(

Welcome to the Golden ....... " nLlUlU

Using the CDs: Calibrating your Volume 1: frequencieli VohmIc 1 Disc 1: the answers Volume 1 Disc 2: the answers A word about blank atl$wer heets Volume 2: E{fects and Slgi\al Proces,smg

The Ala Drills explained' . "

Volume 2 Disc I: the answers Volur;ne 2 Disc 1: Music Cre~!s Volume 2 Disc 2: the answers Volume 2 Dlsc 2: MI1'1icCredits Problems, suggestions and Objectiees of this study Afewwamings .

, Acknowled~ements Abbut the author Volume 3: Time Qomaln - Delay ru d R.e erb gl'Uts Volume 3 Disc 1: the answers Volume 3 Disc 2: the ansWelli Volume 4;ifaster freqUencies -1/3 oot va Volum 'lvlsc I: tile answers Volume 4 Disc 2: the answers Blank answer sheets Volume 1 frequency answer blanks Volume 2 AlB drills reference guide . Volume 2 Ai B drills answer blanks Volume 3 Delay times reference gUide Volume 3 Delav times drills answer blan.li$

Volume 3 Predelay times reference g\ude ' Volume 3 Preqelaytimes answer blanl(.s . Volume 4 113 octave drills reference gIPdll . Volume 4 113 octave drills answer blankS Voltune 4 dual octave drills reference mtrde Volume ~ dual octave prills answer

This manual and the accomp decades of studio experience duction at a number 0'1 t,i.rI1;titlJttClj1 Frequencies, Volume 2: Bfferts

"""" Delay and /?everb Drills, Duat-Oct4Jie ,Drills are the ,""'.n",~",·t

i,ng drill sets, Each vblume J,s an of hands-on xpe rience into (l~".IY'~~~\

As you work your way thXOLtgh . ." ", , ' .ond yow'$el.fheannFeoord.

iilgs in a corrtpletety new Iight.Purtherrnore, you may expect these COs to provide years of service as a reference. Long aftl(" mastering the exercises, you'll be able to give your ears an occasional "workout" to maintain your valuable skills,

About this mamral: Many people have an aversitm to reading manuals, However, jfyott want to start dgh,t in witl1 the CDs, go ahead. Simplypllt ol) we first CD, play it, and try to fig'uTe it out, Wben you get confused or bored, or just feel like reading' something, 1lt~a.1:'s when you shouldread the manual,

On the other hand, the manual, •. and 11)e CDs ate QAsigned to work together. We haven't wasted valuable D reeording ttme with infoanation that could be better presented in this manual'. I've tti~d to put as much Nsefu1 m$t~ljal as possible in this manual, so you mi¢1t, wrtnti"esqain yom,' initial urge to leap IightiJt. ,

Why develop Golden Ears'? The auditory challenges facing tOday's musicians and record~~,lnixin~ m:'d ~nasrerin~engin }s ar?7ea:uys\.lb~tial, ';rhe performance baseline for audip tech~(}Iogy'fuJ$_ ifuprwe& dramatically over: the past

recordtna engineering and proVVLlUitVt:putchased, Volume 1:

Volu'me 3; Time Domain Pre(;{'uencies - 11$ ctaue and series of audio eartraindesign~d to cohdertse years

twenty years, From the recording studio to the listener's loudspeakers, we have come to expect recordings of superb acoustic instruments, really convincing sam" plingand synthesis, mega-awesome processing capabilities, and so forth. We now expect audio quality that includes flat frequency response, noiseless and distortionless audio signals, and superb time and spatial resolution. To get these things, we need extremely weU-developed critical listening skills.

Golden ears are skilled enough to discern, measure, analyze, and express the physical qualities of musical sounds accurately Once you have them, you will be able to listen to recordings with more sensitivity and awareness

Golden ears enable us to realize the full potential of our audio systems in the production of recorded music. This CD set provides a crucial tool for developing those ears quickly and easily. It provides a base of auditory experience and knowledge that is essential for working with modem recorded music. Working through these drills and using them as refreshers from time to time will permit you to gain and maintain the eq uivalent of five to ten years of critical listening experience in a matter ofweeks ..

As you get good at these drills, you will be ableto pinpoint problems rapidly and make useful decisions about how to deal with 'various audio and musical problems, instead of having to resort to the more traditional "keep turning knobs until something sounds good" approach, with its accompanying hype (".I'm just resetting the critical phase offsets. I'll be with you in a second. There, how's that? Ya gotta love it!"). You will come to know, by ear, how the audio energy is distributed across the spectrum, approximately how loud two sounds are relative to each other, the kinds of signal processing going on, and so on. Almost as important, you will be able to easily detect when others are reduced to random knob-twiddling and hype. #~

/ v ~Mou1tO]]

5

Calibrating your system

Calibration consists of a brief sequence of pink noise and five tones. The pink noise will be used for setting playback level, and the tones will be used to confirm the spectrum range of your playback system. The calibration material is at the end of each CD. This way you don't have to listen to it each time you start up.

First, you "rill set yOW" playback level. It is fairly important not to adjust levels while you are doing the drills (because of the variation in level vs. spectrum at different loudness levels--- the so-called Fletcher-Munson curves). You will listen to the. pink noise to do this.

Then you will check out the spectrum using the tones. You should probably have all of your tone controls off or set at flat, unless you are really attached to some listening setting that you like an awful lot. Also, if you have a loudness compensation button on yom playback preamp or receiver, you should tum it off.

Setting Playback Level Using Pink Noise

111e pink noise is played at three different levels. The first level is the "nominal listening level." It will be at the same loudness as the slates and drills when nothing is boosted or cut. You should set the your playback level so it is comfortably medium loud, subject to the considerations of the next two pink noise levels (75 dB SPL might be nice, if you have an SPL meter handy). The second level is 6 dB louder than the nominal listening level and it is about as loud as any of the drills ever get. You should verify that Cal it doesn't cause your speakers or the neighbors any distress and (b) it is comfortable, if somewhat Loud. The third level is another 6 dB louder (12 dB above the nominal level), and represents the maximum level

6

that your playback system will ever need to handle for these drills. You should simply confirm that the system doesn't show signs of distress (bad odors, crackling noises. obvious distortion, etc.) at this level. If it does, you will need to turn down

- the playback level until it can be reproduced with ease by your system.

Checking the Response of Your System Using the Tones.

The last track on the CD is about 20 seconds long and consists of five sinusoidal tones, in the following order:

1KHz 10KHz 100Hz 15KHz

40Hz

These are at the nominal listening leveL Each tone lasts for about five seconds.

You should play back the five tones. If you can't hear 1 Kl-lz, 10 KHz or 100 Hz at the nominal listening level, there is a serious problem with your monitoring system that has to be dealt with before you can proceed. The loudnesses of these tones may sound different to you--;- so long as the differences are not extreme, you are OK. The 15 KHz and 40 Hz tones-represent extremes of the audio spectrum, both for the equipment and for our hearing. Expect them to be significantly softer in level. They may even be inaudible or barely audible. If so, you can proceed. but you should be aware that you may have a Little trouble hearing the extremes of the spectrum.

You are now ready to begin the drills.

There are two basic types of driJJs: sets of examples of changes in 10udJleSS of octave bands of the audio spectrum and critical (AlB) comparisons of two versions of a recording.

7

------ ~--

8

One

Frequencies

The Equalizati'onDrilis

The equalization drill sets each consist of ten examples. Each example is about ten seconds long and consists of either pink noise or music. The example begins with the sound played normally After about three seconds, the sound is altered by boosting or cutting "the amplitude of one or more octaves in the spectrum, using a graphic equalizer. After about four seconds of equalized sound, the sound is returned to its normal state. Yom task is to identify which octaves of the spectrum were boosted or cut.

To help you, there is a warmup drill preceding the drill set to let you get the "sound" of the various octaves "in your ears." Also, the beginning drill sets restrict the octave ranges being changed into groups called "low" (octaves one through five, 31-500 Hertz), "mid" (octaves four through eight, 250---4000 Hertz), and "high" (octaves six through ten, 1 KHz-16 KHz). This greatly simplifies your decision-making at the beginning.

Doing the Equalization Drills

Calibrate your system (refer to the previous section) and get yourselfset on the median plane (equidistant from each speaker). You will find the answers to these exercises at the end of this chapter and answer sheet templates at the end of the manual. Start at the beginning, with Drill Set 1 of the first CD of Volume 1.

• Play the Drill Set, which will include the warmup drill. While listening to the warmup drill, try to memorize the sound of the octaves being boosted. Then listen to the ten examples of the drill set. Guess which octave is being boosted and write it down, expressing it as a center frequency (i.e. "125 Hz").

When you complete the drill set, hit pause on the CD player, alld skip back to the beginning of the drill set. The CD will cue up just after the slate for the drill set itself, at Example 1.

9

• Play the drill set a second 'time to double check your answers. Pause and skip back again. Now take out the answer sheet that is included in the CD bookiet, and play back the driJJ set a third time, listening while writing down the correct answers on the answer sheet.

• Pause again at the end to score yourself. If you guess the correct octave on an example, give yourself 10 for that example, For each octave "off" you are, take away 1, so that if you guessed 1 KHz (Octave 6) and the light answer was 250 Hz (Octave 4), your score is 8. Total up your scores for all ten examples, A perfect score for a drill set is 100. If you simply wrote down random answers, you should get around 40 points. What I've found is that scores of between 85 and 95 are typical for single octave bands of music being boosted or cut, once you get the hang of it.

• Now go ahead to Drill Set 2. Once again, listen to the warmup drill and play through the ten examples while guessing which octave is boosted. Listen to the examples a second time to reconsider your answers. Then play back the examples while loo.king at the correct answers and entering them on the answer sheet. Pause and score yourself.

• Go ahead to Drill Set 3 and repeat.

• Quit for the time being. It is counterproductive to work on these exercises when your ears are tired.

• Strut your second session by repeating the last drill set of the previous session.

Again, do three drill sets, listening to each drill set twice before checking the answers. Always listen to the drill set while you check the correct answers, and write those correct answers down to help you learn to "visualize" in your mind the correct answer related to the sound.

Work through both CDs in Volume 1 this way, repeating the last dri.U set from the previous session and adding two new drill sets.

Drill Sets 1-3 involve pink noise being boosted in low, middle and high regions

10

of the audio spectrum.

Drill Sets 4-6 use musical material instead of pink noise, again boosting in low, middle and high regions of the spectrum.

Drill Set 7 will introduce cuts, again starting with pink noise. You will probably find it is easiest to identify the frequency of the octave being cut when it is being brought back in at the end of the example.

Drill Set 13 begins to deal with the entire spectrum, so that your range of'possible choices is much larger. Ifyou find yourself getting confused by too many choices, feel free to go back and review any of the first 12 drill sets in order to get your bearings.

DLi1l Set 5 on the second CD introduces the possibility that a given octave is either boosted or cut. As you do these dril Is, you must indicate on the answer sheet whether the octave in question is boosted (use a "+") or cut (use a "_"). When you score this or later drill sets where you have to guess whether the octave is boosted or cut, if you guess wrong, take away two more points, so that if you had guessed 1 KHz boosted when in fact 250 Hz was cut, your score would be 6.

• When you have worked your way through both CDs of Volume 1 this way, you should then try CD 1 on random play. Now you will do the drill sets without a warmup and without knowing what the drill set is going to be about. Always listen again while writing down the correct answers.

• When you have become proficient at heating the drills on CD 1, switch to CD 2 and play it randomly. To provide a little more challenge, try listening only once to the drill set before checking with the correct answers. CD 2 can be played Jots of times (probably close to an infinite number- although why you would do that I honestly do not know) before you will know it well enough to be able to remember the answers.

17~rough all a/this, limit your sessions to three or; at the most, four drill sets.

11

How these drills were made

The equalization drills were produced using Pink Noise from an Ivie Pink Noise generator and Compact Disc recordings in a variety of musical styles. Although these drills are pretty close to Fair Use under the copyright law, we have obtained permissions from all owners of the recorded material, and would like to thank them by encouraging you [0 support them by buying their records. See the credit list for a complete listing of all recordings used.

Both the Pink Noise (in mono) and the recordings (in stereo) were passed through a UREI IO-band graphic equalizer and then recorded directly to hard disk via Digidesign's Pro Tools for editing and assembly. The graphic equalizer was set flat and [or each exercise the appropriate octave band was boosted or cut by the appropriate amount (12 dB, or the limit of travel, for Volume 1). In the music recordings, both channels were treated identically.

I determined which band(s) to boost or cut by the use of a random nwnber generator, subject to the following limits; I never did the same thing twice in a rO

Related Interests

    IT, and I excluded "no change" as a possible answer. Because the selection was random, don't expect that all octave bands must be included in any drill set, or that you can anticipate what we are going to do next. I wasn't trying to fool you or pJay mind games.

    After assembly editing of all the drills and slates, I got bored with the slates and decided to add signal processing to an occasional slate, for amusement. The processing varies from slate to slate and it's there to give you something else to do While improving your mind.

    The slate for each track actually appears at tile end of the warmup drill, so that you may listen 'blind' to each track.

    12

    One

    the Audio Spectrum

    13

    Perfect pitch is a highly developed auditory memory that allows you to identify a given pitch by ear alone. A few people have that memory capability naturally. Most of us can learn it, if we want to. The Golden Ears course does something related to perfect pitch training, in that it teaches and develops your memory for regions of the audible spectrum. 'Nbere the musician with perfect pitch can say "That note is an E- flat," you will be able to say, "The treble is boosted by 3 dB at 2.5 KHz" This Latter ability nuTIS out to be extremely useful. In essence, it gives you the ability to tune your audio system or recording studio, which can be thought of as a musical instrument.

    You will learn to identify the qualities of frequencies throughout the audible spectrum, using pink noise and musical examples. This ability is developed gradually. In Volume 1 , you will learn the sound of each of the ten octaves in the spectrum. These are the raw materials of frequency out of which we build music, and each one has its own particular characteristics, quality, and musical significance. In recording, handling these octaves is one of our primary tasks.

    On the following page:

    The Ten Octaves of'the Audio Spectrum. Given both in terms of the ISO center frequencies (on lef!) and boundary frequencies. Each octave has its own particular qualities, musically, acoustically and psychoacoustically. ...

    14

    ·~ 4M
    1
    1i
    'to
    i! 2K
    0;
    ..
    i
    t IK
    ~
    ~
    E 500Hz
    j
    i
    ~ 250
    E
    0;
    .,
    ...
    ~
    ~ •
    1 62.S
    ~
    1:
    131.25
    t 20480H.

    Octave [0: Extreme highs, airiness, hiss and sizzle. Little musical content. Upper pari of 'edge' of sound

    10240

    Octave 9: Highs, treble, metallic brightness, sibilance. musical content includes cymbals, upper end of snare drum, metal guitar strings, etc, Sometimes called brilliance.

    5120

    Octave 8: Presence, 'edge' of hard consonants. primary recognition range for voice and

    Related Interests

      Related Interests

        0 rds , upper end of SpeCL[llrtl for many lnstrumems. brightness, etc,

        Crltlcal musical and vocal range.

        2560

        Octave 7: Upper mid-range. Phantom Image recognition. Hardness, ln tensity, loudness, definition. Major range of'harmonlc content and spectral identifiers for many Instruments .

        1280

        Octave 6: Mid-range. Highest fundamental pltches.Begtmung of up per harmonies and spectral identifiers for lower instruments. Musical contents includes pitches, central parts of most instruments! spectra,

        640

        Octave 5: Lower mid-range. Body and richness of sounds. Fullness and rounded qualities. The primary rreble octave of musical pitches.

        320

        Octave 4~ 1111,";: 50-called 'mud-range'. Transmoncctnve lietv » een bass and

        rnl drange. Thickn ass and rn u ddln ess, th u m pi ness. The Ten Or octave G r m uslcal pitch es, Critical fundamental pitch range. Middle C lives here.

        160

        De-Lave 3; Upper bass, Musical foundation octave. Bass and lower elements of dl'UJJ1 kit have fundamental, here. Critical bottom end Tango. All speukers play back this octave.

        80

        Ocruve 2: Lower bass, Sonic foundarion octave. Bottom oJ'l11USlcaJ pirches. Primary bass energy. Low C lives here. Mostloudspeakers play back this octave.

        40

        0",",," 1: Bottom end. Little musical content, Ellects. Fundamental of kick drum, mostly not played back by loudspeakers. Very nrrnosphertc. Exotic.

        20

        Some insights about these octave ranges:

        - Various musical functions exist in various different ranges. Octaves 2-5 contain the musical fundamental pitches. Octaves above those contain the overtones that are central to defining timbre for musical sounds.

        - Overall apparent loudness is very much a function of how these octaves are treated, This is particularly true for octave 7, which contains the frequencies our ears are most sensitive to.

        Later on, we are going to release additional materials you can use to learn to identify (to 3 dB accuracy) the magnitude of a change in level of any octave of the spectrum. This skill will then be extended to lf3 octave resolution.

        Another useful direction we will also offer allows you to practice hearing two different octaves of the spectrum modified slmultaneouslvwhen you have mastered this, you will have acquired the fundamental ability to mentally scan the audible spectrum and "hear out" spectral elements by ear. You will begin to be abLe to hear and identify full equalization curves, not to mention the harmonic structures of individual musical sounds. Finally. you can work on drills involving three spectral regi.ons modified simultaneously!

        16

        ..

        Volume 1, Disc 1 (Frequencies)

        This is the first CD in the Golden Ears Audio Ear Training series of recordings.

        Drills on this CD involve identifying one-octave bands of pink noise or recorded music that have been boosted or cut using a conventional graphic equalizer. The first 12 drill sets involve only a portion of the audio spectrum, making it easy for you to concentrate on learning the sound of a particular portion of the spectrum. Drill sets 13 and 14 involve the entire audio spectrum,

        Answers are given below. I recommend that you go back and re-Iisren to driUs you have done while observing the answers to help you "internalize" the sounds of the various octaves of the spectrum. Please note that'Irack Cue points occur after the identifying slates and warm-up drills, so that you may select drills at random to test your hearing ability as it develops.

        AU of us at KIQ Productions gratefully acknowledge and thank the various record companies that have allowed us to use their recorded materials. We urge you to support these companies and buy their records.

        Credits

        Created and produced by David Moulton

        Engineer: Robin Coxe-Yeldharn. Assistants: Bill Lee and Dan Ricci Rights to recorded material granted by:

        Boston Skyline Records, Boston, MA

        SOL Records, 51 Maxfield Street, West Roxbury, MA02131 Tel. 6]7-327-6470 JVC Records, Los Angeles, CA

        17

        Drjfl Set I Lotocst jive one-octave hands a/Pink Noise boosted 12 dD
        hom~le# 'l 3 4 7 8 10
        An~wers: 500 Hz 63 Hz 500 Hz 31 Hz 250 Hz 125 Hz 500 Hz 125 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz
        Drill sa z Midd/f'fiIJP one-nciane band. o//Jillk Noise boosted 12 dB
        Example # 6 -9 10
        Answers: 4 KHz 2 KHz 2S0 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz 1 KHz 4 KHz 500 Hz 2KHz
        Drill Set 3 lIighe,,' pt'e one-octoue bauds ofPink NOII;(' boosted 12,-/B
        Example # 2 3 4 7 10
        Answers: 1KHz 8 KHz 2 KHz 8 KHz 4KHz 8 KHz 1 KHl 16 KHz 2 KHz 1KHz
        onu sa» t14mie: Tom Coster: "00/;(;/111/1. ,. Ire 2015-2. Baud I.)
        Loioest .fi_vP one-ucture bands o/,II/lIs;(' boosted 12 dB
        Example # 6 -9 10
        Answers: 63 Hz 250 Hz 500 HI 31 Hz 500 Hz 63 Hz 125 Hz 63 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz IJrill Se! 5 {Music: S(e;n<; o(Lile: "Siglls of /,ije, " SOL Itecort}», Tine" I) ;'Yfirldl".fI1J(~ oue-octnoe bands u/"'v/fI.,ic boosted 12 dB

        Exomple# Anlwer;:

        2 3 4 7 8 -9 10

        250 Hz 1 KHz 250 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz 4 KHz 250 Hz 2 KHl 250 Hz 4 KHz

        Drill Set (i (ttl/.w·c; Ale.. ,lclIlia ond the Unknoums: "Thinking or J'ULI," J"'CJMI2006~2, fl,w-"I 1) f-lighe.;/ fioe ona-uctaoe bond s o./,'I4w·ic boosted 12 dB.

        Exomple # 5 6

        -9

        10

        Aurum:

        4 KHz 16 KHz 1 KHz 4 KHz 1 KHz 8 KHz 2 KHz 8 KHz 4 KHz 16 KHz

        18

        Drill s« 7

        Formal: Lou-estfioe one-octace band. ofPiuk Noise cu! 12 dB.

        Example # AllSwers:

        2

        4

        7

        9

        10

        500 Hz 63 Hz SOD liz 31 Hz 125 Hz 500 Hz 125 Hz 31 liz 250 Hz 63 Hz

        Drill fM ~

        Formal: Middll' fille one-octnre band» of Pink Noise rut J 2 dB,

        Example # Answers:

        2

        3

        4

        6

        8

        • 9

        10

        500 Hz 1 KHz 250 Hz sao Hz 4 KHz SOD Hz 1 KHz 250 Hz 2 KHz' 4 KHz

        Drill sas

        I'orlllut: l-fig/u'slfi"e one-octure bauds of Pink Noise cui 12 dB.

        Exomple# Answ~rl:

        5

        6

        7

        8

        10

        4KHz 16KHz 1KHz 2KHz 4KHz 8KHz 1KHz 16KHz 8KHz 16KHz

        Drill s« 10 (HI.l,.il:: "TIll' 11,")' BeM oITnACKS, (969-197'/'," BSD Ill. Band I} Format: Lurcesi jioe one-octaoe bnruls 0IJI'fIl.,ic cut 12 riB.

        Example # Answer;:

        2

        3

        4

        9

        10

        250 Hz 63 Hz SOD Hz 63 Hz 125 Hz 250 Hz 125 Hz 250 Hz 63 Hz 500 Hz

        Dril! 8,'1 II (H/lsic: Kpl')'n Lettau: "Simple Life, " liT 2016-2, Baud 1) Formal: Midrl/eji.l)p one-octaoe bands ofMusic cut 12 db.

        Example # 3 4 6

        8

        10

        Answm:

        500 Hz 2 KHz 1 KHz 4 KHz 250 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz 1 KHz 500 Hz 250 Hz

        19

        Urill Set 12 (l1i/lISie: Brill/a IlUue,.g: "Pentimou!o," I3SD 115, llrunl 1) Fnrmat: Highes! [ice one-octane bands U/;lI}f.ISi{' rut 12 riB.

        Excmpletl Answer;:

        2

        3

        4

        10

        8 KHz 16 KHz 4 KHz B KHz 2 KHz 4 KHz 16 KHz 4 KHz 2KHz 4 KHz

        Drift 8(,( 13

        Forum I: All ten 'IfI .. -octare bauds u/ Pink. Noise i:mosfr"d { 2 dlJ.

        Example # A~swers:

        2

        5

        6

        7

        8

        10

        Example # Answers:

        4

        9

        10

        31 Hz 161<Hz 1 KHz 2KHz 63 Hz 4 KHz 31 Hz 4 KHz 63 KHz 4 KHz

        Drill 8M 14 (:Wusic: O,m Urusin: "!JOII Crus;"." ur ./Jill 'l01()-2, Bond /) Formal: Alf ten one-orture bands ,,/Jltllsi(' boosted 1;! dF1.

        16 KHz 4 KHz 63 Hz 500 Hz 8 KHz 4 KHz sao Hz 16 KHz 63 Hz m Hz

        20

        Volume 1 , Disc 2 (Frequencies contd.,

        This is the second CD in the Golden Ears Audio Ear Training series of recordings.

        Drills on this CD involve identifying one-octave bands of pink noise or recorded music that have been boosted or cut using a conventional graphic equalizer. The first four drill sets each are restricted to either boosting or cutting, The remaining ten sets involve a mixture of boosting and cutting octaves across the entire audio spectrum.

        Answers are given below. 1 recommend that you go back and re-listen to drills you have done while observing the answers to help you "lnternallze" the sounds ofrhe various octaves ofthe spectrum. Please note that Track Cue points occur after the identifying slates and warm- up drills, so that you may select drills at random to test your hearing ability as it develops,

        All of us at KIQ Productions gratefully acknowledge and thank. the various record companies that have allowed llS to use their recorded materials. We urge you to support these companies and buy their records.

        Credits

        Created and produced by David Moulton

        Engineer: Robin Coxe- Yeldharn. Assistants: Bill Lee and Dan Ricci Rights to recorded material granted by:

        Boston Skyline Records, Boston, :MA

        SOL Records, 51 Maxfield Street, West Roxbury, :MA 02131 Tel. 617 -327 -6470 NC Records, Los Angeles, CA

        21

        Drill S('I I

        Format. /tIl len one-octare band» ofPink ... \ioi"e boosted 12 dB.

        Exomple # Answers:

        4

        6

        9

        10

        16 KHz 125 Hz 8 kHz 125 Hz 500 Hz 16 KHz 4KHz 31 Hz 250Ht 31 Hz

        Drilf s« 2 [Music, "The Very Best. o/'l1lACKS. 1969-1974," BSD I J t. B<lr'ld 2),

        Format: All len Ofl('-()C/UI'f' hands ofMusic boosted 12 dB.

        Exomple # Answers:

        5

        6

        7

        8

        10

        2 KHz 125 Hz 63 Hz 250 Hz 2 KHz 63 Hz 250 Hz 2 KHz ' 31 Hz 2 KHz

        Drill &/.1

        Formot: All len nne-octane bands "f Pin]: Noise Ct;J 12 dB.

        Exomple# Amwers:

        5

        6

        7

        B

        10

        1 KHz 63 Hz 500 Hz 2 KHz 4 KHz 63 Hz 250 Hz 4 KHz 63 ~t 2 KHz

        Drill Set 4 (Music: ,Mea; !lcw/a and the UllkrmwlI.I': "'lhil/king of y,,,,," .IJ1ClNtT.2D06dl, Ballrl3

        Formal: IIII/ell one-octane bands a/Music CI1.l 12 dB.

        Exomple# Amw6r;:

        2

        3

        4

        7

        9

        10

        16 KHz 125 Hz 16 KHz 4 KHz 63 Hz 2KHz 250 Hz 31 Hz 1 KHz 2KHz

        Drill s« S

        Formal: All len one-ocuu-e bands 0/ Pink Noise baosted. (+) or ell' (-) f2 dE.

        Exomple# Anlwe~:

        2

        3

        4

        9

        10

        +31 Hz +63Hz -500Hz +31 Hz -16KHz +31 HI -125Hz +4KHz -31 Hz -250Hl

        22

        Drill SPl6

        FQrIIUl/: All I,,,, one-ocuuie batul« o] Pink Noise boosted (+) 01" cut () j;! tll).

        Exum~I~# An,wers:

        --8,KHz

        2 +4KHz

        3 4

        +63 Hz + 500Hz +4KHz

        6 8 ,,9 10

        -8KHz +500H, + lKH~ i ":31 HI ' 1-2501lz

        ,~. ~ ~ ~

        Drifl Set 7 Fnrnuu, AI! len. one-octaoe bands o{1Jink N[)I~

        Related Interests

          c boosted (+) or cal (-) 12 dtJ..,

          uflmple#

          6

          7

          8

          10

          iIn'iWers: + 16KHz -16KH, -31 Hz ~KHI +500Hz +BKH, -4KHz

          Drill Set 8 [Music: Sign! of Life: "Signs of Life, " SOL Ilecords, Trock 2) Format: 04111('/1 one-octarr bonds of Mnsic boosted (+) Or cui (-) 12 riB.

          bumpl! # Answers:

          2

          3

          4

          10 --8KHz

          tBKHz

          ~,,~~

          -4KHz -500Hz -2KHz +16KHz -16KH, ...:250Hl t63Hl.,,...31H1

          Drill Set 9 ~'11""iG: Bnuu: flii.be'g: "Pefl tunen to. " Bsn I IS, Band 2) Format: AII/clI. U"C-OcfWI~ u(Uld,,· o/il1/J.sic boosted (+) 01' cui (-) f2 dJ1.

          E~ample # 1 4 5 6 7 8

          AnSW8r>:

          + 125H~ +250Hz -500H, +250Hz -125Hz +500Hz +125Hz --63Hl ,,,,,,5.00Hz -250H~

          Ex~mple# iIn'iWers:

          2

          4

          10

          Drill Set 1() (Mu.lic: Tom C()stel': "Gulchufi." lYC 2015-2, nand 2) Format: All len OIW"OGl<we band» ,/:'vJusit boosted (+) or cut (-) '/2 dll.

          7

          8

          !

          t125Hz t16KHz -250Hz t31Hz t16KHz -1 KHz -4KHz +500Hz +2KHz +125H1

          23

          Drill s« II (:W/i,j;r.: Trio Sonato, "!!dIClHr/", NSf) J 1-+, B"'I<I /) FUI'IIIIl/: All len one-octore 6(111d.~ o/!WUS/f' {lOlIs/NI (+) or ('III (-) f2 dB. uumple#

          9

          10

          Answers: -500Hz +4KH, -12.5Hz +1 KHz + 125Hz -8KHz -2.50Hz + 16KHz -1 KHz '-4KHz

          Dr;/{ S,,/12 (")1",,;(": "TII,(' {b'Y' lies! o/TRA C'KS. J'}69-19'.j," BSD I { I, BOJlAr 4) Formal: Aillell {HII'-t/(' I (11'(' bands o/J'fIfll$;c boostet] (+J or 1:1/1 (-) 1:! dB.

          ~xumple # Answers:

          3

          4

          9

          10

          +500H1 +125Hz +IKHz -500Hz t8RHz -125Hz -500Hz +2KHz '+63Hz -BKHz

          Example # AnSWBI'I:

          3

          4

          B

          10

          Drill Set 1 J (yl/lsic: Se .. mour I lavrlcu: "Scarlett] by Hayden ", BSIJ 112. Band 1) HlJ"JIIIII: All ten one-octune /WIUI., oj'.H/J,jic booeted (+) or cui (-j l:! dlJ.

          + 125Hz -125Hz +250Hz + 125Hz -500Hz +4KHz +500Hz -31 Hz i;a~aZ +63Hz

          Drill Sd f.I (!1411sir: DUll Urusin, "Don Gm"irr.," trc J .. \I/I '1.1! 1fI.-2, Bands) I Format All len O{W-(JCiW1e bands ~rMlIsiG bO(J.1INI (+) or rtt! (-J 12 dB.

          Exomple i,l

          2

          3

          4

          7

          8

          10

          Amwers: -8KHz -125flz -500Hz +1KHz -161{ffz -31Hz -2Kffz +250Hz +lZ5Hz -63Hz

          "

          24

          A word about blank answer sheets.

          At the back of the book you'll find all the blank answer sheets for the various exercises and drills contained on the CDs. In order to keep this manual to practinil proportions we've only provided a handful of each format, so we advise you to rush to Xerox machine and make fistfuls of copies of each type of blank so you won't run out in the course of the program.

          If you do run short, fax us at 213/650-2468 and we'll fax or mail some new masters to you.

          25

          Two

          26

          The AlB D.rills

          Each AlB drill set consists of five examples. Each example is a pair of recorded excerpts of music. The first recording (A) is the "reference" and the second (BJ is a clone of the first with some sort of signal processing or audio anomaly added. Yom task is to identify the signal processing applied to the B recording.

          To assist you, we have limited the number of possibilities to a menu of 31 pos~ sible signal processing changes, grouped into six families: amplitude change, distortion, compression, equalization, stereophony and time-delay/ reverberation. Also, we have included "no change" as an additional answer, just to keep you honest. Instead of a warmup chili, the first half of CD 3 demonstrates all of these effects for you. The balance of CD 3 and all of CD 4 are AlB drills.

          The AlB drills are an effort to instill critical listening paranoia in you and to teach you how to hear and identify small differences between two versions of the same recording. This is an absolutely essential skill for certain aspects of record production work. Trust me! You don't want to be the one to explain that you didn't notice that the reverb return on the right channel dropped out in the middle of the third song and that because you didn't notice it you went ahead and OK'd it for a production run of 5,000 CDs. Such explanations are upsetting for all concerned and it is better for your basic life quality if you don't have to be involved in many such explanations, particularly as the person who has to do the explaining!

          27

          Doing the Drills

          • Calibrate your system. Answer sheet templates are at the end of this chapter and answer sheet templates at the end of the manual.

          • Listen to the demonstration examples on CD 1 of VoLume 2. There are thirtyone of them, in six families. Go over them until you are quite sme you can hear the differences described. You will probably find some of them quite easy. while others will be a little harder. Devote an entire listening session just to the demonstration examples. It will take between 45 minutes and an hour.

          • Then, in your next session, cue up Drill Set 1 on CD 1 (beginning with Track 8).

          Listen to the five AlB examples. For each example, guess both which family of signal processing was used, and which specific menu item it was. On some examples, only one channel is changed. Guess which channel (note that it doesn't have to be the same as the channel used in the demonstration exampLes).

          • After you have completed the five examples, put the CD player in Pause and skip back to Track 8 (Example 1) again. Listen again to reconsider your answers. Skip back and listen a third time, this time writing down the correct answers. At the end of the drill ser, hit pause, and score yourself.

          • If you guess everything correctly, including left or right channel, give yourself 20 for the example. If you get the channel wrong but have everything else right, give yourself 15. If you guess the right family of effects but have miss the menu item, give yourself 10. Otherwise, it's the big tippo for you. A perfect score for a. drill set is 100. If you guess randomly, you should probably get about 7 points. Typical scores are between 45 and 70.

          After you have scored yourself, go back and check out the stuff you got wrong.

          Listen to the A and B version until you can easily pick out the difference.

          • Skip ahead to Track 13, the beginning ofDrill Set 2. Listen to the five examples, listen again to check your answers, listen a third time willie looking at and writing

          28

          down the con-eel answers, score you rself if you like, and resolve the examples you didnt get right.

          Two drill sets (ten examples) are enough for any given session.

          • Work through the six drill sets on CD 1 and the 12 drill sets on CD 2 of Volume

          2. Then, lise the random function on CD 2 to really challenge yourself. Each example has its own track number. Press random and then play; listen to the A and B versions, hit pause, and check the track number on the CD player. Look up the answer. If you didn't get it right, go back over the example until you can hear it Repeat up to ten times each session.

          How These Drills Were Made

          The AlB drills were created by recording an excerpt to hard disk from a commercial recording about thirty seconds long. This recording (the A version) is cloned and then passed through one of the thirty-odd signal processing possibilities we have included, and then recorded as a second hard disk sound file. This modified clone is then named "B" and assembled with the slates and "fl.' to create each example in the drill set. Each example uses different music.

          Selection of the signal processing was done in ['NO stages, both random. First, the family of change type was selected, including the possibility of "no change." Then, within each family, a particular change was selected. In the case where the selection involved only one of two channels, selection of Left or Right "vas also random. The only limit 1 applied was not to allow two "no changes" in a row.

          1 continued the practice of adding signal processing to the slates, just as a fun kind of distractor. These have no relationship to the actual examples themselves.

          29

          Heilring Amplitude

          The ability to hear a signal as being louder or softer seems obvious, but given that the louder sound usually seems to sound better, itis essentia1 to know when loudness is the only difference between two signals. That way, you neither fool yourself nor get fooled by some crazed or unethical salesperson. Another possibility I've included here is the gradual change in level. Tn these examples, the B version starts out identically to the A version, but gradually changes level during the example.

          30

          Hearing Distortion

          You willieam to recognize TI{D (Total Harmonic Distortion) in recorded music, in the 10-30% range (pretty gross) and in the 1-10% range (mild). You will probably be surprised to find out that perception of distortion is significantly affected by the music being played, and also by the extent to which harmonic distortion is dependent on level. You also will learn that terms like "10% distortion" are pretty much meaningless on dynamically changing Signals, and what we mean to say is something like "the loudest peaks of the recording are probably generating distortion products that are only 20 dB (10% of the amplitude) softer than the peaks themselves."

          Hearing Compression

          You willleam to recognize the effect of compression on a variety of different signals, and to identify fast and slow compressor release times. This is a fairly difficult area, and probably warrants significant study by itself (another future project). The "musical" impact of compression is a highly variable one, where very slight changes result in dramatically different effects.

          Hearing Equalization

          You will learn to recognize equalization problems, on either or both channels.

          This is, of course, related to the spectrum analysis drills you have been doing. For these drills we used on-console equalization rather than a graphic equalizer, and we set controls in ways that we found musically relevant. The details of the individual settings are given in the answer sheets.

          Hearing the Stereo Field

          You will learn to recognize anomalies in the stereo image consistently (reverse image, mono summation, polarity reversal, and pseudo-stereo). These develop your ability to identify the important and all too frequent errors that appear in our final product: the stereophonic mix. Confidence that you can reliably catch and fix these problems is invaluable.

          I generated pseudo-stereo for these examples by using a lO-band graphic equalizer with alternating octaves boosted and cut and the settings of the two channels reversed. The resulting phase shift results in a "phasey'' kind of stereo spaciousness.

          Hearing Time Domain

          You will learn to recognize channel-to-channel time differences over the I-50 ms. range, and to recognize gated and ungated reverb.

          31

          Volume 2, Disc 1 (Effects & Processing)

          This is the third CD in the Golden Ears Audio Ear Training series of recordings.

          Drills on this CD involve identifying signal processing used to change a recording. The first half of the CD involves examples of 31 different possible signal- processing changes used in these examples. The remainder of the CD consists of drill sets of five examples each.

          Answers are given below. I recommend that you go back and re-listen to drills you have done while observing the answers to help you "internalize" the sounds of the various octaves of the spectrum. Please note that Track Cue points occur after the identifying slates and warm- up drills, so that you may select drills at random to test your healing ability as it develops.

          All of us at KIQ Productions gratefully acknowledge and thank the various record companies that have allowed us to use their recorded materials. We urge you to support these companies and buy their records.

          Credits

          Created and produced by David Moulton Engineer: Robin Coxe- Yeldham. Assistants: Bill Lee and Dan Ricci

          Rights to recorded material granted by:

          32

          Boston Skyline Records, Boston, MA

          SOL Records, 51 Maxfield Street, West Roxbury, :NlA 02131 Tel. 617-327-6470 NC Records, Los Angeles, CA

          Examples hmily Spedfic Change Music
          Tro[k I In1roduction
          Imrk 2 Amplitude 3 dB louder 12
          Amplaude 3 db softer
          Amplitude 3 dB aNen during so mpl e II
          Amplitude 3 db boost du ring so m pie 5
          Trock 3 Distortion gros> (10-30%) overlood distortion ("[lipping")
          Distortion slight (1-3%) overload dislortion ("clipping") 14
          Truck 4 {Qmpression , compression, lnst release 13
          (ompres)ion com pression, slow release 6
          Trotk 5 Eq 00 Ii-wtio n nigh Ireq uenries cut
          Eq ualization high freq uendes boosted 14
          Equalization L or R rh on nel lews boosted 6 dB 10
          Equalization Lor R {hannellows «n 6 dB 2
          Equalization l or R [honnelloWl & highs cut 6 dB 4
          Equalization mid frequencies boosted 6 dB 7
          Equalization mid frequendes cot 6 dB 8
          Equalization Lor R [honnelloWl boosled & highs rut 6 dB 12
          Eq uoliwfion L or R th, mids & hig hs rut 6 dB 1
          Equalization L or R chon nel mids hoosted & opposite rho nnel highs cut 6 dB 11
          33 Exampln family Specific Chonge Music
          Trock 6 Stereo stereo to mono
          Stereo mono to pseudo-stereo
          Stereo stereo reversed 14
          Stereo one channel reversed polarity 13
          Tmck 7 Time-delay/Reverb reverb added
          Time-d elll~ /Reverb reverb deleted
          Time-delay/Reverb goted reverb added
          Time-deloy/Reverb gated reverb deleted
          Time-delay/Reverb 1 ms. time delay L or R th,
          lime-deloy/Reverb 5 ms. time delay l or R ch. 15
          Time-delay/Reverb 15 rns. time delay Lor R rh.
          Time-deloy/Reverb 30 ms. lime delay Lor R rh,
          Time-delay/Reverb . 50 ms, time deloy L 01 R th. 14
          Drill Set 1
          Track 8, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 db softer 12
          Track 9, Ex 2 Distortion slight (1-3%) overload distortion ("dipping")
          Tro(k 10, Ex 3 (ompre~on compression, slow release 13
          Track 11, Ex 4 Stereo stereo reversed 14
          Tmck 12, Ex 5 Distortion gross (I O·30%) overload distortion ("dipping")
          34 Examples Family Specific Change Music
          Drill 8el2
          Track 13, Ex 1 Stereo one channel reversed polarity 11
          Tmckl4,Ex2 no cnonge
          Track 15, Ex 3 Equalization l chonnellovr; 1200 Hz.) boosted & highs (10K Hz.) cut 6 dB
          Truck 16, Ex 4 Equalization hig h frequencies (1 a KH z.) cut
          Ircrk 17, Ex 5 Oistol1ion slight (1·3%) overload distortion ("dipping")
          Drill Set ,1
          Trock 18, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 dB louder 4
          Trock 19, Ex 2 Stereo mono 10 pseudo·stereo 9
          Trock 20, Ex 3 Distortion gross (10·30%) overload distortion ("dipping") 15
          Trock 21, Ex 4 Equalization L {hannellows boosted 6 dB @ I SO Hz. 2
          Track 22, Ex 5 Equalization . mid frequencies boosted 6 dB @ 1.S KHz. 8
          Drill Set 4
          Trock 23, Ex 1 Equolizntion R chan nellows Doosted 6 dB @ 1 00 Hz. 2
          Track 24, Ex 2 Glmpression compression, slow release 15
          Track 25, Ex 3 Stereo one channel reversed polarity
          Trock 26, Ex 4 Amplitude 3 dB louder
          Track 27 ,Ex 5 Equalization mid frequendes bcosted 6 dB @ 1.5 KHz. 35

          Examples Famny Sp~cific Change Music
          Drill S'(" 5
          Trock 28, Ex 1 no change
          lrcrk 29, Ex 2 Equa lization high frequencies cut 6 dB @ 10KHz. 12
          Trock 30, Ex 3 EquoliZalion high frequencies boosted 6 dB @ 10KHz. 9
          Track 31, Ex 4 Stereo one chon nel reversed polo rity 4
          Track 32, Ex 5 (ompres,ion (am pressi on, slow release 1
          Drill s« 6
          Track 33, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 db boost during sample 8
          Trock 34, Ex 2 Ti me.0810y /Reverb reverb added 14
          lrork 35,Ex 3 Amplitude 3 db boo" d uri ng somple 13
          Track 36, Ex 4 Compression compression, slow release 6
          Truck 37, Ex 5 Amplitude 3 db soher
          Trock 38 Calibration Doto ((ontd.J

          36

          Alex Acuna and Ihe Unknowns: 'Thinking of You," lVC lMI2006·2, lve Records

          2 Osrer Castra-Neves: "Brazilian Scandals", lve 2018-2, lve Records

          3 Tom CosIer: "Golcha!!," lVe 2015-2, JVC Records

          4 Frank Gambale: "Note Worker", lMID 2001, lve Records

          5 Don Grusin, "Don Grusi n," lye J M I 201 0- 2, lye Records Kevyn LeHou: "Simple Life," lVe 2016-2, lVe Records

          Special EFX: "Ploy", lVe 2017 -2, lVC Records, lVC Records Sedoo Walanabe, "Morning Island", JMI2013-2, lve Retords Signs of life: "Signs of Life," SOL Records

          10 Fifth Eslote: "Ding Dong! The Witch is Back!", BSD J 16, BasIon Skyline Remrds

          11 Seymour Hayden: "ScarlaHi by Hoyden·, Boston Skyline Remrds

          12 Bruno Rliberg: ·Penfimenlo," BSD 1 15, Boslon Skyline Records

          13 "The Very Best of TRACKS, 1969-1974," BSD 111, Boston Skyline Records

          14 Trio Sonata, BSD 110, BasIon Skyline Remrds

          15 Trio Sonata: "Encore!", SSD 114, Boston Skyline Records

          37

          Volume 2, Disc 2 (Effects & Processing)

          This is the fourth CD in the Golden Ears Audio Ear Training series of recordings.

          Drills on this CD involve identifying signal processing used to change a recording.

          Answers are given below. I recommend that you go back and re-listen to drills you have done while observing the answers to help you "internalize" the sounds of the various octaves of the spectrum. Please note that Track Cue points occur after the identifying slates and warm- up drills, so that you may select drills at random to test your hearing ability as it develops.

          All of us at KIQ Productions gratefully acknowledge and thank the various record companies that have allowed us to use their recorded materials. We urge you to support these companies and buy their records.

          38

          Credits

          Created and produced by David Moulton Engineer: Robin Coxe- YeJdham. Assistants: Bill Lee and Dan Ricci

          Rights to recorded material granted by:

          Boston Skyline Records, Boston, MA

          SOL Records, 5 I Maxfield Street, West Roxbury, MA 02131 TeL 617 -327 -6470 NC Records, Los Angeles, CA

          Examples Family SplH:iIlc (hange Music
          Track 1 Introd uetion
          Drill Sell
          Truck 2, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 db solter 5
          Track 3, Ex 2 EqualilCllion R ch. lowl cut 6 dB @ 200 Hz. 15
          Truck 4, Ex 3 Compression compression, las! release , 11
          Track 5, Ex 4 lime-delay/Reverb 15 ms. time deloyR channel
          Trock 6, Ex 5 Dillortion sligh! (1-3%) overloud distortion ("dipping") 7
          Drill Set 2
          Track 7, Ex 1 Eq ualizolioo R ch. loWl rut 6 dB @ 200 Hz. 6
          Truck B, Ex 2 Dis!mtion grosl (10-30%) overload dillortion ("dipping"), 13
          Track 9, Ex 3 Stereo one channel raversed polarity 14
          Truck 10, Ex 4 Stereo stereo reversed 8
          Track 11, Ex 5 Time-delay/Reverb 5 rns. time delay R ch.
          Drift Set 3
          Trock 12, Ex I Amplitude 3 db ;ofter 4
          Track 13, Ex 2 no chonge 9
          Truck 14, Ex 3 Distortion gross (10-30%) overload distortion ("dipping"), IZ
          Track 15, Ex 4 Amplitude 3 dB attenuation during sample 1
          Truck 16, Ex 5 Equalization mid frequencies cut 6 dB (@ 2KHzJ 5
          39 Enmp!es Fomi!.y Spedlic Chonge Music
          IJrill ScI 4
          Track 1.7, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 dB louder 15
          Tratk 18, Ex 2 Compression {Ompreslioo, fa~1 release 11
          Track 19, Ex 3 no change 3
          Track 20, Ex 4 (ompros~on rampressian, slow release " 7
          Trock 21, Ex 5 Stereo one chonnel reversed polarity 6
          Drill 51!! 5
          Track 22, Ex 1 Stereo. mono to pseud o-sieren 13
          Trock 23, Ex 2 Compression {(Impression, lost release 14
          Truck 24, Ex 3 Equalization L rho lows (200 HI.) boosted (1. highs {8 KH z.] CUI 6 dB 8
          Track 25, Ex 4 Ti me-delay/Reverb galed reverb added
          lrcrk 26, Ex 5 Equalization L rh, lows boosted 6 dB @ 200 Hz.
          Drill Set 6
          Track 27, Ex 1 Distortion grols (10-30%) overload distortion ("dipping"t
          Trock 28, Ex 2 no change 12
          Track 29, Ex 3 Stereo stereo to mono
          Track 30, Ex 4 Amplitude 3 dB louder
          Trmk 31, Ex 5 Ti me-dsl ay/Reverb reverb add e d 15 40

          Examples Family Specific Cha nge Music
          Drill Set 7
          Trock 32, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 dB louder
          Trock 33, Ex 2 no chonge 11
          Track 34, Ex 3 Equalization mid freq uencies cut 6 dB @ 1 KHz. 7
          Trmk 35, Ex 4 (omp ression comp ression, 100t relecse 6
          Track 36, Ex 5 Amplitude 3 db sofler 13
          Drill Set 8
          Track 37, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 db boost durin 9 sam pie 14
          Trock 38, Ex 2 Distortion slight (1-3%) overload distortion ("dipping'·) 8
          Trock 39, tx 3 Time-deloy/Reverb 15 ms. time delay R ch. 2
          Trock 40, Ex 4 Stereo stereo reversed 4
          Track 41, Ex 5 (ompression mmpression, slow relea>e 9
          Drill Set 9
          Trock 42, Ex 1 Di;tortion gross (10-30%) overload disfertion rdipping"), 12
          Truck 43, Ex 2 Distortion slight (1·3%) overload di~tortion ("dipping")
          Track 44, Ex 3 Stereo stereo to mono
          Trock 45, Ex 4 Equalization l th, mids (1 K) boosted & R ch. highs (1 OK) [Ilt 6 dB 15
          Trock 46, Ex 5 Distortion slight (1·3%) overload distortion ("dipping") 5 41

          Examples Family Specific (bange Music
          Drill Set 10
          Track 47, Ex 1 Amplitude 3 dB louder 11
          lrerk 4B, Ex 2 Equalization R (h. lows Doosled 6 dB @ 200 HI.
          Track 49, Ex 3 1 slight (1·3%) overload distortion ("dip~ing")
          Oist(lrtion
          Track 50, Ex 4 AmplHude 3 dB louder 13
          Track 51, Ed Amplitude 3 db boost d uri ng sample 14
          Drift &111
          Trock 52, Ex 1 Equalization high Ireq uendss tut 6 dB @ 8 KHz.
          Trock 53, Ex 2 Time-delay/Reverb 15 ms. time deloy l th,
          Trock 54, Ex 3 Equalization mid Ireq uendes rut 6 dB @ 2 KHz.
          Track 55, Ex 4 Equalization R (h.lowl boosted 6 dB @ 100 Hz.
          Track 56, Ex 5 Sterea,1 stereo reversed 12
          ':,( l""
          Drill s« 12
          Track 57, Ex 1 no (hangB
          Truck 58, Ex 2 Distorlion slight (1·3%) overload distortion ("dipping")
          Trock 59, Ex 3 Stereo mono 10 pssudo-sterec
          Tro(k 60, Ex 4 Tlme-delaylReverb 50 ms. time deloy R ch.
          Trock 61, Ex 5 Amplit~de 3 dB attenuation during sample
          Trock 62 Calibration Dolo
          42 Music Credits.

          AleK Acuna and tile Unknowns: "Thinking 01 You,' lve lMI 2006-2, lVe Rewds Oscor eostro-Neyes: "Brazilian Scando Is", lVe 2018- 2, lve Records

          3 lDm (oster: 'Gotcha!!; lV( 2015·2, lVC Remras

          4 Fronk Gambale: "llote Worker', ]MID 2001, lVe Records

          5 Don Grusin, "Oon Grusin," lVe jM! 2010-2, lVe Records Kevyn Lettau: 'Slmpla life," lVe 2016-2, lVe Records Special EFX: 'Plof, lVe 2011·2, lve RecOlds, lVe Records

          8 Sedoo Watanabe, "Morning Idantl", llAl 2013·2, lVe Relords

          Signs of We: "Signs 01 We; SOL Re(ords

          10 Fifth Estate: "Ding Dong! The Witch ~ Bock!", BSD 116, Boston Skyline Records

          11 Seymour Hayden: "5(01lollj by Hoyden', Boston Skyline Records

          12 Bruno Riiberg: 'Pentimento,' aSD 115, BOlIon Skyline Records

          13 "lhe Very Best of TRACKS, 1969-1974; BSD Ill, Boston Skyline Records

          14 Trio Sonata, 850 11 0, Boston Skyline Records

          15 Trio Sonota: "Inrora]", BSD 114, Boston Skyline Records

          43

          Problems, Suggestions and Commen.ts

          44

          Over the years there have been several routine comments that students have made about the drills that I would like to discuss in order to ease your mind.

          1. "The equalization drills can be tough to hear, especially octaves 1 and 10."

          The equalization drills involve all ten octaves of the audio spectrum. Because the examples are chosen at random, the octave centered at 31 Hertz is often involved. What you will soon discover is that most loudspeakers don't do much below 40 Hertz and most recorded music doesn't have much energy down there either. So, such examples are hard (impossible, sometimes) to hear. In keeping with the realities of the real world, that's life. Rernember to guess!

          2. "The slates are really annoyin.g."

          Comments (including some remarkably rude ones), suggest that my slates are a distraction, particularly with the AlB drills. There is a reason: auditory memory fades quickly; and the drills become much easier (too much so, in fact) if the transition from A to B is very quick. Again, real life doesn't work that way: the problems usually occur while two people are talking to you while you eat a ham burger in the doorway of the studio while an automated mix is being made. That's when you need to be able to hear the aforementioned reverb return drop out. So, the slate is intended to serve as a buffer, a distractor, between the two examples.

          3. "It's really hard to hear the stereo examples!"

          Many of the AlB drills that involve stereo/mono, polarity reversal, change on one channel only, etc. are mainly audible along the median plane and barely audible anywhere else in the room. This is an important lesson to learn. If you sit off to the side of the median plane, you are going to be in trouble.

          The median plane (as taught in high school geometry-it had to come in handy sometime) consists of all points equidistant from each speaker. Anything more than a couple of inches off the median plane will do grievous damage to the stereo illusion, particularly for critical listening and stereo audio mixing.

          As an audio pro, learn to fight for a seat on the median plane: your career may depend it!

          4. ''What is The Secret to acing these drills in nothing flat?"

          Frankly, I think intuitive guessing (snap off the answer quickly, without thought, as soon as you hear the stimulus) works pretty well, particularly as you gain experience. When pink noise is the signal source, characterizing the octave bands (2 kHz as a leaky steam fitting, 63 Hz as a distant jet engine, for instance) works pretty well, However, this labeling technique has its dangers when you get into program material, because your pet noise characterizations may not align with the instrumental timbres you are listening to. Over the long run, I personally have tried to memorize a sense of "highness" or "lowness" for each octave band, and found this works quite well in real life. If you have a sense of the "sound" of an octave band (and the sound of its absence) firmly fixed in your ear-memory, it is quick work to move into the equalization realm to fIX problems during recording sessions.

          For the AlB drills, I think you have to hang loose, and let the answers come to you. (How's that for pseudo-Zen?) You do this by relaxing, letting yourself notice that

          45

          there is a difference, and then intuitively guessing what the difference is (the most terrifying thing about these drills is that often you can't hear a difference at first). Sure, you'll be wrong a lot, but the trick is to notice that there is a difference. Once you can do that, the rest is fairly easy. Remember, there is no way that you can learn and know all the differences in your mind beforehand by brute intellectual force.

          The drills aU involve self-scoring, ifyou care to indulge. Keep in mind that this is not a competition, and just because you score in the high 90's doesn't mean that you have better hearing than some other poor schlumpf. What it means is that you are more effectively recognizing and articulating what you are hearing than you were when you were scoring in the low 80's. So, the drills aren't tests, and the strictly optional scoring is for your own information and critical evaluation.

          46

          History of These Drills

          I started giving these ear training drills to individual students and small classes in my own recording studio in the early 1970s. The method is based on traditional musical ear training methods that were inflicted on me in music school (Iuilliardj, but with as much of the terror removed as possible. (Some music schools used to treat ear training as a rite of passage, an initiation -by- humiliation ritual.)

          Ai?, some of you may know, in traditional music ear-training, students practice hearing and identifying intervals, chords, melodies, rhythms and counterpoint. "Taking dictation" (Gulp!- I still cringe in fear, just thinking about it!) meant listening to the teacher play something and writing it down by ear. The beginning part of this training was simply identifying intervals and chords. It is from that basic practice that I developed these drills. I've found that the tenor part of eartraining is not only unnecessary, but actually counterproductive, and that by being friendly and supportive about it my students (that's you, now) progress quickly and enthusiastically

          So, when you do the drills in Volume 1 you will be doing the equivalent of identifying intervals and chords: you will be learning to identify regions of the audio spectrum. Volume 2 includes drills to help you learn to discern signal-processing (l call them AtB drills), and after that there will be increasingLy challenging spectrum drills, to a point where you should be able to hear and identify complete equalization settings by ear. That's right, you should be able to listen to an equalizer switched in and out on a recording and describe how the equalizer is set, in terms of frequencies and the amount of boost or cut, by ear alone!

          These drills have evolved somewhat over the years, and have achieved a certain amount of renown. National Public Radio has used them as part of the training for their production and engineering personnel, and I have used them in a variety of college programs, including the Music Production and Engineering program at Berklee and the 'Ionmeister Studies program at the State University of New York, College at Fredonia. In addition, they have been used by faculty at UCLA, New York University, the Danish Acoustical Institute, and NBC. At present, I am developing a full course in critical listening based on these drills for Emerson College in Boston.

          There are other people also working on critical listening skills for music and audio. Alton Everest and Tom Rossing have released some excellent auditory demonstration recordings. Their recordings are intended to demonstrate the audible effect of various signal processing operations and psychoacoustic effects. Andresj Miskiewicz, currently at Northeastern University in Boston and formerly at the Chopin Academy in Warsaw, Poland, has developed a wonderful and very powerful curriculum that he calls Auditory Solfege. This is an active ear-training curriculum (you need a teacher and a fair amount of hardware to do it) for recording engineers that involves an elaborate array of exercises and training. After three years of study, you can hear and identify just about everything! VI,Till Moylan, at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell, has developed an auditory skills course that

          47

          involves analytical listening and notation of recorded sounds that is generally related to the "taking dictation" part of conventional music ear-training. Check out his book, The Art of Recording: The Creative ReSOll[LeS of Music Production and Audio.

          My drills are a series of exercises intended to help you learn how to identify sound characteristics under a wide variety of circumstances, by ear alone. Through practice on drills of increasing levels of difficu I ty, they allowyou to develop hearing skills and the ability to describe sounds to a point fairly close to the limits of auditory discrimination for freq uency and amplitude. They are designed for home use, and to be extremely user-friendly. All you really need is a CD player and moderately decent speakers or headphones. After you've gone through and mastered the drills in Volumes 1 and 2, you should be able to describe the response curve of any given system, as well as the control settings on an equalizer. the amount of delay on a time-delay line, and the settings on a compressor or noise gate. Further, you should be able to pick out most regular signal processing l-vith considerable confidence.

          TIlis audio ear-training can be fun, in a weird kind of way. You will find that it can easily arouse your competitive instincts, and YOLI may come to delight in impressing your friends at parties with your new-found high-tech vocabulary, as in, "The zither seems to be down two dB at 750 Hz and there's about 4% Total Harmonic Distortion on the second harmony bagpipe track Oh, and by the way, the m id- range driver on the left speaker is wired out of polarity." However, audio ear training is much more than a game. You really cannot expect to make professional quality music without such skills. Intelligent hearing (AKA. Golden Ears) is a basic tool you should have in your bag of audio goodies (next to the red Sharpie. the Etymotk Ear Plugs and the Tylenol),

          48

          Objectives of this study

          The Ear as an Acoustical Test Measurement Instrument

          The human auditory system is a remarkable sensory system, capable of observations and discrimination that equal or exceed all but the most elaborate testing equipment we've been able to buiJd to measure sound. Therefore, it is possible for us to use our hearing as a test instrument, once we figure out how to articulate what it is we are bearing. The ability to accurately describe the physical nature of what we are hearing is a primary objective of the Golden Ears Drills.

          Ear Training and Learning

          There is also a higher-level "Zen oflearning" aspect to all ear-training. Musical sound is generally perceived in the right hemisphere of the brain as "spatial" or holistic patterns, and as such is not generally avaiJable to the "verbal" left brain for conscious verbalized description. This is part of the difficulty with ear-training. Although the actual act of perception is fairly easy, it exists in a realm of our consciousness that doesn't have words.

          (If you are curious about this right brain/left brain business, check out Tom Blakeslee's excellent book for normal people, The Right Brain.)

          Nonetheless, you can certainly learn to describe what you hear, and the ability to effectively articulate audio issues is priceless in our field. The clumsy, inarticulate conversation that takes place among musicians, engineers, and producers, such as "Can you like, make, the guitar a little fluffier, y'know what I mean?" seriously interferes with their creative efforts.

          49

          50

          Being Able to Speak Accurately About What You Hear

          As you become fluent at this, you will be able to easily note many things about a recording, quickly and apparently effortlessly. You will be able to "hear through" the recording much better, identifying signal processing, level problems, etc. with little trouble.

          How Good Can Your Ears Get?

          A couple of years ago, a colleague of mine, who likes to complain that he is going deaf in one ear and can't hear anything high in the other, knocked the proposed CBS Copycode scheme (which was allegedly inaudible) right out of the ballpark by identifying it 100% of the time in controlled double-blind tests conducted by the National Bureau of Standards. Once he astounded me by identifying, by brand and model, the side microphone I had used in a middle-side stereo recording I was playing for him, and noting (correctly, as I found out to my chagrin) that it was not functioning to spec! And yes, he has done these drills!

          When you get the hang of doing these drills, the stuff you can hear will seem equally magical to others, and your ability to quickly and surely arrive at the sound you need will seem remarkable to them. To you, it will be obvious and intuitive. You will have Golden Ears.

          A Few Warnings

          The Challenge

          'fry not to lose self-confidence when working on your Golden Ears. It can be a slow process of learning, and you may occasionally get stuck and feel like you aren't progressing. Stick to it and pace yourself. Just as when you learned to ride a bicycle, you learn this stuff through repeated failures.

          Also, I think it is really important to go over tills stuff with the answers in hand repeatedly until you are sure you actually can consciously identify the sounds we are studying. You will often get lost, will not be able to hear a change, or will hear something else (a boost in EQ will of course make something louder- the trick is to know that it wasn't just louder, but louder at a specific part of tile spectrum). You will get frustrated and tired sometimes. Keep the faith! It's like learning to ride a bicycle!

          Getting Lower Scores While You Are Getting Better

          The nature of the drills is such that as you progress, the drills get harder. Ifyou bother to score yourself, you may notice that yow' scores keep getting worse. Don't be discouraged. To use a golf analogy, 'the drills start out as all Par 3 and progress to being all Par 6! Don't expect to be getting PaJ: 3 scores on Par 6 exercises!

          If you need a quick ego boost as you get mired down in some of the more advanced stuff, go back and try the earlier, easier drills. For instance, after you've been trying to guess that B has attenuated 3 dB during the example, you will find that pink noise boosted 12 dB in one octave band is really disgustingly easy

          51

          About Monitors

          There is no such thing as a perfect monitoring environment. Because these exercises utilize the entire audible spectrum, weaknesses in your monitoring system will be exposed. This is exacerbated by the fact that you are performing extremely critical listening. The solution here is to simply do your ear 'training, accepting and compensating in your mind for the apparent frequency response deficiencies introduced by your monitors. In fact, the audio recordings you produce or listen to will be played on countless different systems, many of which are probably inferior to your monitoring set -up. Learning to compensate mentally for deficiencies in the monitoring space is part of training your Golden Ears.

          Changing Ears

          As you start this drill work, you will notice that your perception of sounds changes. For a while, it may be a little disconcerting, and you should be mentally prepared for this. As you begin to internalize the audible spectrum, you will start hearing everything in terms of octaves. You roll down the car window at seventy (er, fifty-five, I know, I know) and hear Octave 2 (63 Hz) instead of wind buffeting. You tune in a sports event and instead of crowd roar you hear Octave 5 (500 Hz). Instead of a light metallic edge on an acoustic guitar you hear Octave 9 (8 kHz)!

          Also, the AlB drills will make you so paranoid about each little nuance that you will start listening to just the spaces between the sounds. For a while, you will find you stop hearing the music and instead hear only the reverb, the sonic detailing, the delays, the release trails and attack pumping of compressors.lNhew!

          This goes away, sort of, after you have acquired and internalized these Golden Ear skills, so that your original musical focus and subjective enjoyment comes back. But you will also have an added dimension, a hearing acuity that allows you to hear your way into and through the sounds in a way that you never could

          52

          before, forever altering your sense of what sound is and can be.

          Tarnished Ears?

          Do not panic if you find you can not hear above 19,995 Hz Lots of students have come to me in terror because they can't hear some high frequency and are sure their career is over! In fact, the half-octave bout 15 kHz isn't terribly significant musically and isn't played back by all that many audio systems.

          We often refer to the audible spectrum as 20 Hz to 20 kHz, but those stated limits are really just convenient values for us to remember. A more functional definition of the useful audible spectrum for music recording might be 40 Hz to 15 kHz In addition, the fact that you are in the audio engineering field at all suggests you have had above average exposure to sound at loud levels (in the studio, attending/working concerts, etc.). So it is possible that you may even have slightly reduced acuity at some frequencies. Additionally, we aren't all born equal. Women, in my experience, seem to have greater sensitivity to high frequencies and to harmonic distortion than men. Individual variances between people are significant as well. Don't worry! Knowing more specifics about what you can and cannot hear will improve your critical listening skills. You can be sure that many of the engineers whose work has sold millions of records have done it with hearing that is physiologically far from perfect. The colleague I mentioned above is a classic example.

          Tired Ea.rs

          Ah, yes. Tired ears are also tired brains. And when you are tired, you can't hear very well, in a critical listening sense. You can't do these drills for very long, just as you can't expect to work totally creatively and productively for sixteen hours at a stretch. The perceptual job is just too tough, and you've got to accept the limitations of your own particular attention span.

          53

          How do you know when you are tired? When lauds don't seem loud anymore, and you feel the urge to really crank it up to give you a little shot of adrenaline. We all like to crank it up. of course, but I suggest that you limit it to the occasional recreational abuse, at home. Don't do it as a professional practice.

          Another sign that you're getting tired is when you begin to get confused, bored, or impatient, which is nature's way oftelling you it's time to stop. \Nork on this stuff only for as long as you can really focus on it.

          In Closing •••

          As your experience develops, your confidence in recording, mixing, production, and listening sessions will go way up. That's because you can not only hear, but , also describe what you hear in physical quantities, saying "the toms are boosted 6 dB at 250 Hertz" instead of "the toms sound tubby," or "the piccolo is down 3 dB at 500 Hertz," instead of"} think the piccolo sounds thin"

          This business is really about sound, and this is the best doorway into sound that I know. So don't let the Audio Devils get you. May the Force be with you, and remember, if you can't hear it, it's probably 31 Hertz being cut! Good luck!

          Dave Moulton, Groton, :MA

          ps: Welt really like to hear from you about these drills. We're open to suggestions, improuemerus, etc., and would just like to talk to anybody that has bothered to read this far! . Thanks again for your interest.

          Write to: KIQ/Golden Ears, 13351-D Riverside Drive, Sherman Oaks, CA91423

          Or call us at: 213/650-2467 (Fax: 213/650-2468)

          Or Email to:kiq@sohojos.com

          54

          Acknowledgments

          I'd like to thank a bunch of people for their support. In the beginning, at Dondisound tudios, Greg Becker and Torn Swift gave me a tremendous amount of help. Too manywonderful students to mention by name at SUNYI Fredonia suffered through early versions and gave me much help and guidance (it used to be a weeldy ritual- ear training at 6 PM every Monday for the Tonmeister students). At National Public Radio, Skip Pizzi, Neil Muncy, Paul Blakemore, Curt Wittig, Elaine Salazar, Dave Glasser, and Terry Skelton all provided great help and support. At Berklee, I'd like to specially thank Tony Dibartolo, Mark Wolinski, Mark Hutchins, Robin Coxe-Yeldham, Wayne Wadhams, Carl Beatty, and Mitch Benoff, not to mention Alex I Tadge and Peter Alhadeff. At Home and Studio Recording Magazine, thanks to Nick Batzdorffor encouraging me to go ahead with this project. And especially, thanks to my wife June, who used to do these drills on the sly out in the office while I was doing classes in the control room at Dondi ound, and who has listened to more pink noise than anyone should ever reasonably have to! Thanks again to all of you!

          55

          About the author

          Dave Moulton has degrees in music from Bard College and the Iuilliard School of Music. He has taught music, audio, and acoustics at a variety of colleges, including the State University of New York, College at Fredonia and Berklee College of Music, where he has served as Chair of the Music Production and Engineering Department. He is currently on the faculty at both the University of Massachusetts at Lowell and Emerson College in Boston. During the 1970s he owned and operated Dondisound Studios, a commercial recording facility in upstate New York. He has been active in acoustics and loudspeaker desi.gn and shares in several patents pertaining to loudspeakers. He is currently a writer for Recording Magazine, and is completing a book on music recording. Dave is active as a composer and recording engineer.

          56

          57

          Three

          and Reverb drills

          Volume 3 of the Golden Ears Ear Training Drills is devoted to the development of your ability to discriminate time intervals. Specifically. the first CD in the volume focuses on the perception and identification of short delay times, while the second CD focuses on the perception and identification of pre delay and reverberation decay times.

          There are a couple of very important things to know about our perception of time in sound. The most important thing is that 50 milliseconds (which represents a frequency of 20 Hz.), represents a very important discrimination boundary for us. Multiple events occurring more than 50 ms, apart in time are perceived as separate events, while multiple events occurring less than 50 ms. apart in time are fused into a "single" event, perceptually. So the range of delays between about 30 and 70 ms. is one of the most important ranges to learn to hear. Interestingly, this threshold defines the lowest sinusoidal frequencies we hear, as well as the boundary between perceived still frames and moving pictures (it's no coincidence that the lowest viable frame rate for film is 24 frames per second'),

          The second thing to know is that the onset of the precedence, or Haas, effect (where the sound appears to come from the earlier sound source) is about.7 milliseconds. Delays shorter than that are perceived as corning from a point between the two sound sources while delays longer than that are perceived to come from the earlier source, sort of. In practice, delays between .7 and 15 ms. give various localization senses depending on speaker placement, room size, etc.

          Finally, you should know that these localization phenomena become timbral phenomena when you sum the delays with the undelayed signal i.n mono. This difference represents, to me, one of the most fascinating and revealing paradoxes about our listening system. Have fun twisting your mind around trying to understand it!

          The reverb drills are designed to help you recognize and identify reverb onset

          58

          and decay times, and to be able to predict the emotional and musical impact various times will have on different styles of music.

          The amount of predelay determines something about the impact of a sound.

          The sound "Kaboom' can be thought of as "Boom" with 1 00 ms. predelay; The secondary punch of the onset of reverb adds great emotional intensity and force to sounds. How much is good? It depends on the music, its tempo, and mood. I've chosen a range (0 - 100 ms.) that straddles the 50 ms, threshold described above. After you've done these drills, you'll have a pretty good handle on your "predelay value system."

          Reverb time describes "how long it takes sound to die away." More importantly, sounds that take a long time to die away are "louder longer," which is to say they are more easily heard under the direct or dry sounds while the music is going on. At the same time, different reverberance times have different emotional qualities, and your ability to predict these for any given music are going to make production work much, much easier. I've chosen a range that covers the generally useful range of reverb times: .3 seconds to 5 seconds.

          Doing the Delay Drills

          As, you've done with previous drill sets, get yourself set on the median plane, with answer sheet and pencil at hand and audio system levels set. Start at the beginning, which is a series of demonstration recordings. Play the demonstrations, listening carefully to the impact and sound character of the different delays. There are 35 different delay times, ranging from 0 to 170 milliseconds. These are demonstrated three times: first with a kick drum sound, second with Pink Noise, and finally with a brief phrase of vocal music. Ai:, the decay times increase from 0 to 1 ms., the sound will pan from center toward the earlier speaker. From 1 to 20 ms., the sound will hover about the earlier speaker, but will be ambiguous and

          59

          change its location ... vith each different delay. Between 20 and 50 ms., the sound will "pull apart" into two separate sounds: the original undelayed sound and its audible echo.

          One interesting thing to note and keep in mind is that 30 rns. delay equals one video frame of delay, 60 ms equals 2 frames, etc. If you ale working with film sound, learning to recognize these delays is particularly useful.

          Take a break, then listen to the demos again in mono. In mono, you will hear the delays manifested as a pitch (this is known as "comb filtering") that gets lower as the delay gets longer. At 50 ms. the delay is so long that the pitch is below audio, and you will hear a clangorous quality on sustained sounds.

          J suggest you play the demos over a number of times, listening to them in the background while you are doing other things to get them in your ears. When you feel pretty confident you understand and can hear the various delays in the demonstrations, then go ahead to the drills.

          You can start doing the drills either by listening to them while looking at the answers or by guessing the answers. There are four kick drum drills, three Pink Noise Drills, and ten music drills. I recommend you do up to three drills in any given session, but no more unless you're feeling really sharp. These things are tiri og, and wear you out in a hurry

          After you take a drill you can score yourself. If you guess the correct delay on an example, give yourself 10 for that example. For each delay interval "off" you are, take away 1, so that if you guessed 10 ms, and the righ answer was 20 ms., your score is 7. Total up your scores for all ten examples. A perfect score for a drill set is 100. If you simply wrote down random answers, you should get around 20 points. I expect you should be getting scores of between 70 and 85 once you get the hang of it. In case you hadn't already figured it out, I dont th.ink scores are very important, except as a way for you to chart your progress.

          60

          After you've done all the drills, use the random function on your CD player to permit you take these drills over and over. If you get to the point where you have actually memorized al.l of the drills, you certainly won't need my help anymore!

          Once again, remember to limit your study sessions to three or at most four drill sets.

          How The Delay Drills Were :Made

          The delay drills were produced using a truncated kick drum sample, Pink Noise from an Ivie Pink Noise generator, and Compact Disc recordings in a variety of musical styles. Although these drills are pretty dose to Fair Use under the copyright law, we have obtained permissions from all owners of the commercially recorded material, and would like to thank them by encouraging you to support them by buying their records. See the credit list for a complete listing of all recordings used.

          All examples for all drill sets were recorded onto two channels of an Ale sis ADAT recorder. Using the BRC controller, delay offsets for one channel or the other were created as the recordings were recorded to hard disk via Dlgidesigns Pro Tools for editing and assembly:

          I determined delays and channels by the use of a random number generator, with the following limit: I never repeated a delay. I did, however, include No Delay as a possibility. So don't try to anticipate what is going to come next, I wasn't trying to fool you or play mind games.

          The slate for each track actually appears at the end of the identifying slate so that you may listen 'blind' to each track

          Doing the Reverb Drills

          As above, get yourself set on the median plane, with answer sheet and pencil at hand, and audio system levels set. Strut at the beginning, which is a series of

          61

          demonstration recordings. Play the demonstrations, listening carefully to the impact and sound character ofthe different predelay and reverb times. There are six different predelay times, ranging from 0 to 100 milliseconds, and eight different reverb decay times, ranging from.3 seconds to 5 seconds. These are demonstrated three times: first with a kick drum sound, second with a drum machine loop. and finally with a brief phrase of piano music. Each reverb time is demonstrated with aU SL,{ predelay possibilities.

          As with the delay demos, you can listen to the demos repeatedly, and I recommend that you Listen to them in the background while you are doing other stuff to get them comfortably in your ears.

          You can start doing the drills either by listening to them while looking at the answers or by guessing the answers. There are four kick drum drills. three drum kit Drills. and seven music drills. I recommend you do up to three drills in any given session, but no more unless you're feeling really sharp. These things are tiring and wear you out in a hurry.

          After you take a drill you can score yourself. If you guess the correct predelay on an example, give yourself 5; if you correctly guess reverb time, give yourself another 5 for that example. For each predelay interval or reverb time "off" you are, take away 1, so that jf you guessed 40 ms, predelay and 1.5 seconds reverb time and the right answer was 20 ms. predelay and 2.5 seconds reverb time, your score is 7. Total up your scores for all ten examples. A perfect score for a mill set is 100. Uyou simply wrote down random answers, you should get around 20 points. I expect you should be getting scores of between 70 and 85 once you get the hang of H.

          After you've done all the drills, use the random function on your CD player to permit you take these drills over and over. If you get to the point where you have actually memorized all of the drills, you are probably way beyond my help!

          Once again, remember to limit your sessions to three or, at the most, four drill sets.

          62

          How The Reverb Drills Were Made

          The reverb drills were produced using a truncated kick drum sample, some ilium loops from a Yamaha keyboard, and Compact Disc recordings in a variety of musical styles. Although these drills are pretty close to Fair Use under the copyright law, we have obtained permissions from all owners of the commercially recorded material, and would like to thank them by encouraging you to SUpp0l1 them by buying their records. See the credit list for a complete listing of all recordings used.

          All examples for all drill sets were recorded onto a hard disk recorder using Digidesigns Pro Tools. They were then sent through a Lexicon NuVerb (using a modified Medium Hall Program with 50% wet mix) and recorded onto OAT. They were subsequently transferred back to Pro Tools for editing and assembly. The commercial recording segments were chosen to minimize the amount of reverb inherent in the recordings. Due to the NuVerb wet/dry mix proportions, such reverb is effectively masked.

          I determined predelays and reverb times by the use of a random number generator, with the following limit: I never repeated a setting. So don't try to anticipate what is coming next. I wasn't trying to fool you or play mind games.

          The slate for each track actually appears at the end of the identifying slate so that you may listen 'blind' to each track.

          Credits:

          Written, Produced, and Engineered by:

          David Moulton, David Moulton Professional Services, Groton, MA.

          Mastered by:

          Laurie Flannery, Northeastern Digital Recording, Southborough, MA.

          63

          Volume 3 Answers for Delay Time Drills.

          All times are in milliseconds. Blank answer sheets in back of book.

          Ex, # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

          DRills[! 1 Kick Drum
          Correct Delay 30 2.5 2 50 1.2 100 50 0 20
          Delayed Channel R R R L R L
          DRilL sn 2 Kick Drum
          Correct Deloy 0.3 25 0.5 50 2.5 85 25 85
          Delayed Cno nnel R R l l R L
          DRILL SET 3 Kick Drum
          Co rrect Delay 25 20 0.2 0.1 0 50
          Delayed Chon nel l l l R [
          DRill SET 4 Kick Drum
          Correct Delay 8 40 85 1 0.5 2 100 120 25
          Delayed Channel l R R R R
          DRILL lET 5 Pink Noise
          Corred Deloy 0 5 50 85 1.2 50 0.7 25 O.B
          De loyed Cho nnel l R R R R L R L
          DRill SET 6 Pink Noi~e
          Correct Delay 1.2 40 60 0.2 5 0.9 1.2
          Delayed (hon nel l R L l R
          DRILL SET 7 Pink Noise
          (orred Ileloy 10 30 10 0.3 100 0.6 60 3 60
          Ileloyed Ch annel R R R R R R R
          64 h.1I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

          DRILLS[! 8 M[xed Musil Ex~mpl B~ fro m ([edi I Lhl
          Correct Delay 0.1 12 50 25 100 ]0 85 1.5 1'0 20
          Deloyco Cn nan ~I L R L L
          DRILL S[! 9 Mh:ed. MlISie bomples from hedi11.is1
          (erred Delay 2.5 0.3 25 5 3 2'0 0 6 0.5 25
          Delo yed Cho nnel R L R R R R L L
          DRlllIH 10 Mixed M u,i ( £Xo m plellr 0 m Cr eoil !.ill
          Corred Delay 0.7 0.8 6 120 40 0 2.5 120 0.1 5'0
          Delayed (hon nel R L R L L R R
          DRill S[! 11 Mixed Mu;i( lxompleslrom Cretin lisl
          Correct Delay 3 4 140 7 1.2 70 10'0 0.1
          Delayed Chon nel R l R R R L R
          DRILLS[! 12 Mixed Mmi( Ex amp I es from Credit list
          Corre~t Deloy 3 0.4 20 0.3 '0 0.2 7'0 50 30
          Delayed Ch annel L R R R l ,R R R
          ORILlSET 13 Mixed Musi( Exomples [rom Creoit!.ill
          Corre ~t Delay 2 8 3 40 3 5 85 15 12 OJ
          o eloyed (n~ nn e I R L R R L R l R R R
          DRILlSfT 14 Mixed M usi ( Exam ples from (moit Li"
          (orre~1 Delay 7 OJ I 120 0.6 5 2 0.1 7 30
          DB loyed Cn D nn el R L R L L l ,R l L
          65 Ex. # 1 2 J 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

          DRill SET 15 Mixed Music Examples from (reda list
          Correct Delay 0.6 30 25 7 0.3 1.2 0.8 25 10
          Delayed (~ann e I R R R l L L
          DRill SET 16 Mixed Music Examples from Credit List
          (orrect Delay 0.1 30 0.8 85 0.9 20 l.5 1.2 0.2. 60
          Delayed ilion nel l L L R R R l l L
          DRill SET 17 Mixed Music Examples from Credit list
          (orrect Delay 2 01 4 1.2 40 3 0.8 85 6 0.7
          Delayed (ho nnel l L R L R R R R R Volume 3 Answers for Predelay/Reverb time Drills.

          Predelay times are in milliseconds. reverb times are in seconds.

          Ex. # I 2 J 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

          DRILL SET 1 Kic. Drum
          (errert Predelay 80 60 100 60 0 80 20 0 80 80
          Co rreet Reverh 3 1.5 1.5 0.3 1 f .OJ 2
          DRill SET 2 Kick Drum
          (errert Predeloy 80 40 60 0 20 80 80 40 611 40
          (errert Reverb 0.75 1 2 1.5 0.75 3 OJ
          66 Ex. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 D

          DRILL SET 3 Kick Drum
          (orrect Predeloy 80 100 60 20 40 80 100 40 60
          (orrect Reverb 0.5 0.75 OJ 0.75 3 1
          DRILL SET 4 Kick Drum
          Correct Preda lay 100 0 0 60 100 40 80 0 0
          Correct Reverb I 2 0.3 2 0.3 5 2 t.s 1
          DRILL SET 5 Drum Kit
          Correct Pred el oy 20 100 0 20 80 0 60 0 100
          Correct Reverb 0.3 0.75 OJ 0.3 5 1 OJ
          DRILL SET 6 DrumKil
          (orrect Pmdeloy 20 60 80 20 40 100 80 20 40 a
          (orrect Reverb 2 1.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 OJ 5 0.5 1.5
          DRILL SET 7 Drum Kif
          Correct Predelay 60 40 0 a 60 40 80 O' a ' 20
          (orrBd Reverb 0.5 0.75 5 5 OJ) 0.3 0.75
          DRILL SET 8 Drum Kit
          (orrect Predeloy 100 40 40 40 60 80 100 0 40 80
          Iorred Reverb 5 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.75 2 3
          DRILL SET 9 Mixed Music Examples from Credil List
          (orrert Pred el oy 80 100 20 0 20 60 20 100 40 80
          Corml Reverb 1.5 2 1 0.75 3 0.3 0.75 0.3 0.75
          67 Ex. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

          DRILL SET 10 Mixed Musk h:.amples from (relit Lisl
          (orred PmdelQY 80 40 40 0 20 60 60 20
          (orrert Reverb 0.5 2 1 0]5 OJ 3 1.5 3
          DRill SET II Mixed Music Examples from (redit Ust
          (erred Predeluy 0 100 80 100 100 60 60
          Correct Rave rb 0.75 1 0.3 0.5 0.75
          DRILL SET 12 Mixed Music Examples from (redit Lisl
          Corred Predelay 60 20 20 60 100 80 0 0
          (orrect Reverb 0.3 3 1 2
          DRILL SET 13 Mixed Musi( Example 5 from Credit List
          Corred PredelQY 0 20 80 0 100 60 20 100
          (orred Reverb 0.75 0.75 2 3
          DRILL SET 14 Mixed Music Examples from Credit List
          (mred Predeluy a 80 80 0 20 0 80 100
          Co rrecl Reverb 0.75 OJ 0.75 0.5 3 0.7) 0.75 5 68

          me ,Four

          69

          Volume 4 of the Golden Ears Ear Training Drills is devoted to the development of your ability to discriminate frequent .. y bands to a sophisticated level. The first CD in the volume focuses on the perception and identification of bands centered about each 1/3 octave of the audio spectrum, while the second CD focuses on the simultaneous perception and identification of two separate octave bands.

          1/3 of an octave is roughly equal to the "critical band" of our hearing rnechanism, which defines the region within which we can detect only a single sinusoidal tone, so it represents a useful limit of discrimination. If you wish to develop your ability to memorize narrower frequency bands, you are going to have to start working on perfect pitch, which is a different process altogether, one that has comparatively little bearing on audio. Think of it this way: once you can reliably identify any 1/3 octave of the frequency spectrum, you have achieved just about all the spectral sensibiliry you are ever going to need!

          Identifying two octaves at once is a fairly high-level cognitive task, and requires the developed mental ability to consciously "scan," or break into component parts, the audio spectrum. This is the skill you need to be able to equalize sound and predict the sound of any given equalization effectively. When you can successfully hear and identify two octaves at a time, you can easily manage all the various equalization tasks. From there on, it's a matter of refinement, and you probably never can get this skill as finely refined as you'd like. [ know I'm still trying to get better, and I've been doing these things since 1970!

          Doing the Drills

          As you've done with previous drill sets, get yourself set on the median plane with answer sheet and pencil at hand and audio system levels set. Start at the beginning, which is a series of demonstration recordings. Play the demonstrations, listening carefully to the impact and sound character of the different frequency

          70

          bands. For the 1/3-0ctave drills, there are 27 separate bands that I've arbitrarily separated into groups of low (31 to 315 I-Iz.), mid (315 to 1250 Hz.) arid high (1.6 kHz. to 16 kHz.). These are demonstrated twice: first with pink noise and second with music. For the dual-octave drills, I've simply prepared a demonstration of typical combinations to help you get the idea. It would take entirely too long to demo aU possible combinations to be useful.

          I suggest you play the demos over a number of times, listening to them in the background while you are doing other things to get them in your ears. When you feel pretty confident you understand and can hear all the frequencies in the demonstrations, then go ahead to the drills.

          You can start doing the drills either by listening to them while looking at the answers or by guessing the answers.

          For the 1/3 octave drills, the first six drills are pink noise and music drills for low, mid, and high frequency ranges. These are followed by three broadband pink noise and four broadband music drills. For the dual-octave drills, there are three pink noise and seven music drills.

          I recommend you do up to three drills in any given session, but no more unless you're feeling really sharp. These things are tiring, and wear you out in a hurry:

          After you take a drill you can score yourself.

          For the 1/3 octave drills, if you guess the correct 1/3 octave on an example, give yourself 10 for that example. For each 1/3 octave "off" you are, take away .33, so that it you guessed-ton Hz. and the right answer was 1,000 Hz., your score is 8.7. (I apologize for inflicting decimals on you!) Ifyou guess boost or cut incorrectly, take away 2. Total up your scores for all ten examples. A perfect score for a drill set is 100. If you simply wrote down random answers, you should get around 40 points. I expect you should be getting scores of between 75 and 90 once you get the hang of it.

          71

          For the dual-octave drills, give yourself 5 for each octave band you guess correctly. Take away 2 for incorrectly guessing boost or cut. Take away 1 for each octave "off" you are. Give yourself the "best possible" score, and never give yourself a negative score. A perfect score is 100. If you guessed randomly, you should get around 40 points. 1 expect you should get between 70 and 85.

          In case you hadn't already figured it out, [ don't think scores are velY important, except as a way for you to chart your progress.

          After you've done all the drills, use the random function on your CD player to permit you take these drills over and over. If you get to the point where you have actually memorized aU of the drills, you certainly won't need my help anymore!

          Once again, remember to limit your study sessions to three or at most four drill sets.

          How The Drills Were Made

          Pink Noise and Music examples were recorded using Digidesign Sound Designer II. Using the Waves QI0 parametric equalizer working on a loop, I switched the appropriate frequency bands in and out while recording the loop to OAT. For the 1/3 octave drills, I set the Q at 7, and for the dual-octave drills I set the Q at 4. These give bandwidths slightly wider than 1/3 and one octave respectively,

          I and mercifully make the examples easier to hear.

          I then transferred the OAT recordings to Digidesign Pro Tools for editing and assembly, and after that was done created a master OAT from the Pro Tools file.

          I determined frequencies and boost! cut by the use of a random number generator, with the following limits:

          - for the 1/3 octave drills; I never repeated a setting and I never used No Change.

          - for the dual -octave drills, I always treated two octaves, I never boosted and cut

          the same octave, and 1 never boosted one octave and cut an adjacent one. So, don't

          72

          try to anticipate what is coming next. I wasn't trying to fool you or play mind games.

          'I11e slate for each track actually appears at the end of the identifying slate so that you may listen 'blind' to each track,

          Good Luck!

          Credits:

          Written, Produced and Engineered by:

          David Moulton, David Moulton Professional Services, Groton, MA.

          Mastered by:

          Laurie Flannery, Northeastern Digital Recording, Southborough, MA.

          73

          Volume 4 Answers for 1/3-octave Drills. Answers with no sign have been boosted. A.nswers with a minus (-J sign have been cut.

          The number refers to the center frequency of the 1/3 octave band.

          h. # I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

          ORlll SET , Pi nk Noise, low frequendes ,
          corred answer: -100 200 -250 40 ·ao ·315 160 -200 "'J' .80 50
          DRill SET 2 Pink Noise, Mid Frequendes
          rorrect answer: 2.SK 1.6K -800 BOO ·IK 2K -500 ·2.SK
          DRill SET 3 Pink Noise, Hig h Frequencies
          rerred answer: 8K ·5K -12.5K ·2K -3.ISK 6JK UK I,Ole .' ':3.15K 2K
          DRill SET 4 Music (Tom Coster), low rrequendes . ,
          " .!
          cerrect answer: ·40 -160 ·63 250 40 -lao ·200 315 ,,, '50 ' 125
          ORlLl SET S Music (Signs of Ufe), Mid Frequencies " ' ~ ~~>:p~- ..
          cerrert answer: 800 400 I.2SK -800 630 lK ·630 ~O "16K -IK
          DRill SET 6 Music I Ale~ Acuna), High Frequenci Ell '"
          rorrect answer: -2.5K ·2K 6.3K 3.15K -4K BK -12.5K 16K
          DRill SET 7 Broad ban d Pin k Noise
          mrred answer: 500 250 31 ·40 lK ·31 400 ·630 -12.5K 63
          74 Ex. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

          DRilL SET 8 Broadband Pink Noise
          co rred answer: ·160 BK 12,SK -160 2K 160 500 400
          DRILL SET 9 Broadband Pink Noise
          correct answer: BOO -400 -125 -12.SK -1 K ·400 ·16K -250
          DRilL SET 10 Broadband Music [Imrks]
          mrred answer: -250 200 63 m -lao ·BOO -UK 3.15K
          DRILL SET 11 Broadbond Music IKevyn Lenou)
          corred 0 nswer: -4K ·3.15K ·10K -50 80 25K 31 6.3K
          DRILL SET 12 Broad ban d Music (Pentimenlo)
          correct answer: 315 630 IK -12.5K 5K -160 200 -50
          DRilL SET 13 Broadband Music (Don Grusin)
          mrrect onswe r: -31 -16K -125 ·400 laO ·315 200 125
          DRILLS£T 14 Broodband Music Ixorlolti by Hayden)
          emmet answer: 500 125 ·6.3K 1.6K 40 16K -315 80 75

          Volume 4 Answers for dual-octave drills. Answers with no sign have been boosted. Answers with a minus (-) sign have been cut. Numbers refer to the center frequencies of the octave bands.

          h. # I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

          DRILLm I Pi~k Noile
          co rred 0 nlwer: -500 -UK -SK 16K 4K --8K -16K lK 8K
          torred 0 rswer: -63 31 -500 125 IK --63 -4K -2K
          DRILL SET 2 Pink Noile
          correct answer: 16K 500 -16K -16K 16K 250 -16K 2K -500' -IK
          correct answer: SOD -125 2K 31 -4K 125 -31 -250 -,250 125
          DRILL SET 3 Pink Noise
          correcl answer: -16K 2K -63 -4K 63 -IK -8K IX -8K lK
          correct 0 nSVler: 500 --63 -31 31 31 250 -IK 500 -500 125
          DRilL SET 4 Musk (Kevyn LeHvu)
          rorred urswer: 1 K -8K -500 -4K 4K -IK --8K 4K
          mHect anlwa r: -63 -63 125 -IK 2K 250 63
          DRILL SET 5 Music (Don Grusin)
          terred answer: -16K --8K 16K 4K -16K 250 -16K -2K
          (Ofrect answer: 63 sao -500 lK -250 31 -4K -IK --63 -250
          DRILlm 6 Music (Pe~timento)
          , -l~ .
          corred answer: 500 4K 16K -4K -IK -16K 8K 4K -2K
          correct o nswer: -125 -125 -2K 63 -63 125 -63 -31 -250 500 76

          Ex. # 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

          DRILL SET 7 Music (5corlo IIi by Hoyden)
          WIled OJlswer: I~ -SOO lK 4K lK -250 --1K 16~ -lK 4K
          {orret! 0 "5Wel: -31 125 31 lK -250 -125 sao 63 -31 2K
          DRILL SET 8 Musk (lrad(s)
          {Quet! (J nswer: 2K 210 IK 125 250 -16K 4K BK -lK BK
          carret! (I nswer: 63 --63 -31 31 63 -125 125 125 -125 lK
          DRILLSIT 9Music (lom (oster)
          (OrrecI cnswer: -2K lK -16K 250 2K -2K 2K -16K 250 4K
          orrert answer: -500 125 125 -31 250 -500 -250 -2K 125 lK
          DRlllSEJ 10 Music (Trio Sonata)
          [OIled answer: 16K -250 -BK 2K 16K -2K 16K -BK BK lK
          corret! onswer: 4K 63 -31 125 -IK 500 125 -IK lK -63
          DRill SE1 11 MUlic (Signs of lif~)
          (O/Iedomwer: 4K -500 -IK 16K -IK 4K 16K -2K -ilK 2K
          mne~ 0 nslYCf: 63 125 63 -IK 125 -31 -63 500 -125 -125
          DRILL SET 12 M lIIi C (Wole nehe]
          corret! unswer: 16K --1K lK -16K -ilK -250 -ilK 4K lK -4K
          (OIred on,wor: 63 -63 -63 -Ok -IK 63 lK -63 --63 -IK 77

          thE' a

          ts

          78

          -

          Golden Ears Volume 1, 'Frequencies answer sheets

          Drill: Boost or Cut Pink Noise or Music 12 dB

          Instructions

          After a warmup demo, you will hear 10 examples of pink noise or music being boosted or cut in I-octave bands by 12 dB. You guess which octave is being boosted or cut. Answer in the row labeled "Your answer."

          Enter the correct answer in the next row. Score according to instructions.

          Add your scores up for Total.

          Be sure to indicate whether each example is boosted or cut, as well as which octave is involved.

          The following pages are templates=you should make many Xerox copies before you start...

          Reference guide to octaves and frequencies:

          OdnV8 2 6 7 8 9 10
          Or. Irsq. 32 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 acoo 16000
          RD~g6 20·40 40'80 80·160 160·320 320·640 640-I.2SK 1.2S-2.SK 2.S·SK 5·lOK W·20K 79

          Volume 1 • Frequencies

          o-iu sa«

          ~c_-J I I ' L 3 I • 1'_1 _6 I 7 I _8 ~ 9 __ 10

          ~- CT li__DR +=tJ==

          /Jr-ill Set#

          :::. r £] 'I' s~' 8 8

          $((Jre: _ -T I

          I 9 1 10

          Driil Set# _

          g:: i 'Ff I' s+=~ ~~ 1 .. =

          80

          Volume 1 - Frequencies

          Drill Set# _

          Ex~Ie# 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I JO I
          YoorolllWEl:
          Coned rmrer. I I I I
          -
          Score: I I 1 .1 1 l Toml soore:

          Drill Sel#
          Example # I 1 2 I 3 tl' 1 6 7 8 I 9 I 10 I
          Voor [lJl'IIIlr: I
          I -
          Corroo 0I1IWllr. I TomlSUl'e:
          S<ore: t

          Drill S('l# Exomple# I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 6 7 8 9 10
          Your [lJl'IIIlr:
          I --
          CorrectolllWef. I ToI~ I{ore:
          -- 1 1
          S<ore: I I Drill Sct# _

          Exomple# ----+-----+---1 Voorol"6ller:

          Co~Bdofll1lM:

          81

          Volume 1 - Frequencies

          Drill Set# _

          Exnm~# 1 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 7 8 9 10
          YOOf mfiWer: I I I
          (orred Clt\lWer: I Totd 1I:0IEl:
          -
          Soore: Drill Set# _

          Exomple# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B I 9 I 10
          Yooronswer. I
          Coiled answer I fululswre:
          - I
          Score: Exam~# I I 2 3 I 4 I 5 6 7 8 9
          YOIr OrlS\lOC I
          Carred OrtlWer: I I I
          Score: I I I I Drill Sct#' _

          Drill Scl# _

          ExIJ11lle# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 9 I 10
          Yoor Dr6Wer: I
          Cooed CIlS'ffllr: I ToItJlSl:ore:
          Soore: , I I 82

          Volume 1 - Frequencies

          Drill Sel# _

          Exum~# 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 8 9 10
          - - I
          YmKal"ti'Mlr: ,
          - - - -
          COired om;wer: I j I 1otvlsoore:
          Soore: ,1_, __
          - Drill Sel# _

          Ex.# 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 8 9 10
          Your [IlSWIlr: I
          CoI1'etl onswer. Toltll,swre:
          Sure
          ---- - - - - Drill Set# _

          ExClJ1lle# 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          YourClllSV<llr: ,
          ,
          Correct onswer. I I I Total score:
          Sure I I I I DrW Ser# _

          Exul11lle# I 2 3 i 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          YOll"IJlS'IIer i
          ,
          Corredonswer. , Total score:
          Score: I 83

          Volume 2, Effects & Processing - AlB drills reference guide

          Score 10 points for each correct family

          Score 10 points for each correct identification of AlB difference Take 5 points off for guessing the wrong channel

          FAMILY AaUAL A/B (HANGE FAMILY A(TUAL A/B CHANGE
          Amplit~de J dB louder Equalization high freq~en(ies (ul
          Amplitude 3 db softer Equalization high frequemies boosted
          Ampl~ude 3 dB atten~atian during sample Equalization L or R rho nne I lows boasted 6 dB
          Amplitude 3 db boost during sample Equalizalion lor R channel lows (ut6 dB
          Equ oli211t ian L or R channel 10'11$ & highs wt 6 dB
          Distortion gross (1 0-31l%) ovltrlood disl. Equalilo~on mid freq~ aneies boosted 6 dB
          Distortion slight (1-3%) overload distortion fquafizotion mid frequencies wI 6 dB
          Equalization L or R chonnellows boolled 8.
          Compression compression, fast release hig hs nn 6 dB
          Compression compression, slow raleole Equalization l or R In. mid! & highs cut 6 dB
          Equalization lor R channel mids beosted 8.
          TIme-delay/Reverb reverb added opposite chQnn~1 highs cuI 6 dB
          Time-delay/Reverb reve rb de leled
          Time-delay/Reverb gated reverb added Stereo . steren 10 mono
          nme~eloy/Reverb galed reverb deleted Stereo mono 10 pseudo-stereo
          TIme-deloy/Reverb 1 ms, time delay L or R (h. Stereo stereo reversed
          Time-de loy IReve rb 5 ms. lime deley Lor R eh.
          Time-de Illy/Reverb ISms. lime delay L or R rh,
          Time-deloy/Reverb 30 ms, time delay L or R (h.
          Time.delaylReverb 50 ms, time deloy l or R (h.
          84 Volume 2 - AlB drills

          Nome _

          Track I Guessed family

          Guessed specific change

          (orred family

          (orrect specific rh an ge

          Score

          - L


          I
          I Iotol seo re: I

          ;Vame

          Tro(k I Guessed family Guessed spe<ific chonge (orrect family Correct specific [no "ge Score
          -
          -
          ! -
          I - --
          I I
          Total score:
          --- Trock G uessed family Guessed s pecilic rhnn ge (orrect family (orrect specific c~onge Score
          - I -- ---

          -
          - -
          I I
          I Tota I score:
          85 Volume 2 - AlB drills

          Nume _

          Track Guessed family Guessed s~ecific change (orreclfomily (orrect specific ch ange Score



          '--
          I I
          Tolal score: I 86

          Nome _

          Track Guessed family Guessed specific change Corred family (orrect specific change Score





          lofu I score: A'ume _

          Track Guessed family Guessed specific change Correct family Correct specific cho nge Score



          -

          Ietel srere: Volume 2 - AlB drills

          Name _

          Irnrk I Guessed family Guessed spedfk change (errert fa mily (orrect specific change Score
          I I
          I
          -I


          1010 I score: Name _

          Track I Gu essed family GuelSed spedfi[ [honge (orre{t family (orrect spedfi[ [honge Score
          I




          Total score: Name _

          Track Guessed family Guessed specific [houge I Correct family (orrect specific tho ugo Score





          Total score: I 87

          Volume 2 - AlB drills

          Name _

          ~-m-iICY~~t~-GU-~-e~d~s~pe-ci-f;:-~~_ho_n_ge_~---co-rr-e(-t-fa-m-iIY--lc~(~o-r_re~ct~s~pe~d~n(~(~ho~n~ge~_+--se-or-e---

          c -I 11-

          _____ TO_fD_fE

          Name __

          Guessed family Guessed specific change Correct fQmi~ (orrect specific change

          ---+----~ ~----~~--=======:I=-----------

          Track

          Score

          Totol seo re:

          Name _

          Track Guessed family Guessed specific change I Correct family Corrcct specific change
          I I
          !==1

          I
          Totul score:

          88

          Score

          Volume 3 Drill Answer Sheets

          Drill: Delay Left or Right Channel by between 0 and 170 milliseconds.

          Instructions

          You will hear 10 examples of Kick Drum, Pink Noise or Stereophonic Music with either Left or Right channel being delayed by up to 170 ms.

          You guess the amount of delay and which channel is delayed. Answer in the row labeled "Your ans,'

          Enter the correct answer in the next row.

          Score according to instructions.

          Add your scores up for Total.

          You should also do these drills with the channels summed to mono, and just guess the amount of delay.

          As always, you'll need lots of these answer sheets so copy freely. ..

          Reference guide to delay times used, in milliseconds
          0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
          l.2 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 7
          8 10 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 60
          85 100 120 140 170 89

          Volume 3 - Delay times

          Drill $el# _

          Ex~le# I 1 2 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I 10
          Your onswer: I I I I
          UmdullIWlJ: ! I I I I Toml S(ere
          Soore: I I I I I I Drill Sel# ----

          Ex~# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          Your rmv.I!r:
          Correct answer: lokll soore:
          $cere ~ Drill Set# ----

          Exomple# I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 9 I 10
          YOlHIlIWlJ:
          (ooed armver: I I I Tolal S(ore:
          Smre: I I Drift Sct# _

          ~# I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          Your rmv.I!r.
          wrrectOIllWllr. lofol soore:
          m 90

          Volume 3 - Delay times

          Drill Sel# _

          ExalJ1lie# __ I 1 I 2 1 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 1 I 8 I 9 I 10 I

          ~r: -=t+-t i=! =r~-I =+ D~

          Score: =t:j L ~---' _ __.__ __

          91

          Volume 3 Answer Sheet forPredela.y and' R.everb Drills.

          Predelays from O· 100 ms. and Reverb decay times from .3 to 5 seconds.

          Instructions

          You will hear 10 examples of Kick Drum, DJUm Kit (machine) or Stereophonic Music with reverb added.

          You guess the predelay and and reverb times. Answer in the row labeled "Your ans. ,.

          Enter the correct answer in the next row. Score according to instructions,

          Add your scores up for Total.

          Reference guide to tim.es used:

          predelay (in milliseconds) and reverb decay lin seconds)

          Predelay Reve rb oecCl'/,

          0.3

          20 O.S

          40 0.75

          60 1

          ao 1.2

          100 1.5

          2.5

          92

          Drill Set# _

          Volume 3 ~ Predelay and reverb times

          bampie# 1 2 3 4 5 6
          Predelcry
          RSVBrhfime , I
          (0000 predeluy I
          Cooed r~verb ~me I I
          Score: I J
          ._ Drill Sct# _

          8 9 I 10
          --
          I

          -
          TuWlsmre:
          -- E:m(de# 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10
          -
          Predekly I
          - - I
          ~v8lblime
          CcJred ~.eIuy. I
          CcJred reverb time I lotlllsmre:
          -- -- I
          Srore:
          --- Drill Set# _

          Exampie# 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10
          Prroelay
          Reverb timB
          (urred .~eIuy -- -- ... _
          Corred reverb time I 1otIlIsmr~:
          Score: i 93

          Volume 3 - Predelay and reverb times

          Drill Ser# _

          Exomple# I 2 3 4 5 I 6 I 7 I a 9 lO I
          f're(jeloy
          l!evemfime
          ------ - - - --- -
          Coned predeluy
          Cooed revero time I i ToInISlllrE:
          Swre: I I
          , Drill Sel# __

          Exomple# I l I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 6 7 8 9 10
          J i
          Predeloy
          r--- -- --
          Reverb fime
          (ooed pre~Muy
          Corred revero time Totols{(jre:
          - - - - :
          Swre: Drill Set# _

          Exomple# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          f're(jeloy
          I-
          Reverbfime
          Cooed predelay , I
          Cooed reverb Ii11e I I I ToIQISlllTe:
          Score: 94

          1

          Volume 4 Answer Sheet for 1/3-octave drills

          Boost or Cut Pink Noise or Music by 15 dB

          Instructions

          You will hear 10 examples of Pink Noise or Music being boosted or cut in 1/3-

          octave bands by 15 dB. You guess which 113 octave band is being boosted or cut.

          Answer in the row labeled "Your ans." Enter the correct answer in the next row. Score according to instructions.

          Add your scores up for Total.

          Be sure to indicate whether each example is boosted or cut, as well as which 113 octave is involved.

          Reference guide to octaves and frequencies.
          Note that the 25 Hz. and 20 kHz. bands are never used in the drills.
          Oclave Range 2 3 4 7 10
          (enler Freq. SO 100 200 400 aoo 1600 3150 6300 12500
          Range 44-56 89·111 178-222 356·445 712-890 1.4·1.8K 2.8-3.6K 5.6·7.1 K II-14K
          (enter Freq. 32 63 125 m 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 16000
          Range LB·36 56-71 111-142 222-280 445-561 890·1100 I.S-UK 3.6·4.5K 7.1-B.9K 14-18K
          (enter Freq. 40 80 160 315 630 1250 2500 5000 10000
          Range 36-44 71-89 142·178 280-356 561·712 1.1-1.4K 2.2·2.8K 4,5-5,6K 8.9·11.1
          95 Volume 4 • 1/3 octave drills

          Drill Sct# _

          fxample# 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 I 9 I 10 I
          YOlf OrJlWef: I
          I I I --
          Conedm~r: Totolsmr6:
          S{(]I6: I I I I 96

          Drill Set# _

          fxlJl1lle# 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 I 8 9 I 10
          I I -
          Yoor_r:
          ~
          (orred {JIlSWEr: I Toml smre:
          Score: 1 I I Drill Set# _

          fxlJT'4lle# 1 I 2 I 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          t---- -- --
          Your CIlS'Iter.
          Coned CIIlIWer. I Tolal score:
          Score: I Drill Sel# _

          Exnmple# I 1 2 I 3 I 4 ! 5 I 6 7 8 9 10
          I -
          Your answer:
          Corredanswer. I I I I I Totlllsmre:
          Score: I I I I I I Volume 4 . 1/3 octave dl'iills

          Drill SeI# __

          ExIlmple# 1 2 3 4 5
          _-
          VOl..- WlIWer. I
          --
          Corred ons.ver:
          -
          Score: Drill Sct# _

          OOl1lpie# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
          - -
          YOlHns.ver:
          Corred {])lIVre" Total sw-e:
          -
          Score:
          - Drill Sct# _

          ~~~~ 1~~2 ~ =41_51~ 'I I 10 I

          Corm! WlS'IiIl_r __ _ _ .. i . Total sere; _

          Score.

          ______ ~ __ _L __ ~ __ ~ __ ~~ __ _L __ ~ __ ~ __ ~_~ _

          Drill Set#
          ExIlmple# I 1 rl I I I 6 7 9 I 10
          Your ons.ver:
          Corm! OJIS'IIW I Toml SOlr€:
          Sture:

          97 Golden Ears Ear Training Drill Answer Sheet for dual octave Drills

          Boost or Cut Pink Noise or Music 12 dB in 2 simultaneous bands.

          OClove Clr. Freq. Range

          32 20-40

          2 63 41).80

          125

          250

          500

          7

          1000 2000 4000

          8000 S·lOK

          10 16000 10·20K

          Instructions:

          You will hear 10 examples of Pink Noise or Music being boosted or cut in two simultaneous I-octave bands by 12 dB.

          You guess which octaves are being boosted and/or cut. Answer in the rows labeled "Your ans."

          Enter the correct answers in the next two rows. Score according to instructions.

          Add yo.ur scores up for Total.

          Be sure to indicate whether each example is boosted or cut, as well as which octave is involved.

          Reference guide to octaves and frequencies

          80·160 160·320 320-640 640-1.2SK1.2S-2.SK 2.5·SK

          98

          Volume 4 - Dual Octave drills

          Drill $,>1# _

          Exam~# 1 2 3 4 is 6 7 I 8 9 10
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          Example# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
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          Your CI1SWer A
          - f---
          Your CI1SWer B
          Cooed omwer A
          Corred omwer B --- - -_I Total SOOie:
          xore:
          --, Drill Sel# _

          ExDnllle# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 10
          YOLf tI1IWer A
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          Your tI1IWer B
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          ,
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          KI Q Productions Inc.

          El3SJ:.;q Riversidl;' Drivl;' Sherman Oaks

          CA 91423

          USA

          © 1995 Kl Q Prod uctions Inc,

          llLL mGHTS OF THE Pl{ODUCER AND OWNER OF THE WORK REI'HODUCED TlESEIlVED. UNAUTHORIZED COPNG, JillUNG, RlMlll'iG, PUBLIC PETIFOItr>'lANGE AND BHOADCASTING OF nus

          Related Interests

            VORK IS PROHTllm,n

            .MI company and product names are trademarks oftheir respective owners.

            Related Interests

              IT, and I excluded "no change" as a possible answer. Because the selection was random, don't expect that all octave bands must be included in any drill set, or that you can anticipate what we are going to do next. I wasn't trying to fool you or pJay mind games.

              After assembly editing of all the drills and slates, I got bored with the slates and decided to add signal processing to an occasional slate, for amusement. The processing varies from slate to slate and it's there to give you something else to do While improving your mind.

              The slate for each track actually appears at tile end of the warmup drill, so that you may listen 'blind' to each track.

              12

              One

              the Audio Spectrum

              13

              Perfect pitch is a highly developed auditory memory that allows you to identify a given pitch by ear alone. A few people have that memory capability naturally. Most of us can learn it, if we want to. The Golden Ears course does something related to perfect pitch training, in that it teaches and develops your memory for regions of the audible spectrum. 'Nbere the musician with perfect pitch can say "That note is an E- flat," you will be able to say, "The treble is boosted by 3 dB at 2.5 KHz" This Latter ability nuTIS out to be extremely useful. In essence, it gives you the ability to tune your audio system or recording studio, which can be thought of as a musical instrument.

              You will learn to identify the qualities of frequencies throughout the audible spectrum, using pink noise and musical examples. This ability is developed gradually. In Volume 1 , you will learn the sound of each of the ten octaves in the spectrum. These are the raw materials of frequency out of which we build music, and each one has its own particular characteristics, quality, and musical significance. In recording, handling these octaves is one of our primary tasks.

              On the following page:

              The Ten Octaves of'the Audio Spectrum. Given both in terms of the ISO center frequencies (on lef!) and boundary frequencies. Each octave has its own particular qualities, musically, acoustically and psychoacoustically. ...

              14

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              Octave [0: Extreme highs, airiness, hiss and sizzle. Little musical content. Upper pari of 'edge' of sound

              10240

              Octave 9: Highs, treble, metallic brightness, sibilance. musical content includes cymbals, upper end of snare drum, metal guitar strings, etc, Sometimes called brilliance.

              5120

              Octave 8: Presence, 'edge' of hard consonants. primary recognition range for voice and 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              0 rds , upper end of SpeCL[llrtl for many lnstrumems. brightness, etc,

              Crltlcal musical and vocal range.

              2560

              Octave 7: Upper mid-range. Phantom Image recognition. Hardness, ln tensity, loudness, definition. Major range of'harmonlc content and spectral identifiers for many Instruments .

              1280

              Octave 6: Mid-range. Highest fundamental pltches.Begtmung of up per harmonies and spectral identifiers for lower instruments. Musical contents includes pitches, central parts of most instruments! spectra,

              640

              Octave 5: Lower mid-range. Body and richness of sounds. Fullness and rounded qualities. The primary rreble octave of musical pitches.

              320

              Octave 4~ 1111,";: 50-called 'mud-range'. Transmoncctnve lietv » een bass and

              rnl drange. Thickn ass and rn u ddln ess, th u m pi ness. The Ten Or octave G r m uslcal pitch es, Critical fundamental pitch range. Middle C lives here.

              160

              De-Lave 3; Upper bass, Musical foundation octave. Bass and lower elements of dl'UJJ1 kit have fundamental, here. Critical bottom end Tango. All speukers play back this octave.

              80

              Ocruve 2: Lower bass, Sonic foundarion octave. Bottom oJ'l11USlcaJ pirches. Primary bass energy. Low C lives here. Mostloudspeakers play back this octave.

              40

              0",",," 1: Bottom end. Little musical content, Ellects. Fundamental of kick drum, mostly not played back by loudspeakers. Very nrrnosphertc. Exotic.

              20

              Some insights about these octave ranges:

              - Various musical functions exist in various different ranges. Octaves 2-5 contain the musical fundamental pitches. Octaves above those contain the overtones that are central to defining timbre for musical sounds.

              - Overall apparent loudness is very much a function of how these octaves are treated, This is particularly true for octave 7, which contains the frequencies our ears are most sensitive to.

              Later on, we are going to release additional materials you can use to learn to identify (to 3 dB accuracy) the magnitude of a change in level of any octave of the spectrum. This skill will then be extended to lf3 octave resolution.

              Another useful direction we will also offer allows you to practice hearing two different octaves of the spectrum modified slmultaneouslvwhen you have mastered this, you will have acquired the fundamental ability to mentally scan the audible spectrum and "hear out" spectral elements by ear. You will begin to be abLe to hear and identify full equalization curves, not to mention the harmonic structures of individual musical sounds. Finally. you can work on drills involving three spectral regi.ons modified simultaneously!

              16

              ..

              Volume 1, Disc 1 (Frequencies)

              This is the first CD in the Golden Ears Audio Ear Training series of recordings.

              Drills on this CD involve identifying one-octave bands of pink noise or recorded music that have been boosted or cut using a conventional graphic equalizer. The first 12 drill sets involve only a portion of the audio spectrum, making it easy for you to concentrate on learning the sound of a particular portion of the spectrum. Drill sets 13 and 14 involve the entire audio spectrum,

              Answers are given below. I recommend that you go back and re-Iisren to driUs you have done while observing the answers to help you "internalize" the sounds of the various octaves of the spectrum. Please note that'Irack Cue points occur after the identifying slates and warm-up drills, so that you may select drills at random to test your hearing ability as it develops.

              AU of us at KIQ Productions gratefully acknowledge and thank the various record companies that have allowed us to use their recorded materials. We urge you to support these companies and buy their records.

              Credits

              Created and produced by David Moulton

              Engineer: Robin Coxe-Yeldharn. Assistants: Bill Lee and Dan Ricci Rights to recorded material granted by:

              Boston Skyline Records, Boston, MA

              SOL Records, 51 Maxfield Street, West Roxbury, MA02131 Tel. 6]7-327-6470 JVC Records, Los Angeles, CA

              17

              Drjfl Set I Lotocst jive one-octave hands a/Pink Noise boosted 12 dD
              hom~le# 'l 3 4 7 8 10
              An~wers: 500 Hz 63 Hz 500 Hz 31 Hz 250 Hz 125 Hz 500 Hz 125 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz
              Drill sa z Midd/f'fiIJP one-nciane band. o//Jillk Noise boosted 12 dB
              Example # 6 -9 10
              Answers: 4 KHz 2 KHz 2S0 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz 1 KHz 4 KHz 500 Hz 2KHz
              Drill Set 3 lIighe,,' pt'e one-octoue bauds ofPink NOII;(' boosted 12,-/B
              Example # 2 3 4 7 10
              Answers: 1KHz 8 KHz 2 KHz 8 KHz 4KHz 8 KHz 1 KHl 16 KHz 2 KHz 1KHz
              onu sa» t14mie: Tom Coster: "00/;(;/111/1. ,. Ire 2015-2. Baud I.)
              Loioest .fi_vP one-ucture bands o/,II/lIs;(' boosted 12 dB
              Example # 6 -9 10
              Answers: 63 Hz 250 Hz 500 HI 31 Hz 500 Hz 63 Hz 125 Hz 63 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz IJrill Se! 5 {Music: S(e;n<; o(Lile: "Siglls of /,ije, " SOL Itecort}», Tine" I) ;'Yfirldl".fI1J(~ oue-octnoe bands u/"'v/fI.,ic boosted 12 dB

              Exomple# Anlwer;:

              2 3 4 7 8 -9 10

              250 Hz 1 KHz 250 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz 4 KHz 250 Hz 2 KHl 250 Hz 4 KHz

              Drill Set (i (ttl/.w·c; Ale.. ,lclIlia ond the Unknoums: "Thinking or J'ULI," J"'CJMI2006~2, fl,w-"I 1) f-lighe.;/ fioe ona-uctaoe bond s o./,'I4w·ic boosted 12 dB.

              Exomple # 5 6

              -9

              10

              Aurum:

              4 KHz 16 KHz 1 KHz 4 KHz 1 KHz 8 KHz 2 KHz 8 KHz 4 KHz 16 KHz

              18

              Drill s« 7

              Formal: Lou-estfioe one-octace band. ofPiuk Noise cu! 12 dB.

              Example # AllSwers:

              2

              4

              7

              9

              10

              500 Hz 63 Hz SOD liz 31 Hz 125 Hz 500 Hz 125 Hz 31 liz 250 Hz 63 Hz

              Drill fM ~

              Formal: Middll' fille one-octnre band» of Pink Noise rut J 2 dB,

              Example # Answers:

              2

              3

              4

              6

              8

              • 9

              10

              500 Hz 1 KHz 250 Hz sao Hz 4 KHz SOD Hz 1 KHz 250 Hz 2 KHz' 4 KHz

              Drill sas

              I'orlllut: l-fig/u'slfi"e one-octure bauds of Pink Noise cui 12 dB.

              Exomple# Answ~rl:

              5

              6

              7

              8

              10

              4KHz 16KHz 1KHz 2KHz 4KHz 8KHz 1KHz 16KHz 8KHz 16KHz

              Drill s« 10 (HI.l,.il:: "TIll' 11,")' BeM oITnACKS, (969-197'/'," BSD Ill. Band I} Format: Lurcesi jioe one-octaoe bnruls 0IJI'fIl.,ic cut 12 riB.

              Example # Answer;:

              2

              3

              4

              9

              10

              250 Hz 63 Hz SOD Hz 63 Hz 125 Hz 250 Hz 125 Hz 250 Hz 63 Hz 500 Hz

              Dril! 8,'1 II (H/lsic: Kpl')'n Lettau: "Simple Life, " liT 2016-2, Baud 1) Formal: Midrl/eji.l)p one-octaoe bands ofMusic cut 12 db.

              Example # 3 4 6

              8

              10

              Answm:

              500 Hz 2 KHz 1 KHz 4 KHz 250 Hz 500 Hz 250 Hz 1 KHz 500 Hz 250 Hz

              19

              Urill Set 12 (l1i/lISie: Brill/a IlUue,.g: "Pentimou!o," I3SD 115, llrunl 1) Fnrmat: Highes! [ice one-octane bands U/;lI}f.ISi{' rut 12 riB.

              Excmpletl Answer;:

              2

              3

              4

              10

              8 KHz 16 KHz 4 KHz B KHz 2 KHz 4 KHz 16 KHz 4 KHz 2KHz 4 KHz

              Drift 8(,( 13

              Forum I: All ten 'IfI .. -octare bauds u/ Pink. Noise i:mosfr"d { 2 dlJ.

              Example # A~swers:

              2

              5

              6

              7

              8

              10

              Example # Answers:

              4

              9

              10

              31 Hz 161<Hz 1 KHz 2KHz 63 Hz 4 KHz 31 Hz 4 KHz 63 KHz 4 KHz

              Drill 8M 14 (:Wusic: O,m Urusin: "!JOII Crus;"." ur ./Jill 'l01()-2, Bond /) Formal: Alf ten one-orture bands ,,/Jltllsi(' boosted 1;! dF1.

              16 KHz 4 KHz 63 Hz 500 Hz 8 KHz 4 KHz sao Hz 16 KHz 63 Hz m Hz

              20

              Volume 1 , Disc 2 (Frequencies contd.,

              This is the second CD in the Golden Ears Audio Ear Training series of recordings.

              Drills on this CD involve identifying one-octave bands of pink noise or recorded music that have been boosted or cut using a conventional graphic equalizer. The first four drill sets each are restricted to either boosting or cutting, The remaining ten sets involve a mixture of boosting and cutting octaves across the entire audio spectrum.

              Answers are given below. 1 recommend that you go back and re-listen to drills you have done while observing the answers to help you "lnternallze" the sounds ofrhe various octaves ofthe spectrum. Please note that Track Cue points occur after the identifying slates and warm- up drills, so that you may select drills at random to test your hearing ability as it develops,

              All of us at KIQ Productions gratefully acknowledge and thank. the various record companies that have allowed llS to use their recorded materials. We urge you to support these companies and buy their records.

              Credits

              Created and produced by David Moulton

              Engineer: Robin Coxe- Yeldharn. Assistants: Bill Lee and Dan Ricci Rights to recorded material granted by:

              Boston Skyline Records, Boston, :MA

              SOL Records, 51 Maxfield Street, West Roxbury, :MA 02131 Tel. 617 -327 -6470 NC Records, Los Angeles, CA

              21

              Drill S('I I

              Format. /tIl len one-octare band» ofPink ... \ioi"e boosted 12 dB.

              Exomple # Answers:

              4

              6

              9

              10

              16 KHz 125 Hz 8 kHz 125 Hz 500 Hz 16 KHz 4KHz 31 Hz 250Ht 31 Hz

              Drilf s« 2 [Music, "The Very Best. o/'l1lACKS. 1969-1974," BSD I J t. B<lr'ld 2),

              Format: All len Ofl('-()C/UI'f' hands ofMusic boosted 12 dB.

              Exomple # Answers:

              5

              6

              7

              8

              10

              2 KHz 125 Hz 63 Hz 250 Hz 2 KHz 63 Hz 250 Hz 2 KHz ' 31 Hz 2 KHz

              Drill &/.1

              Formot: All len nne-octane bands "f Pin]: Noise Ct;J 12 dB.

              Exomple# Amwers:

              5

              6

              7

              B

              10

              1 KHz 63 Hz 500 Hz 2 KHz 4 KHz 63 Hz 250 Hz 4 KHz 63 ~t 2 KHz

              Drill Set 4 (Music: ,Mea; !lcw/a and the UllkrmwlI.I': "'lhil/king of y,,,,," .IJ1ClNtT.2D06dl, Ballrl3

              Formal: IIII/ell one-octane bands a/Music CI1.l 12 dB.

              Exomple# Amw6r;:

              2

              3

              4

              7

              9

              10

              16 KHz 125 Hz 16 KHz 4 KHz 63 Hz 2KHz 250 Hz 31 Hz 1 KHz 2KHz

              Drill s« S

              Formal: All len one-ocuu-e bands 0/ Pink Noise baosted. (+) or ell' (-) f2 dE.

              Exomple# Anlwe~:

              2

              3

              4

              9

              10

              +31 Hz +63Hz -500Hz +31 Hz -16KHz +31 HI -125Hz +4KHz -31 Hz -250Hl

              22

              Drill SPl6

              FQrIIUl/: All I,,,, one-ocuuie batul« o] Pink Noise boosted (+) 01" cut () j;! tll).

              Exum~I~# An,wers:

              --8,KHz

              2 +4KHz

              3 4

              +63 Hz + 500Hz +4KHz

              6 8 ,,9 10

              -8KHz +500H, + lKH~ i ":31 HI ' 1-2501lz

              ,~. ~ ~ ~

              Drifl Set 7 Fnrnuu, AI! len. one-octaoe bands o{1Jink 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