AP Plant Reading Guide

Chapter 29: Plant Diversity I: The Colonization of Land 1. What adaptive features have contributed to the success of plants on land? Apical meristems, alternation of generations, walled spores produced in sporangia, multicellular gametangia, multicellular dependent embryos, cuticle (to prevent drying out and excessive water loss), secondary compounds (alkaloids, terpenes, tannins, phenolics-defend against predators, herbivores, parasites, absorb uv radiation), vascular system 2. Thoroughly understand the basic alteration of generation life cycle. A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.

terrestrial plants 3. What evidence supports the evolution of land plants from green algae called charophytes? Both have rose shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis, peroxisome enzymes, flagellated sperm, formation of a phragmoplast 4. What are the major features of the bryophytes? Lack vascular tissue!! Hornworts, liverworts, mosses. May have VERY simple tissue. 5. Describe the life cycle of the moss. Have long gametophyte stage.

9. Heterosporous plant species that has two types of spores. homosporous. microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes. tracheids. Be very familiar with these life cycle terms: gametophyte. have lignin. Have long sporophyte stage 7. sporophyte. Homosporous plant species with a single type of spore. heterosporous. What are the major features of the seedless vascular plants? Lack seeds. megaspores.Gametophyte-multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation. leaves (mirophyll or megaphyll). Describe the life cycle of the fern. Phloem=sugar conducting. Sporophyte multicellular diploid for the results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation. which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte.pterophytes (ferns and their relatives) and lycophytes (club mosses and their relatives) 8. What are the major features of vascular plants? Have a xylem and a phloem.xylem=water and minerals.6. . Have roots (anchor and absorption of water and nutrients). microspores .

heterospory. 4. Reduced gametophyte. pollen (sperm). 2. What are the major features of seed plants? Their tiny gametophytes can develop from spores retained within the sporangia of the parental sporophyte-protects delicate female (egg containing) gametophytes from environmental stressesdrought. What are the major features of the gymnosperms? Naked seeds (cones)-conifers (large evergreen trees). 3. pollen. Describe the life cycle of the pine. .dependent embryo gains nutrients from sporophyte. ghetophyta (vary). cycadophyta (large cones. ginkgo (fan leaves). Ovules (houses eggs). palm shaped leaves). Understand the 3 variations on the alternation of generation life cycle in plants.Chapter 30: Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of the Seed Plant 1. UV radiation. ovules.

one pollen grain opening). medicines. What are the major features of angiosperms? Seeds contained in fruits. 9. Flowers and fruits=seed dispersal. three pollen grain openings). food. taproot. petals in 4s or 5s. adventitious roostroots in unusual locations. fibrous root (seedless vascular and monocot). What is co-evolution? Give an example.a mat of thin roots spreading in soil. Describe the structure and function of roots. monocot (one cotyledon. scattered vascular tissue. STEMS. Linked adaptations that involve reciprocal genetic change in two species. ROOTS-anchor vascular plants. parallel veins. ring shaped vascular tissue. 7. Madagascar. What is the adaptive significance of alternation of generations in the major groups of plants? Chapter 35: Plant Structure and Growth 1.11 inch nectar on orchid-only good for bird with 11 inch proboscis. petals in 3s. eudicots (two cotyledons. stems and leaves. Taproot (eudicot and gymnosperms)-one main vertical root from embryonic root-gives rise to lateral (branch) roots.vertical stems bear leaves and flowers in flowering plants. wood.5. 6. fibrous roots. absorb minerals and water and store organic nutrients. Describe the life cycle of the angiosperm. flower and fruit. netlike veins. 8. How have plants impacted humans? Products-crops. nodes .

edible part of fruit. nonliving conduits through which water flows-tracheids (long thin cells). companion cell-non conducting cells which connect sieve tubes. lignin is not uniformly distributed. simple plant tissue. 3. softer parts of plants. lacks secondary cell walls. The secondary plant body consists of tissues produced by the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. the vascular cambium appears as a ring. hemp) Water conducting cells of the xylem. veins (vascular tissue) 2.make up ground tissue. pth of herbaceous plant.composed of tracheids and vessel elements. The innermost layer of the cortex is called the endodermis. walls unevenly thickened. Differentiate between primary and secondary growth. skeleton of the plant. gritty part of pears) and fibers (long tapered cells found in patches or clumps.sieve tubes-missing organelles leave them hollow. In gymnosperms and most eudicots. The outer layers. Primary growth-occurs at apical meristems and results in growth of roots and shoots (taller). heartwood. Stele is vascular cylinder. elongated and active at maturity. The primary growth of roots produces the epidermis. In most monocot stems. oil droplets. resin or enzymes. Growth occurs just behind it. The vascular tissue consists of vascular bundles that are arranged in a ring. or periderm . hardened with lignin. The ground tissue fills the cortext. transport materials thru xylem. vessel elements (generally wider and shorter) Sugar conducting cells of the phloem. very thick in corners. some store important biological molecules-starch. not flexible-found in areas that are no longer elongating. ground T tissue. CORK CAMBIUM AND PERIDERM cork cambium gives rise to secondary plant body’s protective covering. As a tree or woody shrub ages. active living tissue.flat blade and stalk (petiole). water. Parenchyma.have both primary and secondary cell walls. Gives rise to a repetition of internodes and leaf bearing nodes.primarily make up ground tissue. which protects the apical meristem as the root pushes O through the soil. primary cell walls only. help to load the sieve tubes and supply them with protein. zone of maturation). The initials increase the vascular cambium’s circumference and add secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside. other store plant hormones. the S region between the vascular cylinder and the epidermis. walls are thick. dormant). often dead at maturity. In transverse section. LEAVES-photosynthetic organ of vascular plants. S H O O T A shoot apical meristem is a dome shaped mass of dividing cells at the tip of the terminal bud. Schlerenchyma. with regions of dividing cells called fusiform initials and ray initials. can differentiate into other cell types-wound healing Collenchymas. no longer transports water and minerals. zone O of elongation. the three zones of cells (zone of cell division. some are photosynthetic. thin cell walls.roots extend throughout soil and shoots increase exposure to light and CO2. the vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue. main job-provide support in non woody plant organs. sapwood. Describe the structure and function of the specific types of plant cells.occurs at lateral meristems and results in growth of the vascular cambium and cork cambium(woody part of plant) (wider) Secondary growth occurs in stems and roots of woody plants but rarely in leaves. the older layers of secondary xylem.(where leaves are attached) and internodes (segments between nodes)-in ngle formed by each leaf=axillary bud(potential to form lateral shoot. terminal bud (shoot tip where elongation occurs) the proximity of the terminal bud is partly responsible for inhibiting the growth of axillary buds (apical dominance). Secondary growth. two types of cells: sclereids (hard cells found in nuts. R The root tip is covered by a root cap. and wascular tissue. usually appears as strands.

if located external to vascular tissue it is called cortex  Leaf tissue organization: epidermis has pores called stomata flanked by two guard cells. WATER ENTERS BY OSMOSIS [Hi] to [Lo]. The protons move back into the sieve tube cells by cotransport along with sucrose from mesophyll. How are water and minerals absorbed by roots? Roots strengthen the osmosis mechanism by actively pumping ions into their xylem cellsosmosis into the xylem as water follows solutes. How is transpiration controlled? Stomata. 2. palisade – upper layer of elongated cells  spongy – lower layer of loosely arranged cells. in the root (pressure exerted by the water vacuole pressing against the cell wall and the cell wall pushing back) forces water into the stem xylem=ROOT PRESSURE. Changes in turgor pressure that open and close the stomata result primarily from the reversible uptake and loss of potassium ions (goes in. 4. sugar is produced in the mesophyll cells. including secondary phloem and periderm. Water flows from root cortex. The endodermis is the innermost layer of cells in the root cortex. which control the diameter of the stoma by changing shape. How is phloem sap translocated within plants? Sugar movement is driven by pressure flow hypothesis. the stele is a solid central cylinder  in stems & leaves. 3.epidermis has a waxy cuticle to help prevent water loss  Vascular tissue: carries out long-distance transport between roots and shoots  2 types:  xylem – conveys water & dissolved minerals from roots to shoots  phloem – transports organic nutrients from source to sink  xylem & phloem are collectively called the stele  in roots. The pull is transpiration. Bark= all tissues external to the vascular cambium. ground tissue (mesophyll) between upper & lower epidermis. the extensive surface area of cortical cell membranes enhances uptake of water and selected minerals. It surrounds the vascular cylinder and is the last checkpoint for selective passage of minerals from the cortex into the vascular tissue. consists of a single layer of cells (epidermis) in nonwoody plants. production of water at the tip of the plant usually at leaf edges bc of root pressure. vascular tissue (veins) enclosed by protective bundle sheath cells Chapter 36: Transport in Plants 1. Water flows into roots to replace root xylem water-water is cohesive (stick to itself) and adhesive (stick to polar surfaces). Water can cross cortex via the symplast or apoplast route-casparian strip limits apoplast route. Active transport moves protons out of the sieve tube cells into the phloem companion cells. stem Water lost through leaf stomata then water flows into xyem vessels to replace lost water. open stomata) BC WATER IS LOST THRU STOMATA. the stele is divided into vascular bundles  Ground tissue: tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular. Water flows up the stem xylem to replace leaf water. 4. tissues. flanked by guard cells. How does the organization of cells. Results from the evaporation near the top of the plant through leaves. and organs determine structure and function in plant systems?  Dermal tissue: outer protective covering.(cork cambium plus layers of cork cells it produces).After soil solution enters the roots. This causes a large local increase in solute concentration in the sieve tubes causing water from nearby xylem . Water potential of atmosphere is low compared to soil water moves from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential. Water accumulates and develops a high pressure ~+2Mpa. How is water (xylem sap) transported within plants? Once in plant. if located internal to vascular tissue it is called pith. consists of protective tissue layers (periderm) in older regions of woody plants. Water from the root xylem replaces stem water. In leaves. Guttation. water experiences a pull from the top of the plant.

These bacteria obtain sugar from the plant and supply the plant with fixed nitrogen. ashesion and retention of water. Chapter 38: Plant Reproduction and Development 1. • sepals (infertile) – enclose & protect the floral bud • petals (infertile) – attract pollinators • stamen (fertile) – made of a filament (stalk) & anther (site of pollen production) • carpel (fertile) – consists of a stigma (pollen landing site). What are the responses of plants to environmental cues and how do hormones mediate them? . Along a legumes roots are selling called nodules. After landing on a receptive stigma. which forces sugars away from thei entry site. nest shoot tip breaks through the soil surface. 3. SUGARSINK. Radical (embryonic root) emerges first. goes back to xylem. On sperm fertilizes the egg. 2. etc. In endomycorrhizae microscopic fungal hyphae extend into root. water potential increases in the phloem sieve tubes. resulting in the zygote (2N) and the other sperm combines with the polar nuclei giving rise to the food storing endosperm (3N). Different strains of bacteria=different legumes (beans). causing increase in hydrostatic pressure. & ovary (location of ovules) • all floral organs attached to the stem at the receptacle style. after double fertilization. A fruit develops from the ovary and protects the enclosed seeds and aids in the seed dispersal by wind or animals.to rush into sieve tubes. The host plant benefits bc the fungus increases the surface area for water uptake and mineral absorption. In eudicots. Plants require nitrogen as component of proteins. Compare and contrast root nodules and mycorrhizae. Product of fertilization-pollen and egg. Describe the structures in a flower. the mycelium of the fungus forms a dense sheath over the surface of the root. breaking of dormancy requires environmental cues (temp and lighting). a pollen grain produces a pollen tube that extends between cells of the style towards the ovary. composed of plant cells “infected” by nitrogen fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Explain the development of fruits and seeds. The pollen tube then discharges two sperm into the embryo sac. The ovary develops into a fruit enclosing the seeds. Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition 1. thus water follows the sugar into the cells by osmosis. Mycorrihizae are mutualistic associations of fungi and roots. What is the adaptive value of fruits and seeds? Can remain dormant for long periods of time. As sugar moves into the cells. Flowers are the reproductive shoots of the angiosperm sporophyte. 3. 2. Fungus benefits from a steady supply of sugar from the host plant. seeds and fruits. nucleic acids. Sugar from the phloem is actively pumped into cells that will convert it to starch for energy storage and or simply use it as an energy source. chlorophyll. In ectomycorrhizaae. easy to disperse. diffusion of oxygen to roots. each ovule develops into a seed. a hook forms in the hypocotyls and growth pushes the hook above ground. Why are nitrogen fixing bacteria essential to the environment? Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert atmospheric N to nitrogenous materials that plants can absorb as a nitrogen source for organic synthesis. What are the general characteristics of good soil? Loam-most fertile. Chapter 39: Control Systems in Plants 1.

How do phototropism and phytochromes control flowering? • Photomorphogenesis-refers to effects of light on plant morphology . thigmotropism? • phototropism = growth response to light o shoots exhibit positive phototropism = growth towards light o roots exhibit negative phototropism = growth away from light • asymmetrical distribution of auxin moving down from the shoot tip causes cells on the darker side to elongate faster than cells on the brighter side • gravitropism=plant growth in response to gravity o roots exhibit positive gravitropism o shoots exhibit negative gravitropism o auxin plays a key role in gravitropism by affecting cell elongation o gravity detection may be due to the settling of plastids containing dense starch grains (statoliths) to the lower sides of cells • thigmotropism= refers to the changes in form that result from mechanical perturbation (ie: touch) • thigmotropism = directional growth in response to touch • growth may be inhibited by touch (plants grow shorter. cytokinins. abscisic acid. its concentration. ethylene? 3. & differentiation of cells •some hormones also mediate short-term physiological responses of plants to environmental stimuli •each hormone has multiple effects depending on its site of action. or by changing membrane properties •signal transduction pathways amplify hormone signals •responses are often governed by the interaction of two or more hormones 2. & the developmental stage of the plant •hormones may act by altering the expression of genes. gibberellins. 4. what are the effects of the following hormones on plants: auxin. Specifically. Specifically. what is phototropism. affecting the activity of enzymes. elongation. gravitropism.•plant hormones control plant growth and development by affecting the division. leaves shrivel in)-can be restored in some cases.

• • plants have two major classes of light receptors for detecting light: blue-light photoreceptors • important in phototropism. far-red light (from filtered sunlight) promotes vertical growth – – . flowering Phytochromes– alternate between two forms: • Pr absorbs red light (660 nm) & is converted to Pfr • Pfr absorbs far-red light (730 nm) & is converted to Pr – seed germination: • red light stimulates seed germination. light-induced slowing of hypocotyl elongation that occurs when a seedling breaks ground – phytochromes • important in seed germination. far-red light inhibits seed germination shade avoidance: • red light (from direct sunlight) inhibits vertical growth & stimulates branching. light-induced stomata opening. shade avoidance.