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Mark Bartlett, PE Field Engineer Simpson Anchor Systems
• • • • • • •
Brief History of Anchor Design ACI 318-08, Appendix D
Design Equations Phi (Ф) Factors Interaction Equation Seismic Provisions Reinforcement to Prevent Breakout Other Issues Edge Distances, Thicknesses & Spacings
• • • •
When to design per App. D IBC 2006 Adhesive Anchors and Concrete Screws The Future of Anchor Design
Prior to ACI 318-02
• Cast-In-Place anchors covered by:
– PCI / ACI 349 – UBC / IBC codes listed allowable stress capacities for CIP bolts
Prior to ACI 318-02
• Design of Post-Installed anchors:
– Individual manufacturers supplied load values based on testing – Values found in catalogs and ICBO/ICC reports – Methodology was allowable stress and assumed an uncracked and unreinforced section.
ACI 318-08, Appendix D
ACI 318, Appendix D
• Strength design method for anchorage to concrete (i.e. Nua ≤ ΦNn or Vua ≤ ΦVn)
– Cast-In-Place (CIP) anchors – Post-Installed (PI) anchors
• Undercut anchors • Torque-controlled anchors • Deformation-controlled anchors
– PI anchors must be prequalified per ACI 355.2
Appendix D Design Equations & Failure Modes
• Design equations check 5 different failure modes
– Steel capacity
• Tension and Shear
– Concrete breakout capacity
• Tension and Shear
– Pullout/Pull-through capacity
• Tension only
– Concrete Pryout
• Shear only
– Concrete side-face blowout
• Tension and CIP only.
Appendix D Design Equations
V futa Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.N Ψc.PNp Nsb = (160ca1√Abrg)λ√f’c Shear Capacities Vsa = n 0.VVb) Vcpg = kcpNcbg Steel Strength in Tension .Nfuta Ncb = ANc/ANco(Ψec.Design Equations Tension Capacities Nsa = nAse.V Ψh.VΨed.V Ψc.NNb) Npn = Ψc.6 Ase.N Ψcp.NΨed.
Steel Strength In Tension – D. D-3) – Nsa – Nominal tensile strength of an anchor group – n – Number of anchors – Ase.Nfuta (Eq.N – Effective cross sectional area of anchor in tension – futa – Specific ultimate tensile strength of anchor Concrete Breakout Strength in Tension .1 Nsa = nAse.5.
5.N Ψc.N Ψcp. D-6) .5.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.NNb) (Eq. D-5) • Ncb – Concrete breakout strength in tension Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.N Ψc.NΨed.NNb) • ANc – Projected failure area of group • ANco = 9 hef2 Projected failure area of one anchor (Eq.NΨed.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.N Ψcp.
3 (ca.min / 1.N Ψc.N = 1. D-9) N Centroid of anchors T3 T2 e’N T1 Resultant tension load Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.NΨed.5hef then: Eq.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.5hef then: Eq.N = 1/[1+(2e’N/3hef)] (Eq. D-11 Ψed.N Ψcp.NNb) Modification for edge effects If ca.N = 0.NΨed.5hef ) .min < 1. D-10 Ψed.5.N Ψc.7 + 0.5.NNb) Modification for eccentric load Ψec.min > 1.0 ca If ca.N Ψcp.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.
5.NΨcp.N Ψc.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.min < cac then: Ψcp.N per evaluation report (ER) if kc from ER used in eq. (D-7) Ψc. (D-7) Ψc. D-12) If ca.4 for uncracked section if kc = 17 in eq.0 for cracked section Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.N = 1.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.NNb) Modification for cracking Ψc. to control splitting If ca.N = ca.N =1.NΨed.N =1. D-13) Where cac= 2.5 hef (undercut anchors) 4 hef (wedge anchors) .min/cac (Eq.N Ψcp.2 Ncb=ANc/ANco(Ψec.0 (Eq.NNb) Ψcp.5.min > cac then: Ψcp.N – Modification for Post-Installed anchors Uncracked concrete No supplemental reinf.NΨed.NΨc.
5 (Eq.NΨc.NΨcp.NNb) • Basic concrete breakout strength • Nb=kc λ √f’c hef1.NΨed. D or per product ER – λ – Modification factor for lightweight concrete – f’c – Concrete compressive strength – hef – Effective embedment depth • Tested hef found in manufacturer’s catalog or product ER Pullout Strength in Tension .5.2 Ncbg=ANc/ANco(Ψec. D-7) – kc – Coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength • Found in either App.Concrete Breakout In Tension – D.
5.4 for uncracked • Np – Pullout strength in tension Pullout Strength In Tension – D. D-15) headed bolts – Np = 0.PNp (Eq. D-16) hooked bolts .0 for cracked – 1. Np based on: – Np = 8 Abrgf’c (Eq.9f’cehda (Eq.5.P – Modification for cracking – 1.3 Npn = Ψc. D-14) • Npn – Nominal pullout strength • Ψc.2 test results • For CIP anchors.P Np (Eq.3 Npn = Ψc.Pullout Strength In Tension – D. D-14) • Np – Pullout strength in tension • For PI anchors Np based on ACI 355.
4 Nsb = (160ca1√Abrg)λ√f’c (Eq. D-17) • Nsb – Side-face blowout strength (headed anchors only) • ca1 – edge distance • Abrg – Net bearing area of the head of anchor • λ – Modification factor for lightweight concrete .Side-Face Blowout Strength in Tension Side-Face Blowout Strength – D.5.
1 • Vsa = n Ase.6. D-19) CIP HSA • Vsa = n 0.Steel Strength in Shear Steel Strength In Shear – D.V futa (eq. D-20) – n – number of anchors – Ase.V – effective cross sectional area of a single anchor in shear – futa – specified tensile strength of anchor steel .6 Ase.V futa (eq.
Steel Strength In Shear – D.1 • Vsa may also be based on the results of tests performed and evaluated according to ACI 355.6.2 Concrete Breakout Strength in Shear .
V Ψc.VVb) (Eq.6.VΨc.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.V Ψh.VVb) – AVc – projected concrete failure area of a group of anchors c a1 V ha 1.6.V Ψh.VΨed.5ca1 s1 ca2 AVc AVc = (1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. D-22) • Vcbg – Concrete breakout strength in shear Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5ca1 + s1 + ca2) ha .VΨed.
D-26) .VΨc.5ca1 1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5 ca12 (Eq.VΨc.VΨed.6.V – Modification for eccentric load (Eq.V Ψh.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.VVb) Ψec.6.5ca1 AVco Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VVb) – AVco – maximum projected concrete failure area of a single anchor AVco = 4.5c1 1.V Ψh.VΨed. D-23) c a1 V 1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.
7 + 0.V = 0.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.V = 1.3ca2/1. D-28) V ca1 ca2 Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.V Ψh.VΨc.5ca1 then Ψed.VVb) Ψc.5ca1 then Ψed.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec. D-27) If ca2 < 1.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.V Modification factor for cracking Ψc.V Ψh.6.VΨed.6.4 for anchors located in a region where analysis indicates no cracking at service loads Who is currently doing this analysis? .VVb) Ψed.V = 1.0 (Eq.VΨc.VΨed.5ca1 (Eq.V – Modification for edge effects If ca2 > 1.
6.V = 1.6.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VVb) Ψc.V = 1.VΨed.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.V Ψh.VΨc.V Ψh.2 for anchors in cracked concrete with reinforcement of a #4 bar or greater between the anchor and the edge V >#4 .VΨed.0 for anchors in cracked concrete with no supplemental reinforcement or edge reinforcement smaller V than a #4 bar <#4 Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VVb) Ψc.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.VΨc.
2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.6.Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.5ca1. Ψh.V = 1.V Ψh.VΨed.0 When ha < 1.VΨed.4 for anchors in cracked concrete with reinforcement of a #4 bar or greater between the anchor and the edge.VΨc. breakout strength is not directly proportional to member thickness.V adjusts for this.V Ψh. and with the reinforcement enclosed V within stirrups spaced at not more than 4”.VΨc.5ca1 Ψh.5ca1/ha but not less than 1. However.VVb) Ψc. ≥#4 #4@4” Concrete Breakout In Shear – D.VVb) Ψh.6. V a1 c 1.V – Modification factor for shear strength of anchors located in concrete members with ha < 1.V = √1.2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.5c1 ha . AVc is reduced.
VΨc.Concrete Breakout Strength In Shear – D.2√da)λ√f’c (ca1)1.VVb) • Vb=(7(ℓe /da)0.5 (Eq.VΨed.6. D-24) – ℓe – load bearing length of anchor • Same as hef if there is no sleeve on anchor • Per manufacturer if there is a sleeve – da – outside diameter of anchor – λ – adjustment for lightweight concrete – f’c – concrete compressive strength – ca1 – edge distance Pryout Strength in Shear .2 Vcbg = AVc/AVco(Ψec.V Ψh.
D-30) kcp = 1.0 for hef < 2.5” kcp = 2.6.3 Vcpg = kcpNcbg • • • (Eq.5” Ncbg – Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension – Always do tension calcs first Phi (Ф) Factors .Concrete Pryout Strength In Shear – D.0 for hef > 2.
45 0.75 Use Condition B 0.65 0.70 0.4 Ф Factor Failure Mode Anchor Property Condition A Tension Ductile Steel Brittle Side Face Blowout CIP CIP Cat.70 Shear Condition B Tension 0. 3 CIP Cat.65 .65 0.70 0.70 0.75 0. 2 Cat.75 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.70 0. 2 Cat.70 0.75 0.70 0.55 0.75 0. 3 Use Condition B 0.Phi (Φ) factors • Nua ≤ ΦNn or Vua ≤ ΦVn • Phi (Ф) factors are applied to nominal capacities before comparing with factored forces • Based on: – Supplemental reinforcement – Failure mode – Load type – Anchor property Phi (Φ) factors D.70 0.65 0.70 Use Condition B 0. 3 CIP Cat.70 0. 1 Breakout Cat.70 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.65 0.4.70 0.55 0.70 0.70 0. 1 Pullout Cat.45 0. 1 Pryout Cat. 2 Cat.75 0.75 Shear 0.45 0.
6.2.9 for full design load transfer requirements . Supplemental Reinforcing • Supplemental Reinforcement – Reinforcement that acts to restrain the potential concrete breakout but is not designed to transfer the full design load from the anchors into the structural member. – Refer to sections D.4 • Condition A – Applies where supplementary reinforcement is present except for pullout and pryout strengths.2. • Condition B – Applies where supplementary reinforcement is not present.4.Supplemental Reinforcing D.9 and D. and for pullout or pryout strength.5.
Interaction of Tension and Shear Interaction of Tension and Shear – D.7 .
2 Appendix D Seismic Provisions .Interaction of Tension and Shear – D.7 • If Vua≤0.2ΦVn full tension allowed – Ignore Shear • If Nua≤0.2ΦNn full shear allowed – Ignore Tension • Otherwise Nua + Vua ΦNn ΦVn < 1.
75φNn and 0.3.3.3.2.Seismic Provisions D.4.3.75 reduction to concrete capacity in Seismic Design Category C – F • Impractical to prove concrete remains uncracked .3.3 – The anchor design strength associated with concrete failure modes shall be taken as 0. Seismic Provisions D.5. where φ is given in D.3.4. and Nn and Vn are determined in accordance with D.3. • 0.3.75φVn.1 through D. D. assuming the concrete is cracked unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete remains uncracked.5. D. D. Pullout strength Np and steel strength of the anchor in shear Vsa shall be based on the results of the ACI 3184.108.40.206. and D.3. or F.6.4 or D.220.127.116.11 shall apply.3 – When anchor design includes earthquake forces for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.2. D. D.2 – Post-installed structural anchors shall be qualified for use in cracked concrete and shall have passed the Simulated Seismic Tests in accordance with ACI 355.1 – The provisions of Appendix D do not apply to the design of anchors in plastic hinge zones of concrete structures under earthquake forces. D.5. E. the additional requirements of D.3.2 Simulated Seismic Tests.3.
3.3. For the anchors of stud bearing walls.3. D. Seismic Provisions • Summary – Seismic Design Category C.3.5 times the design strength determined in accordance with D..3. it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0.4 times the design strength determined in accordance with D. or.18.104.22.168 and D.5.5 or D.4 – Anchors shall be designed to be governed by the steel strength of a ductile steel element as determined in accordance with D.6 – As an alternative to D.3..3. – Anchor capacity reduced by 60% .Seismic Provisions D.3.3.3. it shall be permitted to take the design strength of the anchors as 0.6. the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a force level corresponding to anchor forces no greater than the design strength of anchors specified in D.3.3. E & F – No anchors in plastic hinge – PI anchors must pass Simulated Seismic Test – Design strength reduced by 25% – Ductile steel failure of anchors shall control..3.3.4..1 and D.5.6 is satisfied. unless either D.5 – Instead of D.3. D.3. – Ductile yielding of attachment.3.3.1. D.3.3. or.3.3.
Seismic Provisions • Seismic and edge effects – At small edge distances. concrete breakout (non ductile failure mode) will often control – If attachment will not experience ductile yielding before breakout occurs.. then 40% anchor capacity reduction unless. – Reinforce section to prevent breakout from occurring Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout ..
9 and D.9 for more information .2.2.4. calculation of the concrete breakout strength in accordance with D.22.214.171.124.5.2 is not required. Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout • Refer to Commentary RD. the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining φNn.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout D.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement. D.2.2.5. A strength reduction factor of 0. Where anchor reinforcement is provided in accordance with D.2 and D.5.9.1 – The effect of reinforcement provided to restrain the concrete breakout shall be permitted to be included in the design models used to satisfy D.4.9 – Where anchor reinforcement is developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface.5.
the design strength of the anchor reinforcement shall be permitted to be used instead of the concrete breakout strength in determining φVn.75 shall be used in the design of the anchor reinforcement.2.6. or encloses the anchor and is developed beyond the breakout surface.9 for more info Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout Bars effective as anchor reinforcement Edge Reinforcement Anchor Reinforcement Section Plan • Refer to Commentary RD. A strength reduction factor of 0. Plan Section • Refer to Commentary RD.2.6.2.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout D.9 for more info .9 – Where anchor reinforcement is either developed in accordance with Chapter 12 on both sides of the breakout surface.6.
” • What about post-installed anchors? – At small edge distances. use of anchor reinforcement is generally limited to cast-in-place anchors.Reinforcement to Prevent Concrete Breakout • Per Commentary RD.5.6.9: – “As a practical matter. Other Appendix D Issues .9 and RD.2.2. anchor capacity will be greatly reduced for seismic design.
Capacity Adjustments • PI anchor pullout capacity – Tested values of Np are done in 2500 psi concrete – Pullout capacities increase for higher f’c – Adjustment equations in ER • Grout pads – 20% reduction in shear strength (D. .6. (D-23) through (D-29) shall be the greatest of ca2/1.5 and one-third of the maximum spacing between the anchors within the group. ha/1. D makes no mention to grout pad thickness • Shear load parallel to concrete edge – Breakout capacity doubled per D.max/1.6. and one-third of the maximum spacing between the anchors within the group.2.5 in either direction.5hef from three or more edges.5.3) – App. the value of ca1 used in Eq.6. Triple Edge Conditions D.5.2.3 – Where anchors are located less than 1.2. the value of hef used in Eq.1. (D-4) through (D-11) shall be the greater of ca.1(c).4 – Where anchors are influenced by three or more edges. D.
Triple Edge Condition in Tension Triple Edge Condition in Shear .
5V Anchors not welded to plate ca1 ca1 0. the limiting nominal concrete breakout strength shall be determined for each edge. and the minimum value shall be used.5V .6.6. Anchors welded to plate V 0. and all of the shear shall be assumed to be carried by this critical anchor row alone. it shall be permitted to base the value of ca1 on the distance from the edge to the axis of the farthest anchor row that is selected as critical.2.2.Corner Condition D. it shall be permitted to evaluate the strength based on the distance to the farthest row of anchors from the edge.1 Where anchors are located at varying distances from the edge and the anchors are welded to the attachment so as to distribute the force to all anchors.1(d) (d) For anchors located at a corner. In this case. V V ca2 ca1 ca2 ca1 Shear Near an Edge D.
Shear Near an Edge D. Spacings.1 • Increase ca1 without welding to plate – Slot holes closest to edge V ca1 Required Edge Distances.2.6. and Thicknesses .
...Section D. D...8...... minimum center-to-center spacing of anchors shall be 4da for untorqued cast-in anchors..6da Torque-controlled anchors.. Lesser values from product-specific tests performed in accordance with ACI 355..2 test information.8 Minimum spacings and edge distances for anchors and minimum thicknesses of members shall conform to D.........3 – Unless determined in accordance with D..1 – Unless determined in accordance with D.8. the minimum edge distance shall be taken as not less than: Undercut anchors..8..... and 6da for torqued cast-in anchors and post-installed anchors.. In the absence of product-specific ACI 355............ For castin headed anchors that will be torqued...7..4........ Section D.6..10da ......4....7...........8....4.8...8da Displacement-controlled anchors....0 times the maximum aggregate size... the minimum edge distances shall be 6da. and shall not be less than 2.. minimum edge distances for post-installed anchors shall be based on the greater of specified cover requirements for reinforcement in 7....8. or minimum edge distance requirements for the products as determined by tests in accordance with ACI 355.....2 shall be permitted..1 through D... minimum edge distances for cast-in headed anchors that will not be torqued shall be based on specified cover requirements for reinforcement in 7...8......8..... unless supplementary reinforcement is provided to control splitting. D......2 – Unless determined in accordance with D.8 D...2...
.8 D....... the critical edge distance. shall not be taken less than: Undercut anchors..................5 – The value of hef for an expansion or undercut post-installed anchor shall not exceed the greater of 2/3 of the member thickness and the member thickness minus 4 in.4 – For anchors where installation does not produce a splitting force and that will remain untorqued..1 to D.......3.3.8................ cac........4hef .6 – Unless determined from tension tests in accordance with ACI 355...1 to D.........8 D.........8........2..Section D..8.4hef Displacement-controlled anchors.8.......... D..8....8.. Section D...8. calculations shall be performed by substituting for da a smaller value d’a that meets the requirements of D... if the edge distance or spacing is less than those specified in D.5hef Torque-controlled anchors.2....... Calculated forces applied to the anchor shall be limited to the values corresponding to an anchor having a diameter of d’a...
” Limitations of Appendix D • NW Concrete and LW Concrete only – Reductions in capacity in LW – CMU and Concrete on metal deck outside scope of App. through bolts. PAT fasteners outside scope of Appendix D – ACI Commentary: “Adhesive anchors are widely used and can perform adequately. adhesive anchors. D • Grouted CMU will still use existing postinstalled anchor products . screw anchors.Limitations of Appendix D • Applies for CIP and some PostInstalled anchors – Specialty inserts. At this time…outside the scope.
<10000 psi CIP).Limitations of Appendix D • Limits to: – Diameter (≤2”) – Embedment depth (≤25”) – Concrete compressive strength (≤8000 psi PI. When to Use Appendix D .
or (b) safety-related attachments and structural elements.1 – Commentary lists examples for safetyrelated attachments. D.1 – “…anchors in concrete used to transmit structural loads by means of tension.2. RD. or a combination of tension and shear between (a) connected structural elements. or barrier rails) are attached to structural elements. – “…safety-related attachments that are not part of the structure (such as sprinkler systems.” – Will sprinkler systems be attached with cracked concrete anchors? .” – What is a “safety-related attachment”? When to use Appendix D • Per ACI 318-08.When to use Appendix D • Per ACI 318-08.2. shear. heavy suspended pipes.
or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. and headed stud anchors cast in normal-weight concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other.1 Scope. Section 1911 Anchorage To Concrete – Allowable Stress Design 1911. . Where strength design is used.When to Use Appendix D IBC 2006 IBC 2006. the design strength of anchors shall be determined in accordance with Section 1912. Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307 or an approved equivalent. The bearing area of headed anchors shall be not less than one and one-half times the shank area. These provisions do not apply to anchors installed in hardened concrete or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. The provisions of this section shall govern the allowable stress design of headed bolts.
5.3.4. or the minimum design strength of the anchors shall be at least 126.96.36.199. where φ is given in D.3 shall have passed the Simulated Seismic Tests of ACI 355.IBC 2006. unless D.4 or D.3.1. Modify ACI 318. shall be in accordance with an approved procedure.1. Section D.3.75φNn and 0. The strength design of anchors that are not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 3188.8.131.52 – Instead of D. anchors shall be designed to be governed by tensile or shear strength of a ductile steel element. Section 1908 Modifications to ACI 318 1908.2 for anchors exceeding 2 inches (51mm) in diameter or 25 inches (635mm) tensile embedment depth. the concrete breakout strength requirements of Section D. The provisions of this section shall govern the strength design of anchors installed in concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other.3.1 Scope.4.75φVn. E or F.3.3 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.4.2.2 through C.3. to read as follows: D. and as amended above. D. Section 1912 Anchorage To Concrete – Strength Design 1912. D. the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level corresponding to anchor forces no greater than the design strength of anchors specified in D.3. is determined in accordance with Equation (D-7). section D.or L-) bolts cast in concrete and expansion anchors and undercut anchors installed in hardened concrete shall be designed in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318 as modified by Section 1908. .2 and D.184.108.40.206 ACI 318.3.4 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.6.3. D. E or F. Exception: Where the basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor.4. provided they are within the scope of Appendix D. IBC 2006. the design strength of anchors shall be taken as 0. post-installed anchors for use under D. Headed bolts. headed studs and hooked (J. D.3. D.5 times the factored forces transmitted by the attachment.5.3.2 – In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C.3.2 shall be considered satisfied by the design procedures of Sections D.3. Nb.3.3.3. and Nn and Vn are determined in accordance with D.2.5 is satisfied. D.4.3. E or F.
” • What design procedures are approved? • Who decides? .Adhesive Anchors and Concrete Screws Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. Section 1912 – “The strength design of anchors that do not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 318…shall be in accordance with an approved design procedure.
Supporting data. where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code. An alternative material.11 Alternative materials.1 Research reports. and that the material.Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources. fire resistance. 104. Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • IBC 2006. strength. durability and safety.11. Section 104.11 – The building official has the ability to approve a material if it is not specifically referenced in the code – Adhesive anchors and screw anchors fall into this category – Caution: Most building officials are still learning about strength design provisions of anchors . provided that any such alternative has been approved. effectiveness. Section 104. design and methods of construction and equipment.11 104. at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code. for the purpose intended. design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code. method or work offered is.
Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • Many engineers are still designing adhesive anchors and screw anchors per ASD • Strength design code reports for adhesives and screws are just starting to come online Adhesives Anchors and Concrete Screws • ICC ES AC 193 – Expansion anchors – Undercut anchors – Screw anchors • ICC ES AC 308 – Adhesive anchors .
Code Reports The Future of Anchors • Reliance on software for anchor design • Many new post-installed anchors • Confusion among engineers. contractors and building officials • Lengthy transition period .
The Future of Anchors • What changes will the IBC 2009 and ACI 318-11. Appendix D bring? – Clearer provisions for adhesives and concrete screws? Questions .
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