetHer
Combine all the techniques you have learned to
answer each of the following sentence comple-
tions.
1. Not surprisingly, the ruling government
crushed the latest rebellion just as it had
------- each previous coup.
(A) suppressed
(B) assimilated
(C) satisfed
(D) distracted
(E) established
2. William’s temporary paralysis, the result of a
violent automobile accident, left him helpless
and ------- him to live off the generosity of
his friends.
(A) transposed
(B) inclined
(C) repressed
(D) compelled
(E) enabled
3. For Gretchen, rock climbing was -------; her
brother, though, found the thought of hanging
hundreds of feet from the ground a -------
notion.
(A) daunting . . hopeless
(B) thrilling . . chaotic
(C) invigorating . . petrifying
(D) perilous . . discouraging
(E) exhausting . . fatiguing
4. To the offcer, who was accustomed to
outbursts of ------- from apprehended
suspects, the alleged culprit was unusually
-------.
(A) hostility . . composed
(B) violence . . humorous
(C) indifference . . reserved
(D) belligerence . . disorderly
(E) thievery . . underhanded
5. Dr. Higgins was reported to be a strict
professor, but he always tempered his critical
words with a ------- smile.
(A) detached
(B) venerable
(C) disarming
(D) scholarly
(E) perfunctory
6. Even though his research is greatly -------, it is
by no means fawless, and his results will not
be accepted without some degree of -------.
(A) esteemed . . ovation
(B) confdential . . adulation
(C) admired . . skepticism
(D) understood . . support
(E) mistaken . . befuddlement
7. Novelist Gabriel García Márquez is anything
but -------; much of the power of his work
derives from his willingness to abandon
realistic notions of time and space.
(A) an individualist
(B) a theorist
(C) a misanthrope
(D) a literalist
(E) a fanatic
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Refresher Manual for the saT
8. At its best, scientifc investigation is a
------- activity; researchers know that their
work will be open to general scrutiny, and so
they ------- their arguments in defense of their
positions.
(A) careful . . neglect
(B) secret . . strengthen
(C) tedious . . invent
(D) public . . marshal
(E) scholarly . . denounce
9. Playwright David Henry Hwang is devoted
to ------- the theory that Chinese culture is
irrelevant to young Chinese-Americans, a
theory that he contends has only alienated
them from their ethnic heritage.
(A) disseminating
(B) exploding
(C) fostering
(D) endorsing
(E) dignifying
11 Crit Read 120 11/15/05 3:30:47 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 121
Writing introduction
35 Questions
25-Minute Section
1
11
12
35
.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
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.
.
Error
ID
Improving
Sentences
Improving
Paragraphs
1
14
14 Questions
10-Minute Section
Improving
Sentences
30
29
.
.
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.
.
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Easy
Easy
Medium
Medium
Difficult
Difficult
Easy
Medium
Difficult
What is on the test?
• 18ErrorIDs
• 25ImprovingSentencesquestions
• 6ImprovingParagraphsquestions
• One25-MinuteEssay
12 writing 121 11/16/05 4:09:32 PM
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Refresher Manual for the sat
hoW is the WRitinG seCtion sCoReD?
Thescaledscore(200–800)youreceiveontheWritingsectionisderivedfromtwo
components: the essay score and the multiple-choice grammar score. Your essay
willbegradedbytwodifferentpeopleandeachwillgiveitascoreonascaleof1–6.
Thesumofthesetwogradesisweightedsothattheessayscoreisworthapproxi-
mately30%ofthetotalscore;thentheresultisaddedtoyourgrammarrawscore.
Your essay score:
Grammar questions correct:
Grammar questions incorrect: 4
<2–12> <4–24>
minus
equals
(2) =
=
Grammar raw score:

×
Yourgrammarrawscoreisthenumberofquestionsyougetcorrectminus
1
4
of
thequestionsyougetwrong.Questionsleftblankneithercontributetonordetract
fromyourscore.
Nowcomparethistothechartonthenextpagetodetermineyourscaledscore.
12 writing 122 11/16/05 4:09:33 PM
Writing introduction
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 123
EstimatEd Writing scorEs
If your scaled
grammar score is
Depending on your essay score,
your writing score will range from
40 360-500
45 400-540
50 440-580
55 480-620
60 520-660
65 560-710
70 610-750
75 640-780
80 700-800
grammar Pacing chart
So attempt this many questions
To get:
(scaled
score)
You need to
earn: (raw
points)
35-question
section
14-question
section
Total # of
questions to
attempt
35 5 10 5 15
40 11 13 7 20
45 17 16 8 26
50 22 22 9 31
55 27 26 10 36
60 31 27 11 38
65 36 31 all 45
70 40 all all 49
75 44 all all 49
80 49 all all 49
YouR PooD anD You
ETS doesn’t make an order of diffculty on the Writing section. For the multiple-
choicequestionsontheWritingsection,youhavetomakeyourownPersonalOr-
derofDiffculty(POOD).Firstdotheonesthatyoudobeston,thensavetheones
youfndthemostdiffcultforlast.
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Refresher Manual for the sat
Joe BloGGs anD GRaMMaR questions
ImprovementintheGrammarquestionsstartswithknowinghowJoeapproaches
them.
What Joe Does
• Focusesonwhat“sounds”right
• Readsandre-readsendlessly
• Eliminatesanswersjustbecausehe
doesn’tlikethem
What should You Do?
the essaY
Essaywritingundertimedconditionsisnevereasy.Thebestwaytoimproveisto
writeasmanypracticeessaysasyoucan.Trustus:itdoesgeteasierovertime!
Asyouwork,alwayskeepinmindafewimportantthings:
• Knowwhatyouaregoingtosayandhowyouaregoingtosayitbefore
yourpencilhitsthepage.
• Therearenorightanswerstothequestionsposed:Don’tbeafraidtotake
an“unpopular”position.
• Organizationisagoodthing:Alwayshaveanintroductionandconclusion.
• Watchyourlanguage!Uselanguageappropriatetothetask,anddon’tfor-
gettoapplyallthatgrammaryouworkedsohardtolearn!
• Don’tbeafraidtouseexpressivelanguageifandwhenithelpssupport
youressay.
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© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 125
The essay, RevisiTed
How tHe otHer Half lives
As you will undoubtedly recall, SAT essays are graded quickly and holistically.
This means that graders are not carefully correcting each essay, red pencil in
hand; they are looking it over for 45 to 60 seconds and then slapping a number on
it based on their overall impression of it. The frst question they ask themselves
when deciding on a score tends to be, “Top half or bottom half?” Is the essay in the
4-6 range, or the 1-3 range?
Your frst goal, therefore, is to crank out an essay that screams “TOP HALF!”
The three aspects of your essay that will most help in this effort are:
Length. Come as close to the last line provided as you can, without
going over.
Structure. The organization of your essay must be clear even to
graders who have read 200 of these things in a row and are praying
for a power outage to give themselves a break.
Examples. This is where a lot of people run into trouble even when
they’ve mastered the frst two elements of the SAT essay, so we’ll talk
about examples in more depth.
BoDY laNGUaGe
In each body paragraph, you have three tasks to accomplish:
• Make a smooth transition to introduce your example
• Present your example
• Tie your example clearly back to the prompt
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TRansiTions
Compare the following three excerpts:
…even today, no period of American history is as unrelentingly tragic as
the Civil War.
Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare is a play in which two young
lovers take their own lives. Their reasons can be traced back to…
vs.
…even today, no period of American history is as unrelentingly tragic as
the Civil War.
Another example of the greatest griefs being those we cause ourselves
can be seen in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. In this play, two
young lovers…
Why is the second excerpt better than the frst?
…even today, no period of American history is as unrelentingly tragic as
the Civil War.
Not only does history furnish us with an endless array of examples
illustrating that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves, but lit-
erature does as well; a prime example is William Shakespeare’s Romeo and
Juliet. In this play, two young lovers…
What does this third version to do improve on the previous two?
inTRoducing youR examples: assume noThing
What does the second excerpt do that the frst doesn’t?
One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause
ourselves occurs in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. At
one point in this book, Huck pulls a trick on Jim, making him think he only
dreamed that they had been separated in the fog when in reality they actu-
ally had been.
vs.
One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause
ourselves occurs in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. In
this novel, the orphan Huck Finn and his friend, an escaped slave named Jim,
are rafting down the Mississippi River when Huck, who has paddled ahead of
13 essayrevis 126 11/15/05 3:30:55 PM
the essay, revisited
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 127
the raft in a canoe, is separated from Jim in a dense bank of fog. By sheer
luck, Huck spots the raft again when the fog clears, and fnding Jim asleep,
tricks him into thinking he’ d dreamed the entire incident.
Never assume your reader is familiar with the characters, political fgures,
historical events, or other examples you refer to. Be sure to provide con-
text for your examples.
speciFic examples Rule
In introducing your examples, it is important to be as specifc as you can. Which of
these is more likely to impress a grader?
In the weeks leading up to the war, many government offcials took to the
airwaves claiming that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.
vs.
In the weeks leading up to the war, government offcials such as Secretary
of State Colin Powell and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice took
to the airwaves claiming that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.
How are you supposed to remember all these details? Hey, that’s why you’re pre-
paring your examples ahead of time!
Make sure you can rattle off names, dates, titles, locations, and other
such specifcs as needed.
Specifcity goes beyond names and dates. Compare these two sentences, from a
paragraph relating a personal experience:
I vividly recall my grandmother talking about how amazed she was by
things that we take for granted but which she had never even imagined be-
fore she emigrated from Russia to California.
vs.
I vividly recall my grandmother talking about how amazed she was by the
sight of mountains of fresh fruit in supermarkets and by the fact that she
could walk around in short sleeves on a February morning; she had never
even imagined such things before she emigrated from Russia to California.
What makes the second more effective than the frst?
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Tying examples BacK To The pRompT
Let’s fnish one of the paragraphs we started earlier, written for the prompt, “The
greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves.” What would a grader think of a body
paragraph like this?
One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause
ourselves occurs in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. In this
novel, the orphan Huck Finn and his friend, an escaped slave named Jim, are
rafting down the Mississippi River when Huck, who has paddled ahead of the
raft in a canoe, is separated from Jim in a dense bank of fog. By sheer luck,
Huck spots the raft again when the fog clears, and fnding Jim asleep, tricks
him into thinking he’ d dreamed the entire incident.
vs.
One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause
ourselves occurs in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. In this
novel, the orphan Huck Finn and his friend, an escaped slave named Jim, are
rafting down the Mississippi River when Huck, who has paddled ahead of the
raft in a canoe, is separated from Jim in a dense bank of fog. By sheer luck,
Huck spots the raft again when the fog clears, and finding Jim asleep, tricks
him into thinking he’ d dreamed the entire incident. When Jim finally learns
that Huck has pulled a prank on him, he is so hurt by this betrayal that
Huck agonizes over what he’s done; Huck undergoes many hardships over
the course of the novel, but his deepest suffering comes with the realiza-
tion that his own actions have been so cruel.
The last task of each body paragraph—tying the example back into the prompt
— is really the payoff of the entire paragraph.
After introducing each example, be sure you spend time clearly
explaining why it’s a good example.
peRsonal examples: BeWaRe The piTFalls
You may have heard that personal examples are not as good as other kinds of ex-
amples. Not true! The problem is that personal examples can be hard to use well.
Here are a few pointers:
• Treat them like any other kind of example. Explain exactly why your ex-
ample supports your thesis and to tie it back to the prompt.
• Don’t get so caught up in relating the story that you forget to come back
to earth. Avoid irrelevant details.
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the essay, revisited
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 129
staYiNG oUt of troUBle
Graders of SAT essays encounter an astonishing variety of errors. Listing them all
individually could take indefnitely long and wouldn’t be very useful. But there are
a few general tips that can help you avoid many potential problems at once.
• Think frst, then write. Remember that you only have 25 minutes, and
you’re writing longhand. You have to get it right the frst time.
• Stick to your active vocabulary. The SAT is not the time to try out fancy
new words you aren’t 100% sure how to use correctly.
• Don’t be overly casual. You’re not chatting with your friends—you’re writ-
ing an essay for a grade on an important test. Avoid slang, and never use
abbreviations such as “+”, “b/c”, or “w/o”.
• Avoid the passive voice—active voice is always the better choice!
senTence vaRieTy
ETS graders are evaluating, among other things, how well you can vary your sen-
tences in both length and structure. Therefore, you want to deliver a blend of short
and long sentences.
Short,declaratorysentences are perfectly acceptable, but be careful not to
overuse them. Too many short sentences will make your writing sound simplistic
and repetitive. Here’s an example:
“Sometimes censorship is justifed.” I disagree with this quote. I believe
that censorship is never justifed. Censorship interferes with our freedom of
expression. It may endanger our democracy. Censorship cannot solve any-
thing. It only takes away our individual freedoms .
Add punctuation and conjunctions to connect related ideas and create smoother
renditions of the sentences above.
A little complexity goes a long way, however. Long,complexsentences can be
diffcult for you to control and may be diffcult for a reader to easily understand.
How can this sentence be made clearer?
Many like to think that individual freedom supersedes all else, but in real-
ity, there is and always will be some sort of authority existing to keep one
within the rules, because no matter how important we believe the exercise
of individual freedom to be, there is always a need to maintain a clear dis-
tinction between right and wrong, a distinction that is not always easy for
an individual to see.
Don’t use a pronoun that
doesn’t stand for anything
in particular. You won’t get
a high score if your grader
has to ask, “Which it?” or
“This what?”
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Adjust sentence length where necessary when you proofread.
GooD, Better, Best
Here are some examples of actual student essays representing various scoring lev-
els. Describe what is wrong with each, and then rewrite or add to the text to im-
prove it.
Assignment: What is your opinion of the claim that sometimes honesty is not
the best policy?
essay a
I agree that honesty is sometimes not the best policy. At times exces-
sive honesty is unnecessary and can prevent desired outcomes. I will show
this to be true using the examples of Shakespeare’s Othello and the spy
Nathan Hale during the American Revolution.
In Othello, the main character confdes in the villain, Iago. Othello reveals
his deepest secrets, holding nothing back. Iago, who is secretly bent on
Othello’s demise, uses this information to twist Othello from a successful
military leader to a paranoid man who murders the woman he loves.
During the American Revolution, Nathan Hale acts the part of a loyal-
ist while secretly feeding information to the colonial militia. He did this out
of love for his and his country’s independence from the tyrannical rule of
Britain.
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the essay, revisited
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 131
Using the examples of Shakespeare’s Othello and Nathan Hale, I have il-
lustrated that sometimes honesty is not the best policy.
essay B
Although it is commonly thought of as the correct and proper thing to
do, telling the truth is not always the best option. Although honesty nor-
mally creates fewer problems than lies, the truth should not be told when
and if one’s feelings, heart, or emotions are on the line.
Honesty, when used in the wrong situation, can cause much unneeded
hurt, anger, and resentment. For example, if one does not appreciate or
like a gift that they have received from a friend, it would not be wise to
state that they are unappreciative or not in favor of the present. Instead,
it would be a choice that would be benefcial to the giver for the recipient to
smile, state their thanks, and make comments regarding what they do like
about the gift. This method doesn’t even necessarily require stating any-
thing untrue; rather it allows the recipient to guard the giver’s feelings by
acknowledging what they do appreciate about the gift, instead of stating
their dislike.
Also, the truth should not be used when and if it will most likely cause
conficts or arguments between two separate people. For instance, if one
had had an affair with a friend’s girl/boyfriend, it would not necessarily be a
wise decision to be completely upfront and direct with the friend regarding
the situation. If this were to be done, it would most likely cause tremendous
amounts of resentment between the couple as well as the friends. These
feelings would erupt because the girl/boyfriend that had been cheated on
would feel betrayed by two people: his/her partner and his/her friend.
In many situations, honesty allows people to move on and forget a situa-
tion, but many times, it can cause many more negative emotions than that
are necessary. In these instances, one should either tell the partial truth
or lie in the most minimal way. This will allow for the least amount of anger,
showing that honesty is not always the best policy.
Why did this essay get a 4? How could it be made better?
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Assignment: What is your view of the claim that the greatest griefs are those
we cause ourselves?
essay c
I agree with the statement, “The greatest griefs are those we cause our-
selves.” Everyone is responsible for this or her own actions. Individuals have
a great ability to cause problems for themselves. My procrastination prob-
lems and the Monica Lewinsky scandals are examples of individuals causing
major problems for themselves.
In the past I have been known to cause problems for myself by procrasti-
nating. When I recieved an assignment, I would toss it aside and say I would
complete it later. This behavior led to me doing a sloppy, last minute job or
forgetting about the assignment alltogether. My grade fell in easy classes
because of my laziness. It was my biggest problem, and I had caused it on
my own for myself.
In the Monica Lewinsky scandal, President Bill Clinton was accused of
adultery. He didn’t admit to having been involved with her, but he was caught
in a lie. He was a married man and president and so should have stayed
away from a possibly hazardous situation. President Clinton brought the
problem upon himself by making a bad decision.
Some of the worst situations that a person can get into are caused by
the person themself. Knowing that each individual is responsible for his or
her own life and decisions is important. People can easily ruin their own lives
because of their poor judgment.
Why did this essay get a 4? How could it be made better?
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the essay, revisited
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 133
essay d
One may say that we are destined for a future and have no control over
the inevitable, but throughout history it is shown that the hardships we
face are often caused by our own actions. The troubles that we encounter
are ones of our own fault. The Great Depression, invention of nuclear weap-
ons and the civil rights movement all prove such a statement.
The rise of the economy during the early part of the 1900s, led by the
industry of the United States, caused a rise in the stock market which led
to an increase in stockholders investing in booming companys. However, at
the end of the 1920s fear of a crashing economy sent investers panicing
and selling of stocks. This panic caused the economy to crash and soon
led to the Great Depression. Had the panic not struck investers with such
strength, the events may never have happened. It is our own actions that
cause consequences.
The same is also true during World War II where the invention of the frst
nuclear weapons used to defeat the Axis Powers were created. Once the
power of the weapons were demonstrated, nations seeked their own weap-
ons of mass destruction. To this day, the United States’ invention has
caused a constant threat of nuclear war with the Middle East and North
Korea.
On a social level, the oppression of minority groups in the United States
has caused turbulence in society throughout much of the past century.
First, women gained power in the 1920s, followed by African Americans dur-
ing the 1960s and 1970s and then other groups such as Latin Americans,
and men and women of homosexual orientation. The oppression suffered by
these minority groups led to the eventual liberation of civil rights through
tough campaigning, social equality was reached. Though many sought peace-
ful demonstrations, even turned violent such as race riots in Northeastern
cities.
History does not lie, and it is evident that much of the troubles in
the United States were caused by none other than ourselves. The Great
Depression of the 1930s were caused by events of the 1920s, the threat
of nuclear was, caused by its creation during World War II, and social turbu-
lence caused by oppression because of a misunderstanding in social values.
Why did this essay get a 4? How could it be made better?
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essay e
“The greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves.” This statement was
clearly made by a wise, noble individual. Quite often, people either make
hurtful statements or commit heinous actions which hurt another person,
and eventually, hinder their relationship and elicit animosity. If more beings
were to simply think before their spoke, or contemplate the consequences
of their actions, they would rarely be forced to endure grief.
Reminiscing upon my grandfather, I fnd that statement to manifest
even more truth. About ffty years ago my paternal grandfather and grand-
mother adopted a young boy named Neil. Neil was raised unaware of his
adoption. However, when he turned sixteen, my grandparents believed that
it was fnally time to divulge the truth to him; thus, they proceeded to re-
veal that they were not Neil’s biological parents. To their astonishment, Neil
handled the news maturely, and even decided that this issue was never to
be discussed again, and that they were to exist together as if he was their
real biological offspring.
Several years passed, and the fragile issue was never once brought up.
When Neil returned home from a European medical school at the age of
twenty-seven, he told his parents what he assumed to be wonderful news.
He revealed that he had met and fallen in love with a charming, success-
ful woman with an amiable nature and remarkable aspirations. Initially, my
grandparents were overjoyed, and extremely eager to meet their future
daughter-in-law. Therefore, a “meeting-date” was set for the following week.
When my grandparents opened the door to Neil’s girlfriend, their faces be-
came radiant with acrimony, for the woman standing at the door was not of
the same descent. My grandparents were appalled at Neil’s actions and my
grandfather insolently said, “Your actions simply provide proof that you are
not my blood. You were never my real son, and you never will be.”
Since the day my grandfather stated those words, our family has not
heard from Neil. My grandfather now completely regrets letting his enmity
get in the way of a beautiful relationship. With one utterance, he lost a re-
spectful, intelligent, and loving son.
In conclusion, the greatest grief we experience is instigated by our own
actions. If my grandfather had merely been open-minded, he would have nev-
er lost a son. Now, for the rest of his life, he’ll experience a perpetual feeling
of emptiness, which was only caused by himself.
Why did this essay get a 5? How could it be made better?
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IMPrOVInG senTenCes
BASIC APPROACH
The key to success on Improving Sentences questions is to identify errors and com-
pare answer choices with each other. Follow this plan:
Read the sentence. If you spot an error right away, do the following:
1. Eliminate (A) and any other answer choices that make the same error.
2. Compare the remaining answer choices and note how they differ.
Eliminate any answer choices that contain new errors.
3. Repeat Step 2 until you have one answer choice left.
If you don’t spot an error when you read the initial sentence, do the follow-
ing
1. Compare the answer choices and note how they differ. Eliminate any
answer choices that contain errors.
2. Repeat Step 1 until you have one answer choice left.
AGREEMENT
Agreement is one of the most heavily tested rules on the SAT. Let’s take a look at
some specific situations.
Don’t read the sentence
over and over, hoping the
right answer will leap out
at you. Be methodical.
Compare answers, spot
the differences, and elimi-
nate systematically.
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Verbs
If you have a singular subject, you need to use a singular verb. If you have a plural
subject, you need to use a plural verb.
Trim the fat
Ignore what’s between the subject and verb—it’s just there to distract you.
TRIM THE FAT.
1. WhilethesneakersthatbearthelogoofAmerica’s
largestfootwearmanufacturercostsseveralhundred
dollarsperpair,theworkerswhoactuallymakethem
arepaidonlypenniesaday.
(A) thatbearthelogoofAmerica’slargestfoot-
wearmanufacturercosts
(B) whichbearthelogoofAmerica’slargest
footwearmanufacturercosts
(C) whobearthelogoofAmerica’slargest
manufactureroffootwearcosts
(D) thatbearthelogoofAmerica’slargestfoot-
wearmanufacturercost
(E) whichbearAmerica’slargestfootwear
manufacturer’slogocost
Collective Nouns
Collective nouns are singular. They need to be paired with singular verbs.
2. Thepeasantsfledwhentheyheardthatabandof
armedmenwereheadedtowardtheirvillage.
(A) abandofarmedmenwere
(B) anarmedbandofmenwere
(C) abandcomposedofarmedmenwere
(D) abandofarmedmenwas
(E) armedmeninabandwas
Ignore prepositional
phrases when you check
for agreement.
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Compound Subjects
Two singular nouns joined by “and” make a plural subject. Two singular
nouns joined by “or” or “nor” make a singular subject. If a singular noun
and a plural noun are joined by “or” or “nor,” the verb agrees with the
closer noun.
3. InHinduism,thegodsShivaandParvatiisthepar-
entsofGanesha,theelephant-headedgodofwisdom.
(A) thegodsShivaandParvatiistheparents
(B) thegodsShivaandParvatiistheparent
(C) thegodsShivaandParvatiaretheparents
(D) ShivaandParvatiarethegodswhoarethe
parents
(E) ShivaisoneandParvatitheotherparent
4. Eithermyparentsormybrotherisgoingtopickme
upattheairporttomorrowafternoon.
(A) parentsormybrotheris
(B) brotherormyparentsis
(C) parentsormybrotherare
(D) brotherorotherwisemyparentsare
(E) parentsormybrotherwill
PrOnOUns
When a pronoun is underlined, determine which noun it’s replacing, and
make sure they agree: Singular with singular, and plural with plural.
5. Stageactorsjudgehowtheaudiencefeelabouta
showbyhowloudlytheyapplaudtheirperformances.
(A) feelaboutashowbyhowloudlythey
applaudtheir
(B) feelsaboutashowbyhowloudlyit
applaudsits
(C) feelsaboutashowbyhowloudlyit
applaudstheir
(D) feelsaboutashowbyhowloudlythey
applaudits
(E) feelaboutashowbyhowloudlythey
applaudtheirown

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The following pronouns are SINGULAR.
anybody everybody somebody nobody anyone
everyone someone no one anything everything
something nothing either neither each
much
The following pronouns are PLURAL.
few many both several
The following pronouns can be singular OR plural, depending on the context.
all most some none more any less
6. Thesafetyinstructionsontheairplaneindicatedthat
intheeventofanevacuation,everyoneshouldleave
theirbriefcasesandbackpacksbehind.
(A) everyoneshouldleavetheirbriefcasesand
backpacks
(B) everybodyshouldleavetheirbriefcasesand
backpacks
(C) everyoneshouldleavetheirbriefcaseorback-
pack
(D) everybodyshouldleavetheirbriefcaseorback-
pack
(E) everyoneshouldleavehisbriefcaseorbackpack
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MIsPLACeD MODIFIers
To avoid misplaced modifiers, make sure that modifying phrases are indeed modi-
fying what they’re supposed to modify.
If the modifier isn’t underlined, choose the subject that the modifier is ac-
tually describing. If the modifier is underlined, make it describe the sub-
ject or else turn it into a clause.
7. Barkingloudlyfromthebreakofdawnuntilsunset,
Jimcouldnotenjoyhisretirementbecauseofthe
dognextdoor.
(A) Jimcouldnotenjoyhisretirementbecause
ofthedognextdoor
(B) Jimcouldnotenjoyhisretirementdueto
thedognextdoor
(C) thedognextdoorkeptJimfromenjoying
hisretirement
(D) thedognextdoorcouldnotallowJimto
enjoybeinginretirement
(E) Jim’sretirementcouldnotbeenjoyedbe-
causeofthedognextdoor
8. Havingravagedthebeaches,causedbillionsofdol-
larsindamage,andtakendozensoflives,thegover-
norannouncedthathewasassemblingacommittee
todevelopaplantoprotectthestate’spopulacefrom
hurricanes.
(A) Having
(B) Afterhaving
(C) Despitehaving
(D) Seeingthatithad
(E) Becausetheyhad
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PARALLELISM
ETS will give you sentences that mix and match different parts of speech, differ-
ent tenses, different comparisons. You need to make sure everything is consistent
and parallel.
LIsTs
Items in a list should be parallel in form.
9. Jennifer’scatslikedtoclimbherbookshelves,shred
herfurniture,andtobitehertoes.
(A) shredherfurniture,andtobite
(B) shredherfurniture,andbite
(C) toshredherfurniture,andbite
(D) toshredherfurniture,andalsobite
(E) toshredandtobiteherfurnitureand
10. Thesoldierswhofoughtintherevolutionhadavari-
etyofmotivations:somepatriotic,somemercenary,
andvengeancebroughtsome,too.
(A) mercenary,andvengeancebroughtsome,
too
(B) mercenary,andsomebroughtbyvengeance
(C) mercenary,andsomevengeful
(D) mercenary,somebecauseofrevenge
(E) mercenary;broughtbyvengeance
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Verb Tense
Another issue with parallelism is the use of parallel verb tenses. Generally speak-
ing, the tense of verbs in a sentence should be consistent.
11. Thestate’sneweducationalprioritiesmarginally
increasedmathandreadingscoresamongthisyear’s
highschoolgraduates,butcriticsarguedthatthe
studentswouldbebettercitizenshadtheylearned
historyandbeenexposedtothearts.
(A) hadtheylearnedhistoryandbeenexposed
(B) iftheyhadlearnedhistoryandexposed
(C) iftheyhavelearnedhistoryandhadbeen
exposed
(D) hadtheylearnedhistoryandhavebeen
exposed
(E) iftheywouldhavelearnedhistoryandbeen
exposed
Of course, if there is a reason for verbs to be in different tenses, putting each
verb into the correct tense is more important than keeping them parallel:
12. EachoftheastronautsintheApolloprogramunder-
wentanexhaustivebatteryoftestsbythetimehewas
clearedforanactualmission.
(A) underwent
(B) undergoes
(C) hasundergone
(D) hadundergone
(E) willhaveundergone
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COMPArIsOns
When you spot a comparison in a sentence, make sure the items being
compared are properly comparable: Apples to apples, and oranges to or-
anges.
13. ThecommentatorsagreedthatSpringfield’shockey
teamwouldsurelyscorelessgoalsthanShelbyville
inWednesday’splayoffgame.
(A) scorelessgoalsthanShelbyville
(B) scorefewergoalsthanShelbyville
(C) scorelessgoalsthanShelbyville’s
(D) scorefewergoalsthanShelbyville’s
(E) scoretheleastgoalscomparedto
Shelbyville
nOUn PArALLeLIsM
Even when they aren’t explicitly part of a list or a comparison, nouns should agree
in number unless there is a compelling reason for them to disagree.
14. InancientRome,itwascommonforemperorsto
adopttheirchosensuccessorasason.
(A) theirchosensuccessorasason
(B) hischosensuccessorasason
(C) asasonone’schosensuccessor
(D) theirchosensuccessorsassons
(E) hischosensuccessorsasason
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Error IDs anD
ImprovIng paragraphs
Error IDs are the quickest
type of question to tackle
because you don’t need to
read any answer choices.
Error ID quEstIons
Eighteen of the grammar questions on the SAT will ask you not to fx the sentence,
but merely to identify where the error is. Each Error ID question presents a sen-
tence with four underlined portions, labeled (A), (B), (C), and (D). You also have
the option “No error,” which is labeled (E). Your job is to fnd the error in the sen-
tence (if there is one). Here’s an example:
1. Four score and seven years ago our fathers
A
bringed forth on this continent a new nation,
B
conceived in liberty and dedicated to the propo-
C
sition that all men are created equal. No error
D E
Here are a few key points about Error IDs.
• There is never more than one error in a sentence.
• If there is an error in the sentence, it will always be underlined. The non-
underlined portions of the sentence are always correct. Thus, you should
use the non-underlined portions to help you decide whether the under-
lined portions are correct.
• Any underlined portion of the sentence that you know is correct can be
eliminated. You will nearly always be able to determine that a few of them
are correct, so Error IDs are excellent questions for POE if you’re having
trouble.
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• Approximately one-ffth of the sentences will have no error. Thus, you
should expect to see about 3 or 4 (E)’s out of your 18 Error IDs.
BasIc aPProach
The key to Error ID questions is to know the rules of grammar that appear on the
SAT, and recognize whether any of the underlined portions of the sentence violate
them. Follow this plan.
Read the sentence. If you spot an error right away, do the following:
1. Try to articulate what the error is, so that you avoid picking an
answer solely by ear.
2. Check the other underlined portions, just to be safe.
3. Select the answer you originally identifed as an error if you’re
confdent it truly is an error.
If you don’t spot an error when you frst read the sentence, do the
following:
1. Attack one underlined portion at a time by checking the grammar
rules that apply to each.
2. Eliminate answers that you know are grammatically correct.
3. Select the answer that violates a rule, or (E) if there is no error.
agrEEmEnt anD ParaLLELIsm
Error ID questions are just as likely to test agreement and parallelism as sentence
improvements are. Be on the lookout for these sorts of errors.
2. The documents released by the Executive
Secretariat of the State Department indicates
A
that the diplomat in question was well regarded
B C
by her superiors. No error
D E
3. Niccolo Machiavelli advised Renaissance
princes not to shy away from treachery,
A B
subterfuge, and being cruel in accomplishing
C
their goals. No error
D E
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4. The rules of cricket baffle many Americans but
A
are really no more complicated than baseball.
B C D
No error
E
morE aBout Pronouns
As we have seen, the frst thing you should check about underlined pronouns is
agreement. But there are a few other pronoun errors that ETS will occasionally
throw at you.
pronoUn amBIgUITY
There should never be any confusion or ambiguity about which noun a
pronoun is referring to. Even if it seems obvious from context, it must be
grammatically unambiguous which noun a pronoun stands for.
5. The farmers were horrifed when they walked
A
through the felds of corn plants and discovered
B
that crows had been eating them. No error
C D E
6. Although they were once commonplace along
A B
our highways and in our cities, the government
has now banned billboards advertising tobacco.
C D
No error
E
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pronoUn CasE
The case of a pronoun indicates whether it stands for the subject of the sentence
or the object.
Subject Object
I me.
He him.
She went to the mall with her.
We us.
They them.
Who whom?
7. I appreciate that Tracy is only trying to help her
A
brother, but she is going to have to accept that
B
this dispute is between he and I and that her
C
interference is only making the problem worse.
D
No error
E
8. The message on my desk could hardly have
A
been less useful: it indicated that the telephone
B
had rung, but not who had called. No error
C D E
When choosing between
who and whom, ask your-
self whether you would
use he or him in place of
the current pronoun. If
you’ d say he, you want
who; if you’ d say him, you
want whom.
Watch out for it and
they—these pronouns
are most commonly the
culprits in sentences with
ambiguity errors.
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IDIoms anD DIctIon
Idioms are not rules like “Verbs must agree with their subjects.” Idioms are conven-
tions of language. In English, certain combinations of words are just correct, and
others are incorrect. There’s no reason; that’s just the way it is. Some idioms you’ll
know by ear. Others, you’ll have to learn and memorize.
Many idiom questions require you to know which preposition follows a particu-
lar word, so it’s good to know the most common combinations.
...of ...to ...from ...with
capable
composed
in search
jealous
resentful
consist
responsibility
conform
intend
plan
try
superior
compare
attribute
different
prohibit
distinguish
argue
comply
consistent
compare
contrast
credit
...over ...as ...for ...about
dispute
debate
defne
regard
see
provide
responsible
qualify
worry
concern
...to be (no preposition)
estimate
appears
believe
named
off
advocate
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9. From the moment she stepped off the plane,
A B
Serena found that Uruguay was much different
C
as she had expected. No error
D E
10. Try and understand what I am telling you: the
A B C
company has been liquidated and your stock
D
options are worthless. No error
E
Related to idiom errors are diction errors, in which the wrong word has been
substituted for a similar-sounding word.
11. The destruction caused by the sudden storm was
A
the most incredulous thing the anchorwoman
B C
had ever seen. No error
D E
12. As he lay on the ground in agony, the injured
A
player thought less about his broken leg than
B C
about the fact that his team would now surely
loose the game. No error
D E
ImProvIng ParagraPhs
Paragraph improvement questions are the least common question type, account-
ing for only six questions on the entire test. Here are a few key points about Im-
proving Paragraph questions.
• Be sure to leave time for these at the end of your POOD, since they are
only of easy or medium diffculty.
• The “20% are correct as written” rule doesn’t apply here. You often don’t
even have the option to leave the paragraph alone, and when you do, it is
almost never the correct answer.
• These passages aren’t just poorly written—they’re disaster areas. There
are many, many more faws within each passage than you will be asked
about. Therefore, do not edit as you read.
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ThE BasIC approaCh
1. Skim the passage and identify the following things:
• Main Idea
• Structure
2. Read the question and go back to the passage for context.
3. POE
Keep the following ideas in mind when tackling these questions.
• Think about what the author is trying to convey. Since your job here
is to improve the paragraphs, you want to help the author get his or her
main idea across as effectively as possible. In order to do that, you need to
know what the author is trying to do.
• Pay attention to the logical flow of ideas. Many of the questions
relate to the order in which ideas are presented. You want to make sure
that the ideas fow in a logical progression, and that each part leads to the
next.
• Avoid ambiguity and wordiness. The most effective revisions will be
marked by precision of language and conciseness of expression.
ThE QUEsTIons
You’ll see three basic types of questions:
• Revision Questions: You’ll be asked to revise sentences or parts of sen-
tences. These are extremely similar to sentence improvements.
• Combination Questions: You’ll be asked to combine two sentences.
• Weird Questions: You’ll be asked to split paragraphs, insert sentences,
swap sentences, describe the relationship between sentences, or fgure
out what topics could hypothetically precede or follow the passage.
Handling a weird question depends on what you’re specifcally asked to do. Here
are some guidelines.
• If you’re asked to split a paragraph in two, look for where a new idea is
introduced. Where is there a shift to something new?
• If you’re asked to insert a sentence, focus on the connection between the
surrounding sentences. How could you connect the ideas more logically?
• If you’re asked to swap sentences, focus on the order of ideas. Where are
there ideas coming out of order?
• If you’re asked to describe the relationship between two sentences, focus
on whether they agree or disagree. Then ask how the sentences relate to
each other.
• If you’re asked to identify the best topic to hypothetically precede or fol-
low the passage, stick as closely to the passage as you can. Something
preceding the passage should tie directly into the frst sentence.
Something following the passage should fow directly from the last sen-
tence.
Always remember to focus on the main point of the passage.
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(1) Many people think that instant messaging has
only been around for a few years but they are mistak-
en and it is not. (2) My uncle who is an engineer says
he used instant messaging when he was in college
way back in the 1980’s. (3) He used a program called
“talk” that allowed people to send messages back and
forth to computers thousands of miles away instantly.
(4) But only computer experts used it. (5) Also you
couldn’t send pictures.
(6) Today almost all young people in the United
States use instant messaging. (7) Even if they don’t
use computers for anything else they use it. (8) You
type messages on your computer, and they appear on
the person with whom you are conversing. (9) There
is a sound that tells you when a new message has ar-
rived. (10) You can talk to many people at the same
time. (11) Many parents are surprised at how popu-
lar instant messaging is. (12) They say why would
you want to send cold text back and forth when you
could talk on the phone and hear the tone of the other
person’s voice.
(13) But I bet that decades ago parents couldn’t un-
derstand why kids would want to talk on the phone to
their friends when they went to school with them and
could visit them just by walking a few blocks. (14)
Walking is good exercise, but not as good as biking
or swimming. (15) But when you talk on the phone
you don’t have to worry about whether you look good
and you can do other things. (16) Just like with instant
messaging you don’t have to answer back right away,
you can go get a snack and write back when you feel
like it and no one thinks it’s weird. (17) And it is easi-
er to ask someone on a date with instant messaging.
1. The passage would be most improved
if which of the following sentences were
eliminated?
(A) Sentence 1
(B) Sentence 6
(C) Sentence 8
(D) Sentence 13
(E) Sentence 14
2. Which of the following is the best revision of
sentence 1 (reproduced below)?
Many people think that instant messaging has
only been around for a few years but they are
mistaken and it is not.
(A) Mistakenly, many people think
that instant messaging has been
around for a few years, but it has
not.
(B) Many people mistakenly think that
instant messaging has only been
around for a few years but it is
not.
(C) Many people are mistaken to think
that instant messaging has only
been around for a few years, for it
is not.
(D) Many people think that instant
messaging has been around only
for a few years, but mistakenly, it
has not.
(E) Many people think that instant
messaging has only been around
for a few years, but they are mis-
taken.
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3. Sentences 6 and 7 (reproduced below) could
best be combined in which of the following
ways?
Today almost all young people in the United
State use instant messaging. Even if they
don’t use computers for anything else they
use it.
(A) Today almost all young people
in the United States use instant
messaging, even if they don’t use
computers for anything else.
(B) Today, even if they don’t use them
for anything else, almost all
young people in the United States
use computers for instant messag-
ing.
(C) Today almost all young people
in the United States use instant
messaging; even if they don’t use
computers for anything else, they
use them for that.
(D) Today almost all young people in
the United States, if they don’t
use computers for anything else,
they use instant messaging.
(E) Today almost all young people in
the United States use computers
for instant messaging, not for
anything else.
4. The best way for the author of this essay to
rearrange the paragraph breaks would be to
(A) insert a paragraph break between
sentences 3 and 4, and eliminate
the paragraph break between
sentences 5 and 6
(B) eliminate the paragraph break
between sentences 5 and 6, and
insert a paragraph break between
sentences 8 and 9
(C) insert a paragraph break between
sentences 9 and 10, and eliminate
the paragraph break between
sentences 12 and 13
(D) insert a paragraph break between
sentences 10 and 11, and elimi-
nate the paragraph break between
sentences 12 and 13
(E) eliminate the paragraph break
between sentences 12 and 13, and
insert a paragraph break between
sentence 15 and 16
5. Sentence 8 could best be revised by
(A) changing the word “with” to “to”
(B) changing the phrase “they” to “the
same messages”
(C) changing the phrase “and they ap-
pear” to “which appears”
(D) inserting the phrase “the screen of”
before the phrase “the person”
(E) taking it out of the second person
and putting in the frst person
6. This essay would most logically go on to
discuss
(A) the author’s own dating experience
(B) the technology involved in instant
messaging
(C) the reasons teenagers feel more
comfortable arranging dates over
an instant messaging system than
in person
(D) other sources of misunderstand-
ing between teenagers and their
parents
(E) the future of the Internet
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Grammar Homework
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error IDs DrIll one
1. Afterstudyingdiligentlyfortwo
A
years,Alexfnallyrealizedthathe
B C
hadscarcelynointerestinbiology.
D
Noerror
E
2. BiancaleftJavieranoteaskinghim
A B
togowithLizandsheto
C
theupcomingsymphonyconcert.
D
Noerror
E
3. TounderstandfullyWilliam
A
Shakespeare’sbodyofwork,we
mustanalyzenotonlyhismost
B
famousplayssuchasHamlet,butalso
C
hislesser-knownplays,poems,
D
andsonnets.Noerror
E
4. EverymorningAdelinehastoshow
A
identifcationatthefrontdesk,
rideuptotheeighthfoor,andthen
swipesherpassthroughareader
B
beforeshecanenterheroffce.
C D
Noerror
E
5. Peoplewhichareconsideredhealthy
A B
bymostdoctorsmaystillfndit
C
diffculttoobtainaffordablehealth
D
insurance.Noerror
E
6. Publicbusesmaintainstringent
A B
environmentalstandardsincluding
C
increasedfueleffciencyandcleaner
emissions.Noerror
D E
7. Debsoonrealizedwhyherroommate
hadbecomeresentfulofsheandher
A B C
friends;theirpartieskepthimawake
lateatnightwhenhewantedtosleep.
D
Noerror
E
8. Thoughthememoryoftherecentoil
A
shortageremains,mostAmericans
viewthepresentabundancethatthey
B
currentlyenjoyasasignthey
C
mayagainwastefuel.Noerror
D E
9. Emilygoestoclubsfrequentand
A
returnshomelate,butisalways
B C
awakeandalertthenextmorning.
D
Noerror
E
16 Grammar Homework 154 11/15/05 3:31:19 PM
Grammar Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 155
10. The1,800islandsontheSt.Lawrence
A
Riverarecountedaspartofthe
B
ThousandIslandsiftheystayabove
C
waterallyearandgrewatleasttwo
D
trees.Noerror
E
11. Thedebateoverwhetherinoculations
A
forveryyoungchildrenare
B
benefcialoraretheydangerous
C
continuestorage.Noerror
D E
12. Barnabysurprisesmostpeople
hemeetsbecausehenotonly
A
loveslisteningtoheavymetalandalso
B C
heenjoyswatchingballet.Noerror
D E
13. JohnBubblesisusuallycredited
A
withtheinventionofrhythm
B C
tap-dancing,anartforminwhich
D
bothheelsandtoesareusedto
produceasyncopatedsound.Noerror
E
14. Peterhadlayonthecouchallafternoon
A B
watchingtelevisionbeforeDon
C
calledhimfordinner.Noerror
D E
15. WhenChrisunpluggedthemonitor
A
fromhiscomputer,hediscoveredittobe
B C
seriouslydamaged.Noerror
D E
16. Asmorearthistoriansinvestigatethe
A
heritageoftheChinese,hebecomes
B
increasinglyawareofthereligious
C
themesthatinspiredancientartists.
D
Noerror
E
17. Thestudentsagreedthat
A
amongthecandidatesforgovernor
B
ofCaliforniaintherecentelection,
C
GaryColemanwasthemore
D
qualifed.Noerror
E
16 Grammar Homework 155 11/15/05 3:31:19 PM
156 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
error IDs DrIll Two
1. Achievingheightsoftwelvefeet,
A
theAfricanelephantisthetallerof
B C
thetwoelephantspeciesthatexists
D
today.Noerror
E
2. Thatpainterhashadthehonorof
A
havinghisworkincludedinmore
B C
internationalexhibitsthanotherpainters.
D
Noerror
E
3. EverydaywhenVinneegetstowork,
A
shecheckshervoicemailmessages,
B
meetswithhereditors,andreadthelocal
C D
newspapers.Noerror
E
4. Intheeyesofmanyreaders,The
A
New York Times,oneofthenation’s
mostlong-standingnewspapers,
B
exemplifestheidealtraitsofadaily
C
newspaper:insightfulreportingand
D
exceptionalwriting.Noerror
E
5. Mr.Marshwarnedhisstrong-willed
A
daughterthatunlesssheremembered
B
todriveslower,hewouldtakeaway
C
herlearner’spermitfortheremainder
D
oftheyear.Noerror
E
6. Asaresultofthedefendant’s
A
continuousrefusaltodemonstrate
B
eventheslightestsemblanceof
C
appropriatebehaviorinthecourtroom,
thejudgeheldhimincontempt.Noerror
D E
7. Morethan80,000animaland45,000
A
plantspecies,approximately8%of
B C
theworld’stotal,theyhaverecorded
D
inIndia.Noerror
E
8. Fewemployeesunderstoodthe
A
conceptofnichemarketing,andso
B
theycouldnotaccountfortheshop’s
C D
slowsales.Noerror
E
16 Grammar Homework 156 11/15/05 3:31:19 PM
Grammar Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 157
9. Manyfoodsassociatedwith
A
Europeancuisines,likepotatoes
B
andtomatoes,actuallyoriginated
intheAmericasandwereunknown
C
inEuropepriortothevoyagesof
D
ChristopherColumbus.Noerror
E
10. Andywashardworkinganda
A
prolifcwriteruntilamysterious
B
illnesscausedhimtostartfalling
C
asleep,sometimesinthemiddleofa
D
conversation.Noerror
E
11. “Remindmenevertosignupfor
A
anotherpsychologyclass,”Linus
saidpetulantly,“becausetheteacher
B
expectsfartoomuchreadingofus.”
C D
Noerror
E
12. Therangeofelectriccarshasalwaysbeen
A B
smallerthangasoline-poweredcars.
C D
Noerror
E
13. Thebeststudentsinmyclassalways
considersproducinghighquality
A
workimportant,regardlessof
B
whetheritaffectstheirgrades.Noerror
C D E
14. Jodieshouldofknownthatwearing
A B C
atiaratoworkonHalloweenwasa
badidea;noweveryonereferstoher
D
as“TheQueen.”Noerror
E
15. Carlywasaskilleddriver,soeven
A
afterhavingbeenwithoutacarfor
B C
ayear,shewasstillcomfortable
D
behindthewheel.Noerror
E
16. Risingdomesticgaspriceshave
A
increaseddramaticallyinthe
B
pastseveralyears,causingmany
businessestospendagreater
C
percentageoftheirbudgetson
D
transportation.Noerror
E
17. Althoughtheworkofbothartists
A
hasbeendisplayedatthegallery,
B
onlyonehasmanagedtosell
C D
anything.Noerror
E
18. Iwassoshakedupafterthetractor-trailer
A
crashedintomycaronthehighway
B
thatIavoideddrivingforseveral
C D
weeks.Noerror
E
16 Grammar Homework 157 11/15/05 3:31:20 PM
158 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
19. ThedataentryworkwasgiventoJulie
A
becausehertypingspeedisnearly
B C
doublethatofMartha.
D
Noerror
E
20. VladimirNabokov,thepopularRussian-
A
Americanwriter,wasbornin
B
St.Petersburg,buthadmoved
C
toEnglandtoattendcollegeatCambridge.
D
Noerror
E
21. Theextraordinaryattentiontodetailneeded
A
bypilotsinfightareessentialto
B C
theirsurvival.Noerror
D E
22. Everyoneinthejuniorclassaregoingtobe
A
eligibleforachancetowina
B C
scholarshiptowardasummertravel
programofferedbythelanguage
D
department.Noerror
E
23. Althoughthevenom’santidotehadbeen
A B C
testedonlyinthelaboratory,it
receivedauniquehumantrialwhen
D
therarespiderbitoneoftheguests.
Noerror
E
24. Theclasspresidentstressedthatitis
A
imperativethatwemaintaina
B
strongreservebalanceinour
schoolimprovementfundsinceweare
C
responsibletoplantadditional
D
treesinthecommonarea.Noerror
E
25. Whileitisoftenexpensivetoattend
A
alivesoccermatch,itismuchmore
B
excitingandallowsyoutomeet
C D
otherfans.Noerror
E
26. Theteamshouldhaveaskedusfor
A B
clarifcationsincenoone
C
understandstherulesbetterthanwe.
D
Noerror
E
16 Grammar Homework 158 11/15/05 3:31:20 PM
Grammar Homework
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 159
ImprovInG senTences DrIll
1. Noneofhisoldclothesfthim,somuch
weighthavingbeenlostonthenewdiet.
(A) somuchweighthavingbeenlost
onthenewdiet
(B) onthenewdiethavinglostso
muchweight
(C) havingthenewdietlosingso
muchweight
(D) onthenewdietandlosingso
muchweight
(E) sincehelostsomuchweighton
thenewdiet
2. TheSurgeonGeneralreportsthatwhile
cigarettesmokingislesspopularthanatany
timesince1957,itisstillthecauseofover
100,000cancerdeathsayear.
(A) itisstillthecauseof
(B) itisstilltheresultof
(C) causing
(D) beingthecauseof
(E) whilebeingthecauseof
3. Althoughhedidn’tconsiderhimselflucky,
hewonateddybearforhisbrotheratthe
carnival.
(A) hewonateddybearforhisbrother
atthecarnival
(B) hisbrotherhadwonbyhima
teddybearatthecarnival
(C) becausehewonhisbrotherateddy
bearatthecarnival
(D) stillhewillbeabletowinateddy
bearforhisbrotheratthecarnival
(E) hewon,forhisbrotheratthecar-
nival,ateddybear
4. SinceoneshouldnotcountouttheYankees
earlyintheseason,astheyalwaysget
strongerbythemiddleofAugust.
(A) Sinceoneshouldnotcount
(B) Oneoughtnotcount
(C) Sinceoneoughtnotcount
(D) Onehadoughtnottocount
(E) Oneshouldnotbecounting
5. MartinLutherKingJr.,whoendured
countlesshumiliationsandhardships,forcing
evenhisdetractorstoacknowledgethe
sincerityandstrengthofhisconvictions.
(A) forcing
(B) heforces
(C) forced
(D) andforcing
(E) toforce
6. Theadmissionsoffcerputanacceptance
letterinoneoftheenvelopesandintheother
wasputarejectionletter.
(A) andintheotherwasputarejection
letter
(B) withtheotherputinarejection
letter
(C) andtheotherwasputinarejection
letter
(D) andthethingheputintheother
wasarejectionletter
(E) andarejectionletterintheother
7. NeveragainwouldJerryattempttojumpout
ofanairplanewithoutwearingaparachute.
(A) tojumpoutofanairplanewithout
wearingaparachute
(B) tojumpoutofanairplanewithout
wearingparachutes
(C) tojumpoutofanairplane,with
Jerrynotwearingaparachute
(D) tojumpoutofanairplanehaving
noparachute
(E) jumpingoutofairplaneswithout
parachutes
16 Grammar Homework 159 11/15/05 3:31:20 PM
160 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
Refresher Manual for the SAT
8. Theprimaryresourceusedtopowerindustry
wasinitiallywater;eventuallyitprogressed
tosteam,oil,andfnallyelectricity.
(A) oil,andfnallyelectricity
(B) oilburning,andfnallytheuseof
electricity
(C) oil,andfnallyelectricpower
(D) oil,andfnallytheuseofelectric-
ity
(E) oilusedforpower,andfnally
electricpower
9. Daniel,whilebeinganhonorrollstudent,has
nearlyirritatedeveryteacherintheschool.
(A) Daniel,whilebeinganhonorroll
student,hasnearlyirritatedevery
teacherintheschool.
(B) Daniel,althoughanhonorroll
student,hasirritatednearlyevery
teacherintheschool.
(C) Daniel,althoughanhonorroll
student,hadbeennearlyirritating
toeveryteacherintheschool.
(D) Whilebeinganhonorrollstudent,
Danielhasnearlyirritatedevery
teacherintheschool.
(E) Evenwhenanhonorrollstudent,
Daniel,inschool,isirritating
nearlytoeveryteacher.
10. FrankLloydWrightwillbeconsideredas
oneofAmerica’sgreatestarchitectsbecause
ofworkssuchas“Fallingwater,”ahouse
builtoverawaterfall.
(A) willbeconsideredasoneofAmer-
ica’sgreatestarchitectsbecause
of
(B) hasbeenconsideredbyAmericaas
agreatarchitectdueto
(C) isconsideredoneofAmerica’s
greatestarchitectsbecauseof
(D) consideredasoneofAmerica’s
greatestarchitectsbecauseof
(E) isconsideredgreatbyAmerica’s
architectsdueto
11. Whenshepickedupthephoneandavoice
asked,“MayIspeaktoMs.Gardner?”Rose
answered,“Thisisshe.”
(A) asked,“MayIspeaktoMs.Gard-
ner?”Roseanswered,“Thisis
she.”
(B) asked,“MayIspeaktoMs.Gard-
ner?”Roseanswered,“Thisis
her.”
(C) isasking,“MayIspeaktoMs.
Gardner?”Roseanswered,“This
isher.”
(D) isasking,“MayIspeaktoMs.
Gardner?”Roseisanswering,
“Thisisshe.”
(E) asking,“MayIspeaktoMs.Gard-
ner?”Roseanswering,“Thisis
her.”
12. Peoplearefreetomaketheirowndecisions,
buttherewillalwaysberulesintheirlifethat
mustbefollowed.
(A) willalwaysberulesintheirlife
thatmustbe
(B) werealwaysrulesintheirlives,
whichmusthavebeen
(C) willalwaysberulesinone’slife
thatmustbe
(D) willalwaysberulesintheirlives
thatmustbe
(E) wouldalwaysberulesintheir
lives,whichmustbe
13. TheBeatpoetsofthe1950’sbrokenew
literarygroundwiththeirinnovativeuse
oflanguage,choosingofsubjects,andthey
expressedtabooemotions.
(A) choosingofsubjects,andthey
expressedtabooemotions
(B) choosingofsubjects,andexpress-
ingoftabooemotions
(C) choiceofsubjects,andtheyex-
pressedtabooemotions
(D) choiceofsubjects,andexpression
oftabooemotions
(E) subjectchoice,andthetabooof
expressedemotions
16 Grammar Homework 160 11/15/05 3:31:21 PM
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 161
Answers &
explAnAtions
MATH HoMework
plugging in
page 54
6. B Plug in 4 for p. This gives you (4 + 5) = 9 and (4 – 7) = –3. The question asks
for the difference, so 9 – (–3) = 12.
6. B Plug in the answers, starting with (C). As you work, just remember that the
total number of puppets sold must equal 25, and the total sold for $30.
sml × $1 each lg × $2 each total
(A) 25
(B) 20 $20 5 $10 $30 ¸
(C) 15 $15 10 $20 $35 too big
(D) 10
(E) 5
17 Answers Exp 161 11/16/05 4:13:21 PM
162 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
6. C Plug in the answers, starting with (C). The numbers in the answers are the
possible weights of the block at the beginning of the day on Tuesday.
orig lbs. 2/3 melted 1/2 melted
(A) 540
(B) 480
(C) 360 360 ×
2
3
= 120 120 ×
1
2
= 60 ¸
(D) 180
(E) 20
7. A Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Let’s say that x = 12, which
is the number of pages printed by Printer A in one hour. Printer B prints
at one-third this rate, so it prints at a rate of
12
3
= 4 pages per hour. Work-
ing together, in one hour they will print 12 + 4 = 16 pages per hour, and
16 × 3 = 48 pages in three hours. This is your target. Only (A) works:
4x = 4 × 12 = 48. Watch out! If you picked (D), you chose a partial answer.
8. C Plug in the answers, starting with (C). The answers are possible values of c,
the number of clients the company started with. Multiply by three for each
year. Did you also notice that (E) is way too big? If so, cross it off.
c yr 1 yr 2 yr 3 yr 4 yr 5
(A) 5
(B) 15
(C) 45 × 3 = 135 × 3 = 405 × 3 = 1,215 × 3 = 3,645 × 3 = 10,935 ¸
(D) 729
(E) 3,645 too big!
9. A Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! If j = 20, then Alicia is 5 years
younger, so a = 15. In 8 years, Alicia will be 15 + 8 = 23. This is your target.
Only (A) works: j + 3 = 20 + 3 = 23.
9. C Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Plug in for a and the other
two angles in that triangle—be sure that your numbers add up to 180°.
If a = 50, make angle CAG = 110 and angle CGA = 20. That makes
b = 160 and x = 70, which is your target. Only (C) works:
180 + a – b = 180 + 50 – 160 = 70.
17 Answers Exp 162 11/16/05 4:13:23 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 163
page 55
9. C Plug in a number such as 5, which is neither a factor nor a multiple of the
numbers in the answer choices—this will minimize the chances that more
than one answer will work. If a = 5, only (C) produces an even integer:
2a = 2 × 5 = 10.
10. E Plug in! If Bert is 10, and Ernie is three times as old as Bert, then Ernie is
30. Ernie is 4 years younger than Roger, so 30 + 4 = 34, which is your target.
Only (E) works: Roger’s age is (3)(10) + 4 = 34.
10. C Plug in the answers, starting with (C).
the
number
(1/4) the
number
(1/2) the
number
(A) –12
(B) 6
(C) 12 3 6 3 is 3 less than 6 ¸
(D) 16
(E) 18
11. D Plug in 5 feet for m, and choose a number for w that can be easily converted
to feet, such as 36 inches, which equals 3 feet. So if m = 5 (feet) and w = 36
(inches), then Marlene is 2 feet taller than Albert. That makes 2 your target
answer. Only (D) works:
12
12
12 5 36
12
60 36
12
24
12
2
m w −
=
( )( ) − ( )
=

= = .
11. A Cross out “in terms of” and plug in!Start with Circle A and its radius, v. If
v = 4, then the area of Circle A = π(4
2
) or 16π. If the area of Circle B is twice
that of Circle A, then the area of B is 16π × 2 = 32π. 32π = r
2
π, and the radius
of B is w, so w
2
= 32, and w = 32. Reread the question: We are looking for
the value of v, which is 4. Only (A) works:
32
2
16 4 = = .
17 Answers Exp 163 11/16/05 4:13:24 PM
164 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
page 56
11. A Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! If you plug in a = 2, then
y = 5 × 2 = 10, and x =
10 2 6
4
26
4
13
2
( )( ) +
= = , which is your target. Only (A)
works:
10 3
2
13
2
+
= .
Notice that sometimes the numbers don’t work out to be
integers on harder questions. Don’t restart the question unless the numbers
are really messy—a fraction isn’t too hard to work with here.
12. D Plug in for z to begin. If z = 3, z
2
= 9 =
1
x
. Solve for x =
1
9
. Therefore,
x
2
=
1
81
. Only (D) works.
12. D Plug in the answers, starting with (C).
m (2m)
2
m
3
Does (2m)
2
=m
3
?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3 (2 × 3)
2
= 6
2
= 36 3
3
= 27 36 ≠ 27 X
(D) 4 (2 × 4)
2
= 8
2
= 64 4
3
= 64 64 = 64 ¸
(E) 6
13. A Plug in the answers, starting with (C). Remember: the weight of the barrel
plus the weight of the water must equal 20, and the weight of the barrel must
be
1
4
the weight of the water.
barrel +water= 20 Does (1/4)weight
of water = weight of barrel?
(A) 4 16
1
4
× 16 = 4 ¸
(B) 5 15
1
4
× 15 ≠ 5 X
(C) 15 5
1
4
× 5 ≠ 15 X
(D) 16
(E) 80
17 Answers Exp 164 11/16/05 4:13:29 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 165
13. C Plug in the answers, starting with (C). What do we know from the question?
That 20% of students study only physics and 25% study only chemistry.
Therefore, the remaining 55% study biology, so the number of students
studying biology must equal 55% of some integer. Plug in and look for the
answer that produces an integer value for t. Eliminate any answer that gives
you a non-integer total.
biology t (total)
(A) 4
(B) 9
(C) 11 11 =
55
100
t , so t = 20 ¸
(D) 15
(E) 20
13. A You can solve for the variable here, but it’s safer to plug in the answers, start-
ing with (C).
a
(A)
1
8
1
8
2
1
8
1
64
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
2
3
3












= = =
¸
(B)
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
4
1
1
2
3
3












= ≠
X
(C) 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
2
3
3
( )
= ≠
X
(D) 2
2
2 2
4
4
1
2 3 3
×
= ≠ X
(E) 8
8
2 8
64
16
4
16
1
2 3 3
×
= = ≠ X
14. E Cross out “in terms of” and start plugging in for c. If c = 3, then (8)(3) = 24.
24 = 4b, so b = 6. Also, 24 =
1
2
a, so a = 48. Reread the question: It asks for
the value of a + b, so 48 + 6 = 54, your target. Only (E) works: You plugged
in c = 3, so (18)(3) = 54.
17 Answers Exp 165 11/16/05 4:13:34 PM
166 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
page 57
14. A Plug in the answers, starting with (C). Remember that the fnal result should
be $350.
savings
minus clothes (2/5
of savings)
minus DVD
(1/4 of savings)
= $350?
(A) $1000 – 400 – 250 = $350 ¸
(B) $900
(C) $800 – 320 – 200 = $280 X
(D) $600
(E) $500
15. A Plug in the answers, starting with (C). Use POE and plug in until you have
only one answer remaining. Remember that you are looking for answers that
produce integers so you can eliminate them.
n= 5
a= 200
n= 20
a = 200
(A)
n
a
5
200
20
200
¸
(B)
a
n
200
5
40 = X
(C)
a
n 2
200
10
20 = X
(D)
2a
n
400
5
80 = X
(E)
n
a
2
25
200
400
200
2 = X
15. C Using your calculator, plug in the answers in I/II/III and see which ones make
the expression equal an integer. Only II does:
3 2
2 2
3
1
3
2
3
( )( )
( )( )
=

.
16. D Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Let’s say w = 3, so y = 4 and
x = 6. Using these values, 5x + 6w = (5 × 6) + (6 × 3) = 30 + 18 = 48, your
target. Only (D) works: 12y = 12 × 4 = 48.
17 Answers Exp 166 11/16/05 4:13:40 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 167
16. B Plug in! Let’s say a =
1
2
and b = –2. II and II can be eliminated, but I must
stay: Plugging our values into a × a
–1
× b = b gives us
1
2
× 2 × –2 = –2. If you
think about it, a × a
–1
will always produce
a
a
=1, so I must always be true.
17. C Plug in for the consecutive integers: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. s = 2 + 3 + 4 = 9, and
5 + 6 + 7 = 18, which is your target. Only (C) works: s + 9 = 9 + 9 = 18.
17. D Plug in the answers, starting with (C). Remember that the number correct
and incorrect must add up to 93.
number
correct
number
incorrect
score = 247?
(A) 71
(B) 77
(C) 82 93 – 82 = 11 82(3) – 11(1) = 235 X
(D) 85 93 – 85 = 8 85(3) – 8(1) = 247 ¸
(E) 90
17 Answers Exp 167 11/16/05 4:13:42 PM
168 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
page 58
18. A Plug in! If t = 100 and x = 6, then set up the proportion and solve. Let’s use
the variable z to represent the number of oranges we are solving for. Remem-
ber that x is 6 dollars, so you’ll need to convert this value to 600 cents to
solve, but use the value 6 when you plug into the answers to fnd your target.
t
z
=
=
100
5
600 cents
oranges
cents
oranges
. Cross multiply and solve for z to fnd that for
x = $6, you can buy 30 oranges, your target. Only (A) works:
500 6
100
30
×
= .
18. B Plug in the answers, starting with (C). You can see right away that the
numbers get smaller the more times you multiply by a. Therefore, a must
be smaller than 1, so you can eliminate (C), (D), and (E). Fill in the terms
that you are given, and fll in the missing numbers using
1
2
as the multiplier.
Only (B) follows the correct pattern.
a 1st term 2nd term 3rd term 4th term
(A)
1
8
(B)
1
2
20 ×
1
2
= 10 ×
1
2
= 5 ×
1
2
= 2.5 ¸
(C) 2 too big X
(D) 4 too big X
(E) 8 too big X
17 Answers Exp 168 11/16/05 4:13:46 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 169
18. D Plug in the answers, starting with (C). Divide Andy’s amount by 4 to get Chris’
amount.
Andy Chris Andy – 10 Chris + 10
Is Andy’s amount
twice Chris’ ?
(A) 20
(B) 40
(C) 50 12.5 40 22.5 22.5 ≠
1
2
× 40 X
(D) 60 15 50 25 25 =
1
2
× 50 ¸
(E) 80
19. E Plug in numbers that are easy to work with. Let’s say that an item originally
costs $10. 6% tax on $10 is 60 cents, so after tax, an item that originally costs
$10 will cost t = $10.60. Reread the question to know what to look for: The
target is the price before tax was added, which was $10. Plug in $10.60 for t
in the answers to fnd the one that works. Only (E) does:
10 60
1 06
.
.
=
10.
17 Answers Exp 169 11/16/05 4:13:47 PM
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page 59
19. A Plug in a simple value for x that is between 0 and 1, and which you can
easily fnd the square root of:
1
4
works well. If x =
1
4
, then x
2
=
1
16
and
x =
1
2
. Put the values in order from smallest to largest, as they are listed
in the answer choices:
1
16
<
1
4
<
1
2
, so x
2
< x < x , or (A).
19. B What makes this question tough is that you need to consider numbers that
you may not think of at frst glance. Using the average pie, we know that the
total of our three numbers must equal 9 × 3 = 27. However, nowhere does it
say that these numbers have to be positive. Therefore, try plugging in some
“weird” numbers, such as –30, 27, and 30. Their sum is 27, and two are greater
than 11, so these are acceptable. We can clearly eliminate I and III. And since
one of the statements has to be true, it must be II, or (B).
17 Answers Exp 170 11/16/05 4:13:51 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 171
geometry
page 60
1. 90°
2. 180°
3. 180°
4. 360°
5. 360°
6. The measures of two angles across from each other when two lines intersect are
equal.
7. To bisect an angle or line segment means to divide it in half.
8. Two lines that are perpendicular form two right angles.
9. Two lines that are parallel never intersect.
10. The angle across from the longest side in a triangle is the largest angle in the
triangle.
11. The angle across from the smallest side in a triangle is the smallest angle in the
triangle.
page 61
12. Angles across from equal sides in a triangle have equal measures.
13. Isosceles triangles: (1) have two equal sides and (2) have two equal angels.
14. Equilateral triangles: (1) have three equal sides and (2) three equal angles that
each measure 60°.
15. In parallelograms: (1) opposite sides are equal and parallel, and (2) opposite
angles are equal.
16. A parallelogram is a rectangle when it has four right angles (a rectangle is a special
kind of parallelogram).
17. A rectangle is a square when it has four equal sides (a square is a special kind of
rectangle).
18. The diameter is twice as long as the radius.
19. Area of a parallelogram = base × height
20. Area of a triangle =
1
2
base × height
21. Base and height must be perpendicular.
17 Answers Exp 171 11/16/05 4:13:52 PM
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22. Area of a circle = πr
2
23. Find the perimeter of any polygon by adding up all its sides.
page 62
24. Circumference of a circle = 2πr OR πd
25. a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
, where a and b are the sides and c the hypotenuse of a right tri-
angle.
26. ETS’s favorite Pythagorean triples are: 3:4:5, 6:8:10, and 5:12:13.
27. Volume = length × width × height, or V = lwh
28. Slope =
y y
x x
2 1
2 1


=
rise
run
29. Ratio of sides of a 45°-45°-90° triangle = 1 : 1 : 2
30. Ratio of sides of a 30°-60°-90° triangle = 1 : 3 : 2
31. This information is in the box at the beginning of each math section.
32. Don’t trust fgures not drawn to scale; try to redraw the fgure more accurately.
33. If there is no fgure, try to draw one.
34. If there are variables in the answer choices of any question, PLUG IN!
35. Ballparking is estimating and eliminating unlikely answers.
17 Answers Exp 172 11/16/05 4:13:54 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 173
page 63
1. x =
180
30
= 60
2. x = 360 – 40 = 320
3. y = 180 – 110 = 70
4. e + f = 110 + 30 = 140
5. x = 150
6. y = 115
page 64
7. area = 6
8. area = 9 3
9. x = 20
10. area of circle with circumference 12π = 36π (d = 12, r = 6)
11. area of shaded region = 8π (r = 8, so area = 64π. 45° =
1
8
of 360°, so area of shaded
region is
1
8
of total area: 64π ×
1
8
= 8π.)
17 Answers Exp 173 11/16/05 4:13:56 PM
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page 65
7. D If you recognize that these triangles are similar, then (D) is the easy choice.
If not, plug in for x, y, and z. Let’s say x = 4, y = 6, and z = 8. If so, then the
perimeter is 4 + 6 + 8 = 18. Using these numbers, you fnd that the sides
of Triangle II are 6, 9, and 12, and that the perimeter of Triangle II is 27.
27
18
=
3
2
.
9. E Plug in the answers, starting with (C). Remember that the angle measures
must add up to 180.
b a c = 180?
(A) 30
(B) 45
(C) 50 ×
1
2
= 25 30 50 + 25 + 30 =105 X
(D) 60 ×
1
2
= 30 30 60 + 30 + 30 = 120 X
(E) 100 ×
1
2
= 50 30 100 + 50 + 30 = 180 ¸
10. E Plug in the answer choices, starting with (C). Only (E) works:
4 1
3 2
3


= .
11. D Fred’s theorem tells you that the angle adjacent to y is 49°. Using the rule of
180, we also know that x + y + 49 = 180. So, x + y = 131.
page 66
11. C The triangles created by the cross-section of the cones are all similar. There-
fore, we can set up a proportion to fnd what we need. Just read carefully:
the smallest cone is 12 inches high and has a base diameter of 3, while the
largest has an unknown height and a base radius of 3, so the base diameter
of the largest cone is 6.
12
3 6
=
x
, so x = 24.
12. D Surface area = 6s
2
where s is the length of a side. If the surface area here is
96, then 96 = 6s
2
, so 16 = s
2
. The value of s is therefore 4. Volume is simply
s
3
, so the volume of this fgure is 4
3
or 64.
17 Answers Exp 174 11/16/05 4:14:00 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 175
12. E Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Remember to follow the rules
of geometry as you work. Let’s say x = 40, so the angle adjacent to x must be
50°. Now focus on triangle BEC. Given that BE = CE, angle EBC is also 50°,
so y must be 80°. Reread the question: You want to fnd y, so your target is
80. Plug in x = 40. Only (E) works: 2(40) = 80.
12. A We know that point Q must fall somewhere on segment AB, so eliminate any
answer that doesn’t have an x coordinate equal to –8. That leaves us with
only (A) and (B). If PQ is to bisect the square, it must pass through the
origin and hit at AB below the x-axis, so the y value must also be negative.
Eliminate (B). Drawing point Q is very helpful.
17 Answers Exp 175 11/16/05 4:14:01 PM
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page 67
13. 21 Start with what you know. Perimeter = 2l + 2w. In this problem, l = 3, so
solve for w: 20 = (2)(3) + 2w, so 20 = 6 + 2w, 14 = 2w, and w = 7. Reread
the question: We need the area of the fgure, so 3 × 7 = 21.
13. E If EF is 6, then the distance from E to the point at which EF intersects a ver-
tex of the smaller square is 3. Focus just on the distance from E to midpoints
of EF and DE and the isosceles right triangle that is formed there. The
hypotenuse of that right triangle is 3 2 , which is also the length of a side of
the smaller square inside DEFG. Therefore, the perimeter is 4 × 3 2 = 12
2 .
14. D Draw, then draw again!
Q R S T
0 5 12
16
Q R T S
0 5 12
8
Q R T
0 5
2
–2
S
Q R T
0 5
–6
–2
S
14. C Draw the fgure as described. It should look something like this:
2 2
Given the information you have, you can fnd the area of one of the little tri-
angles inside, then fgure out the area of the square from there. If the radius
is 2, then the area of each little triangle is
1
2
× 2 × 2 = 2. Since the square
consists of 4 such triangles, the area of the square is 4 × 2 = 8.
14. E If angle SOP measures 100°, then the adjacent angle POQ must measure 80°.
Since segments OP and OQ are both radii, they are equal in length. Equal
sides of a triangle are opposite equal angles, so angles OPQ and OQP are
equal, and the sum of their angle measures is 100°. Reread the question: What
is the measure of OPQ? This angle measure is 100 ÷ 2 = 50°.
17 Answers Exp 176 11/16/05 4:14:05 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 177
page 68
14. A Notice that the triangles in the fgure given are similar. Just make sure that
the numbers you plug in adhere to the ratio given in the problem. Let’s say
AC = 5 and CD = 15. Using the Pythagorean triples ETS loves to use, plug in
BC = 3, AB = 4, CE = 9, and ED = 12. Find the areas, then divide to get the
fraction:

area
area
ABC
DEC
=
( )( )
( )( )
= =
1
2
4 3
1
2
12 9
6
54
1
9
.
14. D Draw the fgure and count up the triangles. Your fgure should look something
like the one below. Notice both the smallest triangles and those formed by
combining two small triangles together.




15. 76 Since both OP and OQ are radii, they are equal in length, making this triangle
isosceles. Equal sides are opposite equal angles, so both angles OPQ and OQP
equal 52°. Reread the question: What is the value of x? 52 + 52 = 104, so
180 – 104 = 76.
15. 0 Plug in for the variables, making sure to follow the rules of geometry. Let’s
say x = 40, y = 50, z = 60, and w = 30. Therefore, (x – z) + (y – w) =
(40 – 60) + (50 – 30) = –20 + 20 = 0.
17 Answers Exp 177 11/16/05 4:14:06 PM
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page 69
16. A Plug in! Let’s say x = 10, so the radii of the partial circles are all equal to 5.
The area of the square is 10
2
= 100. By adding together the four unshaded
regions, you get a whole circle with r = 5, so fnd that area and subtract
it from 100 to get the answer you need: Area of the circle = π5
2
= 25π, so
the unshaded area is 100 – 25π. This is your target. Only (A) works: 10
2
(1 –
π
4
) = 100 –
100
4
π
= 100 – 25π.
17. B Draw the fgure and write down the coordinates. The distance between points
A and D is 8, so the length of the two sides added together is 16. The total
perimeter is 38, so the other two sides must sum to 38 – 16 = 22. Therefore,
the distance between points A and B is 11, and f = 9.
18. 150 Focus on the small triangle formed where line l
1
meets the other two
lines. The angle adjacent to the 140° must measure 40°. The angle at the bot-
tom measures 110°, since its adjacent angle measures 70° (Fred’s theorem
tells you that). The third, smallest angle must therefore measure 30°. Reread
the question: What is the value of x? Since it is adjacent to the 30° angle, it
must be 180 – 30 = 150.
18. D Sometimes you have to use the Pythagorean theorem! Draw a line from T to
V. Now you have two right triangles that share a hypotenuse. First calculate
TV: 3
2
+ 5
2
= TV
2
= 34. Now do the same with the other triangle: x
2
+ 2
2
= TV
2
,
which we now know is equal to 34. Therefore, x
2
+ 2
2
= 34, so x
2
= 30, and
x = 30 .
page 70
19. E Use Pythagorean theorem: Since we know that AC = 2 and CB = 1,
2
2
+ 1
2
= AB
2
= 5. Therefore, AB = 5 . Notice you could have eliminated (B)
immediately, because the x value must be 0. You could have also ballparked
to eliminate (A) and (C), since the distance from A to B must be greater than
the lengths of the other two sides of the triangle.
19. 15 Use the points provided in the slope formula:

=
− − − ( )
− −
3
8
2 8
1 x
. Simplify to get

=
− −
3
8
6
1 x
, then cross-multiply and solve. –3(–1 – x) = 48, so 3 + 3x = 48,
3x = 45, and x = 15.
19. 8 Here we are looking for the greatest difference between the lengths of sides,
so use the smallest number that you can for the shortest side. Since the
lengths must be integers, that makes the shortest side equal 1. A triangle
with sides of 9, 9, and 1 fts our restrictions, so the greatest difference is
9 – 1 = 8. If you thought that the triangle could have sides of 1-1-9, remember
that the third side of any triangle must have a length between the sum and
the difference of the other two sides.
17 Answers Exp 178 11/16/05 4:14:10 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 179
other ApproAches
page 71
5. A Put the numbers is order: 3, 4, 7, 12, 14, 17, 20. The median is 12. The aver-
age is 11, since
3 4 7 12 14 17 20
7
77
7
11
+ + + + + +
= = . 12 – 11 = 1.
6. B Use the average pie. If the average of 3 numbers is 8, then their sum is
8 × 3 = 24. If the third number is 10, then the sum of the frst two is
24 – 10 = 14.
8. A Use the average pie. If the average of these 4 numbers is 20, then their sum
is 4 × 20 = 80. Therefore, 80 = 21 + 12 + 37 + y, so y = 10.
10. B Use the average pie. If the average of 3 numbers is 26, their sum is
3 × 26 = 78. Therefore, 33 + 17 + x = 78, so x = 28.
10. A Use the average pie. If the average of 6 numbers is 13, then their sum is
6 × 13 = 78. Therefore, 4y + 34 = 78, so 4y = 44, and y = 11. Did you notice
that all the other answers were also wrong because y must be less than 13
for the average to be 13?
11. E Which one shows up the most time? .280.
page 72
12. B Use the average pie. If 4 + 7 + 19 + x + y = 60, then x + y = 30. Reread the
question: What is the average of x and y? 30 ÷ 2 = 15. Watch out! (E) is a Joe
Bloggs answer.
13. 10 Use the average pie. If 5 + 17 + 18 + x + y = 60, then x + y = 20. Reread the
question: What is the average of x and y? 20 ÷ 2 = 10.
14. C (C) is the defnition of mode.
16. C Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Let’s say that x = 4, so y = 8
and z = 12. The average of these three numbers is
4 8 12
3
+ +
= 8, which is
your target. Only (C) works:
2
3
z =
2
3
× 12 = 8.
18. E List the numbers: x, 7, 8, 9, 13, and 17 where x is the age of the sixth student.
There are an even number of members in this list, and the median is 10, so
the median must be the average of 9 and x, so x = 11.
17 Answers Exp 179 11/16/05 4:14:12 PM
180 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
page 73
6. B Translate: x =
5
100
20
100
300 × × . So, x = 3.
10. B The new price must be 80% of the original price:
80
100
× 23 = x. So,
x = 18.40.
11. B 24 – 3 = 21 cars are unsold. What percent of the cars are unsold? Translate:
x
100
• 24 = 21. So, x = 87.5.
13. C Plug in! Let’s say that she must take 100 credits. Her frst year she takes
25%, or 25, credits, and she has 75 remaining to take. In her second year, she
takes 40% of the remaining credits, or
40
100
× 75 = 30. Now she has taken
25 + 30 = 55 credits, and she still needs to take 45 more. Watch out! (D) and
(E) are the Joe Bloggs answers.
14. B Use bite-sized pieces. Remember that the 30% discount is for shoes only.
30
100
× $20 = $6 discount. $6 is what percent of the total amount she spent?
Translate: $6 =
x
100
• $60. So, x = 10.
15. D Plug in! Let’s say m = 8 and n = 6, then translate: 6 =
x
100
• 8. So, x = 75.
page 74
16. D Plug in! Let’s say the book is $100. An increase of 10% would add $10 to the
price, making the new price $110. An additional 10% of this new number
would add $11 to the price, making the fnal price $121. This is the same as
adding 21% to the original price. Watch out! (C) is the Joe Bloggs answer.
17. B To fnd percent increase or decrease, remember the formula:

difference
original
× 100. Using the numbers in the problem, we get:

385 350
350

× 100 = 10%. Watch out! (C) is the Joe Bloggs answer.
14. 800 The problem says that $56 is 7% of the price, so translate:
56 =
7
100
• x. So, x = 800.
17 Answers Exp 180 11/16/05 4:14:12 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 181
page 75
1. E Plug in a = 14 and b = 6.
2a
b
=
2 14
6
×
=
28
6
=
14
3
.
2. C Use the ratio box. Plug in what you know, and add across top. How do you
get from 4 to 12? Multiply by 3, so you need 1 × 3 = 3 males at a minimum.
male female total
1 3 4
× 3 × 3
3 12
13. C Set up your proportion and solve:
5
12
8
3
4
cups soda
guests
cups soda
guests
=
x
. Cross-mul-
tiply: 5x = 105, so x = 21.
14. D Use the ratio box. Plug in what you know, and add across top. How do you
get from 6 to 120? Multiply by 20, so the longer portion is 100 and the shorter
portion is 20, and the difference is 100 – 20 = 80. Watch out! (E) is a partial
answer.
short long total
1 5 6
× 20 × 20 × 20
20 100 120
16. E Just write each ratio as a fraction of red over white, then calculate the decimal
value. (E) is largest:
3
4
= .75.
page 76
15.
2
13
or.153 Use the ratio box and plug in! Let’s say that the mixture is 2 parts
sulfur, so there are 10 parts charcoal and 1 part saltpeter. Add across the
top: the total is 13. Sulfur is 2 parts out of 13, or
2
13
.
sulfur charcoal saltpeter total
2 10 1 13
15. 176 Use the ratio box. Plug in what you know, and add across top. How
do you get from 10 to 440? Multiply by 44, so there are 176 boys.
teacher boy girl total
1 4 5 10
×44 ×44 ×44 ×44
176 440
17 Answers Exp 181 11/16/05 4:14:13 PM
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18. D Use the ratio box. Plug in what you know, and add across top, only this time
include the information about the cost of the books, too. For every paperback
purchased, three hardcovers are also purchased, for a total of four books. How
much do these four books cost? (3)($4) + (1)($2) = $14. How do you get
from $14 to $42? Multiply by 4, so the teacher purchased 12 books total.
paperback hardcover total
3 × $4 1 × $2 4bookscosting$14
× 3 × 3 × 3
12 books costing $42
page 77
3. D Set up the proportion and solve:
3
5
=
12
x
. 3x = 60, so x = 20.
4. C Set up the proportion and solve:
$ .
$ .
$ . 4 00
0 24
15 00
=
x
. 4x = 3.60, so x = $0.90.
13. 124 Set up the proportion and solve:
155
5 4
words
mins mins
=
x
. 5x = 620, so
x = 124.
14. 36 Set up the proportion and solve:
450
180
90 miles
mins
miles
=
x
. 450x = 16200, so
x = 36.
page 78
9. A Plug in the answers. Look for an answer that, when plugged into the equa-
tions provided as the x value, makes y = 0. Only (A) works: y = x
2
– 16 when
q (the x coordinate) is –4 and y = 0.
12. A Re-write the equation in the question as well as those in the answer choices
so that they are in y = mx + b form. The equation in the question is now
y =
3
2
7
2
x +
. When a line is refected across the y-axis, the slope of the new
line is the negative of the original line’s slope, so we want an answer with
a slope of –
3
2
. Eliminate (B), (D), and (E). We also know that when a line
is refected across the y-axis, its y-intercept remains the same, so pick the
answer with a y-intercept value of
7
2
. Only (A) works.
13. C Use the graph to fnd the values you need. If g (4) = d, that means that
x = 4. Look at the graph and fnd the y value when x = 4. Clearly, when x = 4,
y = 6, so d = 6. Now fnd g(6) the same way on the graph: when x = 6,
y equals a number between 7 and 8.
17 Answers Exp 182 11/16/05 4:14:17 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 183
page 79
14. A Use transformation rules. When you add in the parentheses, the graph shifts
that number of units to the left. When you subtract outside of the parentheses,
the graph shifts down that number of units. Only (A) works.
18.
1
32
Start with what you know: The distance from point A to D is 8, and the area
of the fgure is 128, so the other side of the rectangle must be
128
8
= 16.
Therefore, the value of a is 8, and point D is (4, –8) on the graph. You now
have the coordinates of point D on the graph, so plug in the coordinates for
D into the equation and solve for c. y = –cx
4
, so –8 = –c(4)
4
= –c(256). So, c
=
1
32
.
17 Answers Exp 183 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM
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CrITICAL reADING HoMework
pages 103–104
21. Eliminate (A), (B), and (C) because they are probably all too extreme to be best
answers on the SAT.
26. Eliminate (A) and (C) because they are also probably too extreme to be best
answers on the SAT.
page 105
1. “Killer bees” is not an accurate name for Africanized bees.
2. Three men who seemed to agree actually disagree strongly.
3. The weather in Scotland is not pretty.
4. Flying machines’ wings were modeled after birds’ wings.
5. The economy is not good.
pages 106–107
12. E Papua New Guinea has a coast (line 1) and is an island (line 2).
13. C Kula is defned as a system in which male Trobrianders participate (lines
4–5), but we can’t know if women will eventually take part as well.
14. D Lines 1–3.
15. D The author’s conclusion is that pizza is a “multicultural and ... multi-conti-
nental collaboration that has evolved over the centuries” (lines 2–4). If pizza
originates in Greece (line 4), but is further developed in Chicago, these facts
would support his conclusion.
16. B The principle: human habitation has a negative effect on the environment. The
example: the San Joaquin fox’s population drop. The different interpretation:
foxes benefting from living near humans (line 7).
17. B Put in your own word or phrase: something like “living together situation.”
Only (B) carries this meaning.
18. B This use of language helps the reader “imagine” the perspective of early
peoples.
19. C Put in your own word: something like “predicted.” Only (C) carries this
meaning.
17 Answers Exp 184 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 185
page 108
6. C You need an answer that suggests the quest for immortality is NOT the most
important theme in Gilgamesh. (C) is correct, because it suggests that the
most important theme is “loss.”
7. B The author of Passage 2 states that we “see for ourselves the meaning of a
story,” so he would probably not agree with the author of Passage 1 that there
is only one important theme.
8. A Both passage mention the age of Gilgamesh: it is referred to as “ancient”
(Passage 1, line 1) and as having been written “four thousand years” ago in
Passage 2, line 19.
9. D This is a great paraphrase of the primary purpose of each passage.
pages 109–110
10. C Lines 1–7.
11. D Lines 16–23.
12. A We need a word that means “realism.” (A) is closest to this meaning.
13. D The footnote and lines 28–32 support this answer.
14. B Lines 38–42.
15. D Lines 38–45.
16. C The quote refers to the paintings, not Giotto, and is neither critical nor con-
fused.
17. B Lines 55–60.
18. C Lines 28–34 and the footnote support this answer.
pages 111–113
7. B We need a word that means “uphold.” (B) is closest to this meaning.
8. D Lines 1–5.
9. C Lines 21–24.
10. E Lines 8–9 and 28–30.
11. A Lines 33–36.
12. D Lines 63–70.
13. B Lines 71–73.
14. C This is not cited as a reason anywhere in the passage.
15. E Lines 56–62.
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16. B Lines 86–96.
17. E This is the best paraphrase of the meaning of lines 94–95, that there was no
alternative for women at this time.
18. D Lines 96–100.
pages 114–117
1. C We need a word that means “wealth.” (C) is closest to this meaning.
2. C The author is wondering whether environmentalists are truly devoted to the
cause. Only (C) works.
3. D Lines 25–29.
4. C We need a word that means “made worse.” (C) is closest to this meaning.
5. E Lines 30–34.
6. C Lines 47–50.
7. C Lines 61–64.
8. E Pollen is not pollution. The other four answers do suggest that there are costs
connected to pollution that are not health related.
9. D Lines 91–97.
10. B Lines 102–108.
11. D This is the best paraphrase of the two passages. Other answers are either
not stated (A and E), extreme (C), or not true (B).
12. A Passage 1 discusses money, while Passage 2 discusses health.
13. A The author of Passage 2 uses a direct quotation in lines 91 to the end of the
passage. The author of Passage 1 does not do this.
17 Answers Exp 186 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 187
sentence completions
Be sure to look up and memorize any words that you don’t know!
page 118
1. horrible
1. seriousness, gravity
2. excitement
3. standard
5. rebirth
5. soften, give up
6. shouting
7. infux, addition
7. wasteful
7. death, extinction
7. study, scrutiny
9. penniless, broke
10. required, necessary
10. relentless, persistent
4. C
6. A
7. B
pages 119–120
8. Eliminate (A) and (B)
10. Eliminate (B) and (E)
1. A
2. D
3. C
4. A
5. C
6. C
17 Answers Exp 187 11/16/05 4:14:20 PM
188 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
7. D
8. D
9. B
wrITING HoMework
pages 154–155
Drill one
1. D Correction: no
2. C Correction: Liz and her
3. E No error
4. B Correction: swipe
5. A Correction: who are
6. E No error
7. C Correction: her
8. C Correction: enjoy
9. A Correction: frequently
10. D Correction: grow
11. C Correction: or
12. C Correction: but also
13. E No error
14. A Correction: had lain
15. C Correction: it was
16. B Correction: they are becoming
17. D Correction: was the most
17 Answers Exp 188 11/16/05 4:14:20 PM
Answers & explanations
© The Princeton Review, Inc. | 189
pages 156–158
Drill two
1. D Correction: exist
2. E No error
3. D Correction: reads the local
4. E No error
5. C Correction: drive more slowly
6. E No error
7. D Correction: have been
8. E No error
9. B Correction: such as
10. A Correction: a hardworking and
11. E No error
12. D Correction: that of gasoline-powered
13. A Correction: consider
14. A Correction: should have
15. E No error
16. A Correction: Domestic
17. E No error
18. A Correction: shaken up
19. E No error
20. C Correction: moved
21. B Correction: is essential
22. A Correction: is going
23. E No error
24. D Correction: responsible for planting
25. B Correction: doing so
26. E No error
17 Answers Exp 189 11/16/05 4:14:20 PM
190 | © The Princeton Review, Inc.
refresher Manual for the SAT
page 159–160
improving sentences Drill
1. E The original sentence is passive and incomplete.
2. A The original sentence is correct as written.
3. A The original sentence is correct as written.
4. B The original sentence uses the wrong conjunction.
5. C The original sentence uses the wrong verb tense.
6. E The original sentence is passive.
7. A The original sentence is correct as written.
8. A The original sentence is correct as written.
9. B The original sentence uses the wrong conjunction.
10. C The original sentence uses the wrong idiom.
11. A The original sentence is correct as written.
12. D The original sentence contains a noun agreement error.
13. D The original sentence contains a parallelism error.
17 Answers Exp 190 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM
17 Answers Exp 191 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM
17 Answers Exp 192 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM
17 Answers Exp 193 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM
17 Answers Exp 194 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM

Copyright © 2006 by The Princeton Review, Inc. All Rights Reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced for distribution to a third party in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information retrieval system, without the prior consent of the publisher, The Princeton Review. Permission to reprint this material does not constitute review or endorsement by the Educational Testing Service, of this publication as a whole or of any other sample questions or testing information it may contain. This Manual is for the exclusive use of Princeton Review course students, and is not legal for resale. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board. The Princeton Review is not affiliated with Princeton University or the Educational Testing Service. 866.TPR.PREP/ www.PrincetonReview.com

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Acknowledgments

These people rock: Joan Afton, Jennifer Arias, Siddiq Bello, Fred Bernstein, Carol Brenneisen, Lisa Buchman, Morgan Chase, Rob Cohen, Mariwyn Curtin, Jon Dohlin, Ken Dow, Dan Edmonds, Alicia Ernst, Louise Favier, Michael Freedman, Len Galla, Jodie Gaudet, Jay Glick, Andrea Goldfein, Andra Gordon, Effie Hadjiioannou, Peter Hanink, Clayton Harding, Scott Karp, John Katzman, Meher Khambata, Jane Lacher, Illeny Maaza, Tom Meltzer, Nikki Moss, Jefferson Nichols, John Pak, Chee Pae, Isabel Parlett, Magda Pecsenye, Maria Quinlan, Valli Rajah, Carmine Raspaolo, Joe Reddy, Jennifer Robbins, Jeff Rubenstein, Joe Sampson, Nick Schaffzin, Jon Spaihts, Joshua Shaub, Graham Sultan, Rachael Unite, Eric Wertzer, Stephen White, Jeannie Yoon, and the staff and students of The Princeton Review. Special thanks to Adam Cadre, Alex Schaffer, Christine Parker, Dave Ragsdale, and John Fulmer for their enormous contributions to this manual. Special thanks to Adam Robinson, who conceived of and perfected the Joe Bloggs approach to standardized testing, and many of the other techniques in this manual. Version 7.1

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00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 4

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5 Plugging In ........................................................1 Math Introduction ......45 Math Homework ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Critical Reading Introduction ..35 POOD Review .....................................81 © The Princeton Review.25 What If I’m Stuck? ...................................................................................................................11 Geometry ..............................................................................17 Other Approaches .................................................................................................................................................contents Introduction .......................................................................... Inc....... |  00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 5 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM ..............................

.............161 i | © The Princeton Review........... 153 Answers & Explanations ......97 Critical Reading Homework .............................. Inc........... 135 Error IDs and Improving Paragraphs ...................................................................... Revisited......... 00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 6 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM ........................................121 The Essay...................................................... 143 Grammar Homework .... 125 Improving Sentences........................................................................................................................Refresher Manual for the SAT Reading Comprehension ................... 103 Writing Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................85 Sentence Completions ...........................................................................

Others among you have already taken the SAT and some of you have not yet improved as much as you would like. Fortunately. We’re here to help! How tHe refresHer course Is dIfferent Because you’ve already taken one of our courses. you now have another chance! Regardless of why you are here.IntroductIon WelcoMe BAck! Many of you are here because you took a course this summer and you are refreshing your skills for an upcoming test. there’s no need for us to teach you our techniques from scratch—you already have a pretty good idea of how to use them! Instead we’ll re-familiarize you with the techniques and give you more guided practice in using them efficiently. © The Princeton Review. Inc. we’re are going to do our best to help you improve your score. If you have a problem—you’ve forgotten a technique. or perhaps never even learned it—let us know. |  00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 1 11/15/05 3:28:26 PM .

If you aren’t doing all of the following. which could be reading. so you never have to take the SAT again! STRucTuRe of The SAT The SAT now has three Math sections. Inc. you’re not getting the highest score that you can. There are a number of ways that you can improve your score. and one essay.. mAtH  | © The Princeton Review. or grammar.. There is also one. • • • • • Answering the right number of questions Choosing the best questions to answer Using POE and guessing aggressively Practicing the techniques Learning more vocabulary You can’t raise your score if you don’t put in the work. three Critical Reading sections.Refresher Manual for the SAT wHAt score Improvement cAn You expect for tHIs course? This will obviously vary. The lower your score is. Come to class. Put in the work now. 25-minute experimental section. the more likely you are to improve dramatically. math. The total testing time is now 3 hours and 45 minutes. 00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 2 11/15/05 3:28:27 PM . do your homework. take the diagnostic tests. If you have already gone up more than 150 points.. two multiple-choice Grammar sections. it is still possible for you to squeeze out some more points. ask questions. analyze your performance.

. Inc. . . . . . 14 New! Grammar questions are also ordered roughly by difficulty. . . . |  00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 3 11/15/05 3:28:29 PM . . 29 30 . . . . . . . . 11 12 . . . . . . Easy Medium Improving Sentences Difficult 35 Questions 25-Minute Section 14 Questions 10-Minute Section © The Princeton Review. . . . . 35 1 . . . . .Introduction crItIcAl reAdIng Easy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sentence Completions Short Reading Medium Difficult Easy Sentence Completions Medium Difficult Short Reading Long Reading Long Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sentence Completions Easy Medium Difficult Long Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 24 Questions 25-Minute Section 24 Questions 25-Minute Section 19 Questions 20-Minute Section grAmmAr Improving Sentences Easy Medium Difficult Easy Error ID Medium Difficult Improving Paragraphs 1 . . .

 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the SAT summArY No matter when you first prepped for the SAT. 00 Refresher SAT FM & Intro 4 11/15/05 3:28:30 PM . Inc. use your TPR techniques! A consistent approach to the SAT will get you far.

|  01 Math Introduction 5 11/15/05 3:28:34 PM . you’re wrong.” To help eliminate those “careless mistakes”: • don’t do the math in your head—write everything down • re-read the question before you bubble to be sure you are answering the right question © The Princeton Review. Half of all Math section errors are caused by misreading—these are often your “careless mistakes.Math IntroductIon If you think reading is important only on the Critical Reading section. Inc.

Keep ETS’s order of difficulty in mind. and the order in which you answer them. As your diagnostic score goes up. 6 | © The Princeton Review. So attempt this many questions To get: (scaled score) 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 You need to earn: (raw points) 7 12 19 25 32 38 44 47 52 54 20question PS 6 7 9 11 14 16 18 all all all 8question PS 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 all all all Grid-Ins 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 all all 16question PS 2 4 6 8 10 13 15 all all all Total # of questions to attempt 12 17 23 29 36 42 48 53 54 54 Unless you’re shooting for a 700 or higher. Go through the section looking for questions that look easier for you. Slow down and score more. By rushing through too many questions. You should use all of your time to work on those questions. rather than sitting around with ten minutes left at the end of every section. you’ll have less time to concentrate on each question. and you know a lot of strategies that take advantage of the way ETS writes the test. Look at the pacing chart and memorize the number of questions you need to answer to get the score you want. Inc. you’re actually hurting your score.Refresher Manual for the SAT PACING Your target score is the score you will aim for on your next diagnostic or the real SAT. If you’re doing more questions than you need to. you only need to do about half of the questions to get a 500. do not do every question! As you can see. Take more time per question and get more of them right. 01 Math Introduction 6 11/15/05 3:28:35 PM . and you’ll make more careless errors. but always remember that you control which questions you answer. so will your target score. You have your own personal strengths and weaknesses. PERSONAL ORDER OF DIFFICULTY Remember that the order of difficulty on the SAT is not perfect.

If the original owner of an outfit receives $98 from a sale. how much did the store charge for the outfit? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) $66 $100 $136 $140 $163 JOE BLOGGS. How many JB answers can you eliminate before solving the problem? 18. Don’t fall for ETS traps. what is the middle number? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18 20 95 98 100 10. Inc. guess! How many answer choices can you eliminate before solving the question? 3.Math Introduction PROCESS OF ELIMINATION (POE) Always look for ways to eliminate incorrect answers. and gives the rest to the original owner. Don’t be predictable. what is the LEAST number of miles that the car must travel before four digits on the odometer are identical again? (A) 99 (B) 444 (C) 666 (D) 1. If a car’s odometer reads 73. | 7 01 Math Introduction 7 11/15/05 3:28:35 PM .111 (E) 4. If you can eliminate even one. Don’t be Joe.444 © The Princeton Review. HAVEN’T WE MET BEFORE? Joe Bloggs gets difficult questions wrong because he’s predictable. When a certain used-clothing store sells clothes.333 miles. If the sum of 5 consecutive integers is 100. it keeps 30 percent of the money.

004 If you can eliminate any of the answer choices. A shop owner buys apples at wholesale cost and sells each apple at a profit of 20 percent. 01 Math Introduction 8 11/15/05 3:28:36 PM . 10.992 4.002 1. what percent profit will he make on his investment? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 10% 14% 15% 18% 25% BALLPARKING Ballparking will also help you eliminate answer choices. guess.005 8. If the shop owner charges the same amount for each apple. and sells all but 5 percent of his inventory. Which one of the following numbers would be increased by approximately 100 percent if the order of its digits were reversed? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 203 1.Refresher Manual for the SAT 19. Inc. 8 | © The Princeton Review.

) what You can’t GrId In (EvEn If You wantEd to) • Negatives • Square roots • π • Variables • % signs • $ signs © The Princeton Review.Math Introduction THE PRINCETON REVIEW’S GUIDE TO GRIDDING how to GrId • Write your answer in the spaces at the top before gridding. Of 15 people who entered a store in a one-hour period. |  01 Math Introduction 9 11/15/05 3:28:36 PM . What percent of the people who entered the store that hour bought at least two items? (Ignore the percent sign when gridding in your answer. Inc. • • • Don’t reduce fractions if they already fit in the grid. • Grid in answers as far to the left in the grid box as possible. Don’t round decimals. two bought nothing. Don’t grid in mixed fractions. and the rest bought two or more items. seven bought exactly one item. 18.

01 Math Introduction 10 11/15/05 3:28:36 PM .

in terms of c. then. It’s the one thing that can help your score the most. | 11 02 Plugging In 11 11/15/05 3:28:41 PM . it’s our signal to Plug In! • Do not Plug In numbers that appear in the answer choices or in the question. © The Princeton Review. • Do not Plug In zero or one. But.PLUGGING IN Plugging In is the most important math technique. If Derrick is half as old as Blaine. WHEN TO PLUG IN 8. • Do not Plug In the same number for two different variables. Charlene is c years old and is 5 years younger than Derrick. how many years old is Blaine? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) c – 10 c + 5 c + 10 2c + 5 2c + 10 Remember that “in terms of” is a needless phrase that ETS uses to confuse you. Plugging In turns algebra and geometry problems into arithmetic problems. Inc.

Steve usually jogs h kilometers every day. what is the value of b in terms of a? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12 90 + a 90 + 2a 180 – 2a 360 – 2a 2a | © The Princeton Review. and on Saturday Steve jogged half his usual daily distance. Always check all 5 answer choices when you Plug In.5h 7h 6. how many total kilometers. 02 Plugging In 12 11/15/05 3:28:42 PM . Inc.5h 3. If Steve jogged his usual daily distance on each of the other days. Steve jogged twice his usual daily distance. 17. In the figure above. did Steve jog last week? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 9h 8.Refresher Manual for the SAT 12. which of the following must also h be an integer? h g (A) (B) g (C) gh (D) (E) g2 h g2 h2 Remember that you can plug in on any problem that has variables in the answers.5h Choose numbers that make the arithmetic as easy as possible. in terms of h. If g is an integer. On Monday and Wednesday of last week. Don’t forget the rules of geometry when Plugging In! 12. however.

the merchant increases the new price of the shoes by 50 percent. If the initial population was 12. | 13 02 Plugging In 13 11/15/05 3:28:45 PM . the population of a certain bacteria doubles every 3 hours. In a laboratory setting.) © The Princeton Review. you can even plug in on Grid-Ins! 18. which of the following expresses the population after h hours? h (A) 2 × 3 2 h (B) 3 × 12 2 (C) 12 × 23h h (D) 12 × 2 3 (E) 12 × 2 h Sometimes. Inc.Plugging In 15. After several weeks. The resulting price of the shoes is what percent greater than the original price of the shoes? (Disregard the percent sign when gridding your answer. A merchant reduces the original price of a pair of shoes by 10 percent.

If you’re having trouble. Inc. Alex is three times as old as Betty. Y. then what is the cost of X ? Label → ________ ________ _______ (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) $85 $80 $75 $65 $55 PLUGGING IN TIMED DRILL See how well you do on this drill. STOP. If Y costs $10 more than X. see what other techniques you can apply. and Z costs $10 more than Y. How old is Betty now? (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20 (E) 30 14 | © The Princeton Review. 02 Plugging In 14 11/15/05 3:28:46 PM . In five years. work the steps of the problem.Refresher Manual for the SAT PLUGGING IN THE ANSWERS On the SATs you’ll have plenty of chances to PITA. and Z is $225. Look for something in the problem that tells you if the answer is correct. The combined cost of items X. Just remember the following rules: Label your answers. When you fi nd the correct answer. It’s all about POOD! Time: 10 minutes Target Score < 450 460–550 560–650 > 650 # of Questions to Attempt 3 or 4 4 or 5 6 or 7 All 6. Alex will be twice as old as Betty. 16. Starting with answer choice C. Just remember all the different ways you can plug in.

Plugging In

7. If ab = 48 and

a 3 = , which of the following could b 4 be the value of a ?

(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 12 (E) 16

10. In the figure above, if x = 4y, what is the value of y ? (A) 4 (B) 16 (C) 18 (D) 36 (E) 72

11. If

1 1 = t and t 2 = , what is r in terms of s ? r s2
4

(A) (B)

s s

(C) 4s (D) s 2 (E) s 4 13. Jerome won the lottery. He paid one quarter of his winnings to the government in taxes. He gave $3,000 to his mother and $1,000 to his friend. If he had $11,000 left, how much money did he originally win? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) $12,000 $15,000 $18,000 $20,000 $45,000

16. If x is k percent of y, what percent of y is kx ? k % 100 100 (B) % k (A) (C) k% (D) 100k% (E) k 2 %
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Refresher Manual for the SAT

B

x

A

C

18. In right triangle ABC above, AB is twice BC. If AB = x, what is the area of  ABC in terms of x ? x 2 8 x 3 8 x2 2 4 x2 3 4 x2 3 8

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

19. A car salesman sells half of the cars in his showroom in one week. The next week, he sells one-third of the remaining cars. At the end of the two weeks, what fraction of the original number of cars did he sell? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6

16

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Geometry

Reference Information

r
2

l
w A = lw

h b A = 1 bh
2

h

•r

A= r C=2 r

l V = lwh

w V = r 2h

h b

c a c 2 = a 2 + b2

2x

60 x s 45

s 2

30 45 s 3 x Special Right Triangles

The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

Remember that you’re given many of the formulas you’ll need for the geometry. Now all that’s left is to be able to use the information you’re given to your advantage.

10. In the figure above, if z = 110, then z + y = (A) 200 (B) 180 (C) 130 (D) 110 (E) 90

Write any info from the problem on the figure. Work from what you know to what you don’t know.

What information are you given?

What rules can help you?

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13. Quadrilateral ABCD shown above has an area of 72. If ED = BF = 6, what is the length of AC ? (A) 6 (B) 12 (C) 18 (D) 24 (E) 36

Write down the formula you need:

Now fill in what you already know:

What do you need to find to finish the problem?

No figure given? No problem! Just draw your own. Draw figures that are missing. Fill in anything you already know.

14. In a right triangle, one leg has length x and the other 4 has a length of x . Which of the following express3 es the length of the hypotenuse in terms of x ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 3 x 5 3 x 4 4 x 5 5 x 4 5 x 3

Just keep applying the basic geometry advice, even if a question involves a number of steps.
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what is the ratio of the circumference of Circle O to the area of Circle O ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1:4 1:2 1:1 2:1 4:1 What should you do first? What should you do next? 6. | 19 03 Geometry 19 11/15/05 3:28:59 PM . What is the slope of the line that passes through the points with coordinates (2. what is the area of ABCD ? (A) 144 (B) 128 (C) 96 (D) 64 (E) 48 Draw a line to create basic shapes that have nice formulas. If Circle O has a radius of 4. Inc. 10. In the figure above. 6) and (3. 5) ? (A) –1 1 2 1 (C) 2 (B) – (D) 1 (E) 2 © The Princeton Review.Geometry 12. if AB = BC = 8.

In the figure above. Inc. In the figure above. 03 Geometry 20 11/15/05 3:28:59 PM . Time: 10 minutes Target Score < 450 460–550 560–650 > 650 # of Questions to Attempt 3 or 4 4 or 5 6 or 7 All 3. if b = 25. QS = SR. what is the value of a ? (A) 15 (B) 75 (C) 90 (D) 105 (E) 155 4. if PT = TQ. then z = (A) 10 (B) 40 (C) 60 (D) 90 (E) 110 20 | © The Princeton Review. Then see what you can eliminate on the others.Refresher Manual for the SAT GEOMETRY TiMEd dRiLL Test out your geometry skills. Choose the problems that you know how to do first.

Geometry 10. what is the area of rectangle PQRS in terms of k ? k2 4 k2 (B) 2 (A) (C) k 2 (D) 2 k 2 (E) 4 k 2 © The Princeton Review. then x = (A) 180 (B) 110 (C) 60 (D) 40 (E) 30 11. Inc. In the figure above. | 21 03 Geometry 21 11/15/05 3:29:01 PM . In the figure above. If QR = k. if l1 || l2 . side PS of rectangle PQRS is tangent to the circle with center O at point T.

and l2 is parallel to the x axis. l2 . Inc. Which of the following is a negative number? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) b + c a + b c – a b 2c 17. then what is its length? (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 16 (E) 32 18. b. its length is twice its width. and its width is twice its height. If the volume of a rectangular solid is 64. respectively. Lines l1 . 03 Geometry 22 11/15/05 3:29:03 PM . what is the ratio of the volume of cube A to the volume of cube B ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 : 3 1 : 9 1 : 27 1 : 81 1 : 729 22 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the SAT 16. and c. If the ratio of x to y is 1 to 9. respectively. Cubes A and B have faces with areas x and y. and l3 have slopes of a.

vertex B at (–1. 4). Inc. | 23 03 Geometry 23 11/15/05 3:29:04 PM . 1). Square ABCD (not shown) has vertex A at (–1.Geometry 19. 1). and vertex D at (2. What is the slope of the line passing through vertex C and the origin? (A) –2 1 2 3 (C) 2 (B) – (D) 2 (E) 4 © The Princeton Review.

03 Geometry 24 11/15/05 3:29:04 PM .

Other ApprOAches

Want a better score? ETS expects you to complete problems the way that you were taught in school. But, anytime that you do what the test writer expects, you don’t get the best score that you could.

Arithmetic
Don’t do these the way that ETS expects!

17. A factory produces an average of 50 televisions per day for 4 days, and an average of 20 televisions per day for the next 8 days. What is the average number of televisions produced per day by the factory over the entire 12-day period? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12 20 30 35 36

As soon as you see the word average, draw an average pie.

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refresher manual for the SAt

Use the ratio box for part to part comparisons.

11. A fruit vendor sells 8 bananas for every 5 mangoes. If the vendor sells 24 bananas, what is the total number of pieces of fruit sold? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 13 15 24 37 39

9. A team won 36 of the 60 games it played. If there were no games tied or forfeited, what percent of the games did the team lose? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 24% 36% 40% 50% 60%

Translate the question into math: What percent of the games did the team lose?

What’s the best formula to use for inverse variation?

14. Kumar finds that the number of mistakes that he makes on a 50-question test varies inversely with the amount of time that he spends studying. If Kumar made 10 mistakes on his last 50-question test and studied for 3 hours, how many mistakes can he expect to make on his next such test if he studies for 5 hours? (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 15 (D) 17 (E) 30

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Other Approaches

7. A store is encouraging business by giving away door prizes. A prize is given to the second customer of the day and to every fifth customer after that. Which one of the following customers will receive a prize? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 61 65 68 73 82

How do you discover a pattern?

15. For all x ≥ 1 , let f ( x ) = (1 + x − 1 )2 . For which of the following values of x does f ( x ) = 9 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2 3 4 5 9

What technique will help with this question?

10. All of the students enrolled in a certain school district are between the ages of 5 and 19, inclusive. If a student whose age is x enrolls in this school district, which of the following most accurately expresses all possible values for x ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) x − 19 ≤ 5 x − 12 ≤ 7 x − 24 ≤ 14 x − 12 ≤ 5 x − 19 ≤ 7

What’s the best way to handle this question?

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GrAphS
Here are some ways that ETS tests graphs. What’s the easiest way to do each of these problems? y
7 6 5 4 3 2 1

y = f (x)

O

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

x

16. The figure above shows the graph of y = f (x). The function g is defined as g  x) = 2f (x + 3). If g  x) = 6, ( ( which of the following could be the value of x ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 2 3 7 8

14. The figure above shows the graph of y = f ( x ) for −4 ≤ x ≤ 4 . If f ( x ) = − x 2 + 16, what is the area of LMN(not shown)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 32 24 16 8 4

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04 Other app 28

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The graph of y = f ( x ) is shown in the figure above. Which of the following shows the reflection of the graph of y = f ( x ) across the x-axis? (A) (D) (B) (E) (C) © The Princeton Review. | 29 04 Other app 29 11/15/05 3:29:13 PM .Other Approaches 11. Inc.

then how many feet tall is the lamppost? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30 12 14 15 22 25 | © The Princeton Review. Time: 10 minutes Target Score < 450 460–550 560–650 > 650 # of Questions to Attempt 3 or 4 5 or 6 7 or 8 All 7. a lamppost casts a shadow 20 feet long. at the same time. a man 6 feet tall casts a shadow 8 feet long. For which of the following equations would point A be located at (1. The graph of the equation f ( x ) = x + 1 − 1 is shown above. Inc. –1) • 8. 1) ? (A) f ( x ) = x − 1 + 1 (B) (C) (E) f ( x) = x − 1 − 1 f ( x) = x + 1 + 1 f ( x) = x + 1 (D) f ( x ) = x − 1 Other ApprOAcheS timeD Drill Try these.refresher manual for the SAt y O x A (–1. At a certain time of day. 04 Other app 30 11/15/05 3:29:15 PM . If.

Inc. In 1995 the average price of CD players was $300. 4. He must choose one pair of sneakers. 9. If the average (arithmetic mean) of the degree measures of two angles of a right triangle is 70. The median of the numbers in list S will remain unchanged if which of the following numbers is added to the list? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 4 5 6 7 9 13.Other Approaches List S: 4. and one shirt. If Will has four pairs of sneakers. one pair of jeans. how many different outfits could he wear? 14. 9. which of the following must represent the degree measure of one of the three angles of the triangle? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20 25 30 35 40 15. | 31 04 Other app 31 11/15/05 3:29:15 PM . five pairs of jeans. 5 8. and twelve shirts. 9. By what percent did the average price of a CD player change between 1995 and 1999? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 60% 40% 25% 20% 5% © The Princeton Review. 1. In 1999 the average price of CD players was $240. Will is selecting clothes to wear to school.

y = –6 x = 6. If at the end of the season its ratio of wins to losses is 1 to 1. In the remainder of the season. In the first four months of their season. white. Let x @ y be equal to x +1 . what is the probability that it will be purple? 2 9 1 3 2 5 3 5 2 3 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 17. Alice has a full box of purple. If Alice pulls out one ball at random. y = 2 x = 4. Inc. what is the total number of games that the team has played? 32 | © The Princeton Review. the Cooperstown baseball team won 3 games for every 4 it lost. y = 4 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18. y = –1 x = 5. For which of the followy+2 ing is x @ y the greatest? x = 6. y = 7 x = 5. 04 Other app 32 11/15/05 3:29:17 PM . the team played 7 games and won all of them.refresher manual for the SAt 16. with no game ending in a tie. and green tennis balls. and three times as many green balls as purple balls. There are twice as many purple balls as white balls.

Other Approaches y y = x2 J K x y = bx2 – 25 0 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. what is the value of b ? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 10 (E) 25 © The Princeton Review. | 33 04 Other app 33 11/15/05 3:29:18 PM . If the length of JK is equal to 10. The figure above shows the graphs of y = x 2 and y = bx 2 − 25 for some constant b. Inc. 20.

04 Other app 34 11/15/05 3:29:18 PM .

What If I’m Stuck? Even if you don’t know how to solve a problem. x dance tracks. A compact disc is placed in a player that randomly selects and plays songs from the compact disc. POE 14. there are things that you can try. eliminate his answer. If the probability that the first song played will be a ballad 1 is . and no other pieces. 4 instrumental pieces. what is the value of x ? 4 (A) 1 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 9 (E) 12 Just ask Joe! Then. The compact disc contains 3 ballads. Inc. © The Princeton Review. | 35 05 What if Stuck 35 11/15/05 3:29:22 PM .

A candy store offers a 33 % discount on any pur3 chase of three boxes of chocolates. 05 What if Stuck 36 11/15/05 3:29:22 PM . If a = 80. Sheila pays $12 for three boxes of chocolates.Refresher Manual for the SAT What does Joe do? 15. Joe also helps you to avoid picking answers too quickly on problems that you know how to do. Are any answers the wrong size? 1 8. Inc. In the figure above. what is the value of b + c ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 100 180 260 340 It cannot be determined from the information given. What was the amount of her discount. in dollars? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 3 4 6 9 12 36 | © The Princeton Review. three lines intersect as shown. Careless errors can cost you a lot of points.

Ballpark! (C) 10π (D) 25π (E) 50π − 24 ETS loves to include partial answers. A factory produced 3. 40 percent were painted blue. of which 70 percent were painted. 16. Rectangle ABCD has length 6 and width 8.000 chairs on Monday. 16. How many more chairs were NOT painted than were painted blue? (A) 60 (B) 360 (C) 840 (D) 900 (E)1. | 37 05 What if Stuck 37 11/15/05 3:29:24 PM . Inc. Of the chairs that were painted. What is the area of the shaded region? (A) 25π − 48 2 (B) 25π − 24 2 Use the figure. Sometimes you can eliminate something that is wrong even if you only work the first step of the problem.What If I’m Stuck? Note: Figure not drawn to scale.260 How many partial answers can you find in this problem? © The Princeton Review.

Which of the following linear equations describes the relationship? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) y=x+1 y=x+5 y = 3x y = 3x + 1 y = 4x – 1 38 | © The Princeton Review. what is the height of the antenna in feet? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 42 45 56 59 70 MORE PluggIng In Plugging In and Plugging In The Answers can save the day on lots of different kinds of questions. Inc. and the wire rises four feet for every three feet it travels horizontally. A radio antenna and a three-foot pole are installed 42 feet apart on a level flat roof. 05 What if Stuck 38 11/15/05 3:29:24 PM . How can you use the technique on these? z+2 8 = . The table above represents a relationship between x and y. If (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 4. then what is one possible value of z ? z−3 z −6 −4 −2 2 12 x y 2 7 3 10 4 13 5 16 20. If a wire runs from the top of the pole to the top of the antenna.Refresher Manual for the SAT What answer could you get by just doing simple operations with the numbers? Would the answer really be that easy? 18.

Let the function f be defined by f (x) = 2x – 9. If f (a) = b. Inc. At a certain company. If the value v in dollars of the car that the employee owns is given by the function s − 18. what is the difference between f (2a) and f (a). | 39 05 What if Stuck 39 11/15/05 3:29:25 PM .000.000. where y is the number of years the employee has worked at the company. 000 . an employee’s salary s in dollars is given by the function s(y) = 1. how many years has Kelly worked for this company? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 34 32 18 12 8 13.What If I’m Stuck? 18. and Kelly is an employee of this v( s ) = 2 company whose car has a value of $30.500y + 30. in terms of b ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2b – 9 2b b b+9 2b + 9 © The Princeton Review.

and (–3. (2. what is the greatest number of postcards that can be purchased with $3. The areas are given for each of the small rectangles in the figure above. If a square of area 25 has vertices at (–3. 4) (1. 4). –2) (–2.Refresher Manual for the SAT TIMED DRIll Time: 15 minutes Target Score < 450 460–550 560–650 > 650 # of Questions to Attempt 6 to 8 9 to 11 12 to 14 All 3. 05 What if Stuck 40 11/15/05 3:29:25 PM . 4) 75° a° 2a° 30° 4. 4) (2. –3) (2. –1). In the figure above. –1).00 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8 7 6 5 4 40 | © The Princeton Review. what are the coordinates of the remaining vertex? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1. what is the value of a ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 60 85 170 180 255 2. What is the area of the entire figure? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) n+6 n+7 2n – 7 5n + 7 5n + 17 (–3. Inc. If the price of postcards ranges from 40 cents to 70 cents each.

took place between the years (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1996 and 1997 1997 and 1998 1998 and 1999 1999 and 2000 2000 and 2001 (C) Note: Figure not drawn to scale. Inc. what is one possible height of a stack of such blocks? (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18 24 35 39 42 © The Princeton Review. If y = f ( x ) . the greatest annual percentage change in the number of toasters sold by Tostit Co. and the thickness of each layer is an integer.What If I’m Stuck? 5. (D) 7. If each plastic layer is one-third as thick as the wooden layer. The laminated block shown above consists of a layer of wood between two layers of plastic. | 41 05 What if Stuck 41 11/15/05 3:29:27 PM . According to the graph above. which of the following could be the graph of y = f ( x ) ? (A) (B) 6.

3. then how many arrangements of scientists are available? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21 35 210 314 343 10. a researcher.Refresher Manual for the SAT 8. and y is 4 more than x. Inc. 11} {2. 3. If X = A ∩ B . 9. set B consists of the integers between 2 and 12 inclusive. what is the remainder when 3(x + 2) is divided by 5 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 0 1 2 4 6 11. If she has 7 scientists from which to choose. 5} 9. and an assistant to develop a new laser. 9. which of the following must be true? (A) 2r = 2s (B) rs = r2 (C) 2r – s = r + s (D) r2 + s2 = 0 (E) r2 =1 s2 12. which of the following is X ∪ Y ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) {1. and r + s = 0. 9. 11} {3. If r and s are nonzero integers. then what is the sum of x and y ? (A) –8 (B) –4 (C) 0 (D) 4 (E) 7 42 | © The Princeton Review. 5. 11} {2. Set A consists of the positive odd numbers. and set D consists of the distinct positive integer factors of 30. and Y = C ∩ D . 5} {2. 7. Lori is forming a team consisting of a team leader. 2. 7. If x is 3 times y. 5. set C consists of the positive prime numbers less than or equal to 25. If x is divisible by 5. 3. 05 What if Stuck 42 11/15/05 3:29:28 PM . 7.

what is the minimum number of flyers she can distribute? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6 60 120 150 180 14. and the number of paintings she sells is directly proportional to the number of art shows she has per month.What If I’m Stuck? 13. The diagram above shows all paths in a garden between gazebo A and gazebo B. If each path segment is 30 feet long. If the train is traveling on a track with light posts placed every 600 feet.600 this month. The wheels of a train each have a radius of 9 inches.32) π 15.16) (E) 200π (approximately 628.08) (D) 100π (approximately 314. what is the length in feet of the longest path that can be walked from gazebo A to gazebo B without passing a statue or retracing any path segment? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 60 180 240 300 360 (A) (B) (C) 50π (approximately 157.32) © The Princeton Review.66) π 400 (approximately 127. She must distribute at least 30 flyers for each show. how many revolutions will each wheel make between one light post and the next? 200 (approximately 63. If she needs to earn $3. Last month she earned $2. | 43 05 What if Stuck 43 11/15/05 3:29:29 PM .400 by selling 120 paintings during the 4 art shows she had. Inc. A certain artist’s income is directly proportional to the number of paintings she sells.

05 What if Stuck 44 11/15/05 3:29:29 PM .

each with a perimeter of 12. Try these problems. If you can’t figure out how to solve it. Three squares. Remember that good pacing and careful problem selection have a huge impact on your score. are joined to form a rectangle. Inc.POOD Review It’s time to put it all together. can you eliminate any answer choices by ballparking? Are there Joe Bloggs answers? Did you try to Plug In or PITA? Good test takers are flexible in their approach. | 45 06 POOD Review 45 11/15/05 3:29:33 PM . What is the perimeter of the resulting rectangle? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18 24 27 36 48 Do it Skip it © The Princeton Review. 6.

Refresher Manual for the SAT Do it Skip it 7. In a dog show. how many cells does the organism contain after x hours? (A) 15002x (B) 1500 × 2 (C) 1500 × 2 (D) 2 × 1500 (E) 2 × 1500 x 12 x x 12 12 x Do it Skip it 8. 06 POOD Review 46 11/15/05 3:29:34 PM . Inc. and the number of cells in the organism doubles every 12 hours. 30 percent of the male dogs and 15 percent of the female dogs won prizes. the number of cells contained in its body grows exponentially. If 30 male dogs and 20 female dogs participated in the competition. During a certain period in the growth of an organism. what percent of the dogs in the show won prizes? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12% 22.5% 24% 45% 90% 46 | © The Princeton Review.500 cells at the beginning of this period. If the organism contained 1.

If she reads 10 pages on the first day. | 47 06 POOD Review 47 11/15/05 3:29:35 PM .POOD Review 9. Inc. Jackie takes 5 days to read a short book. 10 more pages on the third day. and 20 pages on the fifth day. nothing on the fourth day. nothing on the second day. which of the following graphs could be used to show her progress through the book? Do it Skip it (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) © The Princeton Review.

5. 3. 06 POOD Review 48 11/15/05 3:29:37 PM . If x −2 = 81 . 7. 48 | © The Princeton Review. Which of the following is the average (arithmetic mean) of the members of M ∪ N ? (A) (B) 4 (C) (D) 5 (E) 5 4 1 2 5 1 5 2 3 1 Do it Skip it 11.Refresher Manual for the SAT M: {2. what is the value of x 2 ? (A) − (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 9 1 9 1 3 3 9 Do it Skip it 12. Inc. what is the triangle’s area? (A) 6 (B) 12 (C) 14 (D) 24 (E) It cannot be determined from the information given. 9} Do it Skip it 10. 7} N: {2. A right triangle has a perimeter of 24 and a hypotenuse of 10. If the length of all three sides are integers.

the average (arithmetic mean) of the remaining 8 scores is calculated. The average of Jamie’s ten scores is b and the average of her lowest and highest scores is d. In terms of b and d. each contestant receives 10 scores. After the lowest and highest scores are removed.POOD Review 13. In a figure-skating competition. what is the average of Jamie’s eight remaining scores? (A) 10 b − 2 d b−d 8 5b − d (C) 5 8b − d (D) 4 5b − d (E) 4 (B) © The Princeton Review. Inc. then x = (A) 5 Do it Skip it −211 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 16 (E) 243 Do it Skip it 15. what is the distance between the x-intercepts? (A) −5 (B) 0 (C) 2. | 49 06 POOD Review 49 11/15/05 3:29:40 PM . If the y = x − 5 is graphed in the xy-coordinate system.5 (D) 5 (E) 10 Do it Skip it 14. If 4 x 5 − 227 = 2 .

in order to travel the same distance in 3 fewer hours? (A) m(z – 3) (B) mz z−3 (C) z(m – 3) (D) (E) Do it Skip it z−3 mz mz −m z−3 17. A bicyclist travels at a rate of m miles per hour for z hours. Inc. An empty fuel-storage tank with a capacity of x gallons is filled completely by a supply pump at a rate of 5 gallons per minute. If the entire process takes 18 hours.000 3. then the bicyclist would have to increase his rate by how many miles per hour.000 2. If z is greater than 3.600 5. The tank is then immediately drained by an exhaust pump at a rate of 4 gallons per minute. what is the value of m+n? (A) 15 (B) 9 (C) 3 (D) 0 (E) −3 50 | © The Princeton Review. If the graph of f (x) = x2 + mx + n intersects the x-axis exactly one time.Refresher Manual for the SAT Do it Skip it 16. what is the value of x ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2.400 3. in terms of m and z. 06 POOD Review 50 11/15/05 3:29:41 PM .400 Do it Skip it 18. and f (–3) = 0.

| 51 06 POOD Review 51 11/15/05 3:29:41 PM . Beginning with the third term.6 (C) 6. the third term is 16. If 6 a+b .4 (D) 8 (E) 10 20. How many of the first 100 terms in this sequence are odd numbers? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 33 34 50 66 67 Do it Skip it © The Princeton Review. because (7 + 12) – 3 = 16. The first two terms of a sequence are 7 and 12. The area of rectangle QRST in the figure above is 48. what is the value of a ? = a 6 (A) 2 (B) 3.POOD Review Do it Skip it 19. each term is 3 less than the sum of the two numbers immediately preceding it. Inc. For example.

06 POOD Review 52 11/15/05 3:29:41 PM .

This is the best kind of learning. Mark a question with an H if you missed this question and can’t fi gure it out on your own. Mark a question with a G if you got this question right either by guessing or in some mysterious way you can’t remember afterwards. Got it/Guessed. If you make a silly mistake once and realize why you did so. depending on what category it falls into. you are that much closer to NOT doing it next time! Mark a question with an F if you got the question right but want to know if there is a faster way to solve it. The point is to be able to replicate the process by which you correctly answer questions on test day. • Get your hands on a brightly colored highlighter and CLEARLY MARK those questions you want to ask your teacher about in the next class. Mark a question with an N if you got this question right and totally understood both it and the underlying concepts. © The Princeton Review. While we’ll take luck on test day. not so much during the class. M. | 53 07 Math HW 53 11/15/05 3:29:47 PM . then check your answers against the answer key. • Mark each question with an N. You know that you could get this type of question right regardless of how ETS presents it. but understood it upon review. and categorize each question as follows. F. Be sure to review these questions so that you know EXACTLY how it is answered. Inc. Mark a question with an M if you missed it.mAth homeWorK DENVER DAVE’S HOMEWORK REVIEW MODEL Remember: Review EVERY question you work on whether you get it right or wrong. Missed it—Doh! Faster Way? Huh? On the homework pages that follow: • Do the questions. Nailed it. This is defi nitely the kind of question you ask about during homework review at the beginning of each class. This will make them easier for you to fi nd. G. or H.

645 9. If the company originally served c clients when it first formed. how much did it weigh.935 clients. the company now serves 10. Alicia is 5 years younger than Jane. On Wednesday. what is the value of c ? (A) 5 (B) 15 (C) 45 (D) 729 (E) 3. two-thirds of a large block of ice melted.Refresher Manual for the SAT PLUGGING IN 6. how many small puppets were sold? (A) 25 (B) 20 (C) 15 (D) 10 (E) 5 6. After 5 years in business. how many pages. What is the value of x in terms of a and b? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 90 + a − b 90 + a + b 180 + a − b 180 + a + b 180 − b 54 | © The Princeton Review. who is currently j years old. If the store sold 25 puppets for a total of $30. In terms of j. The difference between (p + 5) and (p – 7) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2 12 p–2 2p – 2 p + 12 8. one-half of the remaining ice melted. at the beginning of the day on Tuesday? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 540 480 360 180 20 7. how old will Alicia be in 8 years? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) j+3 j–1 j–3 j–5 j–8 6. In a certain store. If the block of ice then weighed 60 pounds. in terms of x. in pounds. small puppets cost $1 each and large puppets cost $2 each. The number of clients a certain company serves triples for each year the company is in business. On Tuesday. 07 Math HW 54 11/15/05 3:29:48 PM . Printer B’s constant rate is one-third that of Printer A. will they print? (A) 4x (B) 3x (C) 2x 4 (D) x 3 (E) x 9. CD intersects AF at A and AF intersects CE at G. Printer A prints at a constant rate of x pages per hour. If the two printers worked together for three hours. In the figure above. Inc.

how much taller Marlene is than Albert? (A) m – 12w (B) m – w (C) w − 12m 12 (D) 12m − w 12 10. what is the number? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) –12 6 12 16 18 (B) (C) w 2 (D) 2w (E) 4w © The Princeton Review. If Bert is b years old. | 55 07 Math HW 55 11/15/05 3:29:50 PM . If one-fourth of a number is 3 less than half of the number. in feet. which of the following formulas expresses. If Marlene is taller than Albert. which of the following expresses Roger’s age? 1 b–4 (A) 3 (B) b – 4 (C) b + 4 (D) 3b – 4 (E) 3b + 4 (E) 12m – w 11. The area of Circle B is twice the area of Circle A. Ernie is three times as old as Bert and four years younger than Roger. If the radius of Circle B is w. If a is a positive integer. which of the following must be a positive even integer? (A) (a + 2) (B) 2a + 1 (C) 2a (D) 3a + 2 (E) a 3 2 11.Math Homework 9. Inc. what is v in terms of w ? w 2 w 2 (A) 10. Marlene is m feet tall and Albert is w inches tall. Circle A has a radius of v.

the barrel and water weigh a total of 20 pounds. Inc. what is the value of a ? 2a 1 . If z = 13. If x = . 25% study only chemistry and the rest study only biology. 07 Math HW 56 11/15/05 3:29:55 PM . when full. If 20% of the science students at Central High study only physics. in pounds. then x 2 = x (A) (A) 4 z 2 (B) z 2 (C) (D) (E) 1 z2 1 z4 1 2z4 2 3 1 8 1 (B) 2 (C) (D) 2 (E) 8 2 14.Refresher Manual for the SAT 10 a + 6 11. what is the smallest number of science students who could be studying biology? (A) 4 (B) 9 (C) 11 (D) 15 (E) 20 3 13. what is the value of m? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 2 3 4 6 (B) 6c (C) 8c (D) 25c 2 1 13. If. what is the weight. If 1 a = 4 b = 8c then. what is x 4 in terms of y ? y+3 2 y+6 (B) 2 y+6 (C) 4 5y + 3 (D) 10 (A) (E) 20y – 6 2 12. If a2 = 1 . If (2m) = m . of the empty barrel? (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 15 (D) 16 (E) 80 (E) 18c 56 | © The Princeton Review. The weight of a barrel is of the 4 weight of the water it contains when full. and y = 5a. 2 what is the value of a + b ? (A) 9c 2 12. in terms of c.

The score for a certain exam is determined by awarding 3 points for every correct answer and subtracting 1 point for every incorrect answer. In a set of six consecutive integers. which of the following expressions CANNOT be an integer? n a a (B) n a (C) 2n 2a (D) n (A) (E) n2 a 1 17. how much money had she originally saved? (A) $1.Math Homework 14. If she has $350 remaining. 2 She spent of the money on 5 1 clothes and of it on a DVD 4 player. II. If 2x = 3y = 4w. In terms of s. what is the sum of the three greatest integers in the set? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) s+3 s+6 s+9 3s + 6 3s + 9 15. a × b−1 = −ab III. If n is a positive multiple of five and is less than 50.000 (B) $900 (C) $800 (D) $600 (E) $500 16. If 0 < a < 1 and b < 0. Jenn saved some money that she earned working at a summer job. If 2 is an integer. Inc. and III © The Princeton Review. | 57 07 Math HW 57 11/15/05 3:29:58 PM . 2 III. a × a−1 × b = b II. which of the − 2n 3 following could be the value of n ? 3n 3 17. which of the following must be true? I. a × a −1 = −a2 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) None of the above I only II only III only II and III only 15. 3 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) None of the above I only II only I and II only I. what is 5x + 6w in terms of y ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8y 9y 10y 12y 15y 16. How many questions did a student answer correctly if she answered all of the 93 questions on the exam and her final score was 247 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 71 77 82 85 90 I. and a is an even number greater than or equal to 100. the sum of the three smallest integers is s. 1 II.

Inc. How many dollars did Andy have originally? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20 40 50 60 80 58 | © The Princeton Review. If the second term is 10 and the fourth term is 2.5.94t (C) t 0.06t (B) 0. Andy had four times as many dollars as Chris. each term after the first term is found by multiplying the previous term by a. At a cost of t cents for 5 oranges. which of the following expressions could be used to find the price of the item before taxation? (A) 0. If the local sales tax is 6%. what is the value of a? 1 8 1 2 (A) (B) (C) 2 (D) 4 (E) 8 18. and if t is the price of an item after tax has been added. he then had twice as many dollars as Chris.06 (A) (B) 20x (C) t (D) 20t x (D) 1.94 t 1. In sequence F. 07 Math HW 58 11/15/05 3:30:00 PM .Refresher Manual for the SAT 18.06t (E) (E) 20tx 18. When Andy gave Chris ten dollars. how many oranges can be bought for x dollars? 500x t 500t x 19.

Inc. which of the following must be true? I. and two of the numbers are greater than 11. The greatest number is less than 27. II. The least number is less than 5. which of the following statements must be true? (A) x2 < x < (B) x < x2 < (C) x x 19. If the average (arithmetic mean) of three numbers is 9. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I only II only III only I and II only II and III only x < x < x2 x < x2 x <x (D) x < (E) x2 < © The Princeton Review. | 59 07 Math HW 59 11/15/05 3:30:01 PM . The second greatest number is 12. If 0 < x < 1.Math Homework 19. III.

What is the sum of the measures of the angles at the center of a circle? ________________________________________________________________ 6.Refresher Manual for the SAT GEOMETRY 1. What does it mean to bisect an angle or a line segment? ________________________________________________________________ 8. What can you say about the measures of two angles across from each other when two straight lines intersect? ________________________________________________________________ 7. What is the sum of the measures of the angles in a quadrilateral? ________________________________________________________________ 5. What is the sum of the measures of the angles in a triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 4. What does it mean for two lines to be parallel? ________________________________________________________________ 10. What can you say about the angle across from the shortest side in a triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 60 | © The Princeton Review. 07 Math HW 60 11/15/05 3:30:01 PM . What is the sum of the measures of the angles on one side of a straight line? ________________________________________________________________ 3. Inc. What does it mean for two lines to be perpendicular? ________________________________________________________________ 9. What can you say about the angle across from the longest side in a triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 11. What is the measure of a right angle? ________________________________________________________________ 2.

Math Homework 12. What makes a rectangle a square? ________________________________________________________________ 18. What is the formula for the area of a parallelogram (which also applies to a rectangle or a square)? ________________________________________________________________ 20. Name two important facts about an isosceles triangle: ________________________________________________________________ 14. How do the base and height have to be related? ________________________________________________________________ 22. What can you say about the angles across from equal sides in a triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 13. Name three important facts about a parallelogram: ________________________________________________________________ 16. How can you find the perimeter of any polygon? ________________________________________________________________ © The Princeton Review. How does the diameter of a circle compare to the radius? ________________________________________________________________ 19. What makes a parallelogram a rectangle? ________________________________________________________________ 17. | 61 07 Math HW 61 11/15/05 3:30:01 PM . What is the formula for the area of a circle? ________________________________________________________________ 23. Name two important facts about an equilateral triangle: ________________________________________________________________ 15. Inc. What is the formula for the area of a triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 21.

What should you do if no figure is provided for a geometry question? ________________________________________________________________ 34. 07 Math HW 62 11/15/05 3:30:02 PM . What should you do if there are variables in the questions or answer choices? ________________________________________________________________ 35. What is Ballparking? ________________________________________________________________ 62 | © The Princeton Review. What is the ratio of the sides of a 30°-60°-90° triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 31. What is the formula for the Pythagorean theorem. What is the formula for the circumference of a circle? ________________________________________________________________ 25. What is the ratio of the sides of a 45°-45°-90° triangle? ________________________________________________________________ 30. Inc. and what do the variables represent? ________________________________________________________________ 26. What is the formula for the volume of a rectangular box? ________________________________________________________________ 28. What are the ratios of the sides of ETS’s three favorite right triangles? ________________________________________________________________ 27.Refresher Manual for the SAT 24. Where can you find a lot of this information during the test? ________________________________________________________________ 32. What should you do if a figure is not drawn to scale? ________________________________________________________________ 33. What is the formula for the slope of a line? ________________________________________________________________ 29.

What is the value of e + f ? __________ 2. What is the value of x ? __________ a = 40. What is the value of y ? __________ © The Princeton Review. b = 30 4. | 63 07 Math HW 63 11/15/05 3:30:03 PM . What is the value of y ? __________ 6.Math Homework 1. What is the value of x ? __________ 3. Inc. What is the value of x ? __________ l1 || l2 5.

Inc. what is the area of the circle? __________ 8. 07 Math HW 64 11/15/05 3:30:03 PM . What is the value of x ? __________ 64 | © The Princeton Review. What is the area of the shaded region? __________ 9. What is the area of the triangle? __________ 10. What is the area of the triangle? __________ 11.Refresher Manual for the SAT 7. If the circumference is 12π.

2) (2. 1). 3) (4. what is the value of x + y ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 119 121 129 131 139 1 9. | 65 07 Math HW 65 11/15/05 3:30:05 PM . If the lengths of the sides of Triangles I and II above are as shown. 4) 7. In the figure above. –2) (1. then the perimeter of Triangle II is how many times the perimeter of Triangle I ? 1 2 2 3 9 8 3 2 9 2 49˚ x˚ (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) y˚ l m l m 11.Math Homework 10. In the figure above. Which of the following coordinates also describes a point on that line? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (0. if a = b and 2 c = 30. then b = (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30 45 50 60 100 © The Princeton Review. Inc. A line has a slope of 3 and contains a point with coordinates (2. 1) (3.

–8) (8. 07 Math HW 66 11/15/05 3:30:06 PM . what is the height of the largest cone. In the figure above. If BE = CE. what are the coordinates of Q ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (–8. 8) 66 | © The Princeton Review. ABCD is a rectangle. The figure above represents a cross-section of a set of stacked proportional cones.Refresher Manual for the SAT 12. –3) (3. what is the value of y in terms of x ? x 2 180 − x 2 (A) 11. if Q is a point (not shown) on the perimeter of ABCD such that segment PQ bisects the square region ABCD. and the largest cone has a base radius of 3 inches. What is the volume of a cube that has a surface area of 96 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 24 32 48 64 72 12. Inc. in inches? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12 18 24 28 30 (B) (C) 360 – 2x (D) (E) x 2x 12. –3) (–8. 3) (3. If the smallest cone has a height of 12 inches and a base diameter of 3 inches. In the figure above.

Math Homework

13. Rectangle ABCD (not shown) has a perimeter of 20. If AB = 3, then what is the area of ABCD ?

14. Points Q, R, S, and T lie on the same line, not necessarily in that order. If QR = 5, RS = 7, and ST = 4, which of the following could NOT be the value of QT ? (A) 2 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 10 (E) 16 14. Circle A has a radius of 2. If a square is drawn with all four of its vertices on Circle A, what is the area of the square? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2 4 8 2π 4π

13. In the figure above, the smaller square has its vertices at the midpoints of the sides of square DEFG. If EF = 6, what is the perimeter of the smaller square? 12 18 24 9 2 (approximately 12.73) (E) 12 2 (approximately 16.97) (A) (B) (C) (D)

14. In the figure above, points P, Q, R, and S lie on the circumference of a circle with center O. If the measure of ∠ SOP = 100°, what is the measure of ∠ OPQ ? (A) 100° (B) 80° (C) 70° (D) 60° (E) 50°

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Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 14. If the ratio of AC to CD is 1 to 3, then the area of   BC is what A fraction of the area of CDE ? 1 9 1 4 1 3 1 2 4 3 15. In the figure above, if O is the center of the circle, then x =

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

14. A figure is formed by drawing a rectangle and connecting the midpoint of each side by line segments to the midpoint of every other side. How many triangles are formed in the resulting figure? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 0 4 8 12 16

15. In the figure above, (x – z) + (y – w) =

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Math Homework

16. In the figure above, the four quartercircles share only the midpoints of the sides of the square. If the length of a side of the square is x, what is the area of the shaded region, in terms of x ? (A) x 2 (1 −

18. If l1 is parallel to l2 in the figure above, what is the value of x ?

π ) 4 π (B) x 2 (1 − ) 2
(C) x 2 (π − 2 ) (D) x( 4 − π ) (E) 2 x(π − 2 )

17. In the coordinate plane, rectangle ABCD has vertices A(−2, 6), B (f, 6), C (f, −2), and D (−2, −2). If the perimeter of ABCD is 38, which of the following could be the value of f ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8 9 11 13 15 18. In the figure above, x = (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 5 7 6 4 2 30

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19. An isosceles triangle has a side of length 9 and its perimeter is less than 27. If the lengths of the sides of the triangle are integers, what is the greatest possible difference between the lengths of any two sides?

19. In the figure above, if right triangle ABC is rotated about the origin counter-clockwise until point B lies on the positive y-axis, what will be the new coordinates of point B ? (A) (0, 1) (B) ( 3 , 0) (C) (0, 2) (D) (0, (E) (0, 3) 5)

19. If line m has a slope of –

3 and 8 contains the points with coordinates

(–1, –2) and (x, –8), what is the value of x ?

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. what is the value of y ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11 13 16 22 44 8. y. 12. 12.200 . 20} 5.240.5 40 11. and . . what is the value of y ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 10 16 20 22. then the sum of the first two numbers is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16 14 12 10 7 10. Nine members of a baseball team have batting averages of . . and x.200.255 .280 © The Princeton Review. 17.280. 4. What is the difference between the median of set S and the average (arithmetic mean) of set S ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 2 3 4 5 6. respectively. What is the mode of these batting averages? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) . If 13 is the average (arithmetic mean) of 22.250 .280.240 . and y.270. Inc. 12. . If 26 is the average (arithmetic mean) of 33. mediAn & mode S = {14. . 17. y.Math Homework OTHER APPROACHES AverAge (Arithmetic meAn). what is the value of x ? (A) 50 (B) 28 (C) 26 (D) 16 (E) 8 10.310. If the average (arithmetic mean) of 21. The average (arithmetic mean) of three numbers is 8. .280. 3.200. 7. y. . If the third number is 10.270. 37 and y is 20. | 71 07 Math HW 71 11/15/05 3:30:13 PM .

(D) The number of games in which the team scored less than 48 points was equal to the number of games in which the team scored more than 48 points. (C) The score that occurred the most frequently was 48 points. 18. what is the average (arithmetic mean) of x and y ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 12 15 20 24 30 16. y. (E) There were as many games in which the team scored 60 points as there were in which the team scored 48 points. 7. which then stops to pick up a sixth student. A group of 5 students whose ages are 9.Refresher Manual for the SAT 12. If the median of the scores was 54 points. If the median age of the new group is 10. which of the following must be true? (A) There was at least one game in which the team scored exactly 54 points. 13. and the mode was 48 points. (B) The average (arithmetic mean) of the scores was less than 54 points. 19. and 17 are riding a bus. and z in terms of z is (A) 3z 13. 18. x. the coach of a basketball team analyzed the number of points the team scored in each game. x. If x = 1 1 y and x = z . 07 Math HW 72 11/15/05 3:30:15 PM . If the sum of 5. 7. what is the average of x and y ? (B) 2z (C) (D) (E) 2 z 3 1 z 3 1 z 6 14. Inc. then the 2 3 average (arithmetic mean) of x. If the sum of 4. and y is 60. what must be the age of the sixth student? (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 10 (E) 11 72 | © The Princeton Review. 17. At the end of the season. 8. and y is 60.

000 10. a shoe store offers customers a 30 percent discount on a pair of shoes when they purchase a pair of boots at full price.5% 27% 21% 12. If Jill took 25% of the required credits her first year at school. what percent of the dealership’s cars remained unsold? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 95% 87.Math Homework Percents 6. then n is what 3 percent of m ? (A) 133% (B) 120% (C) 90% (D) 75% (E) 33% © The Princeton Review.40 $18.60 $18.00. | 73 07 Math HW 73 11/15/05 3:30:15 PM . To graduate.5% 14.30 $17. If the original price of the blouse was $23.3 (B) 3 (C) 30 (D) 300 (E) 3. and 40% of the remainder the following year. Inc.40 $4. what percent of the required credits does she have left to complete? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 15% 35% 45% 65% 75% 11. what is the new price? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) $27. If 3 of a dealership’s 24 cars were sold. Jill must take a certain number of credits. During a special promotion. The manager of a clothing store decreases the price of a blouse 20%.60 13. by what percent is the cost of her total purchase discounted? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 3% 10% 20% 30% 90% 15. What is 5% of 20% of 300 ? (A) 0. If m is 4 of n. If Julia buys a pair of shoes that originally cost $20 and a pair of boots that has a full price of $40.

The price of a book is increased by 10 percent and the new price is then increased by an additional 10 percent. by what percent did the cost increase from 1980 to 1990 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 3. 07 Math HW 74 11/15/05 3:30:15 PM . Inc. not including sales tax? (Disregard the dollar sign when gridding in your answer.) 17.5% 10% 35% 65% 85% 74 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the SAT 16. If a television set cost $350 in 1980 and $385 in 1990.00 in sales tax. The two increases are equivalent to a single increase of (A) 1% (B) 11% (C) 20% (D) 21% (E) 100% 14. What was the price of the equipment in dollars. Vikram lives in a state where the sales tax is 7%. He purchases a piece of exercise equipment and pays $56.

| 75 07 Math HW 75 11/15/05 3:30:17 PM . The longer portion is how many meters longer than the shorter portion? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30 40 60 80 100 Red Marbles Jar 1 Jar 2 Jar 3 Jar 4 Jar 5 1 5 3 2 3 White Marbles 2 7 6 3 4 (D) 3 (E) 14 3 2.Math Homework RATIOS 7 1. what is the minimum number of male players on any team? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 2 3 4 5 16. If a team must have at least one male player for every three female players. The recipe for Jim’s Punch calls for 6 cups of orange juice. how many guests will it serve? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 18 20 21 23 24 © The Princeton Review. In a certain game. A line 120 meters long is divided into two portions in a ratio of 1 : 5. then the 3 ratio of 2a to b is 7 (A) 6 (B) 2 (C) 7 3 14. Inc. If the ratio of a to b is . According to the chart above. in which jar is the ratio of red marbles to white marbles the greatest? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Jar 1 Jar 2 Jar 3 Jar 4 Jar 5 13. and 2 3 4 serves 12 guests. 5 cups of soda. and 3 1 cups of sherbet. twelve players form a team. If a bowl of punch made in this proportion contains 8 cups of soda.

and as 2 much saltpeter as sulfur. 07 Math HW 76 11/15/05 3:30:17 PM . In a certain school.Refresher Manual for the SAT 15. how many books did the teacher purchase all together? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Three Seven Nine Twelve Fourteen 15. how many are boys? 76 | © The Princeton Review. If a mixture requires 5 times as 1 much charcoal as sulfur. Hardcover books cost $4 each and paperback books cost $2 each. If the teacher purchased three hardcover books for every paperback book. and 1 teacher for every 4 boys. there are 4 boys for every 5 girls. A teacher spent $42 on books. Inc. If there are 440 people in the school. then what fractional part of the mixture is sulfur? 18.

00 dinner? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) $0.Math Homework ProPortions 3. If the ratio of 3 to 5 is the same as the ratio of 12 to x. Inc. After 4 minutes. what is the value of x ? (A) 6 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20 (E) 24 4. A typist types at a constant rate of 155 words every 5 minutes. would take how many minutes to complete a 90-mile course? © The Princeton Review.75 $0.74 13. how many words has he typed? 14.20 $1. traveling at the same speed. what will be the sales tax on a $15. Another race car.24. A race car completes a 450-mile course in 3 hours. In a restaurant where the sales tax on a $4.00 lunch is $0. | 77 07 Math HW 77 11/15/05 3:30:18 PM .90 $1.60 $0.

If g(4) = d. The graph of y = g(x) is shown above.Refresher Manual for the SAT GRAPHS 9. (q. Inc. what 4 is the value of q ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) –4 –8 –16 –32 –64 12. 0) is one of the points of intersection of the graphs of y = x 2 − 16 . Which of the following is the equation of the reflection of this graph across the y-axis? (A) 2 y = −3 x + 7 (B) 2 y = 3 x − 7 (C) 2 y = −3 x − 7 (D) 3 y = 2 x + 7 (E) 3 y = −2 x + 7 13. 07 Math HW 78 11/15/05 3:30:21 PM . The graph of a linear function in the xy coordinate plane is given by the equation 2 y = 3 x + 7. which of the following could be the value of g(d) ? (A) 6 (B) 7 (C) 7 (D) 8 2 3 1 3 2 3 (E) 10 78 | © The Princeton Review. and 1 y = x 2 − 4 . If q is negative. In the xy-coordinate system.

Which of the following could be the graph of y = f ( x + 5) − 2 ? Note: Figure not drawn to scale.Math Homework 14. Inc. where c is a constant. If the area of ABCD is 128. 18. what is the value of c ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) © The Princeton Review. | 79 07 Math HW 79 11/15/05 3:30:22 PM . In the figure above. ABCD is a rectangle. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shown in the figure above. Points A and D lie on the graph of y = –cx4.

07 Math HW 80 11/15/05 3:30:22 PM .

Inc. the Critical Reading section of the SAT is made up of three types of questions: • Sentence Completions • Short Passage-Based Reading • Long Passage-Based Reading © The Princeton Review.CritiCal reading introduCtion Easy Sentence Completions Short Reading Medium Difficult Long Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Easy Sentence Completions Medium Difficult Short Reading Long Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sentence Completions Easy Medium Difficult Long Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 24 Questions 25-Minute Section 24 Questions 25-Minute Section 19 Questions 20-Minute Section As you know. | 81 08 Crit Read Intro 81 11/17/05 2:47:19 PM .

To find the best answer. dual short. begin by eliminating the worst answers. with our techniques. then they’ve really messed up.Refresher Manual for the SAT Critical Reading passages can vary in length from 100-word short passages to 950-word long dual passages. This is not true on the SAT. and dual long. 82 | © The Princeton Review. single long. Short passages aren’t “easier”. guess from among the remaining choices—the odds are in your favor. PROCESS OF ELIMINATION (POE) Remember. you should have a good idea of what your goal score should be. It is much more important to go at a pace at which you can answer questions correctly than it is to try to finish the test. sitting around with ten minutes left at the end of every section. And as long as you can eliminate at least one answer choice. PACING Most people think that if they are unable to finish a test. You should use all of your time to work on those questions rather than struggling to work all the questions and making careless errors or worse. and come in four formats: single short. Inc. don’t eliminate that choice. Always consider every answer choice! Remember: if you’re not sure of the meaning of a word in an answer choice. reading questions don’t really have a “right” answer. So attempt this many questions To get: (scaled score) 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 You need to earn: (raw points) 5 9 14 21 29 38 46 53 59 63 67 23–25 question section 6 8 11 15 20 23 all all all all all 23–25 question section 6 8 11 15 20 23 all all 24 all all Total # of 19-question questions to section attempt 3 4 8 12 14 18 all all all all all 15 20 30 42 54 64 67 67 67 67 67 After taking four or more diagnostic tests. 08 Crit Read Intro 82 11/17/05 2:47:19 PM . you’ll be able to eliminate a few answer choices on almost every question. Be aggressive. they have a “best” answer. Look at the pacing chart and memorize the number of questions you need to answer to get the score you want. they are simply shorter.

You’ll notice that the pacing chart tells you how many questions to do in each section. Go through the section looking for questions that look easier for you. Even if you know all of our techniques. or other practice materials. whether it be a sentence completion or a reading question. your teacher can give you a longer vocabulary list— just ask. You control which questions you answer. so you don’t have to memorize the entire dictionary. That’s because different people are better at different kinds of questions. The more practice you get. 11 Practice Tests book. READING Nothing will improve your score on the Critical Reading section of the SAT as much as developing the ability to determine quickly what a piece of writing is trying to say. a Pood reMinder Remember that order of difficulty pretty much goes out the window on the Critical Reading section. If you’ve developed a knack for quickly fi guring out the main idea of a long passage. you and your teacher can fi gure out which kinds of questions you’re best at. you’re putting yourself at a disadvantage. and devise a plan that suits you. If you come across any unfamiliar words in your manual. By looking at your score report. the better off you’ll be. but doesn’t tell you how many of each question type to do. you may want to do more sentence completions. | 83 08 Crit Read Intro 83 11/17/05 2:47:20 PM . is not knowing all the words in the question or the answer choices. If you have a strong vocabulary. and the order in which you answer them. Inc.Critical Reading Introduction Take more time per question and get more questions right. The SAT tests the same words year after year. you won’t have much success if you don’t know many of the words. Choose material whose meaning isn’t evident at a glance and ask yourself: • What did that sentence actually say? • What is the author trying to get at in this paragraph? • What is the main idea of this page? VOCABULARY The one thing that can make any Critical Reading question difficult. It’s very likely that you’ll see some of them on the real test. If you’ve learned all of these words and want more. learn them. © The Princeton Review. you may want to concentrate on the long reading questions. If you haven’t learned all of the words in the Hit Parade. diagnostic tests.

08 Crit Read Intro 84 11/17/05 2:47:20 PM .

Inc.S.CoMpRehension ReaDing The ChoiCeS The “best” answer on a reading question will not: • offend anyone • violate common sense • use extreme language • use deceptive language • require outside knowledge of the topic • suggest an extreme tone 11. history has been (A) generally insignificant with a few exceptions during the nineteenth century (B) somewhat overlooked and deserving of further recognition by historians (C) difficult to discern from existing records (D) more important than that of any other group (E) different in several respects from the roles played by European farmers © The Princeton Review. According to the passage. the role played by American farmers in U. | 85 09 Reading Comp 85 11/15/05 3:30:31 PM .

09 Reading Comp 86 11/15/05 3:30:31 PM . Are you just fetching information. In the third paragraph (lines 12-16). Inc. 1. the author suggests that 86 | © The Princeton Review. The mention of the traffic light serves to 3. The author characterizes the great wave of European immigrants in the late nineteenth century as (A) resulting from various religious.Refresher Manual for the SAT 12. political and economic factors (B) a burden on American resources from which the United States has yet to recover (C) an event of only short-term importance to the nation (D) identical in every respect to the immigrations of the early twentieth century (E) a boon to American industrial development 13. or are you reading between the lines? Translate each of the questions below so you know exactly what you are being asked to do. The author’s reaction to the photograph can best be described as 2. The author’s attitude toward Thomas Jefferson’s presidency can best be described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) jubilant admiring indifferent critical embittered The queSTionS You always want to know what you’re looking for before you go to the passage.

Main idea Don’t get lost in details. | 87 09 Reading Comp 87 11/15/05 3:30:32 PM .Reading Comprehension 4. would most weaken the surveyor’s claim about the Albert Hall (lines 3031)? Review : Question types Questions fall into two main types: fetch information questions and reasoning questions that ask you to read between the lines. don’t pick an answer choice that goes beyond the passage. Of course. while the latter require more work interpreting the author’s intent. Specific Purpose The best answer choice will be the one that explains why a particular part of the passage was included. Inc. either. On the morning described in the passage. Tone Eliminate choices that are too extreme. The former require are pretty straightforward. Find the answer choice that summarizes the entire passage. The answer will be nothing more than a rewording of something in the passage. All require you to paraphrase your own answer before going to the answers. Which of the following. not just a piece of it. Paul performs all of the following actions EXCEPT 5. then choose the best fit from the choices that remain. © The Princeton Review. Primary Purpose Choose the answer choice that best describes what the passage is doing. if true. Here’s how to approach the most common tasks in Critical Reading: Specific Detail Find the information the question is asking for.

Literary Terms Make sure you’ve learned the definitions of these terms: simile. and any others you’ve encountered in preparing for the test. Use the context to determine what the author is trying to express through the use of these devices. if the word looks easy. 88 | © The Princeton Review. hyperbole. For each of the excerpts below. PARAPhRASinG Knowing that a particular line of the passage answers the question you’re working on doesn’t help if you don’t understand that line. use the choices to help you avoid unnecessary work. personification. write a short paraphrase that shows what the passage is really saying. On I/II/III questions. Time Suck For EXCEPT/NOT/LEAST questions. against the author on weakens).Refresher Manual for the SAT Vocab in Context Treat these like sentence completions. then find the answer choice that best supports your side (with the author on strengthens. don’t look for what’s not there: if the problem asks which one of the following five things isn’t in the passage. means that much of our home-construction lumber will now come not from the giants of the forest but from replaceable saplings. metaphor. Inc. Try to answer the question in your own words before you go to the answer choices. find the four that are. so be on your guard. inference Pick the answer choice that sticks the closest to what must be true based on the passage. The advent of chipboard. Remember. 09 Reading Comp 88 11/15/05 3:30:32 PM . Weaken/Strengthen Figure out the main point of the argument. the passage will be using it in an unusual way. then eliminate any answer choice that doesn’t share the same relationship. 1. irony. which is as cheap as particle board but equal in tensile strength and rigidity to plywood. Analogous Reasoning Paraphrase the relationship that the question is asking about.

surreal light. thicker walls. and heavier armor was accomplished by an agent far more subtle than an army of knights. The luminist school of American landscape painting drenched the monumental vistas of the American West in golden. and other “futuristic” shapes. Inc. Architecture is doomed from the outset. its role limited to singing choral songs juxtaposed with brief speeches. transforming already striking scenes into glimpses of utopia. we can therefore conclude that in early tragedy the chorus was passive. ellipses. but in fact it is based on flawed logic. © The Princeton Review. 4.Reading Comprehension 2. this change immediately followed the invention of gunpowder. 5. as long as its quest for modernity leads it toward globes. 3. Some argue that because Suppliants. and away from the ideal shapes for human habitation: the rectangle and the cube. was written later than Persai and Septem. | 89 09 Reading Comp 89 11/15/05 3:30:32 PM . steep angles. in which it is not. The reversal of the trend toward mightier stonework. in which the chorus is the protagonist. this notion may seem reasonable.

” 14. 09 Reading Comp 90 11/15/05 3:30:32 PM . do it quickly to get the GIST of the passage. (C) Some believe human pilots to be less adept at flying than migratory birds. it probably isn’t. (B) No mammal can predict weather as accurately as can migrating birds. 90 | © The Princeton Review. Read the italicized blurb that comes before the passage (if there is one). 3. (D) Migratory birds prefer to fly in the direction from which the wind is blowing. in Line 5 order to take advantage of the prevailing winds. and Tone of the passage. but not for detail. Jot down your answer so you don’t waste effort reciting it to yourself as you read the answer choices. Some take a different route south from their route north. If you can’t put your fi nger on the reason an answer is correct. (E) Ornithologists study both migratory and non-migratory birds. The GiST stands for the General idea. Inc. It’s in there! 5. Read and translate the question. 4. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the above passage? (A) Airplanes should fly at the same altitude as birds do to in order to maximize efficiency. The birds also take advantage of updrafts and tail winds. 2. Question 14 is based on the following passage.Refresher Manual for the SAT The BASiC APPRoACh 1. Answer the question in your own words. and migratory birds do most of their flying during weather favorable for flight. There’s only one way to be sure that the answer you’re choosing is the best answer: You should be able to point to the place in the passage that proves it correct. If you need to skim the passage to get your bearings. Some ETS questions don’t even look like questions. You can’t answer a question if you don’t know what it’s really asking. One leading ornithologist said that migratory birds “reach a level of expertise in flying that surpasses even the most skillful and experienced 10 human pilots. Birds’ sensitivity to atmospheric pressure gives them an innate ability to forecast the weather. Go straight to the questions. 6. so make sure you know exactly what you’re looking for before you move past this step. Structure. Go to the passage and read what you need to fi nd the answer. Always go back to the passage to fi nd the information that answers the question. Use POE to eliminate wrong answers. Each flock of migratory birds flies at the altitude that gets the birds the best speed while using the least amount of energy.

The arrangement of our larynxes. while certain parts of the brain are used to learn languages. There will be 1-2 questions that refer to a single passage. swallowing. Passage 1 Popular in the 1960’s. 6. as 5 new brain structures typically take a longer time to evolve than the time from which humans became a distinct species. This specialization for language. Inc. and pharynxes gives humans the ability to 15 produce a greater range of sounds than is possible for other animals. then go to the passages. the author’s main point about the Language Acquisition Device theory is that (A) it was a good model for studying the behavior of chimpanzees (B) nobody could have foreseen its quick demise (C) it proved the uniqueness of humans in the evolutionary pyramid (D) it was popular among evolutionary biologists (E) it failed to hold up to rigorous scrutiny © The Princeton Review. however. Choking on food has historically been a common cause of death in humans. vocal tracts. the Language Acquisition Device theory stated that humans used a unique part of the brain that was “hard-wired” to acquire the rules necessary to speak a Line language. Treat these just as you would other reading passages—read the question first. Furthermore. Questions 6-9 are based on the following passages. makes other basic uses of these organs such breathing. these areas of the brain are not unique to humans. The 20 evolutionary benefits of developing vocal language must have been enormous in order to compensate for such a potentially life-threatening drawback. In Passage 1. mouths. Evolutionary biologists were always skeptical.Reading Comprehension shoRt Dual passages Short dual passages will appear at least once per test. | 91 09 Reading Comp 91 11/15/05 3:30:33 PM . modern studies showed that. and chewing difficult or even dangerous. and 2-3 that ask about the relationship between the passages. Passage 2 The human vocal tract has evolved specifically for the demands of speech. The use of American Sign 10 Language by chimpanzees was the final bombshell which destroyed the old theory in the eyes of all but a few stalwarts.

09 Reading Comp 92 11/15/05 3:30:33 PM . the author of Passage 2 does which of the following? (A) Denies that human evolution could have led to verbal speech (B) Suggests one reason why verbal speech is possible for humans. Which of the following situations is most analogous to the relationship of non-humans to vocal speech as presented in the passages? (A) An accomplished flute player attempts to play a saxophone for the first time and cannot produce a song she knows how to play well on the flute. (B) A Chinese girl who was born in Australia and only spoken to in English by her parents cannot speak Chinese when she visits the country in adolescence. 8. Unlike the author of Passage 1.Refresher Manual for the SAT 7. Inc. but not other animals (C) States that the language-producing areas of the brain are the same in humans and animals (D) Proves that humans are hard-wired to produce language (E) Demonstrates that humans must choose to utilize their vocal tract for only one activity at a time 92 | © The Princeton Review. (C) A Czech poet residing in the United States faces difficulty in articulating his reflections in American English. (E) With instruction. swallowing and chewing in order to (A) emphasize the danger of utilizing the vocal tract for more than one process at a time (B) imply that the ability to produce vocal communication is a basic necessity for humans (C) highlight potential uses of the larynx and pharynx that are more beneficial than is producing verbal language (D) demonstrate that unique parts of the body developed to handle all the needs of humans (E) refute the idea that it is impossible for animals other than humans to produce vocal communication 9. The author of Passage 2 mentions breathing. a human being can learn many languages and dialects and therefore communicate successfully in languages other than his or her native tongue. (D) A hobbyist who makes wooden models of cars gathers all the parts needed to build an engine and motor but cannot make the car run in the configuration he has devised for the equipment.

Resist the temptation to linger over the passage trying to absorb every last detail. then read from five lines before that line to five lines after that line. Line Reference Go to the line the question indicates. but it’ll be nearby. The answer won’t be on the line the question directs you to. © The Princeton Review. Lead Word If there’s no line reference. The exception is that general questions. skip these when you encounter them. | 93 09 Reading Comp 93 11/15/05 3:30:33 PM . Inc. use these techniques to find the relevant portion of the passage quickly. and come back to them after you’ve finished the specific questions. instead. can appear anywhere. Chronology Don’t forget that the questions will appear in roughly the same order that their answers appear in the passage. hunt for a relevant word or phrase that will tell you that you’re in the right area. such as main idea and primary purpose.Reading Comprehension long passages The chief difficulty posed by long passages is that it’s harder to find the information you’re looking for. Ask yourself what you’d type into a search engine if you had one to help you.

there was little to suggest the role in which they were about to be cast. 09 Reading Comp 94 11/15/05 3:30:33 PM . as Emily Dickinson wrote. as in their attitudes toward life. dilemmas clouded Hughes’s early years and became more difficult as he matured. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers. It would not be far-fetched to say that a poem by a black student. appearing in the De Witt Clinton High School (New York City) literary magazine in January. burned brightly for a short time. 16. That both were harbingers is now evident. The following passage discusses the poets Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen and their contributions to the Harlem Renaissance. and it is no surprise that when the literary and cultural movement of the Harlem Renaissance won attention three years later. An orphan. But out of the trying experiences of his adolescence 50 came the pensive interludes in which he conceived “The Negro Speaks of Rivers. “Rivers” touched down more like twilight itself. Cullen was adopted by a childless couple and his gratitude to his adoptive parents never ceased to be a part of his adult personality. Even though the two had not known each other before they began to be noticed as part of the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes. “I Have A Rendezvous with Life (with Apologies to Alan Seeger)” brought Countee Cullen to the attention of the daily newspapers and became widely quoted in classrooms and even pulpits. could become the most striking voices of a cultural move55 ment. so young and so profoundly different in temperament. “one clover and a bee/and reverie” is all it takes to make a prairie. of a free-verse poem. This poem was followed just six months later by the publication in The Crisis. In contrast to the melancholy beginnings that brightened so abruptly for Cullen. an observer might surmise that two such teenagers as Cullen and Hughes could at least stir up a renaissance in the right time and place.Refresher Manual for the SAT Questions 16-21 are based on the following passage.” by another black youth. were exceptional poets at the center of a twentieth-century renaissance. Inc. 1921. these two poets.” It might seem unlikely that two poets. he was thwarted by parents who could not bear each other. Hughes had graduated from high school in Cleveland a year earlier. Not even sad or tragic themes deprived his lyrics of thankful overtones. but Cullen and Hughes. though still unpublished in book form. then faded. In their personalities and backgrounds. only a few blocks separated them during Hughes’s freshman year at Columbia University. If. was the first clear signal of the cultural movement later known as the Harlem Renaissance. Blessed with charisma and an instinct for tolerance. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) describe two individuals whose poetry shared a common significance (B) contrast two viewpoints that attempt to evaluate a cultural movement (C) link two apparently unrelated events to a common cause (D) discuss family life as an influence on creativity (E) urge critical examination of works by two young poets 17. already accomplished artists in their teens. the influential and widely read magazine of the NAACP. “Rendezvous” struck New York like a lonesome meteor. were the new stars that caused the eyes of both black and white intellectuals to blink. a fact reflected in his poetry. and “Rivers” had been written directly after that event. The author’s use of the words “meteor” (line 18) and “twilight” (line 19) indicates the (A) type of imagery used in each poem (B) loneliness felt by both Cullen and Hughes (C) imminent end of the Harlem Renaissance (D) author’s fascination with astronomy (E) different ways in which the two poems were received Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 94 | © The Princeton Review. though each loved him jealously and possessively.

The passage suggests that Cullen and Hughes did not become acquainted with each other until (A) Hughes’s work was published in The Crisis (B) Hughes enrolled as a freshman at Columbia University (C) both were recognized as participants in the Harlem Renaissance (D) Cullen’s poem was quoted in newspapers and pulpits (E) both published their work in book form 19.Reading Comprehension 18. | 95 09 Reading Comp 95 11/15/05 3:30:34 PM . The author uses an image from Emily Dickinson’s poetry (lines 2627) primarily to suggest that (A) a capacity for daydreaming is essential to artists (B) a small beginning may lead to a large result (C) a cultural movement can be as impressive as a natural wonder (D) an inspiration is useful only if it has a practical outcome (E) an artist is inspired by nature 21. Inc. The author describes the childhoods of Cullen and Hughes in order to (A) trace the development of each poet’s writing (B) emphasize the similar experiences of the two poets (C) prove that adversity cannot stifle artistic genius (D) account for the differing outlooks of the two poets (E) show that the two poets were destined to work together © The Princeton Review. The word “harbingers” is used by the author in line 20 to mean something that (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) poses a threat defies authority announces change leads a rebellion resists change 20.

09 Reading Comp 96 11/15/05 3:30:34 PM .

| 97 10 Sent Completions 97 11/15/05 3:30:37 PM . not to be ------. Inc.in human interaction that we tend to take it for granted.completionS Sentence Look Before You Leap Fill in your own word or phrase for the each blank before looking at the available answer choices. Only since the nineteenth century have we come to regard the wilderness as valuable and beautiful in itself. A moderate degree of insight is so ------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) dramatic common significant exaggerated hypothetical © The Princeton Review. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) revered exploited depicted nurtured extolled 2. 1.but preserved.

we were confident he would remain ------. detailed THe CLue The clue is a word or phrase that ETS gives you to help you anticipate the word that will best fit in the blank. Inc. intelligence intuition . . when one cannot make a decision by logical reasoning and careful deliberation.refresher Manual for the SaT 3. scrutiny gullibility .and ------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) isolated cautious steadfast agreeable perplexed 3. To help identify the clue. . argument dissent .in supporting what he thought was right.to reconstruct the mansion exactly as it had been because the few existing records provide only ------. 10 Sent Completions 98 11/15/05 3:30:37 PM . . .information about the structure. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) analysis . The architects agree that it would be ------. impulse compliance . . sketchy important . Sometimes. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) expendable dependable indefinable unobtainable interchangeable 2. . curiosity 98 | © The Princeton Review. . Synthetic fuels and conventional fuels are chemically alike and thus virtually -------. reclassified pointless . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) difficult . .instead. one must rely on ------. historical impossible . . ask yourself: • • Who or what is the sentence talking about? What information does the sentence give you about that person or thing? 1. Because Andy had always adhered to his principles in the past. unavailable efficient .

. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) simple blasphemous sophisticated universal discernible 6. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) modest . articulate steadfast . Dr.Sentence Completions TrIGGerS Triggers help you decide whether the blank will be a word similar in meaning or opposite in meaning to the clue. Lynn. who tended to be introverted and relatively uncommunicative. the fans were ------. Although jubilant following their team’s victory. . approached her school work with great ------. reticent dismayed . like her studious sisters. the peoples from which American slaves were drawn possessed intricate systems of religious beliefs. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) enlightened amused dejected elated provoked 5. Unlike her colleagues. Contrary to the impression of slave traders that African religions were -------. 5.and was rewarded with excellent grades.and quite -------. . Inc. egotistical affable . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) trepidation diligence urgency renown skepticism © The Princeton Review.the next day when word of the star’s serious injury was made public. Phillips was ------. | 99 10 Sent Completions 99 11/15/05 3:30:38 PM . nervous humble . loyal 7.

labored proven . innovation 7. decadence stymie . .that only a few of their clients ever meet them. while others seem almost to shun -------. . foiled 5. modification generate . These are signals that the author is going to restate something or give an example. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) forge .new techniques time and time again. . 5. in fact. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) sacred . deplored 100 | © The Princeton Review. The partners of that successful advertising agency rarely grant interviews. . .outside as well as inside the home.refresher Manual for the SaT Remember. creativity mobilize . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unpopular irresolute compliant democratic reclusive TWo BLaNkS = TWICe aS eaSY Two-blank sentence completions are easier if you work on one blank at a time. . . sentences often direct you to the clue with punctuation triggers such as colons (:) and semicolons (. contributed unethical . implemented promote . concealed amend . Inc.). revised repeal . impaired defeat . in fact. It became obvious that if its opponents were to ------the proposed legislation. throughout history women have ------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) justify . they are so ------. . stagnation stifle . attributed erroneous . 10 Sent Completions 100 11/15/05 3:30:38 PM . which will usually help you pinpoint the clue. The idea that most women stayed at home until the feminist movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s is altogether -------. . . investigated untrue . Some industries appear to ------. . . . . . their strategy would have to be -------. 5.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) clement . determine whether the words in the blanks should be similar or opposite in meaning. . Homelessness in America is no longer solely ------. respect doubt . severe hostile . however. reputation satisfaction . . the literary world has come to regard these writers with increased -------. moderate lenient . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an urban a peripheral a multifaceted an imperative an inconsequential © The Princeton Review. indeed. today. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) wealth . harsh authoritative . everyone was astonished when she imposed a ------sentence on the convicted man. stringent austere . strict DrILL 1. | 101 10 Sent Completions 101 11/15/05 3:30:39 PM .as an artist. generosity money . Hispanic novelists were rarely given the recognition they deserved. Inc. Since the judge has a reputation for being -------. .issue. . . 4. Although the painter’s high-paying advertising work brought her a great deal of -------. . . . .Sentence Completions reLaTIoNSHIp BeTWeeN THe BLaNkS If the clue in a two-blank question has been blanked out. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) intelligence appreciation complexity uniformity suspicion 3. it did little to increase her ------. . there are increasing numbers of homeless people in our small towns and rural areas. experience 2. In the past. obscurity uncertainty .

animals. Before documenting their peaceful behavior. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unconcerned . unique reactionary . alter affronted . .her theory long after the rest of the scientific community had rejected it as inconsistent with experimental evidence.at the lack of illumination in the gallery. attractive antediluvian . worsen dismayed . 10 Sent Completions 102 11/15/05 3:30:39 PM . . amend disconcerted . The sculptor was ------. but is simply -------.refresher Manual for the SaT 4. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) progressive . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) tranquil malevolent adaptable unresponsive aggressive 6. the maverick physicist continued to ------. ameliorate enchanted . .the situation. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) revise expand espouse moderate discard 8. contaminate 5. . superior enlightened . The emotional depth that so impressed readers of Susannah Kaysen’s first book is missing from her second novel. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a melancholy a glibness an intensity an optimism an inventiveness 102 | © The Princeton Review. Stubborn to the last. Dian Fossey had subscribed to the common belief that mountain gorillas were ------. The dread of being labeled ------. novel defensive . . Inc.that approaches superficiality. . . so she brought in her own lighting equipment to ------. which exhibits ------. archaic 7.if we do not unhesitatingly embrace new technologies prevents us from disregarding new computer hardware that has no advantages. .

The author is primarily concerned with which of the following? (A) Belittling the UN philosophy of limited internationalism (B) Condemning the United States for its ungrateful response to the UN (C) Implying that the hypocrisy of UN officials will be responsible for the downfall of the organization (D) Arguing for reduced United States commitment in the UN and a concomitant reduction of the nation’s influence in the UN (E) Deploring problems facing the UN and urging renewal of the organization © The Princeton Review. 21.CritiCal reading Homework Passage-Based Reading etS CompreHenSion Use what you know about what makes for a “best” ETS answer to eliminate choices that would almost never be correct. Inc. | 103 11 Crit Read 103 11/15/05 3:30:42 PM .

Refresher Manual for the saT

26. The author is mainly concerned with the (A) eliminating of all standards in the teaching of English (B) distortion of language and what might be done about it (C) determined effort some people make to destroy their own language (D) difference between everyday speech and expository writing (E) emerging need for government regulation of writing

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Critical Reading Homework

text CompreHenSion
Translate each of the following excerpts into your own words: 1. While the Africanized bees are certainly more defensive and more prone to follow intruders a great distance than are their European counterparts, in only very rare instances is anyone seriously injured in an attack by these so-called “killer bees.”

2. The story of the Confederacy is filled with dramatic moments, but to the thoughtful observer few are more dramatic than the conjunction of these three men in the inauguration of the Confederate president. Beneath a surface of apparent unanimity they carried, like concealed weapons, points of view that were in deadly antagonism. This antagonism had not revealed itself hitherto. But it was destined to reveal itself almost immediately.

3. But Edinburgh pays cruelly for her high seat in one of the vilest climates under heaven. She is liable to be beaten upon by all the winds that blow, to be drenched with rain, to be buried in cold sea fogs out of the east, and powdered with the snow as it comes flying southward from the Highland hills.

4. When a bird is in motion its wings (except when flapping) are extended in a straight line at right angles to its body. This brings a sharp, thin edge against the air, offering the least possible surface for resistance, while at the same time a broad surface for support is afforded by the flat underside of the wings. The same thing is identically done in the construction of the flying machine. 5. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels: taxes have risen, our ability to pay has fallen, government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income, the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade, the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side, farmers find no markets for their produce, the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone.
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Refresher Manual for the saT

sHoRT Passage-Based Reading
Questions 12-13 are based on the following passage. Located off the coast of Papua New Guinea, the Trobriand Islands have intrigued anthropologists for nearly a century. Anthropologists are especially interLine ested in the Kula exchange system in which virtually Line 5 5 every male Trobriander participates. Kula involves a very intricate process whereby the men exchange necklaces made of the most exquisite shells with friends on other islands for armbands made of comparably valued shells. Finding shells requires a lifetime 10 of dedication and patience; as a man establishes more 10 friendships on distant islands within the island chain, he receives and redistributes shells of great variety, thus enhancing his reputation. 12. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? (A) The Trobriand Islanders have been exchanging shells for nearly a century. (B) Shell exchange forms the foundation of Trobriand culture. (C) The value of shells is a function of how difficult they are to find. (D) A male Trobriander who did not participate in Kula would be an outcast. (E) Papua New Guinea is not landlocked. 13. The author would be most likely to agree with all of the following EXCEPT (A) Male Trobrianders can develop their reputations based upon participation in the Kula system (B) The Kula system is found on more than one of the Trobriand Islands (C) Women will never be able to participate in the Kula system (D) The shells received through the Kula system can be fashioned into more than one form of decorative jewelry (E) It is acceptable within the Kula system to give shells that you have received to someone else Questions 14-15 are based on the following passage. While we tend to think of pizza as the ultimate Italian food, it is in fact a multicultural and, indeed, multi-continental collaboration that has evolved over the centuries since its invention. The earliest versions of pizza were probably eaten in ancient Greece where a flat piece of bread served as an “edible plate” for various toppings and relishes. While the Greeks contributed the idea of toppings, the base was improved by the nearby Etruscans’ method of baking oil-basted dough on the hearth of the fireplace. A final ingredient, tomato sauce, required quite a wait; the tomato is indigenous to America and didn’t even reach Europe until the 1500’s. 14. The passage seeks to prove that pizza (A) has been falsely claimed as a national dish by the Italians (B) was invented in the 16th century after tomatoes had been discovered (C) was actually invented by the Etruscans (D) is derived from a number of different backgrounds and places (E) was a favorite dish of the early Greeks 15. Which of the following would most support the author’s conclusion? (A) A previously unknown civilization with no ties to the outside world eats a dish similar to pizza. (B) Pizza is the most popular dish among half of the world’s population. (C) There were many differences between the “edible plate” of the Greeks and today’s pizza. (D) The “deep-dish” style of pizza originated in restaurants in Chicago. (E) Pizza’s popularity has remained high even though it is high in fat and carbohydrates.

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Critical Reading Homework

Questions 16-17 are based on the following passage.

Questions 18-19 are based on the following passage.

It is commonly acknowledged that human habitaImagine yourself as a backyard astronomer gaztion necessarily has a negative effect on the surrounding up into the sky. Mars, an angry red light in the ing biome. Take, for instance, the San Joaquin kit fox. darkness, returns your stare. What would you make Line As their territory has increasingly been populated by Line of this strange crimson object? To early civilizations, 5 especially the Greeks and Romans, this dusky red 5 strip malls and housing developments, kit fox populations have seen their numbers drop. But at the same point of light betokened the tides of war. It seems time, it appears that the foxes may actually benefit only natural that some cultures would associate the somewhat from human relations. Kit foxes find abanhue of the planet with the passion and bloodshed of doned construction pipes and storm-water storage battle. Of course, scientists now know that the planet’s 10 ruddy complexion results not from any ill will toward 10 sumps to be suitable replacements for their lost territory, and the young have even been spotted playing man but from the large quantity of iron oxide on the with abandoned golf balls and paintbrushes. Thus it planet’s surface. appears that humans and animals may be able to create new, mutually beneficial, economies. 18. The author uses personification in describing the appearance of Mars (line 3 and line 10) in 16. Which of the following is the best description order to of how the passage is structured? (A) explain why the surface of Mars is (A) A theory is outlined, a counterexred ample is presented, and the theory (B) provide additional contrast is disproved. between the mythological and (B) A principle is presented, a specific scientific images of Mars example is evaluated, and a dif(C) justify why the Greeks and Rofering interpretation is proposed. mans considered Mars the god of (C) A predicament is described, comwar mon solutions are discussed, and (D) enable to the reader to imagine the new measures are suggested. exact hue of the planet (D) A stereotype is attacked, its param(E) support the notion that Mars’ preseters are defined, and a rebuttal is ence in the sky is threatening articulated. (E) A common belief is introduced, 19. In line 6, “betokened” most nearly means then quantified, then miscon(A) controlled strued. (B) resisted (C) foretold 17. In line 14, “economies” most nearly means (D) reflected (A) preserved resources (E) bemoaned (B) functional arrangements (C) efficient uses (D) ecological concerns (E) negotiated transactions

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at a character’s actions. Which of the following. (B) Passage 1 was written for historians. leaves his kingdom to search for the secret of immortality.Refresher Manual for the saT Questions 6-9 are based on the following passages. Both passages imply that the Epic of Gilgamesh (A) is very old (B) was originally an oral history before it was written down (C) is based on a real person (D) is primarily a story about avoiding death (E) cannot be truly understood by the modern reader 9. 7. of description. 108 | © The Princeton Review. 5 Gilgamesh. (C) Passage 1 discusses thematic elements of Gilgamesh. too. as is evident from the primary thrust Line of the narrative. Man’s quest for immortality is the most prominent. Which best expresses the relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? (A) Passage 1 is a factual description of the plot of Gilgamesh. which appears to date from a later century than do the other tablets which constitute Gilgamesh. a sort of 10 permanence can be achieved through the memory of one’s descendants. (E) Passage 1 and Passage 2 both refer to the importance of Gilgamesh in world literature. how a story is put together—how it uses the conventions of language. Passage 1 Of the five main themes in the ancient Epic of Gilgamesh. while Passage 2 offers a more subjective summary of the story. After his friend Enkidu is killed. (C) A recently discovered missing tablet describes Gilgamesh’s journey as motivated primarily by his feelings of loss after Enkidu’s death. (B) Scholars doubt the authenticity of Tablet XII. But we need to consider. of events with beginnings and endings. 11 Crit Read 108 11/15/05 3:30:43 PM . fearing his own death. 6. Inc. and at the implications of their 15 consequences. while Passage 2 was written more for specialists in literature. (D) Passage 1 is specifically about Gilgamesh. while Passage 2 uses the example of Gilgamesh to make a broader point about narratives. A seemingly unrelated episode in Tablet XII of the epic reinforces the point that even if there is no eternal life. We read it as well because we want to know the meaning of life. Passage 2 To see for ourselves the meaning of a story. The culmination of the epic deals with this journey. We read Gilgamesh. the Bull of Heaven attacks Gilgamesh and Enkidu because Gilgamesh has rejected the goddess Ishtar. (E) Gilgamesh is written in cuneiform. while Passage 2 explicitly denies the presence of any concrete theme in the story. if true. and of character. would most weaken the author’s main point in Passage 1? (A) Many ancient epics other than Gilgamesh were heavily concerned with the quest for eternal life. we need to look carefully at what happens in the story. four thousand years after it was written. (D) In the story. The author of Passage 2 would most likely respond to Passage 1 by (A) agreeing with the author of Passage 1 regarding the main theme of Gilgamesh (B) expressing skepticism that the meaning of Gilgamesh can be reduced to a single plot device (C) criticizing the author of Passage 1 for misinterpreting the meaning of Gilgamesh’s journey (D) arguing that there are more than the five themes mentioned in Passage 1 present in Gilgamesh (E) claiming that the historical significance of Gilgamesh is more important than its significance as literature 8. which only a handful experts can read. in part be20 cause we wish to learn something about human history.

This approach had never been used before in any art. The subjects often remained the same as in the old Byzantine symbolic style: the Annunciation. expressed feelings like his own. realistic portrayals of life were (A) the exclusive domain of artists (B) valued more in writing than in painting (C) not considered the purpose of art (D) rare but highly valued (E) imbued with religious symbolism 20 25 11. a fellow Florentine and poet. but they were not Renaissance artists. but from the viewpoint of God. Gothic sculptors emphasized realism in their carvings of religious subjects. was not wholly a Renaissance painter. The fourteenth century saw the beginning of the renaissance of Italian art. though a master. a Florentine. the Deposition. The author mentions the Sienese school of painting (line 20) in order to (A) illustrate the accomplishments of painters of the new style (B) describe the pre–fourteenth century ideal of painting (C) criticize the resistance of this school to the new developments in art (D) show that the new style in painting was not universally adopted (E) describe the variety of styles of painting that are considered part of the Renaissance 30 35 40 45 © The Princeton Review. * The Annunciation. in an entirely new way. stylized faces and forms and their obvious religious symbolism. symbolic Byzantine style that had previously been dominant in most of Italy. and this new realistic bent soon overcame the abstract. from a point at infinity. and moved him. great as they were. Let us be sure that we understand the meaning of perspective. the Deposition. refusing to employ perspective for a 50 century. excelled in the dolce stil nuovo. In preRenaissance art. as Italians say). As the Renaissance spread throughout Europe. In such a painting straight lines (often imaginary) converge in what is called a vanishing point. and it is not what art traditionally had accomplished throughout the centuries leading up to this time. Inc. The new art of perspective said something radically different and new about the position and role of human 60 beings in the cosmos. naturalness. people. the Sienese resisted. there were artists who held out against the new style. the scene depicted is seen not from the viewpoint of the beholder. continued to produce works that were notably Byzantine in style with their quiet. Line 5 10 15 10. Realistic portrayals of the lives and acts of ordinary people are not the only things that art can produce. For this reason we usually do not think of the fourteenth-century Sienese painters. in the world picture. They were great painters. in that he did not experiment with perspective as the Florentine artists of the fifteenth century did (the quattrocento. the “sweet new style” of writing verse that focused on the experiences of real.” Perspective provided the painters of the century after the death of Giotto and Dante with expanded opportunities to emphasize realism and to bring the viewer into the picture. The following passage discusses the changes in art that occurred during this period. Dante. | 109 11 Crit Read 109 11/15/05 3:30:44 PM . painted frescoes that had a new realism and vitality. But now the people depicted reflected the viewer’s world. The discovery of the possibilities of perspective helped to produce works of art that are decidedly more familiar to us than those of Giotto. Giotto. And even during the fourteenth century.Critical Reading Homework Long Passage-Based Reading Questions 10-18 are based on the following passage. At the turn of the fourteenth century the influence of Gothic sculpture descended into Italy from northern Europe and revivified all the arts. an ordinary human. the Marriage at Cana. in particular. The first paragraph (lines 1-13) implies that in pre-fourteenth-century Italy. The painters of the Sienese school. Giotto. Pisan and Florentine sculptors began to imitate the Gothic style. even ordinary. as a consequence. and verisimilitude. the Crucifixion. Again. and more “Renaissance-looking. and the Marriage at Cana are episodes from the Bible. located somewhere in the background (often 55 at the center of the horizon). the Crucifixion. and the like*. This gives the impression of a real scene that is visible to the viewer. it everywhere produced a new style in art that emphasized realism. as being part of the Italian Renaissance.

11 Crit Read 110 11/15/05 3:30:44 PM . (D) His lack of use of perspective distinguished him from later Renaissance painters.Refresher Manual for the saT 12. According to the final paragraph (lines 51-63). The author’s use of quotation marks in line 45 serves to indicate (A) his disapproval of the use of labels (B) his confusion about the characteristics of Renaissance painting (C) the difficulty of establishing precisely what makes a painting Renaissance (D) his criticism of Giotto’s work (E) his adoption of a conversational tone 13. 18. Inc. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the new sense of realism that appeared during the fourteenth century and the use of perspective? (A) The emphasis on realism and the use of perspective were essentially the same thing. (D) The use of perspective was responsible for the new importance given to realism. Which of the following statements could be accurately applied to Giotto? (A) His use of perspective separated him from the Sienese school of painting. (B) His frescoes were close imitations of Gothic styles of sculpture. It can be inferred from the passage that prior to the Renaissance (A) art did not succeed in moving people (B) man’s perspective on the universe was given less value than that of God (C) art had at times explored Biblical themes (D) the Sienese school had been considered the foremost in Italy (E) Dante had already written in the dolce stil nuovo of verse 15. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most likely be an example of an early Renaissance painting? (A) A stiff and subdued scene of a family having dinner (B) A symbolic portrait of a man in a position of power (C) An abstract rendering of a street scene (D) A natural depiction of a scene from the Bible (E) A stylized image of a peasant woman 17. (C) He moved to Florence from Pisa. (E) His mastery of painting faltered only when he attempted to use perspective. (E) The depiction of realistic scenes and the use of perspective were in opposition to each other. (B) The use of perspective followed the introduction of a more realistic style of art. the most important result of the use of perspective was (A) a more accessible style of poetry as seen in the works of Dante (B) the ability to create a scene that more closely resembled images a person would actually see (C) a depiction of people in their ordinary lives (D) the departure from the overly calm style of Byzantine art (E) the depiction of scenes that caused viewers to feel as though they were actually in them rather than viewing them 14. The word “verisimilitude” (line 30) most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the appearance of truthfulness the reflection of light the making of comparisons the portrayal of crowds the skill of artistry 16. (C) The use of more realistic representation was superseded by the adoption of perspective. 110 | © The Princeton Review.

Over the tendance had reached one million. registered losses ranging between $15. That deciupward curve of popularity. season long—a pitiful showing. either. Jenkins. that brought about the decline of the All-American Still. and five then with ever-gathering momentum. The procedures failed to provide an adequate number of League board members argued over whether or not promising players. both expaning battle. in 1948. slowly at first. Even winning teams believed debacle. 60. the decline wasn’t ries failed to keep pace with inflation. Soon it would slip. who were as beloved continued to rise because of postwar layoffs. To a woman absolute. ran an $11. The postattendance at all. Marilyn money than ever before but several teams had peaked. publicity and scouting. riding an evercollective spring training was abolished. and it didn’t work 80 founding city—called it quits after the 1950 season. Racine—a Expansion hadn’t worked in 1944. but even this was course of two seasons. The summer of 1948 was the last time the League All in all. not because of. and the team was relocated to Kalamazoo. job of any kind began to look attractive.000 by fans as those of the glory days. A new crop Only half the other teams showed any increase in of rookies kept appearing. Inc. a steady enal attendance. hype that a close look at hard figures failed to warrant. 70 become too great. where unemployment 1948 period had its own stars. for administration. Teams were aging in place. and many was about 120. or by extending both the regular season and the 100 the League’s demise. For the majority of players. Training and recruitment 75 championship. They sought a scapegoat and decided formed in the 1940s. As the League pursued its relentless cutbacks. But they were wrong. the clubs wanted to believe that solutions League.000. No one could The league’s head office and the club directors kept make long-term plans.000 and $27. but Fred Leo acknowledges that they were the national press. Attendance and revenues continued their sion teams together added a mere 80. year after year. But somehow the clubs endured. of that increase was accounted for by home games in And so the League straggled on. Spring training— steadily since 1943. Questions 7-18 are based on the following passage. But an individual club had to face the fact that an extended season would do it no good. The League could make money by adding It did. Michigan. Rockford had. the system.Critical Reading Homework Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 playoffs. None of the problems that had plagued the League One broke even. and cutbacks continued unabated. but two-thirds 85 who replaced them weren’t of the same quality. predictably. 1949 was not a good year for the Allmoved forward. telling each other that all their woes were simply staying in the All-American meant putting the rest growing pains. In other words. that its dwindling audience would be spread too thin over too The following passage describes some of the factors 50 long a period of time. her playing days numbered. salaBut the figures were hard to read. won the in 1948 were to be resolved. they’d done well despite. surely it would continue to do so. But those who dreamed of playing ons. the playoff champi95 only game in town. The 1950 season was a on longtime veterans. | 111 11 Crit Read 111 11/15/05 3:30:44 PM . Women’s baseball seemed be on a roll. 90 the League continued to exert appeal. Attendance had risen sion had far-reaching consequences. the League would claim that overall attrickle of departing players became a flood. The clubs’ response No one realized at the end of 1948 that the 55 was to tighten the League’s belt. The League grossed more had realized the fragility of their ambition. but down. a women’s professional baseball league that were possible. and had nowhere to go that the League would last long enough for her to play.000 more than in 1947. In Muskegon. locked in a losSpringfield and Chicago. The In 1948. This sacrifice would eventually would put them in the black. the Grand Rapids bat girl. along with preseason exhibition games—had provided The League made decisions based on this optimistic 60 the game with a surefire kickoff each season. They cut expenses All-American League had reached its high point. attracted outlook. relying players should take a salary cut.000 people all downward slide. that poor financial management coupled with poor direction were the major culprits. and she became the Grand Rapids catcher until cities. The League was fewer people came out to the ballpark to see the still something to aim for: the top of the pole. As of 1949.000. and American. given the size of the population base. This thing like two dozen experienced veterans. and the Lassies play in 1949. especially considersustained by never-say-die fans and players for whom ing the potential audience in a city the size of Chicago. remembers hoping for any number of reasons. and the Belles moved to Battle Creek. churning out public relations while talent. Only two clubs showed a profit. Rockford. The Muskegon Lassies folded halfway through. Some cities continued to rack up phenom65 in her twenties.000 deficit. © The Princeton Review. the All-American lost somean exaggeration—the actual figure was 910. and unearthed at least some worthwhistling in the dark. that a tighter control on the finances of their lives on hold.

attendance at games had stabilized (C) publicity had effectively convinced the public of the League’s stability (D) attendance at games had consistently risen (E) the attendance-to-profit ratio had steadily improved 12. The passage suggests that the decline of the All-American League can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT (A) the effect of postwar unemployment on attendance figures (B) a lack of new talent to replace retiring veteran players (C) inadequate restriction of expenditures (D) the failure of expansion teams to bring in large numbers of spectators (E) the large number of individual teams that registered significant losses 112 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the saT 7. According to the author. Inc. The “two clubs” that registered a profit in 1949 (line 72) are presented as (A) typical of the success of previous years (B) exceptions to the otherwise bleak financial performance of League teams (C) representative of teams that succeed financially but not on the playing field (D) examples of what could be accomplished with proper management (E) proof of the impossible task faced by League teams 10. expansion teams are described as having (A) made an insignificant contribution to overall attendance at League games (B) severely drained the League’s already strained finances (C) spread a limited audience too thin (D) brought less-skilled talent into the League (E) been a primary reason for the League’s decline 8. The author’s attitude toward the players who left the League for financial reasons is most likely one of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) concern bemusement disapproval understanding disappointment 9. In line 9. optimism about the future of the League in 1948 was strong because (A) profits had remained consistently high (B) after a disturbing drop. The author most likely uses the phrase “Teams were aging in place” (line 23) in order to (A) demonstrate the toll that professional baseball took on the players (B) establish that the average age of a new player had increased (C) comment on the insufficient number of talented new players in the League (D) prove that women’s teams were failing to make progress (E) delineate the difference between successful and unsuccessful teams 13. 11 Crit Read 112 11/15/05 3:30:45 PM . The author would probably view the League’s claim that “attendance had reached one million” (lines 28-29) as (A) a regrettable but understandable error (B) an example of the League’s ineffective management (C) the result of an optimistic oversight (D) a malicious attempt to deceive the public (E) an example of publicity hype 14. the word “warrant” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) arrest justify guarantee combat question 11. According to the third paragraph (lines 28-50).

16. (C) Participation in baseball was more acceptable than participation in sports such as boxing or golf. (E) Women had few opportunities to participate in professional sports in the 1940’s and 1950’s. The reason that the author describes the ambition of women wanting to play professional baseball after 1948 as “fragile” (line 97) is that (A) society at that time viewed women as physically less strong than men (B) it was uncertain how long the AllAmerican League would continue to exist (C) a high level of skill was required of players in order to be accepted into the League (D) women were unwilling to sacrifice financial comfort for the chance to play professional baseball (E) many women quit baseball after enduring its rigors for several years 18.Critical Reading Homework 15. (B) Playing professional baseball allowed women to leave rural areas and to move to more urban settings. less experienced players (E) deprived the League of an important source of publicity 17. | 113 11 Crit Read 113 11/15/05 3:30:45 PM . (D) Playing baseball was the only way for women to be publicly acclaimed. Which of the following would most justify the author’s description of the League as “the only game in town” (lines 94-95)? (A) Playing for the League had more prestige than many other occupations. Inc. It can be inferred from the passage that Marilyn Jenkins (A) was one of the founding team members (B) was one of the stars of the post1948 period (C) was optimistic about the future of the League (D) was not among the first women to play for the League (E) contributed to the demise of the All-American League © The Princeton Review. The author implies that the League’s abolition of “collective spring training” (line 57) (A) discouraged players from putting their full concentration into their playing (B) caused the eventual collapse of the Muskegon Lassies (C) allowed the League to minimize pay cuts to the players (D) lowered morale among the younger.

And they do not like As a result. They may be farmthe price for redesigning the industrial system to proers whose crops have been ruined by air pollution.” the ing this kind of cleanliness would be rather high. the Environmental Defense Fund. it might be ute their wealth among the poor? Are they virtuous 55 argued. These people have special 70 where the normal cost of air pollution in lost working breathing problems that are not caused by air pollutime because of pollution-related illness and in extra tion but are aggravated by a variety of environmenpainting and cleaning averages several thousand doltal insults. Nevertheless. has been pressuring the EPA to tighten the the relationship between various diseases and the clean-air standards to make the air safe for people contaminants in the air. where a study made by the society to make. would put us all at a rather low standard of air pollution. 60 likes it. would be to eliminate all the pollen-producenough to be ready to renounce their possessions ing weeds and flowers with an aggressive herbicidal and pursue only spiritual values? At a time when the spraying program. such extraordinarily high standards from the industrial system? Who are the people who are willing to make such sacrifices in material production in order to achieve such marginal gains in public health and Passage 1 50 safety? And why. that ists? Are they generous enough that they are ready contribute to such health problems. living. “From the standpoint of public health. One of the best to give up the quest for material goods and distribways to improve the air for asthmatics. to protect small subgroups as well. bying groups in Washington are still not satisfied.005 percent of the population. and the experts often dissuffering from cystic fibrosis. Most people assume that this means that intense smog. within a single four-day period of healthy air. we can ask the question: Who ing the acute air pollution episodes that have occurred are the citizens of a country who are able to demand The following two passages presents views of the public’s perception of air pollution and the validity of certain methods used to curtail that pollution. Inc. and no one Let me approach the problem from another angle. not to affect asthmatics. they see it. There is nothing obscure about it. once again. Public Health Service indicated a close relationship between air pollution and a high incidence of from producing other goods. everyone who lives in or near a big the average person would be able to breathe this air 65 city—and many who live in rural areas—is aware of without being adversely affected. they may be persons living in the northern portion of This might seem like a significant sacrifice for a Staten Island. according to a study done by the state. committee stated. Montana about 4 percent of the population.Refresher Manual for the saT Questions 1-13 are based on the following passages. It is not caused by air pollution but is only aggravated by it. however. our health alone should give us great concern of the three or four major environmental lobbying 85 about air pollution. and the resources devoted to this task must be taken away 80 U. it might be added.S. New York. about Nevertheless. Asthmatics constitute They may be the residents near Garrison. Pennsylvania. set the standard so that the air must be clean enough They may be people living in New York City. the Environmental Protection Agency the tragic deaths of seventeen persons in Donora. For Setting aside economic and aesthetic considersome time. feel it. has been trying to set minimum standards for clean. This is an inherited disagree on what causes what and to how great a degree. “the information available concernSo. the most notable being the pollen that is lars per family. Even without dramatic incidents such as In recent years. Or tect a few individuals.90 Works minced no words when it reported on the problem. Daily suaded. The costs of achiev. the Senate’s Committee on Public eleven thousand people. These natural sources cause much average income in the world. after all. if distributed perfectly more suffering among asthmatics than does industrial equally. one ations. the Environmental Protection Agency has it. the EPA has decided that the rest of the society must pay 75 who complained about the fluoride gases released into the air from a phosphate plant. But environmental lobdeath from lung cancer. produced each year by plants. since the costs are not small. 11 Crit Read 114 11/15/05 3:30:45 PM . is their crusading always aimed so directly at the industrial system? We may legitimately ask: Who are environmentalThere are other environmental factors. and breathe it. Congress was perair pollution. Much remains to be learned about groups. Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 114 | © The Princeton Review. who are these people that feel that we are so wealthy that we can now let slip the long human quest Passage 2 for material improvement? Everyone knows about air pollution. ease that affects .

lung cancer. the word “material” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) fabricated substantive monetary textile synthetic 3. The author of Passage 1 poses the questions in lines 1-11 in order to (A) denounce the environmentalists for their reckless disregard of ethical realities (B) praise the environmentalists for their charitable natures (C) suggest that the views of environmentalists are hypocritical and impractical (D) point out to the world’s population that there are not limitless funds with which they may achieve their goals (E) imply that environmentalists have a hidden agenda and are only interested in their own material gain 5. it is this group that is showing a rapid rise 105 as a cause of death and disability. Inc. In Passage 1. the reference to EPA standards that maintain that air must be “clean enough not to affect asthmatics” (lines 20-21) serves to (A) suggest that certain environmental legislation is not extreme enough (B) applaud the Environmental Protection Agency’s efforts at cleaning up the nation’s air (C) concede that some environmental legislation is good and necessary (D) question the practice of allowing special interests to shape legislation (E) imply that greater care should be taken to protect citizens with certain respiratory ailments 4. In line 11. For which of the following reasons does the author of Passage 1 fault the “lobbying groups” mentioned in lines 33-34? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Their narrow range of experience Their limited resources Their ineffective practices Their unethical motives Their lack of concern for other interests © The Princeton Review.Critical Reading Homework and the laboratory evidence of the effects of exposure 95 to various pollutants that are in the air puts an exclamation mark by the word ‘urgency’ in relation to this problem. The word “aggravated” in line 42 most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) angered annoyed worsened degraded polluted 2. “In any given instance. These subtler. But there is no question that the pollutants in the air are contributing factors to the chronic respiratory diseases. and asthma. bronchitis. less dramatic long-range effects of air pollution are of much more serious consequence to the population as a whole than the occasional major tragedy. there may be several reasons why a particular situation may result in chronic 100 disease.” 1. emphysema. When considering mortality in this country. | 115 11 Crit Read 115 11/15/05 3:30:45 PM .

Inc. (Passage 2. (C) A Montana phosphate plant loses a great deal of costly fluoride gas every year.S. Public Health Service to conduct many expensive studies. lines 95-96) the Senate’s Committee on Public Works means to (A) use needless hyperbole in reporting the effects of air pollution (B) show the disparity between actual air pollution episodes and certain laboratory evidence (C) strongly question the findings of the Senate committee (D) emphasize the dangerous effects that certain pollutants have on public health (E) question the accuracy of laboratory evidence when dealing with pollution and issues of public health 116 | © The Princeton Review. (B) The destruction of agricultural crops causes farmers to purchase goods that they would normally grow for themselves. 11 Crit Read 116 11/15/05 3:30:46 PM . The reference in line 49 to “marginal gains” serves to (A) prove that measures taken by environmentalists are inefficient and unnecessarily extreme (B) suggest that even a small amount of improvement is desirable in the face of deplorable environmental conditions (C) imply that some standards are not worth the resources required to enforce them (D) highlight the disparity between the attention paid to certain small subgroups and that paid to the industrial system (E) establish that eliminating certain pollen producing weeds and flowers would be a more effective means of improving the air for asthmatics 8. the “intense smog” mentioned in line 64 was responsible for which of the following? (A) A greater awareness of the problems of air pollution (B) A growing dissatisfaction with big city life (C) A considerable number of fatalities (D) Increased diagnoses of asthma (E) Begrudging acceptance of poor air quality 9. By putting an “exclamation mark by the word ‘urgency’ ”. (E) New York City has the highest number of workdays lost due to pollen-related respiratory illnesses. According to the author of Passage 2.Refresher Manual for the saT 6. (D) Pollution causes the U. Which of the following does NOT support the contention expressed in Passage 2 that there are non-health-related costs to pollution? (A) Citizens of New York City spend a great deal of money on air filtering systems. 7.

believing that the small minority of pollution sufferers demand unreasonable and questionable changes (E) the author of Passage 1 thinks that not enough citizens consider the environmental dangers they cause. (D) While the author of Passage 2 has little respect for environmentalists. | 117 11 Crit Read 117 11/15/05 3:30:46 PM . (D) The second is more severe because major environmental tragedies usually involve tens of thousands of people. 11. Inc. According to the quotation at the end of Passage 2. the author of Passage 2 recognizes it as a greater threat than does the author of Passage 1. (C) While the author of Passage 1 recognizes air pollution as a necessary evil.Critical Reading Homework 10. One distinction between the attitudes of the two authors is that (A) the author of Passage 1 believes that only a small percentage of the public is affected by pollution. the author of Passage 1 believes the money is worth spending. the author of Passage 1 reveres them. (E) While neither of the authors believes the problem of air pollution is as bad as is commonly believed. the author of Passage 2 concentrates on health issues. (B) The first is more threatening to the population than the second because the long-term effect on chronic disease could lead to a greater number of fatalities. (B) While both of the authors concern themselves with issues of expense. Which of the following does the author of Passage 2 use in the construction of his argument that the author of Passage 1 does not? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A direct quotation A hypothetical question A reference to a medical condition A discussion of social issue A specific example © The Princeton Review. (E) The second is more life-threatening to a greater percentage of the population because it affects people without chronic respiratory diseases. Which of the following represents the fundamental difference in the arguments of the two authors? (A) While the author of Passage 1 is concerned with monetary issues. the author of Passage 2 believes in the eradication of all air pollution. while the author of Passage 2 believes that pollution has a more universal impact (B) the author of Passage 2 fails to take into account as many crucial statistics supplied by the government that affect the public as does the author of Passage 1 (C) the author of Passage 1 doesn’t care about the public’s interest while the author of Passage 2 does (D) the author of Passage 1 regards the public with more suspicion than the author of Passage 2. 12. what is the difference between the “long-range effects of air pollution” (line 106) and “the occasional major tragedy” (line 108)? (A) The second is more psychologically threatening to the population because of its dramatic impact. (C) The first is more threatening because the major tragedies usually involve lesser forms of pollution. while the author of Passage 2 feels that people knowingly jeopardize the health of the planet 13.

variations 118 | © The Princeton Review. While most environmental activists ------. one Blank at a time Approach two-blank sentence completions one blank at a time. . James frequently came close to ------. afraid ???? . . irregularities ???? . Few teams had endured such a ------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ???? . he could find absolutely no excitement in the work that the job entailed.of foreign pronunciations makes one overlook the common heritage of all languages. The ------. 6. ???? support . 4.of new immigrants around the turn of the century produced a culture of many different customs and languages.the ravaging of the South American rain forests. . .when a group of investors bought several crumbling tenements and turned them into attractive apartment buildings. Despite the appearance of prosperity. . at his death Colin Farnsworth left his family -------.Refresher Manual for the saT senTenCe CoMPLeTions Fill in tHe Blank On each of the following questions. Inc.of the experts. Despite his higher salary.number of players. 5. after studying it for several weeks. ???? epitomize . thrifty ???? .of the situation. Shirley’s giggling was entirely inappropriate given the ------. 3.season. . knowledgeable ???? .in response to his older sister’s teasing. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ???? . 1. Her questions regarding her son’s whereabouts the night before were -------. the team was forced to forfeit the game. she simply did not give up until he told her everything.her position in order to promote harmony among her friends. Although she usually insisted upon having things her own way. . 1. ???? deny . whose bond becomes obvious when one discovers the countless spelling -------. . 7. When shopping. . 7. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) encourage . Although he tried to never raise his voice. sociable ???? . Environmentalists argued that the chemical wastes being dumped in the river were so lethal as to threaten the fish with -------. 10. ???? 6. provincial 7. . 11 Crit Read 118 11/15/05 3:30:46 PM . 7. Eliminate as many wrong answers as possible. most of her purchases were never even used. similarities ???? . Having shown up without the ------. but memories of her impoverished childhood had made her excessively -------. intricacies ???? .to economic growth.people I knew. We’ve made it easier for you by eliminating answer choices for one of the blanks.grading policy. 5. . the panel of art historians pronounced the painting a fake. 10. The elderly woman had enjoyed ------most of her adult life. ruined by secret gambling debts. Pay close attention to clues and triggers. 7. 9. The ------.of his previous position. Lori would sometimes ------. . The declining neighborhood underwent a ------. losing every game by a landslide. Marlene was one of the most ------. substitute your own word or phrase to complete the sentence. . 2. ???? deplore . corrections ???? . The school did not have a ------. The clever forgery fooled the museum curator but did not withstand the ------. Owen felt that his new job lacked the ------. governments continue to insist that reshaping the land is ------. each teacher was free to mark students according to any system he or she thought appropriate. .

left him helpless and ------. chaotic invigorating . ???? 3. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) esteemed . reserved belligerence .each previous coup.him to live off the generosity of his friends. 5. ???? fractional . who was accustomed to outbursts of ------. it is by no means flawless. . . Even though his research is greatly -------. Novelist Gabriel García Márquez is anything but -------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) hostility . . somehow an otherwise ------. skepticism understood . and his results will not be accepted without some degree of -------. . . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an individualist a theorist a misanthrope a literalist a fanatic © The Princeton Review. Higgins was reported to be a strict professor. . accurate and consistent. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) similar . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) daunting . . fatiguing 10. much of the power of his work derives from his willingness to abandon realistic notions of time and space. . Not surprisingly. ???? conflicting . befuddlement 2. ???? discordant . ???? significant . Inc. underhanded putting it all togetHer Combine all the techniques you have learned to answer each of the following sentence completions. . ???? paradoxical . ???? erroneous . William’s temporary paralysis. petrifying perilous . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) detached venerable disarming scholarly perfunctory 1. . Dr. ???? consistent . her brother. the result of a violent automobile accident. . ovation confidential . .from apprehended suspects.Critical Reading Homework 8. The phenomenon of jazz is remarkable. . found the thought of hanging hundreds of feet from the ground a ------notion. disorderly thievery . discouraging exhausting . the alleged culprit was unusually -------. . hopeless thrilling . . . . ???? precise . support mistaken . composed violence . though. but he always tempered his critical words with a ------. the ruling government crushed the latest rebellion just as it had ------. . For Gretchen.smile. . rock climbing was -------. ???? 4. . | 119 11 Crit Read 119 11/15/05 3:30:46 PM .arguments that it never really -------. .cascade of sounds becomes organized into a ------whole. . in general. Although this book about Brazilian poets is. humorous indifference . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) disparate . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) transposed inclined repressed compelled enabled 7. adulation admired . it presents some ------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) suppressed assimilated satisfied distracted established 6. To the officer. . .

. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) disseminating exploding fostering endorsing dignifying 120 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the saT 8. researchers know that their work will be open to general scrutiny. Playwright David Henry Hwang is devoted to ------.their arguments in defense of their positions. denounce 9. 11 Crit Read 120 11/15/05 3:30:47 PM . scientific investigation is a ------. neglect secret . . invent public . . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) careful . strengthen tedious . and so they ------.the theory that Chinese culture is irrelevant to young Chinese-Americans. . a theory that he contends has only alienated them from their ethnic heritage. Inc. . marshal scholarly . At its best.activity.

14 Easy Error ID Medium Difficult Medium Improving Sentences Improving Paragraphs Difficult 35 Questions 25-Minute Section 14 Questions 10-Minute Section What is on the test? • 18 Error IDs • 25 Improving Sentences questions • 6 Improving Paragraphs questions • One 25-Minute Essay © The Princeton Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Writing introduction Improving Sentences Easy Medium Difficult Easy 1 . . . . 11 12 . | 121 12 writing 121 11/16/05 4:09:32 PM . . 29 30 . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . 35 1 . .

Now compare this to the chart on the next page to determine your scaled score. Your essay will be graded by two different people and each will give it a score on a scale of 1–6. then the result is added to your grammar raw score. Inc. The sum of these two grades is weighted so that the essay score is worth approximately 30% of the total score. Questions left blank neither contribute to nor detract Your grammar raw score is the number of questions you get correct minus from your score.Refresher Manual for the sat hoW is the WRitinG seCtion sCoReD? The scaled score (200–800) you receive on the Writing section is derived from two components: the essay score and the multiple-choice grammar score. 12 writing 122 11/16/05 4:09:33 PM . 122 | © The Princeton Review. Your essay score: <2–12> × (2) = <4–24> Grammar questions correct: minus Grammar questions incorrect: 4 = equals Grammar raw score: 1 of 4 the questions you get wrong.

Inc. © The Princeton Review. First do the ones that you do best on. | 123 12 writing 123 11/16/05 4:09:34 PM . then save the ones you find the most difficult for last. you have to make your own Personal Order of Difficulty (POOD). your writing score will range from 360-500 400-540 440-580 480-620 520-660 560-710 610-750 640-780 700-800 grammar Pacing chart So attempt this many questions To get: (scaled score) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 You need to earn: (raw points) 5 11 17 22 27 31 36 40 44 49 35-question section 10 13 16 22 26 27 31 all all all 14-question section 5 7 8 9 10 11 all all all all Total # of questions to attempt 15 20 26 31 36 38 45 49 49 49 YouR PooD anD You ETS doesn’t make an order of difficulty on the Writing section.Writing introduction EstimatEd Writing scorEs If your scaled grammar score is 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Depending on your essay score. For the multiplechoice questions on the Writing section.

• There are no right answers to the questions posed: Don’t be afraid to take an “unpopular” position. The best way to improve is to write as many practice essays as you can. Inc. always keep in mind a few important things: • Know what you are going to say and how you are going to say it before your pencil hits the page. What Joe Does • Focuses on what “sounds” right • Reads and re-reads endlessly • Eliminates answers just because he doesn’t like them What should You Do? the essaY Essay writing under timed conditions is never easy. Trust us: it does get easier over time! As you work. and don’t forget to apply all that grammar you worked so hard to learn! • Don’t be afraid to use expressive language if and when it helps support your essay. • Watch your language! Use language appropriate to the task. • Organization is a good thing: Always have an introduction and conclusion. 12 writing 124 11/16/05 4:09:34 PM .Refresher Manual for the sat Joe BloGGs anD GRaMMaR questions Improvement in the Grammar questions starts with knowing how Joe approaches them. 124 | © The Princeton Review.

The organization of your essay must be clear even to graders who have read 200 of these things in a row and are praying for a power outage to give themselves a break. Structure. BoDY laNGUaGe In each body paragraph. This is where a lot of people run into trouble even when they’ve mastered the first two elements of the SAT essay. This means that graders are not carefully correcting each essay. | 125 13 essayrevis 125 11/15/05 3:30:55 PM . or the 1-3 range? Your first goal.The essay. “Top half or bottom half?” Is the essay in the 4-6 range. Come as close to the last line provided as you can. therefore. SAT essays are graded quickly and holistically. they are looking it over for 45 to 60 seconds and then slapping a number on it based on their overall impression of it. so we’ll talk about examples in more depth. The first question they ask themselves when deciding on a score tends to be. without going over. is to crank out an essay that screams “TOP HALF!” The three aspects of your essay that will most help in this effort are: Length. Examples. you have three tasks to accomplish: • Make a smooth transition to introduce your example • Present your example • Tie your example clearly back to the prompt © The Princeton Review. RevisiTed How tHe otHer Half lives As you will undoubtedly recall. Inc. red pencil in hand.

In this play. no period of American history is as unrelentingly tragic as the Civil War. In this novel. an escaped slave named Jim. no period of American history is as unrelentingly tragic as the Civil War. the orphan Huck Finn and his friend. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare is a play in which two young lovers take their own lives. One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves occurs in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain.refresher Manual for the sat TRansiTions Compare the following three excerpts: …even today. 13 essayrevis 126 11/15/05 3:30:55 PM . making him think he only dreamed that they had been separated in the fog when in reality they actually had been. no period of American history is as unrelentingly tragic as the Civil War. Huck pulls a trick on Jim. but literature does as well. are rafting down the Mississippi River when Huck. two young lovers… What does this third version to do improve on the previous two? inTRoducing youR examples : assume noThing What does the second excerpt do that the first doesn’t? One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves occurs in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. At one point in this book. …even today. two young lovers… Why is the second excerpt better than the first? …even today. Their reasons can be traced back to… vs. Another example of the greatest griefs being those we cause ourselves can be seen in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Inc. In this play. vs. Not only does history furnish us with an endless array of examples illustrating that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves. a prime example is William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. who has paddled ahead of 126 | © The Princeton Review.

What makes the second more effective than the fi rst? © The Princeton Review. revisited the raft in a canoe. Never assume your reader is familiar with the characters. and other such specifics as needed. and finding Jim asleep. By sheer luck. or other examples you refer to. she had never even imagined such things before she emigrated from Russia to California. tricks him into thinking he’d dreamed the entire incident. In the weeks leading up to the war. Inc. government officials such as Secretary of State Colin Powell and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice took to the airwaves claiming that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. How are you supposed to remember all these details? Hey. Specificity goes beyond names and dates. many government officials took to the airwaves claiming that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. I vividly recall my grandmother talking about how amazed she was by the sight of mountains of fresh fruit in supermarkets and by the fact that she could walk around in short sleeves on a February morning. Which of these is more likely to impress a grader? In the weeks leading up to the war. dates. from a paragraph relating a personal experience: I vividly recall my grandmother talking about how amazed she was by things that we take for granted but which she had never even imagined before she emigrated from Russia to California. titles. political fi gures.the essay. locations. it is important to be as specific as you can. | 127 13 essayrevis 127 11/15/05 3:30:56 PM . Huck spots the raft again when the fog clears. Compare these two sentences. speciFic examples Rule In introducing your examples. vs. historical events. is separated from Jim in a dense bank of fog. Be sure to provide context for your examples. vs. that’s why you’re preparing your examples ahead of time! Make sure you can rattle off names.

After introducing each example. Huck spots the raft again when the fog clears. In this novel. Explain exactly why your example supports your thesis and to tie it back to the prompt. the orphan Huck Finn and his friend. By sheer luck. vs. be sure you spend time clearly explaining why it’s a good example. peRsonal examples : BeWaRe The piTFalls You may have heard that personal examples are not as good as other kinds of examples. are rafting down the Mississippi River when Huck.refresher Manual for the sat Tying examples BacK To The pRompT Let’s fi nish one of the paragraphs we started earlier. Not true! The problem is that personal examples can be hard to use well. Inc. When Jim finally learns that Huck has pulled a prank on him. is separated from Jim in a dense bank of fog. tricks him into thinking he’d dreamed the entire incident. “The greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves. he is so hurt by this betrayal that Huck agonizes over what he’s done. written for the prompt. Here are a few pointers: • Treat them like any other kind of example. One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves occurs in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. Avoid irrelevant details. and finding Jim asleep. but his deepest suffering comes with the realization that his own actions have been so cruel. By sheer luck. 128 | © The Princeton Review.” What would a grader think of a body paragraph like this? One example that shows that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves occurs in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. the orphan Huck Finn and his friend. are rafting down the Mississippi River when Huck. and finding Jim asleep. In this novel. tricks him into thinking he’d dreamed the entire incident. 13 essayrevis 128 11/15/05 3:30:57 PM . The last task of each body paragraph—tying the example back into the prompt — is really the payoff of the entire paragraph. Huck spots the raft again when the fog clears. an escaped slave named Jim. an escaped slave named Jim. who has paddled ahead of the raft in a canoe. • Don’t get so caught up in relating the story that you forget to come back to earth. Huck undergoes many hardships over the course of the novel. is separated from Jim in a dense bank of fog. who has paddled ahead of the raft in a canoe.

Too many short sentences will make your writing sound simplistic and repetitive. But there are a few general tips that can help you avoid many potential problems at once. but be careful not to overuse them. revisited staYiNG oUt of troUBle Graders of SAT essays encounter an astonishing variety of errors. Here’s an example: “Sometimes censorship is justified. and you’re writing longhand. Inc. • Avoid the passive voice—active voice is always the better choice! senTence vaRieTy ETS graders are evaluating. however. You have to get it right the first time. • Think first. “b/c”. Listing them all individually could take indefinitely long and wouldn’t be very useful. • Don’t be overly casual. Avoid slang. then write. It only takes away our individual freedoms . Therefore. • Stick to your active vocabulary. Long. because no matter how important we believe the exercise of individual freedom to be. Don’t use a pronoun that doesn’t stand for anything in particular. among other things. declaratory sentences are perfectly acceptable. “Which it?” or “This what?” A little complexity goes a long way. How can this sentence be made clearer? Many like to think that individual freedom supersedes all else. or “w/o”. there is always a need to maintain a clear distinction between right and wrong. you want to deliver a blend of short and long sentences. I believe that censorship is never justified. and never use abbreviations such as “+”. Remember that you only have 25 minutes. there is and always will be some sort of authority existing to keep one within the rules. It may endanger our democracy. complex sentences can be difficult for you to control and may be difficult for a reader to easily understand. The SAT is not the time to try out fancy new words you aren’t 100% sure how to use correctly. You’re not chatting with your friends—you’re writing an essay for a grade on an important test. | 129 13 essayrevis 129 11/15/05 3:30:57 PM . Censorship cannot solve anything. how well you can vary your sentences in both length and structure. a distinction that is not always easy for an individual to see. You won’t get a high score if your grader has to ask. Censorship interferes with our freedom of expression. Add punctuation and conjunctions to connect related ideas and create smoother renditions of the sentences above. but in reality. Short.” I disagree with this quote. © The Princeton Review.the essay.

Iago. 13 essayrevis 130 11/15/05 3:30:57 PM . 130 | © The Princeton Review. Assignment: What is your opinion of the claim that sometimes honesty is not the best policy? essay a I agree that honesty is sometimes not the best policy. Othello reveals his deepest secrets. who is secretly bent on Othello’s demise. During the American Revolution. the main character confides in the villain. Iago. In Othello. He did this out of love for his and his country’s independence from the tyrannical rule of Britain. Inc. uses this information to twist Othello from a successful military leader to a paranoid man who murders the woman he loves. I will show this to be true using the examples of Shakespeare’s Othello and the spy Nathan Hale during the American Revolution. At times excessive honesty is unnecessary and can prevent desired outcomes. holding nothing back. Describe what is wrong with each.refresher Manual for the sat Adjust sentence length where necessary when you proofread. Nathan Hale acts the part of a loyalist while secretly feeding information to the colonial militia. Better. Best Here are some examples of actual student essays representing various scoring levels. GooD. and then rewrite or add to the text to improve it.

and make comments regarding what they do like about the gift. revisited Using the examples of Shakespeare’s Othello and Nathan Hale. or emotions are on the line. the truth should not be told when and if one’s feelings. Why did this essay get a 4? How could it be made better? © The Princeton Review. rather it allows the recipient to guard the giver’s feelings by acknowledging what they do appreciate about the gift. honesty allows people to move on and forget a situation. it would be a choice that would be beneficial to the giver for the recipient to smile. Although honesty normally creates fewer problems than lies.the essay. can cause much unneeded hurt. For instance. I have illustrated that sometimes honesty is not the best policy. the truth should not be used when and if it will most likely cause conflicts or arguments between two separate people. Honesty. it would most likely cause tremendous amounts of resentment between the couple as well as the friends. This will allow for the least amount of anger. showing that honesty is not always the best policy. and resentment. if one had had an affair with a friend’s girl/boyfriend. but many times. state their thanks. If this were to be done. when used in the wrong situation. instead of stating their dislike. These feelings would erupt because the girl/boyfriend that had been cheated on would feel betrayed by two people: his/her partner and his/her friend. Also. | 131 13 essayrevis 131 11/15/05 3:30:57 PM . heart. For example. In these instances. it would not be wise to state that they are unappreciative or not in favor of the present. Instead. In many situations. anger. essay B Although it is commonly thought of as the correct and proper thing to do. if one does not appreciate or like a gift that they have received from a friend. one should either tell the partial truth or lie in the most minimal way. This method doesn’t even necessarily require stating anything untrue. Inc. telling the truth is not always the best option. it would not necessarily be a wise decision to be completely upfront and direct with the friend regarding the situation. it can cause many more negative emotions than that are necessary.

He didn’t admit to having been involved with her. and I had caused it on my own for myself. In the past I have been known to cause problems for myself by procrastinating. Knowing that each individual is responsible for his or her own life and decisions is important. My grade fell in easy classes because of my laziness. I would toss it aside and say I would complete it later. “The greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves. Some of the worst situations that a person can get into are caused by the person themself. This behavior led to me doing a sloppy. Why did this essay get a 4? How could it be made better? 132 | © The Princeton Review. 13 essayrevis 132 11/15/05 3:30:58 PM . Individuals have a great ability to cause problems for themselves. He was a married man and president and so should have stayed away from a possibly hazardous situation. In the Monica Lewinsky scandal. My procrastination problems and the Monica Lewinsky scandals are examples of individuals causing major problems for themselves.refresher Manual for the sat Assignment: What is your view of the claim that the greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves? essay c I agree with the statement.” Everyone is responsible for this or her own actions. People can easily ruin their own lives because of their poor judgment. When I recieved an assignment. but he was caught in a lie. President Bill Clinton was accused of adultery. last minute job or forgetting about the assignment alltogether. President Clinton brought the problem upon himself by making a bad decision. It was my biggest problem. Inc.

The Great Depression. However. caused a rise in the stock market which led to an increase in stockholders investing in booming companys. To this day. The same is also true during World War II where the invention of the first nuclear weapons used to defeat the Axis Powers were created. and social turbulence caused by oppression because of a misunderstanding in social values. women gained power in the 1920s. and men and women of homosexual orientation. the threat of nuclear was. nations seeked their own weapons of mass destruction. First. Once the power of the weapons were demonstrated. The troubles that we encounter are ones of our own fault. Why did this essay get a 4? How could it be made better? © The Princeton Review. It is our own actions that cause consequences. the oppression of minority groups in the United States has caused turbulence in society throughout much of the past century. but throughout history it is shown that the hardships we face are often caused by our own actions. On a social level. History does not lie. The oppression suffered by these minority groups led to the eventual liberation of civil rights through tough campaigning. and it is evident that much of the troubles in the United States were caused by none other than ourselves. | 133 13 essayrevis 133 11/15/05 3:30:58 PM . at the end of the 1920s fear of a crashing economy sent investers panicing and selling of stocks. invention of nuclear weapons and the civil rights movement all prove such a statement. Though many sought peaceful demonstrations. The rise of the economy during the early part of the 1900s. This panic caused the economy to crash and soon led to the Great Depression. caused by its creation during World War II. social equality was reached. the events may never have happened. Inc.the essay. The Great Depression of the 1930s were caused by events of the 1920s. revisited essay d One may say that we are destined for a future and have no control over the inevitable. Had the panic not struck investers with such strength. the United States’ invention has caused a constant threat of nuclear war with the Middle East and North Korea. even turned violent such as race riots in Northeastern cities. followed by African Americans during the 1960s and 1970s and then other groups such as Latin Americans. led by the industry of the United States.

intelligent. However. Reminiscing upon my grandfather. With one utterance. Several years passed. In conclusion. and the fragile issue was never once brought up. my grandparents believed that it was finally time to divulge the truth to him. He revealed that he had met and fallen in love with a charming. their faces became radiant with acrimony. When Neil returned home from a European medical school at the age of twenty-seven. he’ll experience a perpetual feeling of emptiness. Why did this essay get a 5? How could it be made better? 134 | © The Princeton Review. for the rest of his life. thus. and even decided that this issue was never to be discussed again. and loving son. a “meeting-date” was set for the following week. my grandparents were overjoyed. he lost a respectful. or contemplate the consequences of their actions. When my grandparents opened the door to Neil’s girlfriend. You were never my real son. when he turned sixteen.” This statement was clearly made by a wise. About fifty years ago my paternal grandfather and grandmother adopted a young boy named Neil. successful woman with an amiable nature and remarkable aspirations.refresher Manual for the sat essay e “The greatest griefs are those we cause ourselves. and you never will be. I find that statement to manifest even more truth. To their astonishment. noble individual. people either make hurtful statements or commit heinous actions which hurt another person. Initially. If more beings were to simply think before their spoke. for the woman standing at the door was not of the same descent. the greatest grief we experience is instigated by our own actions. and extremely eager to meet their future daughter-in-law. he would have never lost a son. which was only caused by himself. he told his parents what he assumed to be wonderful news. Inc. they proceeded to reveal that they were not Neil’s biological parents. Therefore. “Your actions simply provide proof that you are not my blood.” Since the day my grandfather stated those words. 13 essayrevis 134 11/15/05 3:30:58 PM . and eventually. My grandfather now completely regrets letting his enmity get in the way of a beautiful relationship. they would rarely be forced to endure grief. Quite often. If my grandfather had merely been open-minded. Neil was raised unaware of his adoption. Now. and that they were to exist together as if he was their real biological offspring. hinder their relationship and elicit animosity. My grandparents were appalled at Neil’s actions and my grandfather insolently said. Neil handled the news maturely. our family has not heard from Neil.

© The Princeton Review. do the following 1. 2. do the following: 1. Be methodical. AGREEMENT Agreement is one of the most heavily tested rules on the SAT. Eliminate (A) and any other answer choices that make the same error. Let’s take a look at some specific situations. spot the differences. and eliminate systematically. If you don’t spot an error when you read the initial sentence. Repeat Step 2 until you have one answer choice left. Compare answers. Repeat Step 1 until you have one answer choice left. Compare the answer choices and note how they differ.IMPrOVInG senTenCes BASIC APPROACH The key to success on Improving Sentences questions is to identify errors and compare answer choices with each other. 3. | 135 14 Improving Sent 135 11/15/05 3:31:02 PM . Don’t read the sentence over and over. Eliminate any answer choices that contain errors. 2. Follow this plan: Read the sentence. If you spot an error right away. Compare the remaining answer choices and note how they differ. Inc. Eliminate any answer choices that contain new errors. hoping the right answer will leap out at you.

Ignore prepositional phrases when you check for agreement. They need to be paired with singular verbs. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a band of armed men were an armed band of men were a band composed of armed men were a band of armed men was armed men in a band was 136 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the SAT Verbs If you have a singular subject. 2. TRIM THE FAT. 1. Trim the fat Ignore what’s between the subject and verb—it’s just there to distract you. (A) that bear the logo of America’s largest footwear manufacturer costs (B) which bear the logo of America’s largest footwear manufacturer costs (C) who bear the logo of America’s largest manufacturer of footwear costs (D) that bear the logo of America’s largest footwear manufacturer cost (E) which bear America’s largest footwear manufacturer’s logo cost Collective Nouns Collective nouns are singular. If you have a plural subject. While the sneakers that bear the logo of America’s largest footwear manufacturer costs several hundred dollars per pair. 14 Improving Sent 136 11/15/05 3:31:03 PM . you need to use a singular verb. you need to use a plural verb. The peasants fl ed when they heard that a band of armed men were headed toward their village. Inc. the workers who actually make them are paid only pennies a day.

determine which noun it’s replacing. and make sure they agree: Singular with singular.” the verb agrees with the closer noun. 5. the gods Shiva and Parvati is the parents of Ganesha. If a singular noun and a plural noun are joined by “or” or “nor. 3.Improving Sentences Compound Subjects Two singular nouns joined by “and” make a plural subject. Two singular nouns joined by “or” or “nor” make a singular subject. and plural with plural. In Hinduism. the elephant-headed god of wisdom. Either my parents or my brother is going to pick me up at the airport tomorrow afternoon. Stage actors judge how the audience feel about a show by how loudly they applaud their performances. (A) (B) (C) (D) the gods Shiva and Parvati is the parents the gods Shiva and Parvati is the parent the gods Shiva and Parvati are the parents Shiva and Parvati are the gods who are the parents (E) Shiva is one and Parvati the other parent 4. (A) feel about a show by how loudly they applaud their (B) feels about a show by how loudly it applauds its (C) feels about a show by how loudly it applauds their (D) feels about a show by how loudly they applaud its (E) feel about a show by how loudly they applaud their own © The Princeton Review. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) parents or my brother is brother or my parents is parents or my brother are brother or otherwise my parents are parents or my brother will PrOnOUns When a pronoun is underlined. | 137 14 Improving Sent 137 11/15/05 3:31:04 PM . Inc.

Inc. depending on the context. everyone should leave their briefcases and backpacks behind. anybody everyone something much everybody someone nothing somebody no one either nobody anything neither anyone everything each The following pronouns are PLURAL. (A) everyone should leave their briefcases and backpacks (B) everybody should leave their briefcases and backpacks (C) everyone should leave their briefcase or backpack (D) everybody should leave their briefcase or backpack (E) everyone should leave his briefcase or backpack 138 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the SAT The following pronouns are SINGULAR. few many both several The following pronouns can be singular OR plural. The safety instructions on the airplane indicated that in the event of an evacuation. 14 Improving Sent 138 11/15/05 3:31:05 PM . all most some none more any less 6.

| 139 14 Improving Sent 139 11/15/05 3:31:05 PM . Having ravaged the beaches. Jim could not enjoy his retirement because of the dog next door. and taken dozens of lives. If the modifier is underlined. 7. caused billions of dollars in damage. make sure that modifying phrases are indeed modifying what they’re supposed to modify. make it describe the subject or else turn it into a clause. If the modifier isn’t underlined. (A) Jim could not enjoy his retirement because of the dog next door (B) Jim could not enjoy his retirement due to the dog next door (C) the dog next door kept Jim from enjoying his retirement (D) the dog next door could not allow Jim to enjoy being in retirement (E) Jim’s retirement could not be enjoyed because of the dog next door 8.Improving Sentences MIsPLACeD MODIFIers To avoid misplaced modifiers. Barking loudly from the break of dawn until sunset. Inc. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Having After having Despite having Seeing that it had Because they had © The Princeton Review. choose the subject that the modifier is actually describing. the governor announced that he was assembling a committee to develop a plan to protect the state’s populace from hurricanes.

and to bite her toes. and some vengeful (D) mercenary. 14 Improving Sent 140 11/15/05 3:31:06 PM . LIsTs Items in a list should be parallel in form.Refresher Manual for the SAT PARALLELISM ETS will give you sentences that mix and match different parts of speech. Inc. some mercenary. brought by vengeance 140 | © The Princeton Review. and bite to shred her furniture. (A) mercenary. and vengeance brought some. too. different comparisons. and bite to shred her furniture. Jennifer’s cats liked to climb her bookshelves. some because of revenge (E) mercenary. and also bite to shred and to bite her furniture and 10. You need to make sure everything is consistent and parallel. shred her furniture. and vengeance brought some. and to bite shred her furniture. 9. too (B) mercenary. and some brought by vengeance (C) mercenary. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) shred her furniture. different tenses. The soldiers who fought in the revolution had a variety of motivations: some patriotic.

(A) had they learned history and been exposed (B) if they had learned history and exposed (C) if they have learned history and had been exposed (D) had they learned history and have been exposed (E) if they would have learned history and been exposed Of course. the tense of verbs in a sentence should be consistent. Inc. but critics argued that the students would be better citizens had they learned history and been exposed to the arts. if there is a reason for verbs to be in different tenses. The state’s new educational priorities marginally increased math and reading scores among this year’s high school graduates. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) underwent undergoes has undergone had undergone will have undergone © The Princeton Review.Improving Sentences Verb Tense Another issue with parallelism is the use of parallel verb tenses. Generally speaking. Each of the astronauts in the Apollo program underwent an exhaustive battery of tests by the time he was cleared for an actual mission. 11. | 141 14 Improving Sent 141 11/15/05 3:31:06 PM . putting each verb into the correct tense is more important than keeping them parallel: 12.

14 Improving Sent 142 11/15/05 3:31:07 PM . make sure the items being compared are properly comparable: Apples to apples.Refresher Manual for the SAT COMPArIsOns When you spot a comparison in a sentence. 14. nouns should agree in number unless there is a compelling reason for them to disagree. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) their chosen successor as a son his chosen successor as a son as a son one’s chosen successor their chosen successors as sons his chosen successors as a son 142 | © The Princeton Review. 13. it was common for emperors to adopt their chosen successor as a son. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) score less goals than Shelbyville score fewer goals than Shelbyville score less goals than Shelbyville’s score fewer goals than Shelbyville’s score the least goals compared to Shelbyville nOUn PArALLeLIsM Even when they aren’t explicitly part of a list or a comparison. and oranges to oranges. In ancient Rome. The commentators agreed that Springfi eld’s hockey team would surely score less goals than Shelbyville in Wednesday’s playoff game. Inc.

You will nearly always be able to determine that a few of them are correct. Your job is to find the error in the sentence (if there is one). Four score and seven years ago our fathers A bringed forth on this continent a new nation. Thus. Each Error ID question presents a sentence with four underlined portions. B conceived in liberty and dedicated to the propoC sition that all men are created equal. The nonunderlined portions of the sentence are always correct. • There is never more than one error in a sentence. it will always be underlined. | 143 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 143 11/15/05 3:31:10 PM . (B). so Error IDs are excellent questions for POE if you’re having trouble. and (D). labeled (A). No error D E Here are a few key points about Error IDs. Here’s an example: 1. you should use the non-underlined portions to help you decide whether the underlined portions are correct. (C).” which is labeled (E). You also have the option “No error. but merely to identify where the error is. Error IDs are the quickest type of question to tackle because you don’t need to read any answer choices. • If there is an error in the sentence. © The Princeton Review. Inc. • Any underlined portion of the sentence that you know is correct can be eliminated.Error IDs anD ImprovIng paragraphs Error ID quEstIons Eighteen of the grammar questions on the SAT will ask you not to fix the sentence.

Follow this plan. and being cruel in accomplishing C their goals. 2. and recognize whether any of the underlined portions of the sentence violate them. do the following: 1. agrEEmEnt anD ParaLLELIsm Error ID questions are just as likely to test agreement and parallelism as sentence improvements are. you should expect to see about 3 or 4 (E)’s out of your 18 Error IDs. If you spot an error right away. 2. Thus. Be on the lookout for these sorts of errors.refresher manual for the sat • Approximately one-fi fth of the sentences will have no error. BasIc aPProach The key to Error ID questions is to know the rules of grammar that appear on the SAT. The documents released by the Executive Secretariat of the State Department indicates A that the diplomat in question was well regarded B C by her superiors. Try to articulate what the error is. Read the sentence. Select the answer that violates a rule. Select the answer you originally identified as an error if you’re confident it truly is an error. Attack one underlined portion at a time by checking the grammar rules that apply to each. Check the other underlined portions. 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 144 11/15/05 3:31:11 PM . If you don’t spot an error when you fi rst read the sentence. Niccolo Machiavelli advised Renaissance princes not to shy away from treachery. do the following: 1. 3. A B subterfuge. Eliminate answers that you know are grammatically correct. just to be safe. 3. No error D E 3. 2. Inc. No error D E 144 | © The Princeton Review. so that you avoid picking an answer solely by ear. or (E) if there is no error.

Although they were once commonplace along A B our highways and in our cities. C D No error E © The Princeton Review. Inc. | 145 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 145 11/15/05 3:31:12 PM . Even if it seems obvious from context. The farmers were horrified when they walked A through the fields of corn plants and discovered B that crows had been eating them. pronoUn amBIgUITY There should never be any confusion or ambiguity about which noun a pronoun is referring to. the government has now banned billboards advertising tobacco. B C D No error E morE aBout Pronouns As we have seen. the fi rst thing you should check about underlined pronouns is agreement. But there are a few other pronoun errors that ETS will occasionally throw at you. it must be grammatically unambiguous which noun a pronoun stands for. 5. No error C D E 6.Error IDs and Improving Paragraphs 4. The rules of cricket baffle many Americans but A are really no more complicated than baseball.

D No error E 8. him. Inc. If you’ d say he. Subject Watch out for it and they—these pronouns are most commonly the culprits in sentences with ambiguity errors. I appreciate that Tracy is only trying to help her A brother. us. 7. you want whom. ask yourself whether you would use he or him in place of the current pronoun. her. you want who. No error C D E 146 | © The Princeton Review. them. The message on my desk could hardly have A been less useful: it indicated that the telephone B had rung. 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 146 11/15/05 3:31:13 PM . if you’ d say him. whom? When choosing between who and whom. but she is going to have to accept that B this dispute is between he and I and that her C interference is only making the problem worse. but not who had called.refresher manual for the sat pronoUn CasE The case of a pronoun indicates whether it stands for the subject of the sentence or the object. I He She We They Who went to the mall with Object me.

. Many idiom questions require you to know which preposition follows a particular word.from .. that’s just the way it is.to be estimate appears believe .to responsibility capable composed in search jealous resentful consist conform intend plan try superior compare attribute .for provide responsible qualify . There’s no reason.......over dispute debate . you’ll have to learn and memorize....of . and others are incorrect. Others.. ...about worry concern different prohibit distinguish argue comply consistent compare contrast credit .with © The Princeton Review.as define regard see (no preposition) named off advocate . Some idioms you’ll know by ear..Error IDs and Improving Paragraphs IDIoms anD DIctIon Idioms are not rules like “Verbs must agree with their subjects. Inc. | 147 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 147 11/15/05 3:31:13 PM .. so it’s good to know the most common combinations. certain combinations of words are just correct.” Idioms are conventions of language.. In English..

The destruction caused by the sudden storm was A the most incredulous thing the anchorwoman B C had ever seen. Inc. No error D E 10. 148 | © The Princeton Review. in which the wrong word has been substituted for a similar-sounding word. it is almost never the correct answer. Therefore. From the moment she stepped off the plane. accounting for only six questions on the entire test. • The “20% are correct as written” rule doesn’t apply here. There are many. You often don’t even have the option to leave the paragraph alone. 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 148 11/15/05 3:31:13 PM . As he lay on the ground in agony. No error D E 12. Here are a few key points about Improving Paragraph questions. since they are only of easy or medium difficulty. Try and understand what I am telling you: the A B C company has been liquidated and your stock D options are worthless. No error D E ImProvIng ParagraPhs Paragraph improvement questions are the least common question type. the injured A player thought less about his broken leg than B C about the fact that his team would now surely loose the game. and when you do. • These passages aren’t just poorly written—they’re disaster areas. 11. A B Serena found that Uruguay was much different C as she had expected. • Be sure to leave time for these at the end of your POOD. do not edit as you read. No error E Related to idiom errors are diction errors.refresher manual for the sat 9. many more flaws within each passage than you will be asked about.

Many of the questions relate to the order in which ideas are presented. Where are there ideas coming out of order? • If you’re asked to describe the relationship between two sentences. Where is there a shift to something new? • If you’re asked to insert a sentence. Skim the passage and identify the following things: • • Main Idea Structure 2. Something following the passage should flow directly from the last sentence. Always remember to focus on the main point of the passage. stick as closely to the passage as you can. describe the relationship between sentences. swap sentences. Something preceding the passage should tie directly into the fi rst sentence. focus on the order of ideas. ThE QUEsTIons You’ll see three basic types of questions: • Revision Questions: You’ll be asked to revise sentences or parts of sentences. The most effective revisions will be marked by precision of language and conciseness of expression. and that each part leads to the next. How could you connect the ideas more logically? • If you’re asked to swap sentences. You want to make sure that the ideas flow in a logical progression. • Combination Questions: You’ll be asked to combine two sentences. Read the question and go back to the passage for context. • If you’re asked to identify the best topic to hypothetically precede or follow the passage. look for where a new idea is introduced. In order to do that. insert sentences. focus on whether they agree or disagree. © The Princeton Review. | 149 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 149 11/15/05 3:31:14 PM . • Pay attention to the logical flow of ideas. focus on the connection between the surrounding sentences. • Weird Questions: You’ll be asked to split paragraphs. you want to help the author get his or her main idea across as effectively as possible. Since your job here is to improve the paragraphs. 3. or fi gure out what topics could hypothetically precede or follow the passage.Error IDs and Improving Paragraphs ThE BasIC approaCh 1. Here are some guidelines. you need to know what the author is trying to do. • If you’re asked to split a paragraph in two. These are extremely similar to sentence improvements. Then ask how the sentences relate to each other. POE Keep the following ideas in mind when tackling these questions. Handling a weird question depends on what you’re specifically asked to do. Inc. • Think about what the author is trying to convey. • Avoid ambiguity and wordiness.

150 | © The Princeton Review. it has not. (E) Many people think that instant messaging has only been around for a few years. (12) They say why would you want to send cold text back and forth when you could talk on the phone and hear the tone of the other person’s voice. and they appear on the person with whom you are conversing. (9) There is a sound that tells you when a new message has arrived. many people think that instant messaging has been around for a few years. (5) Also you couldn’t send pictures. (6) Today almost all young people in the United States use instant messaging. (8) You type messages on your computer. (D) Many people think that instant messaging has been around only for a few years. but they are mistaken. (A) Mistakenly. (2) My uncle who is an engineer says he used instant messaging when he was in college way back in the 1980’s. but it has not. (4) But only computer experts used it. (13) But I bet that decades ago parents couldn’t understand why kids would want to talk on the phone to their friends when they went to school with them and could visit them just by walking a few blocks. 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 150 11/15/05 3:31:14 PM . (3) He used a program called “talk” that allowed people to send messages back and forth to computers thousands of miles away instantly. (14) Walking is good exercise. (C) Many people are mistaken to think that instant messaging has only been around for a few years. for it is not. but not as good as biking or swimming. (11) Many parents are surprised at how popular instant messaging is. (15) But when you talk on the phone you don’t have to worry about whether you look good and you can do other things. (16) Just like with instant messaging you don’t have to answer back right away. Inc.refresher manual for the sat (1) Many people think that instant messaging has only been around for a few years but they are mistaken and it is not. (7) Even if they don’t use computers for anything else they use it. (10) You can talk to many people at the same time. (B) Many people mistakenly think that instant messaging has only been around for a few years but it is not. you can go get a snack and write back when you feel like it and no one thinks it’s weird. The passage would be most improved if which of the following sentences were eliminated? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sentence 1 Sentence 6 Sentence 8 Sentence 13 Sentence 14 2. but mistakenly. (17) And it is easier to ask someone on a date with instant messaging. 1. Which of the following is the best revision of sentence 1 (reproduced below)? Many people think that instant messaging has only been around for a few years but they are mistaken and it is not.

(A) Today almost all young people in the United States use instant messaging.Error IDs and Improving Paragraphs 3. not for anything else. and insert a paragraph break between sentence 15 and 16 © The Princeton Review. and eliminate the paragraph break between sentences 12 and 13 (D) insert a paragraph break between sentences 10 and 11. (B) Today. Inc. almost all young people in the United States use computers for instant messaging. Sentence 8 could best be revised by (A) changing the word “with” to “to” (B) changing the phrase “they” to “the same messages” (C) changing the phrase “and they appear” to “which appears” (D) inserting the phrase “the screen of” before the phrase “the person” (E) taking it out of the second person and putting in the first person 6. (E) Today almost all young people in the United States use computers for instant messaging. (C) Today almost all young people in the United States use instant messaging. they use instant messaging. 5. they use them for that. Sentences 6 and 7 (reproduced below) could best be combined in which of the following ways? Today almost all young people in the United State use instant messaging. Even if they don’t use computers for anything else they use it. even if they don’t use computers for anything else. This essay would most logically go on to discuss (A) the author’s own dating experience (B) the technology involved in instant messaging (C) the reasons teenagers feel more comfortable arranging dates over an instant messaging system than in person (D) other sources of misunderstanding between teenagers and their parents (E) the future of the Internet 4. and eliminate the paragraph break between sentences 5 and 6 (B) eliminate the paragraph break between sentences 5 and 6. if they don’t use computers for anything else. even if they don’t use them for anything else. The best way for the author of this essay to rearrange the paragraph breaks would be to (A) insert a paragraph break between sentences 3 and 4. and insert a paragraph break between sentences 8 and 9 (C) insert a paragraph break between sentences 9 and 10. | 151 15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 151 11/15/05 3:31:14 PM . even if they don’t use computers for anything else. (D) Today almost all young people in the United States. and eliminate the paragraph break between sentences 12 and 13 (E) eliminate the paragraph break between sentences 12 and 13.

15 Error ID and Imp Paragraphs 152 11/15/05 3:31:14 PM .

Inc.Grammar Homework © The Princeton Review. | 153 16 Grammar Homework 153 11/15/05 3:31:18 PM .

D No error E 8. and then swipes her pass through a reader B before she can enter her office. ride up to the eighth floor. but is always B C awake and alert the next morning. C D No error E 9. After studying diligently for two A years. D No error E 5. we must analyze not only his most B famous plays such as Hamlet. No error D E 4. Alex finally realized that he B C had scarcely no interest in biology. Emily goes to clubs frequent and A returns home late. D and sonnets. D No error E 6. People which are considered healthy A B by most doctors may still find it C difficult to obtain affordable health D insurance. No error E 2. Bianca left Javier a note asking him A B to go with Liz and she to C the upcoming symphony concert. poems. Inc. 16 Grammar Homework 154 11/15/05 3:31:19 PM . No error D E 3. Every morning Adeline has to show A identification at the front desk. Public buses maintain stringent A B environmental standards including C increased fuel efficiency and cleaner emissions. most Americans view the present abundance that they B currently enjoy as a sign they C may again waste fuel. but also C his lesser-known plays. Though the memory of the recent oil A shortage remains. their parties kept him awake late at night when he wanted to sleep. D No error E 154 | © The Princeton Review.Refresher Manual for the SAT error IDs DrIll one 1. Deb soon realized why her roommate had become resentful of she and her A B C friends. To understand fully William A Shakespeare’s body of work. No error E 7.

No error D E 11. C Gary Coleman was the more D qualified. No error D E © The Princeton Review. he discovered it to be B C seriously damaged. The 1. No error D E 17. he becomes B increasingly aware of the religious C themes that inspired ancient artists. The students agreed that A among the candidates for governor B of California in the recent election. John Bubbles is usually credited A with the invention of rhythm B C tap-dancing. Lawrence A River are counted as part of the B Thousand Islands if they stay above C water all year and grew at least two D trees. As more art historians investigate the A heritage of the Chinese. Peter had lay on the couch all afternoon A B watching television before Don C called him for dinner. No error D E 16. Barnaby surprises most people he meets because he not only A loves listening to heavy metal and also B C he enjoys watching ballet. Inc. an art form in which D both heels and toes are used to produce a syncopated sound. No error E 14. No error E 13. D No error E 12. When Chris unplugged the monitor A from his computer. | 155 16 Grammar Homework 155 11/15/05 3:31:19 PM .800 islands on the St. No error E 15. The debate over whether inoculations A for very young children are B beneficial or are they dangerous C continues to rage.Grammar Homework 10.

000 animal and 45. Mr. he would take away C her learner’s permit for the remainder D of the year. Inc. More than 80. and read the local C D newspapers. No error E 4. No error E 5. Few employees understood the A concept of niche marketing.000 A plant species. and so B they could not account for the shop’s C D slow sales. No error E 7. approximately 8% of B C the world’s total. Every day when Vinnee gets to work. As a result of the defendant’s A continuous refusal to demonstrate B even the slightest semblance of C appropriate behavior in the court room. 16 Grammar Homework 156 11/15/05 3:31:19 PM . the judge held him in contempt. one of the nation’s most long-standing newspapers. The A New York Times. No error E 156 | © The Princeton Review. A the African elephant is the taller of B C the two elephant species that exists D today. No error E 2. Achieving heights of twelve feet. No error D E 3. In the eyes of many readers. A she checks her voice mail messages. they have recorded D in India. B exemplifies the ideal traits of a daily C newspaper: insightful reporting and D exceptional writing. Marsh warned his strong-willed A daughter that unless she remembered B to drive slower.Refresher Manual for the SAT error IDs DrIll Two 1. B meets with her editors. No error E 8. D No error E 6. That painter has had the honor of A having his work included in more B C international exhibits than other painters.

No error E 11. Andy was hardworking and a A prolific writer until a mysterious B illness caused him to start falling C asleep. No error E 16.” Linus said petulantly. I was so shaked up after the tractor-trailer A crashed into my car on the highway B that I avoided driving for several C D weeks. Inc. The range of electric cars has always been A B smaller than gasoline-powered cars.” No error E 10. Although the work of both artists A has been displayed at the gallery. now everyone refers to her D as “The Queen. so even A after having been without a car for B C a year. Jodie should of known that wearing A B C a tiara to work on Halloween was a bad idea. causing many businesses to spend a greater C percentage of their budgets on D transportation. “because the teacher B expects far too much reading of us. like potatoes B and tomatoes. Rising domestic gas prices have A increased dramatically in the B past several years. Carly was a skilled driver. sometimes in the middle of a D conversation. No error E 18. actually originated in the Americas and were unknown C in Europe prior to the voyages of D Christopher Columbus. C D No error E 17. The best students in my class always considers producing high quality A work important. she was still comfortable D behind the wheel.Grammar Homework 9. “Remind me never to sign up for A another psychology class. No error C D E © The Princeton Review. No error E 14. | 157 16 Grammar Homework 157 11/15/05 3:31:20 PM . No error E 13. No error E 15. Many foods associated with A European cuisines. regardless of B whether it affects their grades.” C D No error E 12. B only one has managed to sell C D anything.

it received a unique human trial when D the rare spider bit one of the guests. Although the venom’s antidote had been A B C tested only in the laboratory. Petersburg. While it is often expensive to attend A a live soccer match. D No error E 23. The data entry work was given to Julie A because her typing speed is nearly B C double that of Martha. No error E 20. Everyone in the junior class are going to be A eligible for a chance to win a B C scholarship toward a summer travel program offered by the language D department. was born in B St. D No error E 25. D No error E 24. The team should have asked us for A B clarification since no one C understands the rules better than we. the popular Russian A American writer. it is much more B exciting and allows you to meet C D other fans. 16 Grammar Homework 158 11/15/05 3:31:20 PM . Vladimir Nabokov.Refresher Manual for the SAT 19. No error E 158 | © The Princeton Review. No error E 21. The class president stressed that it is A imperative that we maintain a B strong reserve balance in our school improvement fund since we are C responsible to plant additional D trees in the common area. No error D E 22. but had moved C to England to attend college at Cambridge. The extraordinary attention to detail needed A by pilots in flight are essential to B C their survival. No error E 26. Inc.

The admissions officer put an acceptance letter in one of the envelopes and in the other was put a rejection letter. (A) he won a teddy bear for his brother at the carnival (B) his brother had won by him a teddy bear at the carnival (C) because he won his brother a teddy bear at the carnival (D) still he will be able to win a teddy bear for his brother at the carnival (E) he won. (A) so much weight having been lost on the new diet (B) on the new diet having lost so much weight (C) having the new diet losing so much weight (D) on the new diet and losing so much weight (E) since he lost so much weight on the new diet 2. so much weight having been lost on the new diet. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Since one should not count One ought not count Since one ought not count One had ought not to count One should not be counting 5. (A) to jump out of an airplane without wearing a parachute (B) to jump out of an airplane without wearing parachutes (C) to jump out of an airplane.000 cancer deaths a year. Inc. it is still the cause of over 100. for his brother at the carnival. Although he didn’t consider himself lucky. a teddy bear 7. (A) and in the other was put a rejection letter (B) with the other put in a rejection letter (C) and the other was put in a rejection letter (D) and the thing he put in the other was a rejection letter (E) and a rejection letter in the other 3..Grammar Homework ImprovInG senTences DrIll 1. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) it is still the cause of it is still the result of causing being the cause of while being the cause of 4. The Surgeon General reports that while cigarette smoking is less popular than at any time since 1957. Since one should not count out the Yankees early in the season. forcing even his detractors to acknowledge the sincerity and strength of his convictions. as they always get stronger by the middle of August. None of his old clothes fit him. Never again would Jerry attempt to jump out of an airplane without wearing a parachute. | 159 16 Grammar Homework 159 11/15/05 3:31:20 PM . he won a teddy bear for his brother at the carnival. who endured countless humiliations and hardships. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) forcing he forces forced and forcing to force 6. Martin Luther King Jr. with Jerry not wearing a parachute (D) to jump out of an airplane having no parachute (E) jumping out of airplanes without parachutes © The Princeton Review.

has irritated nearly every teacher in the school. Gardner?” Rose is answering. “This is she. “This is she. eventually it progressed to steam. The primary resource used to power industry was initially water. 12. in school.” (E) asking. and expression of taboo emotions (E) subject choice. (A) will be considered as one of America’s greatest architects because of (B) has been considered by America as a great architect due to (C) is considered one of America’s greatest architects because of (D) considered as one of America’s greatest architects because of (E) is considered great by America’s architects due to 13. but there will always be rules in their life that must be followed. while being an honor roll student. (E) Even when an honor roll student. Gardner?” Rose answered. Gardner?” Rose answered. Gardner?” Rose answered. Inc. and expressing of taboo emotions (C) choice of subjects. had been nearly irritating to every teacher in the school.” 9. Daniel has nearly irritated every teacher in the school. which must be 10. “May I speak to Ms. (A) oil. and finally electric power (D) oil. has nearly irritated every teacher in the school. Daniel. and finally the use of electricity (C) oil.” a house built over a waterfall. (A) will always be rules in their life that must be (B) were always rules in their lives. and finally the use of electricity (E) oil used for power.” (C) is asking. (C) Daniel. although an honor roll student. “This is her. 16 Grammar Homework 160 11/15/05 3:31:21 PM . When she picked up the phone and a voice asked. (D) While being an honor roll student. People are free to make their own decisions. has nearly irritated every teacher in the school. and they expressed taboo emotions. “May I speak to Ms.” (D) is asking. and the taboo of expressed emotions 160 | © The Princeton Review. “May I speak to Ms. Daniel. and finally electric power 11. is irritating nearly to every teacher. “May I speak to Ms. (B) Daniel. “This is her. Gardner?” Rose answered. “May I speak to Ms. and they expressed taboo emotions (B) choosing of subjects. The Beat poets of the 1950’s broke new literary ground with their innovative use of language. and they expressed taboo emotions (D) choice of subjects. Gardner?” Rose answering. “This is she. and finally electricity (B) oil burning.” (B) asked. “This is her. “May I speak to Ms. oil.Refresher Manual for the SAT 8. although an honor roll student.” (A) asked. choosing of subjects. (A) choosing of subjects. which must have been (C) will always be rules in one’s life that must be (D) will always be rules in their lives that must be (E) would always be rules in their lives. and finally electricity. while being an honor roll student. (A) Daniel. Frank Lloyd Wright will be considered as one of America’s greatest architects because of works such as “Fallingwater.

explAnAtions Answers & MATH HoMework plugging in page 54 6. As you work. The question asks for the difference. 6. B Plug in 4 for p. This gives you (4 + 5) = 9 and (4 – 7) = –3. starting with (C). B Plug in the answers. Inc. and the total sold for $30. | 161 17 Answers Exp 161 11/16/05 4:13:21 PM . sml (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 25 20 15 10 5 $20 $15 5 10 $10 $20 $30 $35 ¸ too big × $1 each lg × $2 each total © The Princeton Review. so 9 – (–3) = 12. just remember that the total number of puppets sold must equal 25.

215 × 3 = 3. 8. starting with (C). The answers are possible values of c. If a = 50. cross it off. Only (A) works: j + 3 = 20 + 3 = 23. the number of clients the company started with. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 540 480 360 180 20 360 × 2 = 120 3 120 × 1 = 60 2 ¸ 2/3 melted 1/2 melted 7. starting with (C). The numbers in the answers are the possible weights of the block at the beginning of the day on Tuesday. In 8 years. make angle CAG = 110 and angle CGA = 20. Multiply by three for each year. and 16 × 3 = 48 pages in three hours. Did you also notice that (E) is way too big? If so. so it prints at a rate of = 4 pages per hour. This is your target. so a = 15. in one hour they will print 12 + 4 = 16 pages per hour. This is your target. C Plug in the answers. c (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 5 15 45 729 3. 162 | © The Princeton Review. Printer B prints 12 at one-third this rate. Alicia will be 15 + 8 = 23. A Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Let’s say that x = 12. then Alicia is 5 years younger. That makes b = 160 and x = 70.refresher Manual for the SAT 6. Work3 ing together. C Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Plug in for a and the other two angles in that triangle—be sure that your numbers add up to 180°.935 ¸ yr 1 yr 2 yr 3 yr 4 yr 5 9.645 too big! × 3 = 135 × 3 = 405 × 3 = 1. you chose a partial answer. which is the number of pages printed by Printer A in one hour. 9. which is your target. Only (A) works: 4x = 4 × 12 = 48.645 × 3 = 10. Only (C) works: 180 + a – b = 180 + 50 – 160 = 70. orig lbs. A Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! If j = 20. Inc. Watch out! If you picked (D). 17 Answers Exp 162 11/16/05 4:13:23 PM . C Plug in the answers.

Only (D) works: = = = = 2. 12 12 12 12 11. so w2 = 32. E Plug in! If Bert is 10. D Plug in 5 feet for m. Reread the question: We are looking for the value of v. and Ernie is three times as old as Bert. and choose a number for w that can be easily converted to feet. | 163 17 Answers Exp 163 11/16/05 4:13:24 PM . v. © The Princeton Review. starting with (C). 10. If v = 4. which is neither a factor nor a multiple of the numbers in the answer choices—this will minimize the chances that more than one answer will work. So if m = 5 (feet) and w = 36 (inches). then Marlene is 2 feet taller than Albert. then the area of Circle A = π(42) or 16π. If the area of Circle B is twice that of Circle A. A Cross out “in terms of” and plug in! Start with Circle A and its radius. which equals 3 feet. and the radius of B is w. the number (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) –12 6 12 16 18 3 6 3 is 3 less than 6 ¸ (1/4) the number (1/2) the number 11. 10. which is 4. C Plug in a number such as 5. Inc. then the area of B is 16π × 2 = 32π. Only (A) works: 32 2 = 16 = 4. Ernie is 4 years younger than Roger. 32π = r2π. and w = 32. such as 36 inches. so 30 + 4 = 34. That makes 2 your target 12 m − w (12) ( 5 ) − ( 36 ) 60 − 36 24 answer. which is your target. Only (E) works: Roger’s age is (3)(10) + 4 = 34.Answers & explanations page 55 9. C Plug in the answers. then Ernie is 30. only (C) produces an even integer: 2a = 2 × 5 = 10. If a = 5.

Remember: the weight of the barrel plus the weight of the water must equal 20. D Plug in the answers. Solve for x = . Don’t restart the question unless the numbers are really messy—a fraction isn’t too hard to work with here. D Plug in for z to begin. starting with (C). A Plug in the answers. Therefore. 1 1 . z2 = 9 = x 9 1 x2 = . 17 Answers Exp 164 11/16/05 4:13:29 PM . Only (D) works. 81 12. If z = 3. 12. then 4 4 2 works: 10 + 3 = 13 .refresher Manual for the SAT page 56 11. Only (A) (2m)2 m3 Does (2m)2 = m3 ? 33 = 27 4 = 64 3 36 ≠ 27 64 = 64 X ¸ 13. A Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! If you plug in a = 2. 4 barrel + water = 20 Does (1/4)weight of water = weight of barrel? 1 × 16 = 4 4 1 × 15 ≠ 5 4 1 × 5 ≠ 15 4 ¸ X X (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 4 5 15 16 80 16 15 5 164 | © The Princeton Review. which is your target. m (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1 2 3 4 6 (2 × 3)2 = 62 = 36 (2 × 4) = 8 = 64 2 2 y = 5 × 2 = 10. and the weight of the barrel must 1 be the weight of the water. and x = (10) ( 2) + 6 = 26 = 13 . Notice that sometimes the numbers don’t work out to be 2 2 integers on harder questions. Inc. starting with (C).

| 165 17 Answers Exp 165 11/16/05 4:13:34 PM . a 3 (A) 1 8  1  8   2 3  1 2   8 = 1 1 64 = 4 = 1 1 1 4 4 ¸ (B) 1 2 3 1 = 4 ≠1 1  1 2   2 3  1  2   2 X (C) 3 2 ( 2) 2 2 3 2 = 3 2 2 2 ≠1 X (D) 2 3 3 22 4 = ≠1 2× 2 4 3 82 64 4 = = ≠1 2×8 16 16 X (E) 8 X 14. Only (E) works: You plugged in c = 3. If c = 3. the remaining 55% study biology. Eliminate any answer that gives you a non-integer total. but it’s safer to plug in the answers. Plug in and look for the answer that produces an integer value for t. 1 24 = 4b. so (18)(3) = 54. A You can solve for the variable here. Reread the question: It asks for 2 the value of a + b. Inc. then (8)(3) = 24. so the number of students studying biology must equal 55% of some integer.Answers & explanations 13. so 48 + 6 = 54. your target. Also. 24 = a. C Plug in the answers. © The Princeton Review. starting with (C). so a = 48. so t = 20 100 ¸ t (total) 13. What do we know from the question? That 20% of students study only physics and 25% study only chemistry. so b = 6. Therefore. biology (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 4 9 11 15 20 11 = 55 t . starting with (C). E Cross out “in terms of” and start plugging in for c.

Remember that the final result should be $350. Remember that you are looking for answers that produce integers so you can eliminate them. your target. D Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Let’s say w = 3. Only (D) works: 12y = 12 × 4 = 48. so y = 4 and x = 6. Using these values. A Plug in the answers. C Using your calculator.refresher Manual for the SAT page 57 14. 5x + 6w = (5 × 6) + (6 × 3) = 30 + 18 = 48. Only II does: ( 3) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) 1 3 2 3 − = 3. A Plug in the answers. 166 | © The Princeton Review. savings (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) $1000 $900 $800 $600 $500 – 320 – 200 = $280 X minus clothes (2/5 of savings) – 400 minus DVD (1/4 of savings) – 250 = $350 = $350? ¸ 15. starting with (C). 16. plug in the answers in I/II/III and see which ones make the expression equal an integer. 17 Answers Exp 166 11/16/05 4:13:40 PM . Inc. Use POE and plug in until you have only one answer remaining. starting with (C). n = 5 a = 200 (A) (B) (C) (D) n a a n a 2n 2a n n2 a 5 200 200 = 40 5 200 = 20 10 400 = 80 5 25 200 400 =2 200 n = 20 a = 200 20 200 ¸ X X X (E) X 15.

| 167 17 Answers Exp 167 11/16/05 4:13:42 PM . If you 2 a think about it. 16. 5. 3. D Plug in the answers.Answers & explanations 1 and b = –2. a × a–1 will always produce = 1. II and II can be eliminated. and 7. 6. a 17. and 5 + 6 + 7 = 18. Only (C) works: s + 9 = 9 + 9 = 18. so I must always be true. 4. C Plug in for the consecutive integers: 2. number correct (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 71 77 82 85 90 93 – 82 = 11 93 – 85 = 8 82(3) – 11(1) = 235 85(3) – 8(1) = 247 X ¸ number incorrect score = 247? © The Princeton Review. Remember that the number correct and incorrect must add up to 93. which is your target. starting with (C). B Plug in! Let’s say a = 17. Inc. s = 2 + 3 + 4 = 9. but I must 2 1 stay: Plugging our values into a × a–1 × b = b gives us × 2 × –2 = –2.

Remember that x is 6 dollars.5 ¸ 1st term 2nd term 3rd term 4th term too big X (D) 4 too big X (E) 8 too big X 168 | © The Princeton Review. 100 18. but use the value 6 when you plug into the answers to find your target. and fill in the missing numbers using as the multiplier. so you can eliminate (C). 17 Answers Exp 168 11/16/05 4:13:46 PM . starting with (C). Therefore. Inc. Cross multiply and solve for z to find that for = 5 oranges z oranges 500 × 6 x = $6. Only (A) works: = 30 . you can buy 30 oranges. 2 Only (B) follows the correct pattern. Let’s use the variable z to represent the number of oranges we are solving for.refresher Manual for the SAT page 58 18. B Plug in the answers. your target. (D). Fill in the terms 1 that you are given. and (E). a (A) (B) (C) 1 8 1 2 2 20 × 1 = 2 10 × 1 = 2 5× 1 = 2 2. A Plug in! If t = 100 and x = 6. t = 100 cents 600 cents . You can see right away that the numbers get smaller the more times you multiply by a. so you’ll need to convert this value to 600 cents to solve. then set up the proportion and solve. a must be smaller than 1.

Inc.5 ≠ X (D) 60 15 50 25 25 = ¸ (E) 80 19.60 = 10. D Plug in the answers. which was $10. Plug in $10. so after tax. E Plug in numbers that are easy to work with. 6% tax on $10 is 60 cents. starting with (C). Let’s say that an item originally costs $10. Divide Andy’s amount by 4 to get Chris’ amount.60.60 for t in the answers to find the one that works. Reread the question to know what to look for: The target is the price before tax was added.5 22. an item that originally costs $10 will cost t = $10.06 © The Princeton Review.5 40 22.Answers & explanations 18. Only (E) does: 10. 1. | 169 17 Answers Exp 169 11/16/05 4:13:47 PM . Andy (A) 20 Chris Andy – 10 Chris + 10 Is Andy’s amount twice Chris’? (B) 40 1 × 40 2 1 × 50 2 (C) 50 12.

then x2 = 1 and 4 4 16 1 x = . so these are acceptable. Inc. it must be II. 16 2 4 19. so x2 < x < x . and which you can 1 1 easily find the square root of: works well. Put the values in order from smallest to largest. nowhere does it say that these numbers have to be positive. 27. If x = . as they are listed 2 1 1 1 in the answer choices: < < . 170 | © The Princeton Review. try plugging in some “weird” numbers.refresher Manual for the SAT page 59 19. However. Using the average pie. and 30. B What makes this question tough is that you need to consider numbers that you may not think of at first glance. A Plug in a simple value for x that is between 0 and 1. And since one of the statements has to be true. Their sum is 27. we know that the total of our three numbers must equal 9 × 3 = 27. 17 Answers Exp 170 11/16/05 4:13:51 PM . and two are greater than 11. or (A). or (B). Therefore. such as –30. We can clearly eliminate I and III.

© The Princeton Review. Angles across from equal sides in a triangle have equal measures. In parallelograms: (1) opposite sides are equal and parallel. The diameter is twice as long as the radius. Isosceles triangles: (1) have two equal sides and (2) have two equal angels. and (2) opposite angles are equal. A rectangle is a square when it has four equal sides (a square is a special kind of rectangle). To bisect an angle or line segment means to divide it in half. Two lines that are perpendicular form two right angles. 18. 17. Equilateral triangles: (1) have three equal sides and (2) three equal angles that each measure 60°. 19. Inc. Two lines that are parallel never intersect. Area of a parallelogram = base × height 20. 7. Area of a triangle = 1 base × height 2 21. 180° 3. The angle across from the longest side in a triangle is the largest angle in the triangle. 13. 16. A parallelogram is a rectangle when it has four right angles (a rectangle is a special kind of parallelogram). page 61 12. 8. 9. 180° 4. 11. 10. | 171 17 Answers Exp 171 11/16/05 4:13:52 PM . 14. The angle across from the smallest side in a triangle is the smallest angle in the triangle. The measures of two angles across from each other when two lines intersect are equal. 90° 2. 360° 6. 360° 5.Answers & explanations geometry page 60 1. 15. Base and height must be perpendicular.

33. Find the perimeter of any polygon by adding up all its sides. If there are variables in the answer choices of any question. 26. Ratio of sides of a 45°-45°-90° triangle = 1 : 1 : 30. page 62 24. 6:8:10. 32. This information is in the box at the beginning of each math section. If there is no figure. or V = lwh 28. try to redraw the figure more accurately. 27. 17 Answers Exp 172 11/16/05 4:13:54 PM . Ballparking is estimating and eliminating unlikely answers. try to draw one. Don’t trust figures not drawn to scale. Inc. 34. Area of a circle = πr2 23. Circumference of a circle = 2πr OR πd 25. Ratio of sides of a 30°-60°-90° triangle = 1 : 3 : 2 31.refresher Manual for the SAT 22. Volume = length × width × height. 172 | © The Princeton Review. where a and b are the sides and c the hypotenuse of a right triangle. PLUG IN! 35. and 5:12:13. a2 + b2 = c2. Slope = y2 − y1 rise = x2 − x1 run 2 29. ETS’s favorite Pythagorean triples are: 3:4:5.

area of shaded region = 8π (r = 8. x = 360 – 40 = 320 1. e + f = 110 + 30 = 140 5. y = 180 – 110 = 70 4. | 173 17 Answers Exp 173 11/16/05 4:13:56 PM . area = 6 8. x = 3. area of circle with circumference 12π = 36π (d = 12.Answers & explanations page 63 180 = 60 30 2. x = 150 6. r = 6) 1 11.) 8 8 © The Princeton Review. so area = 64π. x = 20 10. 45° = of 360°. area = 9 3 9. so area of shaded 8 1 1 region is of total area: 64π × = 8π. y = 115 page 64 7. Inc.

so x = 24. Only (E) works: 4 −1 = 3. If so. Volume is simply s3. D If you recognize that these triangles are similar. b (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30 45 50 60 100 1 = 25 2 1 × = 30 2 1 × = 50 2 × 30 30 30 50 + 25 + 30 =105 60 + 30 + 30 = 120 100 + 50 + 30 = 180 X X ¸ a c = 180? 10. and z = 8. so 16 = s2. and z. so the base diameter of the largest cone is 6. Just read carefully: the smallest cone is 12 inches high and has a base diameter of 3. starting with (C). 18 2 9. E Plug in the answer choices. plug in for x. 3−2 11. we can set up a proportion to find what we need. So. E Plug in the answers. 17 Answers Exp 174 11/16/05 4:14:00 PM . The value of s is therefore 4. y. 27 3 = . 12 x = . and that the perimeter of Triangle II is 27. If the surface area here is 96. D Fred’s theorem tells you that the angle adjacent to y is 49°. C The triangles created by the cross-section of the cones are all similar. 3 6 12. y = 6. page 66 11. Let’s say x = 4. Inc. 174 | © The Princeton Review. D Surface area = 6s2 where s is the length of a side. and 12. x + y = 131. Therefore. you find that the sides of Triangle II are 6. so the volume of this figure is 43 or 64. If not. while the largest has an unknown height and a base radius of 3. then the perimeter is 4 + 6 + 8 = 18. then 96 = 6s2. starting with (C). Remember that the angle measures must add up to 180. 9. Using the rule of 180.refresher Manual for the SAT page 65 7. then (D) is the easy choice. Using these numbers. we also know that x + y + 49 = 180.

| 175 17 Answers Exp 175 11/16/05 4:14:01 PM . so your target is 80. A We know that point Q must fall somewhere on segment AB. 12. If PQ is to bisect the square. Let’s say x = 40. Now focus on triangle BEC. Given that BE = CE. © The Princeton Review. it must pass through the origin and hit at AB below the x-axis.Answers & explanations 12. E Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Remember to follow the rules of geometry as you work. so y must be 80°. Inc. Plug in x = 40. so the y value must also be negative. Reread the question: You want to find y. so eliminate any answer that doesn’t have an x coordinate equal to –8. so the angle adjacent to x must be 50°. Drawing point Q is very helpful. Only (E) works: 2(40) = 80. angle EBC is also 50°. That leaves us with only (A) and (B). Eliminate (B).

then the adjacent angle POQ must measure 80°. then the area of each little triangle is × 2 × 2 = 2. and the sum of their angle measures is 100°. 13. Therefore. E If angle SOP measures 100°. Since segments OP and OQ are both radii. 14. Since the square 2 consists of 4 such triangles. 14 = 2w. then the distance from E to the point at which EF intersects a vertex of the smaller square is 3. Reread the question: We need the area of the figure. It should look something like this: 2 2 Given the information you have. so angles OPQ and OQP are equal. 176 | © The Princeton Review. so 20 = 6 + 2w. Focus just on the distance from E to midpoints of EF and DE and the isosceles right triangle that is formed there. 17 Answers Exp 176 11/16/05 4:14:05 PM . the area of the square is 4 × 2 = 8. which is also the length of a side of the smaller square inside DEFG. In this problem. then draw again! 0 Q 0 Q –2 S –6 T –2 S 0 Q 0 Q 2 T 5 R 5 R 5 R 5 R 8 T 12 S 16 T 12 S 14. they are equal in length. If the radius 1 is 2. D Draw. The hypotenuse of that right triangle is 3 2 . Perimeter = 2l + 2w. Reread the question: What is the measure of OPQ? This angle measure is 100 ÷ 2 = 50°. C Draw the figure as described. E If EF is 6. Equal sides of a triangle are opposite equal angles. you can find the area of one of the little triangles inside. so 3 × 7 = 21. 21 Start with what you know. so solve for w: 20 = (2)(3) + 2w. then figure out the area of the square from there. Inc. the perimeter is 4 × 3 2 = 12 2.refresher Manual for the SAT page 67 13. and w = 7. l = 3. 14.

they are equal in length. then divide to get the fraction: 1 ( 4 ) ( 3) 6 1 area ABC = 2 = = .Answers & explanations page 68 14. Inc. Equal sides are opposite equal angles. Let’s say x = 40. area DEC 1 (12) (9) 54 9 2 14. Your figure should look something like the one below. so 180 – 104 = 76. 15. and w = 30. D Draw the figure and count up the triangles. y = 50. Just make sure that the numbers you plug in adhere to the ratio given in the problem. Notice both the smallest triangles and those formed by combining two small triangles together. AB = 4. 76 Since both OP and OQ are radii. A Notice that the triangles in the figure given are similar. CE = 9. • • • • 15. Using the Pythagorean triples ETS loves to use. z = 60. so both angles OPQ and OQP equal 52°. Find the areas. © The Princeton Review. Therefore. making this triangle isosceles. 0 Plug in for the variables. plug in BC = 3. and ED = 12. | 177 17 Answers Exp 177 11/16/05 4:14:06 PM . Reread the question: What is the value of x? 52 + 52 = 104. Let’s say AC = 5 and CD = 15. (x – z) + (y – w) = (40 – 60) + (50 – 30) = –20 + 20 = 0. making sure to follow the rules of geometry.

18. −3 −2 − ( −8 ) . Since the lengths must be integers. so 3 + 3x = 48. The angle adjacent to the 140° must measure 40°. D Sometimes you have to use the Pythagorean theorem! Draw a line from T to V. and f = 9. First calculate TV: 32 + 52 = TV2 = 34. If you thought that the triangle could have sides of 1-1-9. The area of the square is 102 = 100. You could have also ballparked to eliminate (A) and (C). and x = 30 . since its adjacent angle measures 70° (Fred’s theorem tells you that). the distance between points A and B is 11. The total perimeter is 38. Now you have two right triangles that share a hypotenuse. Therefore. Now do the same with the other triangle: x2 + 22 = TV2. 4 4 17. because the x value must be 0. Simplify to get = 8 −1 − x . 17 Answers Exp 178 11/16/05 4:14:10 PM . 18. which we now know is equal to 34. 8 Here we are looking for the greatest difference between the lengths of sides. x2 + 22 = 34. smallest angle must therefore measure 30°. This is your target. Reread the question: What is the value of x? Since it is adjacent to the 30° angle. that makes the shortest side equal 1. Notice you could have eliminated (B) immediately. The angle at the bottom measures 110°. so x2 = 30. so the other two sides must sum to 38 – 16 = 22. you get a whole circle with r = 5. page 70 19. 15 Use the points provided in the slope formula: −3 6 = 8 −1 − x 3x = 45. and x = 15. A Plug in! Let’s say x = 10. so use the smallest number that you can for the shortest side. AB = 5 . then cross-multiply and solve. so the length of the two sides added together is 16. so find that area and subtract it from 100 to get the answer you need: Area of the circle = π52 = 25π. A triangle with sides of 9. E Use Pythagorean theorem: Since we know that AC = 2 and CB = 1. Inc. Therefore. 22 + 12 = AB2 = 5. 9. since the distance from A to B must be greater than the lengths of the other two sides of the triangle. and 1 fits our restrictions. so the greatest difference is 9 – 1 = 8. Only (A) works: 102 π 100 π (1 – ) = 100 – = 100 – 25π. 19. B Draw the figure and write down the coordinates. The distance between points A and D is 8. so the unshaded area is 100 – 25π. it must be 180 – 30 = 150. 178 | © The Princeton Review. remember that the third side of any triangle must have a length between the sum and the difference of the other two sides. so the radii of the partial circles are all equal to 5.refresher Manual for the SAT page 69 16. –3(–1 – x) = 48. 19. The third. 150 Focus on the small triangle formed where line l1 meets the other two lines. By adding together the four unshaded regions. Therefore.

| 179 17 Answers Exp 179 11/16/05 4:14:12 PM . 13. then the sum of the first two is 24 – 10 = 14. Therefore. 12 – 11 = 1. and the median is 10. which is 3 2 z = 2 × 12 = 8. The median is 12. 16. 8. Reread the question: What is the average of x and y? 30 ÷ 2 = 15. If 4 + 7 + 19 + x + y = 60. 7 7 6. so the median must be the average of 9 and x. Therefore. then x + y = 20. If the average of these 4 numbers is 20. so y = 10. C Cross out the “in terms of” phrase and plug in! Let’s say that x = 4. B Use the average pie. then their sum is 4 × 20 = 80. then their sum is 6 × 13 = 78. There are an even number of members in this list. 80 = 21 + 12 + 37 + y. The average of these three numbers is = 8. Inc. then x + y = 30. Did you notice that all the other answers were also wrong because y must be less than 13 for the average to be 13? 11. 7. Therefore. since 3 + 4 + 7 + 12 + 14 + 17 + 20 77 = = 11. A Put the numbers is order: 3. If the third number is 10. so x = 28.Answers & explanations other ApproAches page 71 5. Reread the question: What is the average of x and y? 20 ÷ 2 = 10. 9. 12. E Which one shows up the most time? . A Use the average pie. 7. so x = 11. A Use the average pie. their sum is 3 × 26 = 78. © The Princeton Review. If the average of 3 numbers is 26. C (C) is the definition of mode. If 5 + 17 + 18 + x + y = 60. 17. B Use the average pie. and 17 where x is the age of the sixth student. 14. your target. 20. 14. 4y + 34 = 78. so y = 8 4 + 8 + 12 and z = 12. so 4y = 44. B Use the average pie. E List the numbers: x. If the average of 3 numbers is 8. Only (C) works: 3 3 18. 4. 10 Use the average pie. 13. 10. and y = 11. 33 + 17 + x = 78.280. The average is 11. page 72 12. 10. then their sum is 8 × 3 = 24. 8. If the average of 6 numbers is 13. Watch out! (E) is a Joe Bloggs answer.

refresher Manual for the SAT page 73 6. So. 14. x = 10. $6 is what percent of the total amount she spent? 100 x Translate: $6 = • $60. This is the same as adding 21% to the original price. 11. Remember that the 30% discount is for shoes only. C Plug in! Let’s say that she must take 100 credits. 100 x = 18. An increase of 10% would add $10 to the price. So. x = 75. What percent of the cars are unsold? Translate: x • 24 = 21. So. 800 The problem says that $56 is 7% of the price. So. so translate: 7 56 = • x. Watch out! (C) is the Joe Bloggs answer. So. x = 800. B The new price must be 80% of the original price: × 23 = x. Using the numbers in the problem. B To find percent increase or decrease.40. Watch out! (D) and (E) are the Joe Bloggs answers. 350 14. Her first year she takes 25%. D Plug in! Let’s say the book is $100. 100 13. we get: original 385 − 350 × 100 = 10%. B Use bite-sized pieces. and she still needs to take 45 more. then translate: 6 = page 74 16. 30 × $20 = $6 discount. Now she has taken 100 25 + 30 = 55 credits. 17. making the new price $110. 17 Answers Exp 180 11/16/05 4:14:12 PM . Inc. 100 15. 100 100 80 10. or 25. she 40 takes 40% of the remaining credits. Watch out! (C) is the Joe Bloggs answer. x = 3. or × 75 = 30. and she has 75 remaining to take. B Translate: x = 5 20 × × 300 . credits. 100 180 | © The Princeton Review. So. x = 87. An additional 10% of this new number would add $11 to the price. In her second year. making the final price $121. 100 x • 8. B 24 – 3 = 21 cars are unsold. remember the formula: difference × 100.5. D Plug in! Let’s say m = 8 and n = 6.

How do you get from 6 to 120? Multiply by 20. male 1 ×3 3 female 3 total 4 ×3 12 8 3 cups soda 4 . 13 sulfur 2 charcoal 10 saltpeter 1 total 13 15. C Use the ratio box. so the longer portion is 100 and the shorter portion is 20. so x = 21. 3 b 6 6 2. | 181 17 Answers Exp 181 11/16/05 4:14:13 PM . so there are 10 parts charcoal and 1 part saltpeter.Answers & explanations page 75 14 2a 28 = 2 × 14 = = . E Plug in a = 14 and b = 6.153 Use the ratio box and plug in! Let’s say that the mixture is 2 parts 13 sulfur. Inc. Plug in what you know. C Set up your proportion and solve: = 12 guests tiply: 5x = 105. How do you get from 10 to 440? Multiply by 44. and the difference is 100 – 20 = 80. 1. 2 or . Plug in what you know.75. How do you get from 4 to 12? Multiply by 3. D Use the ratio box. short 1 × 20 20 long 5 × 20 100 total 6 × 20 120 16. Cross-mulx guests 5 cups soda 13. then calculate the decimal 3 value. and add across top. so you need 1 × 3 = 3 males at a minimum. teacher 1 ×44 boy 4 ×44 176 girl 5 ×44 total 10 ×44 440 © The Princeton Review. Add across the 2 top: the total is 13. and add across top. 176 Use the ratio box. and add across top. E Just write each ratio as a fraction of red over white. Watch out! (E) is a partial answer. or . (E) is largest: = . Sulfur is 2 parts out of 13. 4 page 76 15. so there are 176 boys. 14. Plug in what you know.

17 Answers Exp 182 11/16/05 4:14:17 PM . 5x = 620. answer with a y-intercept value of 182 | © The Princeton Review. too. Plug in what you know. How do you get from $14 to $42? Multiply by 4.90. Look at the graph and find the y value when x = 4. Inc. for a total of four books. 2 13. makes y = 0. Only (A) works. Clearly. so we want an answer with 3 a slope of – . 4. so x = 20. so = 5 mins 4 mins 450 miles 90 miles . A Re-write the equation in the question as well as those in the answer choices so that they are in y = mx + b form. 36 Set up the proportion and solve: = 180 mins x x = 36. D Use the ratio box. y = 6. 3x = 60.00 . 12. Look for an answer that. three hardcovers are also purchased. page 78 9. How much do these four books cost? (3)($4) + (1)($2) = $14. paperback 3 × $4 ×3 hardcover 1 × $2 ×3 total 4 books costing $14 ×3 12 books costing $42 page 77 3 12 = . (D).24 x 3. when x = 4. that means that x = 4. 5 x $4. Now find g(6) the same way on the graph: when x = 6. so d = 6. so 14. 155 words x . and (E). and add across top. the slope of the new 2 2 line is the negative of the original line’s slope. 124 Set up the proportion and solve: x = 124. when plugged into the equations provided as the x value. 4x = 3. We also know that when a line 2 is reflected across the y-axis. Only (A) works: y = x2 – 16 when q (the x coordinate) is –4 and y = 0. A Plug in the answers.refresher Manual for the SAT 18. C Use the graph to find the values you need. For every paperback purchased. If g (4) = d. The equation in the question is now y = 3 x + 7 . C Set up the proportion and solve: = $0. D Set up the proportion and solve: 13. only this time include the information about the cost of the books. so x = $0. its y-intercept remains the same.60. y equals a number between 7 and 8.00 $15. 450x = 16200. When a line is reflected across the y-axis. so the teacher purchased 12 books total. Eliminate (B). so pick the 7 .

so –8 = –c(4)4 = –c(256). You now have the coordinates of point D on the graph. 8 Therefore. When you subtract outside of the parentheses. c = 1 . When you add in the parentheses. So. 32 © The Princeton Review.Answers & explanations page 79 14. the graph shifts that number of units to the left. Only (A) works. so the other side of the rectangle must be 128 = 16. and the area 32 of the figure is 128. –8) on the graph. the graph shifts down that number of units. | 183 17 Answers Exp 183 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM . A Use transformation rules. so plug in the coordinates for D into the equation and solve for c. 1 Start with what you know: The distance from point A to D is 8. Inc. the value of a is 8. y = –cx4. 18. and point D is (4.

If pizza originates in Greece (line 4). The different interpretation: foxes benefiting from living near humans (line 7). 17 Answers Exp 184 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM . 26.. 184 | © The Princeton Review. 15.” Only (C) carries this meaning. B This use of language helps the reader “imagine” the perspective of early peoples. D Lines 1–3. page 105 1. The economy is not good. The weather in Scotland is not pretty.refresher Manual for the SAT CrITICAL reADING HoMework pages 103–104 21.. C Put in your own word: something like “predicted. but is further developed in Chicago. 3. multi-continental collaboration that has evolved over the centuries” (lines 2–4). The example: the San Joaquin fox’s population drop. B Put in your own word or phrase: something like “living together situation. (B). 14. Inc. and (C) because they are probably all too extreme to be best answers on the SAT. 16. D The author’s conclusion is that pizza is a “multicultural and . 4. 2. B The principle: human habitation has a negative effect on the environment. Flying machines’ wings were modeled after birds’ wings. 17. 13. Eliminate (A) and (C) because they are also probably too extreme to be best answers on the SAT.” Only (B) carries this meaning. but we can’t know if women will eventually take part as well. 18. Eliminate (A). E Papua New Guinea has a coast (line 1) and is an island (line 2). 19. Three men who seemed to agree actually disagree strongly. “Killer bees” is not an accurate name for Africanized bees. pages 106–107 12. C Kula is defined as a system in which male Trobrianders participate (lines 4–5). these facts would support his conclusion. 5.

C Lines 28–34 and the footnote support this answer. 14. A We need a word that means “realism. C Lines 21–24. 15. 16. 8. B The author of Passage 2 states that we “see for ourselves the meaning of a story. D Lines 38–45. 11. 12. C You need an answer that suggests the quest for immortality is NOT the most important theme in Gilgamesh. (C) is correct.” 7. because it suggests that the most important theme is “loss. D Lines 1–5. 17. D This is a great paraphrase of the primary purpose of each passage. line 1) and as having been written “four thousand years” ago in Passage 2. B Lines 55–60. C Lines 1–7. 18. A Lines 33–36. line 19. 13. D Lines 16–23. 8. E Lines 8–9 and 28–30. 14. C This is not cited as a reason anywhere in the passage. © The Princeton Review. 9. 15.” so he would probably not agree with the author of Passage 1 that there is only one important theme. C The quote refers to the paintings. 10. B Lines 71–73. not Giotto. 9. 13. E Lines 56–62. B We need a word that means “uphold.” (B) is closest to this meaning. pages 111–113 7. 11. and is neither critical nor confused. Inc.” (A) is closest to this meaning. pages 109–110 10. | 185 17 Answers Exp 185 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM .Answers & explanations page 108 6. D The footnote and lines 28–32 support this answer. D Lines 63–70. A Both passage mention the age of Gilgamesh: it is referred to as “ancient” (Passage 1. 12. B Lines 38–42.

B Lines 102–108. 17 Answers Exp 186 11/16/05 4:14:19 PM . that there was no alternative for women at this time. 9. or not true (B).” (C) is closest to this meaning. C We need a word that means “wealth. 13. D Lines 25–29.” (C) is closest to this meaning. 4. Only (C) works. 10. A The author of Passage 2 uses a direct quotation in lines 91 to the end of the passage. D Lines 96–100. A Passage 1 discusses money. D This is the best paraphrase of the two passages. extreme (C). C We need a word that means “made worse. 5. D Lines 91–97. while Passage 2 discusses health. E Pollen is not pollution. 3. 2. pages 114–117 1. The other four answers do suggest that there are costs connected to pollution that are not health related. C The author is wondering whether environmentalists are truly devoted to the cause. 186 | © The Princeton Review. Other answers are either not stated (A and E). E Lines 30–34. B Lines 86–96. 6. 7. 12. E This is the best paraphrase of the meaning of lines 94–95. The author of Passage 1 does not do this. Inc.refresher Manual for the SAT 16. 17. 18. 8. C Lines 47–50. C Lines 61–64. 11.

death. relentless. horrible 1. required. wasteful 7.Answers & explanations sentence completions Be sure to look up and memorize any words that you don’t know! page 118 1. influx. necessary 10. gravity 2. D 3. C © The Princeton Review. C 6. scrutiny 9. B pages 119–120 8. A 2. penniless. persistent 4. give up 6. soften. addition 7. Inc. Eliminate (A) and (B) 10. shouting 7. standard 5. extinction 7. Eliminate (B) and (E) 1. study. excitement 3. rebirth 5. A 5. C 4. broke 10. C 6. A 7. | 187 17 Answers Exp 187 11/16/05 4:14:20 PM . seriousness.

D Correction: no 2. C Correction: or 12.refresher Manual for the SAT 7. B Correction: they are becoming 17. B Correction: swipe 5. Inc. C Correction: enjoy 9. C Correction: her 8. C Correction: Liz and her 3. D 8. E No error 7. E No error 4. A Correction: frequently 10. A Correction: had lain 15. D Correction: was the most 188 | © The Princeton Review. E No error 14. B wrITING HoMework pages 154–155 Drill one 1. D Correction: grow 11. C Correction: but also 13. D 9. C Correction: it was 16. A Correction: who are 6. 17 Answers Exp 188 11/16/05 4:14:20 PM .

E No error 5. D Correction: reads the local 4. E No error 18. B Correction: such as 10. D Correction: responsible for planting 25. E No error 12. E No error 24. C Correction: moved 21. B Correction: is essential 22. E No error 9. A Correction: a hardworking and 11. E No error © The Princeton Review. A Correction: should have 15.Answers & explanations pages 156–158 Drill two 1. E No error 7. E No error 3. A Correction: shaken up 19. D Correction: that of gasoline-powered 13. C Correction: drive more slowly 6. D Correction: have been 8. A Correction: Domestic 17. D Correction: exist 2. | 189 17 Answers Exp 189 11/16/05 4:14:20 PM . A Correction: is going 23. E No error 20. B Correction: doing so 26. Inc. A Correction: consider 14. E No error 16.

2. 6. C The original sentence uses the wrong idiom. A The original sentence is correct as written. B The original sentence uses the wrong conjunction. A The original sentence is correct as written. C The original sentence uses the wrong verb tense. 13. A The original sentence is correct as written. 7. 17 Answers Exp 190 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM . D The original sentence contains a parallelism error. 5. 190 | © The Princeton Review. 12. 4. 11. D The original sentence contains a noun agreement error.refresher Manual for the SAT page 159–160 improving sentences Drill 1. E The original sentence is passive and incomplete. 9. E The original sentence is passive. 8. 10. Inc. 3. B The original sentence uses the wrong conjunction. A The original sentence is correct as written. A The original sentence is correct as written.

17 Answers Exp 191 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM .

17 Answers Exp 192 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM .

17 Answers Exp 193 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM .

17 Answers Exp 194 11/16/05 4:14:21 PM .

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