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Mark Bartlett, PE Field Engineer Simpson Anchor Systems
• • • • • • •
Brief History of Anchor Design ACI 318-08, Appendix D
Design Equations Phi (Ф) Factors Interaction Equation Seismic Provisions Reinforcement to Prevent Breakout Other Issues Edge Distances, Thicknesses & Spacings
• • • •
When to design per App. D IBC 2006 Adhesive Anchors and Concrete Screws The Future of Anchor Design
Prior to ACI 318-02
• Cast-In-Place anchors covered by:
– PCI / ACI 349 – UBC / IBC codes listed allowable stress capacities for CIP bolts
Prior to ACI 318-02
• Design of Post-Installed anchors:
– Individual manufacturers supplied load values based on testing – Values found in catalogs and ICBO/ICC reports – Methodology was allowable stress and assumed an uncracked and unreinforced section.
ACI 318-08, Appendix D
ACI 318, Appendix D
• Strength design method for anchorage to concrete (i.e. Nua ≤ ΦNn or Vua ≤ ΦVn)
– Cast-In-Place (CIP) anchors – Post-Installed (PI) anchors
• Undercut anchors • Torque-controlled anchors • Deformation-controlled anchors
– PI anchors must be prequalified per ACI 355.2
Appendix D Design Equations & Failure Modes
• Design equations check 5 different failure modes
– Steel capacity
• Tension and Shear
– Concrete breakout capacity
• Tension and Shear
– Pullout/Pull-through capacity
• Tension only
– Concrete Pryout
• Shear only
– Concrete side-face blowout
• Tension and CIP only.
Appendix D Design Equations
V Ψh.Nfuta Ncb = ANc/ANco(Ψec.NNb) Npn = Ψc.PNp Nsb = (160ca1√Abrg)λ√f’c Shear Capacities Vsa = n 0.Design Equations Tension Capacities Nsa = nAse.VVb) Vcpg = kcpNcbg Steel Strength in Tension .V Ψc.6 Ase.N Ψcp.VΨed.N Ψc.NΨed.V futa Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.
N – Effective cross sectional area of anchor in tension – futa – Specific ultimate tensile strength of anchor Concrete Breakout Strength in Tension .1 Nsa = nAse. D-3) – Nsa – Nominal tensile strength of an anchor group – n – Number of anchors – Ase.5.Nfuta (Eq.Steel Strength In Tension – D.
Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.NNb) (Eq.NΨed.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.NΨed.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.5.N Ψcp. D-6) .5.N Ψcp.N Ψc.NNb) • ANc – Projected failure area of group • ANco = 9 hef2 Projected failure area of one anchor (Eq.N Ψc. D-5) • Ncb – Concrete breakout strength in tension Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.
3 (ca.0 ca If ca.NNb) Modification for eccentric load Ψec. D-10 Ψed.min < 1.5.N Ψc.NNb) Modification for edge effects If ca. D-9) N Centroid of anchors T3 T2 e’N T1 Resultant tension load Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.min > 1.N Ψcp.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.N Ψc.N = 1.7 + 0.5.N = 0.min / 1.NΨed.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.N Ψcp.5hef ) . D-11 Ψed.NΨed.N = 1/[1+(2e’N/3hef)] (Eq.5hef then: Eq.5hef then: Eq.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.
NΨed.N per evaluation report (ER) if kc from ER used in eq.N = 1.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.N =1.N Ψcp.5.N =1. D-12) If ca.NΨed.4 for uncracked section if kc = 17 in eq.N – Modification for Post-Installed anchors Uncracked concrete No supplemental reinf. to control splitting If ca. (D-7) Ψc.0 (Eq.min/cac (Eq.NΨcp. D-13) Where cac= 2.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.0 for cracked section Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.NNb) Ψcp.NΨc.5.min < cac then: Ψcp.N = ca.NNb) Modification for cracking Ψc.5 hef (undercut anchors) 4 hef (wedge anchors) .min > cac then: Ψcp.N Ψc. (D-7) Ψc.
D or per product ER – λ – Modification factor for lightweight concrete – f’c – Concrete compressive strength – hef – Effective embedment depth • Tested hef found in manufacturer’s catalog or product ER Pullout Strength in Tension .NΨc.NΨed.NNb) • Basic concrete breakout strength • Nb=kc λ √f’c hef1.5 (Eq.2 Ncbg=ANc/ANco(Ψec.NΨcp.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D. D-7) – kc – Coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength • Found in either App.5.
2 test results • For CIP anchors.5.P Np (Eq.5. D-15) headed bolts – Np = 0.PNp (Eq.0 for cracked – 1.4 for uncracked • Np – Pullout strength in tension Pullout Strength In Tension – D. D-16) hooked bolts .Pullout Strength In Tension – D.3 Npn = Ψc.9f’cehda (Eq. D-14) • Npn – Nominal pullout strength • Ψc.P – Modification for cracking – 1.3 Npn = Ψc. Np based on: – Np = 8 Abrgf’c (Eq. D-14) • Np – Pullout strength in tension • For PI anchors Np based on ACI 355.
5. D-17) • Nsb – Side-face blowout strength (headed anchors only) • ca1 – edge distance • Abrg – Net bearing area of the head of anchor • λ – Modification factor for lightweight concrete .Side-Face Blowout Strength in Tension Side-Face Blowout Strength – D.4 Nsb = (160ca1√Abrg)λ√f’c (Eq.
6 Ase.V – effective cross sectional area of a single anchor in shear – futa – specified tensile strength of anchor steel .V futa (eq.V futa (eq.6. D-19) CIP HSA • Vsa = n 0. D-20) – n – number of anchors – Ase.Steel Strength in Shear Steel Strength In Shear – D.1 • Vsa = n Ase.
Steel Strength In Shear – D.1 • Vsa may also be based on the results of tests performed and evaluated according to ACI 355.6.2 Concrete Breakout Strength in Shear .
VVb) (Eq.VΨc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.VΨed.6.VVb) – AVc – projected concrete failure area of a group of anchors c a1 V ha 1.V Ψh.V Ψc.V Ψh.5ca1 s1 ca2 AVc AVc = (1.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.5ca1 + s1 + ca2) ha .VΨed.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. D-22) • Vcbg – Concrete breakout strength in shear Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.6.
5 ca12 (Eq.6.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.6.V – Modification for eccentric load (Eq.5c1 1.5ca1 AVco Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VΨed.VΨc.V Ψh.V Ψh.VΨc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5ca1 1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.VVb) – AVco – maximum projected concrete failure area of a single anchor AVco = 4. D-23) c a1 V 1.VVb) Ψec.VΨed. D-26) .
5ca1 (Eq.VΨed.V Ψh.VVb) Ψc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5ca1 then Ψed.7 + 0.0 (Eq.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.4 for anchors located in a region where analysis indicates no cracking at service loads Who is currently doing this analysis? .V Ψh.VΨed.VVb) Ψed.VΨc.3ca2/1.V = 0. D-27) If ca2 < 1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. D-28) V ca1 ca2 Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.6.VΨc.V – Modification for edge effects If ca2 > 1.5ca1 then Ψed.V Modification factor for cracking Ψc.V = 1.6.V = 1.
VVb) Ψc.6.V = 1.6.VΨed.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.2 for anchors in cracked concrete with reinforcement of a #4 bar or greater between the anchor and the edge V >#4 .V = 1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.VΨc.VVb) Ψc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.VΨed.V Ψh.V Ψh.0 for anchors in cracked concrete with no supplemental reinforcement or edge reinforcement smaller V than a #4 bar <#4 Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VΨc.
V = 1.4 for anchors in cracked concrete with reinforcement of a #4 bar or greater between the anchor and the edge.V adjusts for this.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. ≥#4 #4@4” Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VΨc. Ψh. AVc is reduced.V Ψh.V Ψh.0 When ha < 1.5ca1/ha but not less than 1.V – Modification factor for shear strength of anchors located in concrete members with ha < 1.V = √1. V a1 c 1.5ca1 Ψh.VΨc.VVb) Ψh. breakout strength is not directly proportional to member thickness.6.VΨed.VΨed.6. and with the reinforcement enclosed V within stirrups spaced at not more than 4”.5ca1.VVb) Ψc.5c1 ha . However.
5 (Eq.VΨc.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D. D-24) – ℓe – load bearing length of anchor • Same as hef if there is no sleeve on anchor • Per manufacturer if there is a sleeve – da – outside diameter of anchor – λ – adjustment for lightweight concrete – f’c – concrete compressive strength – ca1 – edge distance Pryout Strength in Shear .VVb) • Vb=(7(ℓe /da)0.VΨed.2√da)λ√f’c (ca1)1.6.V Ψh.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.
5” kcp = 2.3 Vcpg = kcpNcbg • • • (Eq.0 for hef > 2.6.Concrete Pryout Strength In Shear – D.5” Ncbg – Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension – Always do tension calcs first Phi (Ф) Factors .0 for hef < 2. D-30) kcp = 1.
70 0.70 0.4.70 0.55 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.65 0.70 0. 2 Cat.70 0.70 0.75 0.55 0. 3 CIP Cat.75 0.75 0.65 0.70 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.70 0. 3 CIP Cat.65 .75 Use Condition B 0.4 Ф Factor Failure Mode Anchor Property Condition A Tension Ductile Steel Brittle Side Face Blowout CIP CIP Cat.70 Shear Condition B Tension 0.70 Use Condition B 0.65 0.75 Shear 0.55 0.70 0.70 0.55 0.45 0. 1 Pryout Cat.Phi (Φ) factors • Nua ≤ ΦNn or Vua ≤ ΦVn • Phi (Ф) factors are applied to nominal capacities before comparing with factored forces • Based on: – Supplemental reinforcement – Failure mode – Load type – Anchor property Phi (Φ) factors D. 1 Breakout Cat.70 0. 3 Use Condition B 0. 1 Pullout Cat.45 0.75 0.65 0.75 0. 2 Cat.45 0.75 0.75 0. 2 Cat.
6.2. Supplemental Reinforcing • Supplemental Reinforcement – Reinforcement that acts to restrain the potential concrete breakout but is not designed to transfer the full design load from the anchors into the structural member.4 • Condition A – Applies where supplementary reinforcement is present except for pullout and pryout strengths. – Refer to sections D.Supplemental Reinforcing D.9 and D.9 for full design load transfer requirements . and for pullout or pryout strength.5. • Condition B – Applies where supplementary reinforcement is not present.2.4.
7 .Interaction of Tension and Shear Interaction of Tension and Shear – D.
7 • If Vua≤0.2ΦVn full tension allowed – Ignore Shear • If Nua≤0.2ΦNn full shear allowed – Ignore Tension • Otherwise Nua + Vua ΦNn ΦVn < 1.Interaction of Tension and Shear – D.2 Appendix D Seismic Provisions .
D.5.3.4 or D. • 0.3 – When anchor design includes earthquake forces for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.3.3.4. where φ is given in D. or F.3. the additional requirements of D. assuming the concrete is cracked unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete remains uncracked. and Nn and Vn are determined in accordance with D. Seismic Provisions D. D.75φNn and 0.2.4.3.3. E.4.6.5. D.1 through D.22.214.171.124φVn. D.3.2.75 reduction to concrete capacity in Seismic Design Category C – F • Impractical to prove concrete remains uncracked .2 Simulated Seismic Tests. and D.5.3.3 – The anchor design strength associated with concrete failure modes shall be taken as 0.2 – Post-installed structural anchors shall be qualified for use in cracked concrete and shall have passed the Simulated Seismic Tests in accordance with ACI 355.Seismic Provisions D.6 shall apply.126.96.36.199. D.1 – The provisions of Appendix D do not apply to the design of anchors in plastic hinge zones of concrete structures under earthquake forces.3. D. Pullout strength Np and steel strength of the anchor in shear Vsa shall be based on the results of the ACI 355.
3. or.3.3.6. D. it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0.3.3. it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0..3.5.1 and D. – Anchor capacity reduced by 60% .3. the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a force level corresponding to anchor forces no greater than the design strength of anchors specified in D.3.3.3. or. unless either D. D.188.8.131.52 times the design strength determined in accordance with D..3. Seismic Provisions • Summary – Seismic Design Category C.3.3..4 – Anchors shall be designed to be governed by the steel strength of a ductile steel element as determined in accordance with D.3.3. D.3.3. For the anchors of stud bearing walls.4.6 – As an alternative to D.4 times the design strength determined in accordance with D. – Ductile yielding of attachment.3.3.6 is satisfied.Seismic Provisions D.3.3.1. E & F – No anchors in plastic hinge – PI anchors must pass Simulated Seismic Test – Design strength reduced by 25% – Ductile steel failure of anchors shall control..5 – Instead of D.3.4 and D.3.5 or D.
concrete breakout (non ductile failure mode) will often control – If attachment will not experience ductile yielding before breakout occurs. then 40% anchor capacity reduction unless... – Reinforce section to prevent breakout from occurring Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout .Seismic Provisions • Seismic and edge effects – At small edge distances.
calculation of the concrete breakout strength in accordance with D.2.2.5. Where anchor reinforcement is provided in accordance with D.9 for more information . the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining φNn.2 and D.184.108.40.206 – The effect of reinforcement provided to restrain the concrete breakout shall be permitted to be included in the design models used to satisfy D.4. D.220.127.116.11 is not required.5.6.9 – Where anchor reinforcement is developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface.2.9 and D.4.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout D. Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout • Refer to Commentary RD. A strength reduction factor of 0.6.
2.2. A strength reduction factor of 0.6.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout D.9 for more info . or encloses the anchor and is developed beyond the breakout surface.6.9 for more info Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout Bars effective as anchor reinforcement Edge Reinforcement Anchor Reinforcement Section Plan • Refer to Commentary RD.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement. Plan Section • Refer to Commentary RD.9 – Where anchor reinforcement is either developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface. the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining φVn.6.2.
use of anchor reinforcement is generally limited to cast-in-place anchors. anchor capacity will be greatly reduced for seismic design.5.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout • Per Commentary RD.2.6.” • What about post-installed anchors? – At small edge distances.9: – “As a practical matter.2. Other Appendix D Issues .9 and RD.
D.5 and one-third of the maximum spacing between the anchors within the group. (D-4) through (D-11) shall be the greater of ca. the value of hef used in Eq.3 – Where anchors are located less than 1.5. ha/1.3) – App.5 in either direction.6.1(c). D makes no mention to grout pad thickness • Shear load parallel to concrete edge – Breakout capacity doubled per D.2.5hef from three or more edges.2.Capacity Adjustments • PI anchor pullout capacity – Tested values of Np are done in 2500 psi concrete – Pullout capacities increase for higher f’c – Adjustment equations in ER • Grout pads – 20% reduction in shear strength (D.max/1. (D-23) through (D-29) shall be the greatest of ca2/1.6. .4 – Where anchors are influenced by three or more edges. Triple Edge Conditions D.5.1. and one-third of the maximum spacing between the anchors within the group.6.2. the value of ca1 used in Eq.
Triple Edge Condition in Tension Triple Edge Condition in Shear .
the limiting nominal concrete breakout strength shall be determined for each edge. In this case.6.1(d) (d) For anchors located at a corner. Anchors welded to plate V 0.Corner Condition D. and all of the shear shall be assumed to be carried by this critical anchor row alone. it shall be permitted to evaluate the strength based on the distance to the farthest row of anchors from the edge.5V .2.2. it shall be permitted to base the value of ca1 on the distance from the edge to the axis of the farthest anchor row that is selected as critical. and the minimum value shall be used. V V ca2 ca1 ca2 ca1 Shear Near an Edge D.1 Where anchors are located at varying distances from the edge and the anchors are welded to the attachment so as to distribute the force to all anchors.6.5V Anchors not welded to plate ca1 ca1 0.
1 • Increase ca1 without welding to plate – Slot holes closest to edge V ca1 Required Edge Distances.2.6. Spacings.Shear Near an Edge D. and Thicknesses .
...........1 through D.. Lesser values from product-specific tests performed in accordance with ACI 355. D.....8...... For castin headed anchors that will be torqued.7.8.2... In the absence of product-specific ACI 355. and 6da for torqued cast-in anchors and post-installed anchors......8 D.7..Section D..... minimum edge distances for cast-in headed anchors that will not be torqued shall be based on specified cover requirements for reinforcement in 7. minimum edge distances for post-installed anchors shall be based on the greater of specified cover requirements for reinforcement in 7. the minimum edge distance shall be taken as not less than: Undercut anchors..............4.. Section D.. the minimum edge distances shall be 6da. or minimum edge distance requirements for the products as determined by tests in accordance with ACI 355.8da Displacement-controlled anchors. D.8 Minimum spacings and edge distances for anchors and minimum thicknesses of members shall conform to D.....6da Torque-controlled anchors.....6...2 – Unless determined in accordance with D.... and shall not be less than 2.8.1 – Unless determined in accordance with D.............8.8...4.........3 – Unless determined in accordance with D... minimum center-to-center spacing of anchors shall be 4da for untorqued cast-in anchors.. unless supplementary reinforcement is provided to control splitting...8....2 test information.....2 shall be permitted...8.10da .4.0 times the maximum aggregate size...........8...
4 – For anchors where installation does not produce a splitting force and that will remain untorqued.1 to D.......8............... the critical edge distance.......4hef Displacement-controlled anchors..8 D..8.......... cac....8.8 D........8. if the edge distance or spacing is less than those specified in D...... shall not be taken less than: Undercut anchors....5hef Torque-controlled anchors...........4hef .. calculations shall be performed by substituting for da a smaller value d’a that meets the requirements of D......5 – The value of hef for an expansion or undercut post-installed anchor shall not exceed the greater of 2/3 of the member thickness and the member thickness minus 4 in.........Section D.2..........18.104.22.168 – Unless determined from tension tests in accordance with ACI 355......... Calculated forces applied to the anchor shall be limited to the values corresponding to an anchor having a diameter of d’a.. Section D....3. D....8.1 to D...8..
At this time…outside the scope. adhesive anchors. D • Grouted CMU will still use existing postinstalled anchor products .” Limitations of Appendix D • NW Concrete and LW Concrete only – Reductions in capacity in LW – CMU and Concrete on metal deck outside scope of App. PAT fasteners outside scope of Appendix D – ACI Commentary: “Adhesive anchors are widely used and can perform adequately.Limitations of Appendix D • Applies for CIP and some PostInstalled anchors – Specialty inserts. screw anchors. through bolts.
Limitations of Appendix D • Limits to: – Diameter (≤2”) – Embedment depth (≤25”) – Concrete compressive strength (≤8000 psi PI. <10000 psi CIP). When to Use Appendix D .
1 – “…anchors in concrete used to transmit structural loads by means of tension. RD.2. shear.When to use Appendix D • Per ACI 318-08. or (b) safety-related attachments and structural elements. heavy suspended pipes. or a combination of tension and shear between (a) connected structural elements.1 – Commentary lists examples for safetyrelated attachments. D. or barrier rails) are attached to structural elements.” – Will sprinkler systems be attached with cracked concrete anchors? .2. – “…safety-related attachments that are not part of the structure (such as sprinkler systems.” – What is a “safety-related attachment”? When to use Appendix D • Per ACI 318-08.
1 Scope. The bearing area of headed anchors shall be not less than one and one-half times the shank area. These provisions do not apply to anchors installed in hardened concrete or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307 or an approved equivalent. the design strength of anchors shall be determined in accordance with Section 1912. The provisions of this section shall govern the allowable stress design of headed bolts. and headed stud anchors cast in normal-weight concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other. . or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. Section 1911 Anchorage To Concrete – Allowable Stress Design 1911.When to Use Appendix D IBC 2006 IBC 2006. Where strength design is used.
D.3.2.2 for anchors exceeding 2 inches (51mm) in diameter or 25 inches (635mm) tensile embedment depth. section D.1. is determined in accordance with Equation (D-7).2.3. the design strength of anchors shall be taken as 0.3. and as amended above.16 ACI 318. Section 1908 Modifications to ACI 318 1908. the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level corresponding to anchor forces no greater than the design strength of anchors specified in D.2 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.4.4 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C. IBC 2006. The provisions of this section shall govern the strength design of anchors installed in concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other. D.2 shall be considered satisfied by the design procedures of Sections D.3.4. post-installed anchors for use under D. D. Modify ACI 318.3. where φ is given in D. D.22.214.171.124 through C. the concrete breakout strength requirements of Section D.5 times the factored forces transmitted by the attachment. or the minimum design strength of the anchors shall be at least 2.3. Exception: Where the basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor.4.or L-) bolts cast in concrete and expansion anchors and undercut anchors installed in hardened concrete shall be designed in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318 as modified by Section 1908.3. provided they are within the scope of Appendix D. Headed bolts.3 shall have passed the Simulated Seismic Tests of ACI 355.1 Scope.3.4.75φNn and 0. and Nn and Vn are determined in accordance with D.IBC 2006.4 or D.75φVn. Section 1912 Anchorage To Concrete – Strength Design 1912.3.3. The strength design of anchors that are not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 318. E or F.6. Nb.3. shall be in accordance with an approved procedure.3.3.3 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C. . E or F.1. headed studs and hooked (J.126.96.36.199.3. to read as follows: D. E or F.1.2. D.5 – Instead of D. anchors shall be designed to be governed by tensile or shear strength of a ductile steel element.2 and D. D. unless D.188.8.131.52. Section D.5.5 is satisfied.
Section 1912 – “The strength design of anchors that do not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 318…shall be in accordance with an approved design procedure.Adhesive Anchors and Concrete Screws Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006.” • What design procedures are approved? • Who decides? .
1 Research reports. Supporting data.11 – The building official has the ability to approve a material if it is not specifically referenced in the code – Adhesive anchors and screw anchors fall into this category – Caution: Most building officials are still learning about strength design provisions of anchors . effectiveness. 104. design and methods of construction and equipment. strength. at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality. method or work offered is. design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code. and that the material. An alternative material. durability and safety. fire resistance. Section 104. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code. for the purpose intended.11.11 104.11 Alternative materials.Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code. provided that any such alternative has been approved. shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources. Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. Section 104.
Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • Many engineers are still designing adhesive anchors and screw anchors per ASD • Strength design code reports for adhesives and screws are just starting to come online Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • ICC ES AC 193 – Expansion anchors – Undercut anchors – Screw anchors • ICC ES AC 308 – Adhesive anchors .
Code Reports The Future of Anchors • Reliance on software for anchor design • Many new post-installed anchors • Confusion among engineers. contractors and building officials • Lengthy transition period .
The Future of Anchors • What changes will the IBC 2009 and ACI 318-11. Appendix D bring? – Clearer provisions for adhesives and concrete screws? Questions .
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