rom A u-, OO'S

1. Ha,deninBt Tempe,in . md Hear reetm nt

Tubal Cain

2. Vertical Millin in 'he Hom Work hap

tnold Throp

]. S rwcutting in th L the • Marti" CI- .... -

4. Found work for the mat ur B.T~ A pin

5~ Millins Open tions in tl1 Lath TUlbal Cain

6" eiJ_ uring nd Marking M I I

Iv n If!w

7., rh _ n 01 Welding W'"A. Vue

8. Sheet M_ r I Work R.E~ Wak ford

9. •. Id~rin and Blazing Tubal Cain "

10 .. ;a'ws and Sa In' Ian Bradt y

1 5. Workho tdins: in tIi~ Lathe ubal C ~n

1 .,. Ir tnc Motors


17. Gear' . nd G _ t Cunin l.w

nufa lur



20.., r IWD(. il'nd M . hin,ng

frAts nd T;~

I n Br 'y

. in

13~ Work hop Drawin ubal ain

1 4 ~ M king mall ork . hop Too!

'Ii Br .

In. h i h

I Iy


f Wl in fol wi

I nd wi I I r n men

rn h il I with i f rm

ur m nt 0 r per tur I vel.

F r h ver. . m II work hr. i r el

urs s n 0 I m ri II h r nin t m ri . will b 0 rnos us,

in hi tion hi b k repl c he e rlier I rd ning n

ring rs' T ols' I pr viding b. r- mor _ - t _ i

. P . - m io th ubj _ t.


er the



ISBN O· 52 2-837-5

9 780852 428

ARDE_, G, TE .•. G



A G"" 'uS" B' 0""10"'"1li"'S··-'·

.. _ '. . ." . ~ '. ..... . .... "'l.,1 .

,Ar'9Us Book$, AJ;gu~ H QU5a 11h)OIfll~8iY lAra" HemEll~ HI empS~e_ad

H ~rd!Ordshirul H P,2; 1ST'

C t' t

- .-.

o .. -en-~s

CfhlpilID81f1'1 ClhaprT!8 r ,2 C!hi!lp'tl~1ir ,3 Cttsrp,t8111" ,4 CtraptEII, 5 'Chagt1efr' G Cblpterr7 '~lhapt:e1i :8 ChapllQIif '9 Chapte, 10 Afltl~,a~uHx 1 App 9midhil: ;2, Ap,P,anttlix 3, Appemdiix: 4

iron i, StlB:ei

Prin~ip~es of l'he Hard'en1ng ,~@aJtin!;1' ,and Ouenclting illl PrSlctil'€8 T ~rrnlpefili"!lg

:~'e:',ardn 9 :Equi pm ern t Ca~~hil!lfdenllil,g

Orn er Heia U l"fl8'!8i'lm,IBf'I!t, i?'rnooss-es The M aasu fa men [ -0 r H~ rein e~ Home 'CenstnJ!,cti'on [JIf Fumiiil ces Safretl IPtrec:--aU'[iol'!l,~ Tha'rmacouples and PYF'Ome~~ rs CarOOirl S'te,e I C'l! tfing: 1,00is

Iinlij,sh S'landard S,rJeel Sp-ecufkallo',n Numbers H anin es.s Gon'\i!1e rsions

7 13 27' 4,' 51 64 71 84 80


HJ1 '1 1,3: 1115

'1 '17

Set;l~nd im~&1on 1 S~5 ,~~~pfii ~ted 1 '987. 198ft ~"ieO

All rig ~,Ui reserv-ed~ No part of ~hi5 pUlbUca~~o:"' ~ bfl. r'e·pr,odu~ed in any fOml. by priwn. ~O'I:'OOfiiJ~~¥, mlDrO'film Of a 1iIf~ of he r:I'U~fH'J.-Ji w~thou~, wri~~e:1i1I PQrmissio~ 'riFOM the ~IUi blil$t.or.



I~ "iii" 'E' I. ..rJ ~ .~ ~i;,n ~~' you if ,,'rH:I!miV rs pl\Jlven~ f.lOl,Y n:se~

,~ W jh 8 soldi:e'~ ~ 'Ihen le~ Oil lIy so 'must oe .. Kn q.w 'yom' M,aJt srlals" fc r ttu~ en g'ine er ~ miiJde~ lOr I!:M!helv~i;Sle. l,lmpCl ~laot EU"!iO-ugh when ~he' m'~'tBri9hi: a Irij '[0 ibe CI.JI~, Or tG tll¥lei\d. 1O!iJ l eve n m C! re SO wh en w,a ~-f.'Q,,,og,e to all'll! F the'ir eha w3clerrn,[ij 1:5:. And ~e ~e 'G'l!I n ,b Ii!~ few s ueh a,~'!,er,afi ~O[l'i$ so B1,dremo as wher;IJ 'We ctlfJ'Vert ;l J'@'I~tive ~V

'If, ..Ji .mil ,~ . ,. I . 1..,. 'Il.. •

i!!!O[ ~ ama ILIIUOU ~e 'rmnl1HlhBl ~nto ,o,nre W~I~U::;~ i IS

h,lrd e(i,o~gh to act ,ars, ,Ill cuttingl tool. So, I m i3lke n ® e-~CUJS:8 fo II" Ith~:5; in i'~ ial e~p1'G:radon Iilf th~ nature of fron a.rid :SUjj,~I. Y'O'I;.II tan

,. k· .• ·11... I:.. ·f ~ ib.. k

s ·I~ tu Ie Cu .3pter 1- \f,G!!J wnSa-11 - II. may LIe

thB t i~ tells you noth ing n leiW. and could wan .seem 'to be ~]i'f\ele'\frHiI~' ,if alii you ~;ari'l 'ID die is to harder! a 5iOl~~'b€l ~ piD,it'! t, I ~ U t ro b rs;oln ~1' 'Un raj beg'in n~n9 i':s a hlwEll ys: ,a: sou nd ,~] icy i 8 i!1d :1, hope yo-u 'wifU b !3'6uwUih 'rTU:il: n WOI1! t ,-'Oks long I

P'um, lren, known as fEIR RITE, ·to 'the meta~$ ~pf:cla~t:S1t ts a, r'el.a,~h/'fJly ~f·t Ma'ie ri'B l, wiltin a tensile' str9I1"Lij:[)1, of about ,2 4, ~Dlns!:sq,;i D1 ~nd QIU ~~'e:1 du ~ill film h, (lao be cllr,; wni ~ fUD fine ~;i res, lind fO~ lied hltD' lh~" pia U:g~, _. ,elb out the. ,t;Jilil'l"I U sas 'mil" it ~ n pr;a~c~1.ce ~J~I81Se days" ~ 't is chemliciJ v,~rv ""active" • IcombilliliJlj,j) readUy wi'th . rna ny Otlfl~ji {iiub~\8 oceSJ. 'SQ '~iI'l8t metsH~ Ie T ron ls ~~Ik:lqm 1:0 ulrlid 'iln nato re de~ I ta ~ihe 'fH !;::t thiir'l i'U ~s the' most a.bundafi'l of liiiI'E!irthlv rna r,e r1i'alls. rn~9 E,::! rth's care i~ a'lri'lflost

wlnolly !!I"~ll'LJI The: C~.n1lll1)On cm~'S are in ~he 10 rm of Q;(Td"8 S,. sem e, ~ot ab IIV H aerna tl te, almo~t 90% 'ferr~'c QXcide' wlh,llst oiners Imav centaln ~IS. I ~u I:e as :2 5r%, itlh~, ~ rna ilil da: r beif1JJ llime' or 51]~(:,B b!3IS:e,[j ,$IQfHl. Othe'f it¥pes 0"· ore' con:~li!if'! i ren e a,rb~I"!'15He8'. ti'!~d a v e!rvabu radant m Ulfce is Iron IFvritecS - b. s~,O'a Uy irii:l,n s,yll)j:)hide ·,and se~dom lUted in iihlB m'aI'1lJUf9C'~U ~ af iron '(UracUy i

~ Iron '~s e:lUract~d ~TrO m the ore, ~n III B I,a:s~ IF lU'na:Cll - Fig. 1. E'VI@n in 8aIly [~m as, th eSJ8 'IA!'~(e t~u~ge structu ~r OtJ'1' t(lday 'the,\!, ,til re huge. The "hearth" at: 'dU!I bottom 'is, ,45 fe e'], .a cross - and Ih ~ $~al(;ik i 00 'ee'~ or more 'illl t\uight:. w~th arHllher 1"00 '~,~e.'t iOif ..• ' .... - .. b ,~. d· . d

- '~~p I ~,ilIlmfper a -!l}ve. ~, mo· I urn Size·

f!IJrr; 30a willi 00 iilt ~i j'l 50,0 ao CUI. fee~ ;l'r rna oo,~ rail iil1rfld wUi • 'ma kg"; 9000 '(-DOrsi wre8k: Fli·g, 20. The ~Brll,!:!~l 'urn~ce in ~hh~ ccu.m'tl1l is de:siglned f'o~' ') 0,000 '[OnS, Iper da~ and ke,e\p,l;ng ~~ fed Witl'iJl r.I~,W m ~~', !S, al m ai,IOr PIn of '[h,~ I'laJ.1t c jJe ra,to( s ,[:t'U:i o~ rn I

The"&e raW me temT91Is liJIr'e f ron ,CHa., ,ool<e' l'f:lhe' lUE!~) and ~ imeswl1e to act as a · ·nlU~t"· S'O '~,h!ll 'thllB' ::uo:rwy II1l atU)III' in 1lhe ore m'~v be' ,S,1II ff~cie ntlV fI~Jiid when Im~~t'i'd'i Th~h' Jfinillterl;a'iis.. biended and s;~rrl'telied ~nrlo a un~fil11nl siz~ aFld COImIPO:i~U~ 111. awe f'f!rJ rn ~t the' lOp, :P'relh~~,''!fld ia'ir is; blown i'j'l a [ '~h!3' bottom, 'Iii rol:i:g h t~e "tuy1S'r1i3;~'·~. !13tn"d '~his air ~rm;s, by fa r the I all'glast mass ,of rn'~,l'ef~a II


1)'!:I~m htll9li,!(j. 1l0m~a201 I!Iglll.';t~O~ .:i'-~li~]1

Dil#iGFii' Uoij' O'F alL'S' FblrRHI!iCe. f.~9. 'I

~~d. Thol,lgh fIlominaU, ·~fl'iea·~ i1: has 'to ba eom ~ reas ad to from 30 ro 4!J 'Ib/MI. in. rii! nd 'hetued 'to ~roUirH:I 750QC" using' terbecompre ~S'OIi'S lo,f ~ 0'.000 H P' OJ' m C1ire. ii!I nd en arm au s, "SilOVS-S" to, aeh i eve (I'll IE! :Jiequ ired] tempera UJ re'.

Combu stion, o:W [he co ke il t, 1:11 ij' h U3'alrth reSu ~ts, 11m a '.11 gh tern fJei!ra'tllJf,e and t I,e pr,oductlon of c~lmon c:Uoiii;'ide.. "flit s; ~'91ttaf rea,Cts with [h e ~rv liut cO'ke d nd is red 1.11 c e-d' 'co carbon m iJI OO:X.fdC' .. This. l n w ~n. re,jj C(s wi:t h th e U'I!D n oi!(jde in t he awe to, re move '1h a oJ;:yge n contant. Whe n t ~e, lQ;[Illes 1r0'1 ch lhQ 1:()Jl! 'of 'the: (uma ee' they will ~'~llll_alin ,iilloout 27" ctalllhon mOfilolf~OO! ,: lu;n~ hvdroQ)8n. and[h ~ r~si is ca mon dl c,xide ,ii1lnd Iilh rog~ n: it: is a veil:)' USB'I\uI~

~lJ 81 g~s:. Ehl UH~' time, thl@J • ... b lJIrde n' 'm,a,ch~'5 die lower pan of' '~,he fJ'urniill'c;6 the 'r~UJ)( and stOIO~' 'fll'illU begi 0 ~'O C(Nll'b vne to form a sJlag

. -

wh ieh me:~t'$' ;~Ind ru ns down thr!@ugn the

OOk,e, , 'Sligh t_j,y lowe,!!" down t he, ~no.n a tSQ rn elts, B a~h slag and lron ~.oll'ect tl'1l tha h eaJli1h i, 'IN flth ~ he 51 a\1 ~lQa t i fig on l!QP. At period~c irlf~~rva ~~ '[hI!!! slag icS tapJ) fJd off th roug h lOne hole .iii nd tl, ~ i ~'D!iI 'from on~'t'hEl r" b 1S'1rlrg oonllC [sa: I'rl ra ~IWB'Y 1 atcUes., rhs [anf1ie r be 1ng used f'or read Imeta~ c r oem enr~ mfllkiTlQI and 'lhi IS' ircilll ~i~~ ih-ef cast tn'~1D "pig~t· tfor the found JV IOf t'I!:llkefll~, Irnolten, '~QI t he ~'~\r{l,rlkfi,

D 1L!l,r,i ngl th,lt! Un,~ I pa rt of 'to,IS ~rooe.~s the' molten lren is Kn dl'~se COfUSC! wlr~Jh 'V,~rv' In CI,~ coke -and w~ M a bse m up, te 496 o~' cerbe n, fTh fils: m:il!:Y' not sou nd m uch UIU"!l~ PI I teU ViE! U ths t a Q nu nk, 0" i~on 0 f 2,2 lneh clJb ~ wi~'~ conta ~n iJjS; much carbon CIS a s-alck; of coke U The ij'lfllip~r~B111'l th~ rig 1101 appreci,~ ~~, at th ~i5 stili~l8' ls 'Ill ~~ th e. i ton :a nd Goa rben form ,[;I :s.oh.uibn, just I ~kE!' t'ne' suga'r.' in V,o.(J!' '~eJ. A'ft!:!i! r 1P{lji$~i!'iig th rougll1 s' p astv st ag'~ wh i 1st c¥oQII'~ fII g' the iron so,~idi'fie s a [ abou'[ 11 30 r;!I C, a nd we f,i ow' have' a solid so~U'tian o'~ iron ~IFler~'tB'~ and tt:J' 1 tb ut WU'i'h some' of tne carbon n O'W' e~'mb i ~liJll,g to ~(H'rfi ani rO n carbide., How,ever .. as the. m et;3J cools ifu,nhell' its Cap::1 e'it~ to di"lO,l:v~ C i!!I ril:lOfll dim .'nish e5,. ,i!H'iid '801m e '"iI1'"EHl~·' 1m!! ribon ,laIppears at the grah~ boundalrl',6's, as gr,alph1:te. lne 'fh'ud st8le does d ep·eJnd '3'0 mtBWh,ljrl on how 'fast

dtB I'i1 en!! I hw;. oo.ol,eid. Ibut '1h~' "9r,~<v" cast ~~" wllkh we ~s'l3l' wm app~ai" under '~he m i{J lI'o:sca pe 8 a !S'1Il1 a IIII 8 ggll olMElira ~klln $ (gr3'iliilSJ or ir'OiI1J lO:allrb~da' JEHld FerrU'8' ~~iI!j !l$:~ iSU r~ol!J nd~d bV f~ues o.f gfaph'~h:~!. (lfij'g.3,) B~ this cooling 1:5 r;aTJl.,id Ulan more of ,~~& u::"arbc'n wI! ~ I'1B m ai" as Cal libijde ,j1iIll1id '~he me.taJ M~i be whi1)sr and' harder. Hence 'Elh:i3 ~~~i60'~ I .. 118 rdl S'PO~,,· 18'( 1h eJ C~'liirItlU 10'1' a 1thin cD's1'il"l g'~ ~.he m e~~.all ha 5: ClBC,h!!Jd roe fast.

II~n i III 't h~ form fs v.eFV usefu ~,; it c~n be G-a!SJf iri~ 'CO mp~e;( sh Ii! plEl!S .a liid 'hSi V&ry S, rc IilQ illl com p ~es;sl{m. ~,tU it fs r.flISS sfJrorng In b:I 1'1$ ~ Hlind rat hall' lbritde; i'l ca nnot belli belll,'~ orf~ rgedl. I ~ is IUls@J'eg '~a:r edgB~1 '~iQ.cls gAd lOr many rn ~cltn!1 e parts, Va rY ella Ii~ V in tJ~e hiS,t,rJ ry o~ 11'fU£!'ta Is rnaans were ~!oltg~ht

to ~ndelr ·"ifi[)iil1"· rnO,f\€[l: dy,c:t~lllE. Ths:S-B led te [he line n~mclum (r~' WA,OUI(; HT I A,ON. usin g a pll'~ ~\$S 'wh;!t;h r'EI m Ci~ed mQS't o,f the c S! wOn ~,~,om the lron miEllde in til e bbll~s:[...:flUfl1iac'~,. Pig-holl was: melt~d in ,e coai or cok@,_fi~d f,U1rnae.e ~FigA' 1h)Gld w'ul'h m'~T~ena~ (:(J!n:ta un viii 8 .a la rg8 srn 0 un of ~:ron o~id~- A co rtai n srna UTU of aMide was; a Iso ch a'r-gad 'wldl ~lhe pieHm n, Abou ( 4, tWl. W;IJ S, mell ~d ,!ii. i€Ha'oh h,tNl't ,and wh en 'mcdtelCl was, a,f course, r n ~ n tlmau~ ccntaet writ h ~ne: C!~lde$. lh e FG'Si!IJj,t Wlt!a! UuIt 'rhe' ca;rbo VI in 'lh~ i UOfll lCol'li'ii'bf,n'e d w ~~jh thre' oJt:ygen ifl)1 'I he ,oxide~ D '[iOnliI G~rbOF:l di~~~d!9J - rhB rsaetlen was qui Ie' viole rat ,art times, wiith the rnerat ~ppe8r~ll1g to "bon"", Tl'ih!lii proCltfii 'was tiiiOOl!3leTS ted by the·

FIOl, :2 f~f"lUJfi'lim-ti:NHJ hJNJ~~";! .!IIf ~fM FmriY!~1Mm ~ (JllJJ . Bri~fJlT $tfti CGrplilnrMt1n., &tttJll!ilIjJili'i' ... r~_~ ~ mr~.,~ 4~ iNiI!!~ q#;Q~Il4~ '~V" tl!!jrw~li!n rhl!'n.l. ~~ mf,lr_r-J:;~Jr 'U~"'I!f"i'T~ili1 flM.F'G.~~ {lN~''N'" ~i'l' tMk·t.t 1,Ntwn~~", ~ lID1l'l ~tftftl o~,t(j'Jh~fgJj,_ (~4'«i. CgrJ't'lJ$,yeNfitlh.slreflJCr1~pfl'l~!'hm)..

Ftrg. :3 5tl'Iid'.i.m!' g fp.'f1'f 008' r'C;i1l. Iil!fil~ tmklt.x f1I flNph!fo(1. ~il'Iw.p.ol':ll ~''W.rp'.,1tt'I OlffllJUtl;

~fg+ ,4 S&t!!."dotI' gird ~~ @r,. J'~rJ'j ""~,Iji.~~ fS.[j(/~ fr.UQt:f:' Th"()' ,~.rJr "'C'. WfNM~· dgwr '5!t.t~ ltMl4fn' ~ r/' ~/'J' filtJ''WOiIIdIt~ lIl'J'1',th:i3'~"m j2i1J1lil!'Nl' ftdt.

ru'rn3(:e rna In! w~, C . '-rabbled" 10 r ,!u iined [_ne b~;th whh all"! Iron balli SYSpEH1ded rftO m til ch,ahil,

N OW', the mett ~n Q pOint, Qf i fOf'l depell1ds up.on ~t:~" carban COnr'teiflflJ whh pig meh,tng ,~l ,81bO'UI t 1 ~ 30(1 C .a nd pu re i r,an at ,~bOlM' 1 600 Q C. As the CiiUborrl u:;O:ruent fIE! II. -rhel'lefofi'. P'S,'ly m',~Si'S~9, ,Blppea,l'IfH! in the meii[ 'and th9S~: d~ rag 'to 'the' leJ ncl lo,'f the Ip~dd~:eu:is (abble. Wheff! thIs; ·'ba,liII"' WiH!~ ~s, ~~'rrge ·a's, he' O€l'u~,d Inmdll~' h'e~ e·j!!i;U"a,~~ed 111 "rom ~he '~\Ylma,~e; inti ]m m ed iarte!y ~ t ~l IUlI1l'ider the fupl of a m~chE!ini'oal hanu-n~-r,. (Fig.,5,iPI) ThiS; hamme'ling ,(I 1fO~,'l 0 lIn moS![ ·of' ~'he 's~ I,g inl ~lne' b~ II ,a:l'1Id at if~Ui.I' ;S'fl'ninlf!' 't 1m e formed 1'[ in to ~: ba r. fine pf"OICE!SS; waS, r,e):!,eated IIJfll"lti I ,1111 ~:he ~ rot!1i Iled been Q)llra(;; tedfirom 'ih e rulm,a'c·~. ~fle'r 'wh~ch tile ru~!i'h1Ce wrellt Welll'le!! fw~tllSd with fr~h ~~-d,e on, '[he Iri nirng and 'tholV:n IreCll~if'g,tfjd~ Ab:Oldlfittsil)(, h!e'att5, tCl@\!Ifld be wo ~ked Tim :a nDrm,~11 12,=hO,1Jf shift,


ThiS'· ba rs fro,1m ir1hena rmrni13 r were eu t iln to' ee nva rn lent le!l'i'9 I hi s and bou iild tugethliJ)l' (~·m;ggo~iGd'·~ wUlh ]ron, ;a:lFlci 't hese bundles W~l',e: tl"llien reho~ted lO 'we I iiJ'ifL9 [~nlPleiratU!r'@1 and IFefCn:9le!d lntn bi! le~"$. Til is, process coull!fl b a Irep~ati:!lCl ~e.vef:9~ ~Im~s,: e,a,~'h @'l(p!l3U~11 mo're err 'the Ire rn s:ini n91 s~ag slliid 'wlla1: Was ~ B'ft w~s ~ n tJr.e 'fQFITI of thin s1lrea ks ..

The iLl 1J811'1ty Ikno-wlTl as ,I' B~ st" W~S' m,e'L61 'which h ed been ·r,iilggot,e:d twlca, ·'·e~,st Bla,s.t'" was m ~dft f\rom f'ag,g,o'ted; " Be sr" bars, iJnd 'Tr'iE ble B,est" 'h'c,m f'8g~o'tecl i. B'est 113 ~t". ~ '·'B;e~'t'· b,fI rs wou'l d have, a

Ie nsU 6 :~tren,EI.lh a long the' Qrel i n 'o'r; the SliB'S '!J·f about 2,:~l ~ OWl !5/~q'Jn. whi'l S'~ ·1irable 18,.;;s(· m'~g 111' ra:~ ~'h 28 lolil/sQ.Jn. The s:[reng'tiM Icross tih e 'fibres wc) ollid Ibe about l '5%, ~ ess - lh B IIlJ roc I9!~S ca !ilfl.ot co:mpl@1~',~V !El'I'irnlrnne' ,«;i II ttU1!! .s~ a.g ,ijllllrl ttl is, forms ~ fubrouEl, st ru,ctllJ'fe 'w'ith'in 'the, m a['~~r;ia~, LJ flIde r the m ~erosc'o1Pe the m\B'in body oj (he l1fietall is ;ahnCli~U f'lJr,e Fe;nitD .. in·(a~p,e'~-'" ti0d with b~nds .of sla'Q .. as seen in Fli g. 5.

W,reught Iron W,a;i5, tlla 'soh f(~!" use as e C\J tting too'~~ aMd: 'from the ea rl i~5;t ti me,~ a new matori'al. h;aviln g til -c,a mQn corHe n;1' mi dw,l~ be~,wEcel'll wrought 1 rolli, .d nd (l.a st ira n,s. W 8 S m ad~' fro m best 'QU a:I'1'tv fagB(O{t~d baifS. This, W·,iiI~ uatla<d S,iE.El. ,~rrld any mJ8ren,~~ to Imte'l3 I ,oif '[hl!], Ir'iame praviou s' to abo ut ~ a 5 5 muSi be a,ssum ed 'Ul :applV to '~hisJ and 'i1Ci t t'O the .. m~ ~fj .. ,$ tisel w,e :k!now tooiay. lhe :spteciany seleeled

FI'g., G $r~U-li\~' ~f ~ghl' fmrr ".i!'O!'lIll!' ''''Ill ",<1m·· ,iJ.:C!w.I'l;!~ ,he' ~ .r:~~"I!i!.ru;

IDa~ ~;) [n, 'wide :M i,in. '~hickl we r'e' h eal'led ,in P bD~ 00 mal n ing (lhGJf,cpa I rol" [fleriod"s 0'1 8 t,Ol 1 101 dB"s at a '~em p e ra ~ lJure of I1Ilbo uri 1 fJ~OI:lIC::, DlH"nrllg ·'his: lnMe the, iron ~ffi)s~rb·ed oaroofll ·,i;!!nd as !~e bars wer,e r~la1i~~;elv ttnh'!i lh is ab so'rptiolrl IJemll'!:nllt,ed rig hi 'ltuough. M ~an~~;: WBre Dm\i'~'d'ed for 'Wi''1'ht'Jrawingl a! tast-bar frem time, to time', itl!tilS, ,ghfRrtg a crude, ~'Orm of qIUI~~i~V ,OOrlrtr-Ol. ~LJp '~O! ~ 5" mfHi, liH, ~I 'time GOIJ f.d !be' The, ~il!! mOln c:o;ruent coull d' be r~ IJgh ~y ,eG ~f~JITfO n~d bv 'the' Ie ngtih Of th e heat, :0 ~t i"f ~OO sk~rt 'th~ p e rn e'~r ~ 'rion WO'UI hl' be iffC{Jrl);'tP'lete. Carbon 'wntent oolU,lcl i1eV~ir be beJl.ow ,II:;Hl~ut 0.;8%1 but ~O'!l!Jld ,ea~ilv bitt 'F8I~ed '~'O 1 .. IS'% for ~IB .gl. ~ the m~ king ()f


Tine p, wa-s, ea I hurl ~.h,e

'~eem;B,-~l-atioiil PflO cess" en dl 'Ilil e i!Jgh 1t, wa·s 'B'fti~~tive ttli'e Ic'uijieull tilt was thaI the carb en ~ril,ritlE!ht ~a~l!ed from bar '[0 b.a,J and ,even :aL~I\~ ~~e la'I1!9th 'O!~' ,~ singlle 'bu!f~ To 6V'el ~o ~e this, B,enja m ~rJI H U iTl'ts'man in ~ 1 i4 '~'(IUnd IT! @81i:'lfS, of ,mflltlng ths bats :afler \':ie,me!n ta tien, 'i I t wi n he ,a:pp~eciated 't.h,~ t w .m ~k~ ,ei' cnu::UlJ'(El' 'lNniclh 'would ~~and !III p 'W .• e 'tJe-:n pera'uJre,s Iii ~erled was v(IJ.,ry dtll~lj~'1 ~1 '~ha'l: tinle~~ 'FYII!"[t~'i9T~ he !JI~ed anb~ IiYlg-iwllI ~5meM~~ !U"!'jiiiing IGhBlrlClOa'll ,as ,al 'fuel. t'h u.s; e I'i!ill I WHU ~ng title I mpu r~ ~ ~ e.~ I p:hosphonJ:S a n~ s Ijjl~phijt'~ ~ri,sjng hfJ~ ~'~~ '~e L Aift@ no • "oEl:m 91i1!Ii'ng" ~he wi"Oug'h'l 1J'g,n ~ n 'he usual w,ay hem G~ tlEid broken up biBlrn ~ a'~Ol!l ~ 50 lb.· a [ a ~ ~n., e ,= i'n specia I day ~roci'b~ e'~", rn~'s '10 aile a bou,t ,5, hou!iS. lhe' OOniten ~'S 0.1 ~ he crud ~'~e we're t:ne'n :oa S't i:n.~o PfEi,_fJhea ~e·d, ~plll't C~ s,t~ffir()~ mJc'!!lIlld~, to "fOrm bars. Stee I made by Ulfi"s !PIrDC~ SS: W,3IS - ,iEI!ndi i is: ~ kn,9W n as '~t:ro ~~b[e ~Steer Of' ·"C-as:t 'fH~'l~f' . 19,¥ '~;arre'fu ~ly' . se:1 e:c~·ing UU~ '~rr~I'~"i!al1 ©fjlm,erl,ted 15'ali"S :- ,aAd~ ~, ,liB IFO ie~ u.singl p ~eces 'ham idiffernrlt ba;m, made '~n d~H\e'r'!i:lnt he~us - lI!EI1I'¥ u nw.fbrnm qu.~.H~,V i;m1Uild be !l;oh ie1Jed·~ '''a,~ S"uPt U~~~ lCD ~ h~ c,ldl so.-ta Ue'd "'ibHtSUH ,&teBi"~ TUne, ~as1!: balr5 co.uh~ be' flIDr~:e.d·.

~e tc~d (wHh sa if'i"h:i' elf'B) '[0 make I a tge r Pl0~e:s, '0 i. for v@'ry I riI rye obj ec~~. S 8rV'er.l I ~nJJc~'bll as; ~ast: iflf:~o on II' ~ sa rnd~ mou td. The steel could:, cd course, 'be h;Elmaned lin the 'i~;~ !!!'hlorl Ian! r '! c be d ~s{;rib~, - ~ naf a whs ~ '111 is book f,s, abe ut II) bu t ~ t wa iii heCj uenll'v UJsl~d, sirnIP~,Y 9)S B tough. S'I ron!Q m:9 ~'rJ L

It mmay seem cdd malt we 'first make a ifttat@mh,1 high h'a Car:bdll. th efli ~m Ova' m'o·,st of it, ~ nd filnall:v "~dd ~allfhmn 10 produce n;ateri ~II otf '~h~ ~eQuirf3'd 81118lysis. !DuE .a linJe r:'Bflllecli~1'iI wliIU show ~ha'l as each s~ep ·a:I~;o rti'finJ~dI ~he lren, '~O sorne i~·;den't '~re ma'Vi111Q i m ~urhie.5. and [he 'ritrl~'1 .step ~nt roo'IJcud tti! e I~al!fbc,n in th i:! fQ'fni ift was. ne E!d ed, th,~ p rc ~~f8~, ;'s, not is'S, i'llogic~1 as: it see rn s, The jii :L!ln~;sman e~c~bl~' p'rQoess 'w,as ~ n uge 1lI rnd~ ~Iu.i~!e fIE:NDBnUy I :iiI!ll'd th ~n~ m·~y be a I~w s'm\~ II platn'~ ,~,v.U II 'ope ra'tin g u 1f);Uii[ tome! "east :si'r'81?1" ~ or. to b 9! 'mor~ d efii nhe. higllH~arbQfiI. s:teu!U of. 'L~dav ~:s nllad e ma~'n!lv in i;! !Ji:!:cui<c:, '('Urna ces, ,a,nd '[h,e ©c;arrbo., Hdded di !reedy' ~nto the rna it. with very ,soph,istic:ated mel'tih;ods Olf' ain 1:11 ~V5~5, used olIo ecntrel the fin;i! I q~j [~:Y'.,

The M'ILD' STEEL we use l~day w:~s, Dr'~g'ifll\iilll:Y regs rded as a 'farm eo'f W rei yglh,'~' II rol'i1' 'made· b:v ,d1re,(:t''lla~ of ~~rbon, :SlO' avoidi rig th~ ,t rouro~~ so m El- iS~ ~'g irll'i; I,u~ion~., ,iii iild the, irlr1'i~~ '!l·a ~le'il1lS, of HI~nry Be 5S1EHTItEH' 'W,~rie: fa r a • 'n ew w,~ if of" m is!ik;un 9 wwught:

Iren "'. Th,is ~n!' dld bv Illow~ 1119 a,ilr' ,t:~ rO ugh a V~$se ~ (:har'9'ed wi Ih m o+tefil in:Hi1 rand :50. bu fI'il~ ng Olll t the: c.a rolD'l'l., L~ 'hiH'. '~he op ~O= nea r~h process,! in1 rodluced llV Thomas and G U cht~:s't iii bOlil t 1 a 18:, le,fF'G! C [.G'd 't h e

. - -

i)(M1V,9r1sion bv Ithe r~'~ ctk~nl ~be,twt8,a;n Un e

m,ol~en bath ,end the, f1ilrnace ~in'ing,. l'c,da\f. tUlWe\!~:f, oi mCfn ~In m'ild Or low cam O'i"i $leelll is m~'fa bv bl'~win9 OltYQ en IhrouQ h iB r88cti'QrIl ¥8~1 (:onif'~,il1! img D~elrha P,$! 3,DO tiOii1S: of mol t~:n iron! b FO'ugh it dh!€ie~ from th~ bl a:n 'Fu'Ffj,ac@. Allo¥;ngl la'~e miE!nu~, are adde,td Un~hJdhlg thu le,ss~,il1tia,r >camon~ a·s il'eqL,dr'e~~ but dJ mcdv ij rlt,o thie mohe in bath j lFa~h:e! r ti'la J'i! ,;:lcS in t he tBmlofft;a:~,r,on pIFO"t;I8~~.

SP I:'r(: IAIL ,STE E LS, ~ n ~g1ti a~ lOrY, ~it~iin~.,oos. and, so err, are n1iade by '1l1utllUrlg nmi h~r' stei!13 I in sn C.mec t Il'itc ere 'fu'mace' a nd, a{Bfali[l:1~ addfing ~e. ,aJ!oyilli1g :a I'e ments to "th[~ b~lt h. Wh erea~ ~.·ne. '~j rse m,g'de I eng;in tell'S, had but thre;e filfHfOOS m artlew~aI15; 8vuTlIalbie - Cel $,1 h·[~n. wroug ht iron ,an d "~$~le'el" ._ to d\iI¥ '[11 e ,C'nDic8 is l)ewi Iderin-O'r 8 rid ~"'n ~i3i$'1 !r~i1 In ~v be !had 1 n ,dO'~16ns 'Qrf l!radB~ sn d i!If'NfiIIYl1'e 5",

for cur pfi&:itent 'purposesi. howe~f" we' are' oc:mcem'ed CJ IilIIV wu th '[I'i! Gl'e whic'h a rs rar'lrit-&d as "ee m~ [Jl ~~QI s.tet;!,ls;:·. 1I!fI genera,l, a •• M!fild'" S:le B-1 wi II it;o'Jil'tiiltl from 0..05" up ~D fll,l,%, calJibon and '",M ediu rn" CBl'"b(;m st~el Upr 'to f}13'fihaps OJ;;j%, Th~se Ih8!5[ f:a'nl be liD bIlghe'ne d by 11eatm8n.!~ but f1.01t, htHtlened s~flfifeji'~nJ~Ty 'r\Or cutting: IIDCJIilI~.

.rr';,;........ T I c' I" - ~'NI- .~ if

v~""rll!.i'Ofil co ate.ill W~~: corna~n irom

01,,15% up to as muoh ,~Si; Th .-5,% carbon .. tNowaday:s ,E!.im.O'Bt ,Ell! $te.e:,1 wi~ I GOl"!itaun a11!oyif'l;g eiCl,rnN!lnts~ m eH'ilgames;e iB.speci~ lIy. b!llllt it j s, the. ·C a rb on eon te Iii ~ wh i eh

dlet,erm ine~ l'l1f!;e '''nat.lii,rr~i·~.} A!bo~e· ,ll1!:hOllll't 1: ,7% (i<,alrb~rII l00rll~!Bnt ~Jh'o: metal wij n 00 a '~C!8Jst i ron ", A gelil~r;a;1 d ~~'Iij n~t~CI n Imay all$) be found b·!;1!IM\ee,n ··pla In i. [t;-8.rl!:nl III -st)a;~I. rwh;'ch conta:f1ns as alii rule oml" 0~rbon B1nd:;3, 111't~11B rna "guneH as a Uoying: elern eril$'1 and ";a'U[oy'" carben stlLl!!,~ls 'Which wi~11 i1i1~lllJde n ~ck~I., ch'fI"om lu m and 'other 1a;la'me [lIs s ueh ~ s ~a nadi IlJm and rmbl'ybd,enUlnl ·iiiH;i. WB~ I as ca rb.Ci'n., B,Ur~' ,alU s:tee Rs: .e1f\!1 baiSJi,t.~ i~'V a Uoys of Qi!I (bon and t'en"~t~ ~ "pu fe' iH:m ·'l a nd( ~ n m iny ca,e~ :~ he'pllfes)en{::e! ,0'1' oth~l" iii Uo,,'irtg eh1~lmen:~;s (eSIPJE=l rjD~I~ ~V 'in "IP~,~Hn" rstie:~15i) eees r:Hl more than 1'IflI" dli'fV rliu~ eflf.E! ct. fit Una' JC~ rbon_. E'lifll'l1I in the e:a~se Of ~he "·hi·gh spe.ed"' too I ~lee[~S, - ·rll.lloys, Of irC)lI!'i~. ttl ngst:en, cob~[I'( af'Jd [;i8I:rlbcm ~ it is th~ presence of' carh on which ,prwld ~s man~ of t.heJ,r pWjJert~FS':ii •. ~'t is ·all $a[l~a:rv !re~ 8!c.~io n 1 hat tOul"' enjoym an ~ m 'mfJlljj'~l en'o:i iii erBrillng dep'e" d 5, s rrti u~1 "I 10 n the m:tne{rij ~ ~ fou ndl 1111 'the -Qore of' Y'@ tJir rt'i.~d pentil ~

f~iJ. !!i~, "~i!t!m,ilN2rm I ~m~ 4F~~ ",t 'M'"Q!I.9'M I'~rl' .i!li!:!ihD' ~li!}Pf~d'J ~~tJl..¥' ,i!M w,e,t~~lK)fi[I,'~f$ Ija:MNJ~1,; 'Ii"-Y.o!''iJ ~ lnM'ifrtll· fJ·~jU.t:!'fj_WfI$. }t:.~~ht - - T'"qt~rf:lr;:rm,t.~HI~'E~rrtirm.

P rinciples of . he Process

H i'j,rd.,ni D'I!Q1 ihi'[iJh ~car'bQn .S;UJ~I 115: 9~S,y pemp rEi: have be~~ dQing, it fo r !;_:h O'~M nels of

~ .

y4a rs .. JIIIJ~'1 h8~'1 [Me al to cherry-.ted

JJ n~ 'flueln~h lin QO'~d. water 3 nd! ];h~~~' ·it ~ s ~ hSrff,d1 H oweve it,. mi::ri!' lhe 1'1I,o:rse l~·whrcr. i's .~ •• ~ 9 rcobTe .8nilma ~ bu [ does n.O.'1 ii~W.e·V$. do S~ 'i' .... '.') ,~hl s' ,d'lle's' not iallwaiVS we ~k, a rid ~ little tnowl~ge of. wh.~,~ goat;, (Hi ifiS;~d'9J (be ,mi~t,~1 w~ II bQ~h 'male ';,ail !lJr,e IleS;5, ~'ik:eht, :p:~d etse gllve some ·~de~ of wh·~,t 'to do whlOn t h ISl O'Cf; a 8:u,on~ I ·~W kw ~ rd i o b a p~e!lrs;. Those wh~, firUl' 11'l'Is t h 11f]·rte'l· "do' sa" a f19 ahi\l'\~[VS ~lu''PrT sed how ~'~Isy it S .lSms: wh en s'~mlil!one 'who knQW~, ;i3lb[il'u I: hQ~~ t.alk~$, OVEl:r 1 Thete is. th~y wi III ~Y. nQ~llWtn d~Wh:;ld It abe u'[ nt - yOIll jYl51 need te und'e IiS~H nd 'the' a nij m rd~ I ~ i:$ '~ll1e s~me wnih -slEeij 'Nr~~lhii!19 dHf1~uh unless, ~Ol!l ,8rs ~,mo8111 y m,rlking the :S~ I!j'ff~ and U'ii:iiii ~ palft [s dOile·. 1r-Of tis. Y@um«l¥ h'.a!~~ a· sl i 9 ht :~;r,"Oblem with ~om~: of d'ne "'new wo~dl-s,'·.; ]1~BS@ I w'ill 1~.Mp!a lin ii!iiS we [go ;QI'I)crng.. but Mu wilrl ,~180 'Und ,9l US! ,11!1'l 'the· and ,of th (8 tu~ok. '10 ~i[oo you G~rlI r,efJe'r, if nreed b'e.

Wh a 1"11' 1p'!Jm '~rof'lll staim lrg ~Ollidlify '~h9 iJitb[fl! Si aJl1f,f1i nge ~he ms;e.I~u ~ 1 n a prrecise geometri~all piin:tfll'illl., res .s'hawli!' l!il Agi.tO,. I have 'sllmillwfiI U'~i ·alO'm:s as rllh~~r.e i!1u'dl·~. 'for ,er'ir~~y _:, W.e kn C],W '~ha't 'th ey don"t rook U ke

~tun ife8 ny, but W~ ,all'l~ fIlOt oon ltIa:med wi'lh Ialt:o ml c '~IrIi;;:{DrI'V, ]u~~t wi th [ha~dlenrln;g steel. ThijiS 19 rmn!] emel'!l t ifl typ~t~1 of iil~wiV .soHdllri"ed rlrrOln. and there' will always hIE! n in,~ enoms. one at erara~ ICOm~ D"' of a !C~ib~ aiM d '(3ne ;n tha C.i9Erl'.r,~, at this tempeir:BrlUiliH .. 11'1 n·6. caliled ai "'8ady--oentrecd cubie"~ (:WV$,~aL cry.staJs ,~IP pea r h~r~ie, a'nu~ there in '~h~ me'1. ~n.d as m~w one$, 'form th~:V rgrow on tho~~ i Ilready there, th e: [1[itUs !Q!fOlJ.!IPS, gmwi 1'191 ~a:r@:~r un~)U they rne 91: ctnre!:ir- n e;ghbe lJflrn.Q iOI"O'Up. WI'H;n-e th iSl Irme.e'~ij ng 0 t::CljJli'S lh,Etm w iii I, be a disc ~.n~ in ilJh.y :of In[!! Qlfow-rh. SO ~ ha [ 'wl'illelii, ,a II i~ 001 rid' Eli took th rough the micnJ,soO'pa 'willi show 9[m,' areas whh fifl,e lir'll!~5 round[ ~Jhem - Fig .. 7'" m,e '9FtYS'(3111S ~h !a'm.selJ'v~.s, a rEi ~:oo sma 1 ~ ~O! b eli ~;'eein

c: iJlia j ~

r3~ --1

i ......_

I ®

'aNll!I~L ATOM


~ I




Fl~. [IA :B"",~ij'iP;rI(W.~' i;~'t$..j(!Nfl'~tm.. wflh iINlil!'.~-lVni'.,j· r."'W.iN'~rIffl1Iri!!M i!il ~ ~ iJI tb_ij./ilttlN..

.................... --------------------~--~--------------------~----------------~

fro .. 7' S'tm""iUI# W ~ f.lrPY i'I'J'!I!'~1It 1m: i:""Ir",m M~fj' "i1s~WY1I'" lIY.IiII'~'~ fJjlit.'ri*!fNmD~~_f'QJUJ ~1tmbl$,··

~ hr~ugh am (iI!~di"arv mlicroscop,a~. Thsse areas :afl'\iI ~t1ll3 ",gfiillliinst ,. A,:!tl ill IrlLlle!, ~j1fla S!m811Ib~'jj' 'me G rain S (wrthln ~e.i!l$On) ~'~~ betteu·,. andl 'pa rt ·of 'the! jp.b of i'UlaJ'l '~~'erf( ~ MEiifilt ':~s~o' "reti!n~;" [hu l1f'!'etaJl to n;!u:~ut.e gl~li!in :si~iel. I~ uee hoi'll ~ FIB:rl'ite'~ iend'5l 'to :form ~~IJ'~hf!,r la ~g~ grraiins.,



F.',~g~ S 'fl\J1!' 1:".~fill1i ~ , of w~· "y'!,,~ zlm:WlnJj' fh~ (, , "1iii~i. pom.~·' ~ ,. "iOi~' d ,~!,\!~!!te!l'!!I'.ti~ I:',n,g"'il - 11l!!Wi!! nlWJ\ -


Thr~ m at~1 now cr.u~'~s, sHU fu lith~r~ ,~nd wha 0 WiJ re~ch l' '39:,2;.;1 C ,~rl ~dd 'thin!;' Illi3iPIibi ens, The 'r~iiI'll ~ n tern p~ ratu re h~ :~Irre sted 'fo'ji' 8 ,sihorl wtdl~, ~IIIIffiO"s;l a S;: if 1,h9 rre i~ a sau n'C~ of rlll~ I t wi'lh in the m e'[f3II., ~ fig.8"~ Thil 5: ~~5~, In 'f-Bet. U, e CISBI for there is ,I ~haJng'e tE!I'dng! pte:ce 'in '[he Cryrs:tB I s tructu re wh ic'ti m;:tu allily reJ!e:ases, .he'ar~. (M e'ia:llll r,glsts ,t~ III, :[1h1 san, ··a r:lr.est, pelnt" 110 the ~Qoln~g O'r th e me:ta ~t n~ you had

Fi'l. 9, Ai ,ji:'.Il:i.l"-C(lINII''llil!! '~bf& etF~im, wf.rJj, gnll' .:Jt.Qm.m~ !l!'1{ti':-h "'~'w'ono i'i;I' mfl '::i1"I~' 01 u~iJo '~"!:ii ot tJi ,~ililM. {Tflw.r. ,,,II' ,t.;(w ~tf.B'\':~' Jj ;[It!o!'I/5f.r!dlli ku ,(!JamyJ_

SU iHIliJh3: lfiq u'i'~ rner r 1 Y(i!'iJ woo td ~e~ the ~lYSU~ ~~ re-a iIlralFtgin,g thBmsel\loo~ ,iii chu~ll~ d hsii rrtegratingl ,ialnd li8"fOtm in g, in a 'iil~,W 'p!!llIU-e m. It us, ~dl ~ "'Q"UbH;~'" ~ but 'l:his lim,e' whh :a n ,8'[Drn in ~acllh C~ln er- arnd one In thH~ ,Cj!ef'!l1U~' '~It ,eachr face" 1 ~ ~'r.1 :a U - f- ~g,:9,. Thfs ~'~, C~~ I~d ~ .~; FAIt:: E,~~ f!ltre,c1 GUilbic"" crys't,aL Aig;,@,'jlll" '~:lhiBse' ery~t~~:s hJ!I,rm ag9fi~g,gltie~, wh iGh m e.el ,8it the ij1iiEl.hl b~UJ:1i,chll~i,!!,s- 'lhat :sy,c'h a ch~rnge' i9 po~~,b~ e may s~em ~urp;r115i:ng, "Oli '~ho'llJgh 'thl@l i'WU!tiillI lis IPreu,y tUJt fil is a 9iO~ idl, ,and Yc!IJI WQIU Id have to hit it f,~i!r1V sma r~h~' w~th 8' halmmer t'O CihaU'lgit= its ~I"'~ p~l. ThTililgs wculd :se,~m \i!1~'" dfrflferelill ~~: V"Qu '~i\!'i~rG ,on~ of th e: ,~,rom!s, ~ IEIVtaI1 ~n w~ rkshop-I '(fHnpe rolttlU fit thil!l'~: wCI!lJWd be' SiO:miEi dis tell n ,e·e: lbet.wel8 n' V~'IU ,3!i1~ ~:he next one ,and at 'this high [El'mp;fj'fF~n~~ ~o Wi wou Id 'find VOlll hsd pLe:n1:v D~' lI'e ~J'rFn. What",illpp=e,~r,s, to U.s' as: a ·"rs:.oJid'" '~s:~ '~n f~,~~',

mo~[I~ empltV' Sf) (!H!f!',i' ,eVt~n wiit'hln tlhe: ~'Ys~I,: It" ,is th!!: feress which :r.1iCI betw~e'n dis "UlI,m,s wnitC:n give Ij,S the' serHuII1:iQf]J o:~


Nd,1: only that: u The, ;3 'toms: rhemS8· ,d'on"'-t !3:~it!l I'lId s:li U. True. d~ey c,~n,o(JI~ ChSl'SEi abou't 88 they do 'in a I ~~,uhJ IO'1t" a. 'gas. bu ~ lhev do 'ijj'!br,eloo' abou ~ th,~ir me'~tilfi1' pO$h~:o.fIl" UhI f~ ~~ h ~'~,~his. vi bnnion 'which !I1en emtes, the .Gol ~,un~d ~ r:r;y;ht 'We a:ssoci.a U~ w~',h hot lrif'!~tU.t ~). In 's,Ych C'Hn::::,umS'!a neas it i'5 not Sal ~~ rpr:t-s.tng, th el'! ~ame Ic;d 1h~ a toms ce n dInt ~b-o~ ~ :8 IMt.IIlIl. 'n, ey dID' t I1b; a'il dH~ 't~'m e :a t: high '~emperai'~u~5I~ and iU dds, ;jcri~lcall,r, 'w.mlPewcBtLllI"ia' d'"1rer ea rrv au ~ iii oompl1ete 'FI!lIltFIf8lfi'lig,eme nt,

As: t ne m ~f.ail QlJDlshll'rtlhew w~: meet V1H: cam~lhsr "arrest lP~iin1.'··,r :thts 'time ,~'~ 91 O<oC',. U'UtS: ~eiliaJd's fJI chang'!!!' 'b'irit,ck ~'O (he origliir1~ I Be:dy-.l'!e'rr'rlr'ifI~d eubi c. 'stn BI p e of Fig.6. Thls is tl'ila • ·Itl',lfvghl re'd .. ' and! abou 1l: 'lhle: t8M ill'mtUl re we s,ho.u~ d Ii @rma~ Iy use f'Of IOrgII!lQ. Coo I ing, down .slll n 'further the m is found ~n alffi~~t ps,in t aga~ 11~ ~:t '710.0' c:~ T.l)em ls no tQh8n~8' of Il;ry.s1;al struetu rl~ ~ fJ,fB, bu t ~ni'5, j 5 'lh8 poin t ,at wh'i'~f.i the m8J'i!il 'tin iJecom€l' m'agneUc, ~I't :~s; scmeU~S ca 111,ad the '''C:u rie" p~,ilil't ~; This iIi:~al nge hri magne:~lc jprQP Ei'rti es can be a, ~~fllJi iflclicster eif t'iIllI'mp@r:.rura for :som eIJ I~U uJl:3~~",

,All (;)1' ~;hl8;-Sle c;h;e og,e!~ ,0 i:;:C1lI f in ,~@\i'~'rse ori:l~w when the f111et.iflal is hea.tedl but a~ the iii V'' p~h'i!II~'t; til (& mlflitiil~ $" ms to •• ha ng ber~·· ill nd no,. gel ~f'I,V ,nou.f:l r 'for ~a sh OFt w'h,j ~e:., Aga,r f'Il,. 't h is ~a iii be a u se'fu, ~ ~en;Lr;'J ~r,tl!'hJro in d h:::~tlon~ h js; impo r-tiJnt', fl, . eiJIf:!,r ~ 'ito oD:59rve '~!hin we h,~'\lf~ been tI~ ~ing ,of 3 gradf!J'i;;itJ [{!I r:ope ra to fie' ch,glt;tQ~~ l~ iJlI.ilgh' a,s are r1lalla ~Wre'ly mobil:e ~eWi, hot t h~'y '·drift'; 'lOt "·diffuSlll·· ra the:r Wlh'iiilln ;·'1li!i11yel'". lhs changes aU tH~,a ~,cme' ~o. eoro~lle:t~; 'The, Ipr'~Slillce' of other elemSIrt'['S - impulri ~i:es,. or a Uo'V~nli: mate n1~~1 _ oan 50~el.'~tme~ rrH:iL~ni :th e' m et~ mo:~pho"s is ~1O'Wer ~~'n L Fij:n,8Uy,,, ltn ~ aC'lJlJ'al 'tt,em,p..e ra'~JU'r,e

,!l'~ wh,i r: n the .a rre~'t' IPOil'll es eeeu r 'Is Vie'i'"Y sl ~uh Uy dlfhj!fa m w'h@J1 h B'Elrtin g from 'I na ( '~IJ nd wihelO cooJi ngl;

E ~ II:' E- C- "T 0-; I:. C-~'A""· ID' ID 0:;-' ftJI

-~ IrF -.1,. _ _:.. ~-' "," ',,_. l 'll'l g. ~"

The prres'EI III ee' '0," cBrbof'l h~s iEI m~rk£d e'ff:ect am the, be~a V~OJ:Jr liO" the rneta I', Wh~Jl molten. t'h~ cerbcn is dlsselved ln '~h e!: i ren, as 'Wel' saw' 1 n the ~ 31S,t chapn~f ~ J t is ~ he· :saIFnEi' 'for mOIIl!1J11 ,~~wglfii a s for cast ~ ren .. Olfil~E:!' i m nllEi al1<at8 effect is tlO' 1!Q<wlu ~'!1!B pO']11 [ a t w hi,cih sll.~idifh::artio'lfl ,S tares arFd I' in additi'ofl!, 'to ,5,Uil2jjjJd 'rh,e S~ l,i'di'fh:taliQrI pncce:s-s O\!E! If a, temp'ira t ~r!! rIH1:[J'i'J,'. The Imagn i'~ude li:;ljl rh fs: de'p ression and the ra'f1.gB 01 'So I id ~fi'c.ation u; rn p era [IJ r"es depel"l.ds on 't he ~mCl,tlnt 'of' carbo n pre,Se'nt but ][iI:' ease of ($ a V~ a OJ5% G;:Ilr:bor'i stie"~1 '~n ~ i nltla i 'soi~d~ fica~iDn pe in t: h'h.e ""HqlUli'd'us,··) is lowered to ebout ~ 50Q'QC - aeeut 15 0 ~'C belo.w tml~' @f pure 'ilronl ~ a nd tbe ··oollidu:s··; whll9'J'i! ali II ~~: sOllld .. is not r .. ;!talcltu~d unti I 14300 t.. ~ PI be:tw~tl:n 'lhe5'e 'two re mpe ratu re 51 tne m etall Ti~ pa's-ty I 'mecta I tuys~a~!i ,alndl me! ~t'9n mela~ bel n~ present toged~er'. fVolIJ wPlil hav,l\i!' "f'QUlIj,d 'th~ same dlin~ wit"h scrna grad'!B5, O'f s:o~dlB'r'~ NQw, the cillI'Mon i8lli'1ld' i mn are in so I utien whe fi'i 'liquid, :andl thli5i, ,sun,e pj\e V'.6!'i l!:ii whe i1 s~lid a~ well. I h1'lrve m'ernk~W1~d 'tJni:s in Cn" ~ "~;n p~~~in,g."· ~HlICilI ~~: diJe"s n.eed' ,som~ ~'x.pla liliS l ion_

IW '~hel ~ron and e~l1bon were 3' rnbt.nJ.,.e we S;w.ou h:il' h IlMr€t mea'$U riiltil'8' palftici e~ of '[he, 'tWO 9uDS18n res Uitiform IIV dillrTbut,ed. 'They migh~, howiFJwr. 5ep~r~ t8 Qu t'. .g ~ wh~rq the l'i9im,en~, Tn roal~n't se1rtle's; in ~he II:u:rttaml of ,il tin. No m:artiBr how 'fill1 elV QlffiUlfldl, ttl 8Sl~: paln~;O'l'9S e'a(;h 00 r'nai n [h Old sa ill d s, O'f m ~ ~n~H'!I s, of: a [,omli!ji. A "sc,lu lio n;' [:3 ,q uits d~fhu'eiIiJl+ H ere we h~ve Ihe i ndividua~' l)',rOffl:5- '~~wm inti lrr.e Tlua' ~cals' is, qu i!~ cUffete n1. I, t IS qu ite re:a:Sibl~ _ iRch~;ed:p' q.u i"tlel norm:a I _, W :~ nd .~lH~h 8111 I~H'Omil~ 'dj ~per.s1en ("'gO'1 ut.iOln'·ll m a

~--- .. '

~ , ,

. /:® ,¢~ ~---~~/

~9'" '~OCll',mrm GIli' ~~' ~",~fQ.ti' il!!r.·e,!i!~1'!'i;!!i iffJt:t. ~h~ 9MD ~ I'I~Q/.!II~~~~if,l r:f!tt·!U~~f @otlU,i'IIthDl(JrlJt:tJ.

s@~~,d ~ a w',en._made uc,e=~h:dl;V ts ,a.n Et;.~Jlmpl!9' .

'lil'le CaJr,bOIil atarns are 'fl©'!l.Ilfl d ~ ctlJa'llly wi1th,in the F'~lf\ri'e cntS'[aJls ('they are m,uch '5ma~ le rr th.e n~r.e Fe rrhe itnDm~) as sh OWra if! F[.g .. " 0. Tl~'~ nu m1bfr~'of diss:olved 41uoms 'which can be aceorn modated h"!' :t.i11I~ w'ay do~'e S, d'E!'p Ii nd on '~hra te m,pe'ra tu ns: tas In the CiiSia m any nq,u~d :s.~' rto n) tur h. also depen ds on 'Ills tvpe i)~ (:iY~t~,11' [DO. (This h6S! ,a n i:mp'ortlJ nt bea ring] Of!l' 'th S hI rn en ~ 1ng prneass, as wo' 'Sh~111 He' late!F'). fu utln:~r, ,lil'lth'Cl u~!Jh . hie,\! , s;i ~ !JIlted within the Ie rvsta~, lattice Ih.~: carbo n :atom scan drif:t or' cll'ffuse iUS,1 as, c3n [he Bloms, o~ irOl\ b !J'~ '!'h is. d rrth cain O~-ICUlr at .Eli ny 1'1 iITi e. n(lt ju sl a t "~h~: ,i!llrIe'S~: [emperntlJ,re~. We shan .5(3'6: lEne r '~h at ~ he ~ ron :and CiiFb;Qn ~ ~oms c~n a I SlIl b 8 P r€SI~nf [n th~ ~'orm of 8 ··ODlllTIpOlJiiidj• - iron 'Gamid~ - bli1[ this 1Tt9ad no~ OO'J'QctlilrJii us .pt the marne nt.

To 'return to caur nflw~y rs,oHdlifJ.ed m,i!r.a!, lli! e filr'.$,1 e~e-t[ cf '~hI e cal~bc~rl1 h as :be ~o to depres.'S I('n,~ mru.I'lingl P{i i!ill and to CaUEi~ 8 painv :s'tag,E: du !Ting solId rfica [~on. 0 nee &aUd", '~he ,car:bgn I:~, fau nd in 'SoUd 'SO~ IlJ liun. h~ acldHion r ha;]W1MS'f. til! e ,j:l!res en C;£i: of (; 8lrbOlii inhibits the 'first crv's~al mrm '~c und' In pUI'\6 ! tort lh.e mela~' rso,]icli'f&es d~rlee!;:I,v i In'tOI I,he Faee-ce;n:ti"9! m.!l bie ,rorm Qif: f1:g '9. bu~ many Qf 'lhi!! cfYs1il'iil :itn~ms cOn-

tel in 1"1 ea'~bonl 8t~Hinrs~ as, .mo:wii!, tn Fig ~1 @. There ~a; NO a,rfIf!lS,t p~'lnt QI~: ~ 3'QI2°IC~, This; . 'SIO lid SIO,I u ~i" n" " wi [,h Iff·a;cJe~oeil'!i 'radl IC:rysta:ll~i< is eal h:rd ~"AU STEH'~ lifE". ,e:f,t,er' th ~ rrr1.s1iJlllU ~'is~: 'SIr VVUIUam Aus.tleJli. who, 1ffirst idantiie,d it. G:rai illS or- 'cry~'Hil'$ ,e!,re ,rOIUlfild ~ as in ,the case al' pum: ilrron.

Stnll fal lowing ~'~Ni 0 .. 6,% es mo.o st~e!~ as it ceels w'e 'f~'nd an afM~t poi'nl at about lSiOtiCJ where, 'tn.e cifV5,tal ~;'U,H·,B chaJr'I gel'S 'to' IB,od V'-C-t1iI'ri'lfed cubic - 'VO u wU I see '~:h,at 'Ul'~S oocu rs sbou ~ 1]2 () D C 10wi8'l" t h ~n hl ,t h e. ease of pu r~ ,I ~ClI n - Th"~· m a,!).netic ch ~,IiI,ge'.;" or "Culrha PO~f'If' 'tallies piace ~ few dl8g re~$ ilowlEi ~ ~

Thus. the imm~d~:i1!te effect c'r no mere Ih &lin 0,. 5.~ es mOil h'~s b~e~"IJ. fi~s r, U.l de'pfe~ '~he' m,el ~ili1QJ p~ IrlJ: en d 1'0 'inl~mchJc@ .~ . pa$ry sta ge in the! '&O~~dmcCltiQn j ~o el lrn in8'tQ' a hOfjether one of the Ii f'r8-s't p (i'i nrs ;1) III d its a is $'0 e hiJ '1 el d c rl(:$, t;~ l Ima:-tam'orpnCl:s,i:s" 'ii!iII"I,d 'UJI reduea 'Ihe temperatUre at whh;h the ,othen o~ur. TIllis mov I"! cot. i,t IN ~S't. see m [,0 be I~~ gm,3 ~ imp.ort-an cel~ CIUJ'~ i'l ls the implnce;~'~ons Oif rhase ctH!lnglll)~ wl'!licl-n' :mal'uel~ and, thi'V 11 !:lI1\i e :ill, profou nd e,fhc:t ~n 'I iii 9 heat tre.91~mSflr't VOI!;j r::B,rmot' nard en pure iron, by I e,Vel nO,. 5% ca !"be n s%e.el C!.l alFl, be lough~m eel. !fa'lI'en if' ,not m'ade haird. 'enmJgh 110 us:e, :as a cL:.n:Ung ~'Ool...


Uil u s now rouow [his 0.,596 ca rhanl S,ti;H31 as ]'[ Ie: do I s.. b !J'I w,ttn m o,m a tteru~ 01 [1 ~ wh~ is. ~ap~ i3:n ins ~o th~! carbon snd Ihe fef'ri Ie this ~ lm e. At sDUd~ ficatlon the A~!i~en ita hi! a hom Glgen80u s !!ollU fiD" off ~Inhr su b~lt;~1i! c.e s, ,~lowe!Je,~. as 'SOlO n gJS the 5tea~ passes lhe a rrsst point ,at abou~. 7aO~C 0nd 'rD' f·ulft.Iil~ .. ~ th~ elilntposlU~rI ~f ~'ne :Ay.s~~ nitre :slo\!\l'ly cheng es. t.J Iii dl at p~GI!J~ "j'·35·Q[ it c!ON~:,a,in~, 0.83% cirbo,n - the mii3lxi,mum ;1[ 'II::BI!iJ hold e~. thts ~JM p e>lJf8'W re, I t cain only s ch aeve· ] h ts BF'Vrni1hime'·nl of" carbon by ·eje:c[ i'nQ F~ rrlte ,Ham$,. arruj 'this i~ d o.~$. P ro!~P'\~'ssl've Iy ·ilI 5;. rt;, I9J lffmpef.r;a 1 uto 'f,a U s, rnu~~ ~l-Qe I' G:I nlly 0011- !tfIIi ned Cl5~ earbon 'to stem rt with l , Th ~iI Femte'. J-o~s gf,ains; cu t:HIJ1Ids, sLlrro!JIndi:ng tha' grai;iIls, of AU5tlli:i.n~le'i wl,i~h now r,arm rDnl,V .wart o~· Hn~ whc'la'. l~lO c\I'eraH 1lHui'~ysis of the! !3tee I w:i'!! 51i~ ~ :;l,h9W 'f15'~ of' cal(baf'!l~ blJ' ~~ is I,n oo.l"!lcelii tbFa'teo in th,e ,Au s'tlnilU' gra ~"''5. F~9" 1 .~ .

,Jusl 'oolo:w Ulhi h! mpe·ra'ttJi.r& .. at 130~ c. we fi;n,d' ,an~~jrU~,1l" "arrest poilnf". tht<s 't'ima' tlu~~ 10 a CI1H~n.g~ [n the: rei,attoiilshTp Df [he· ~r:ib~n ,a!"ad F"~nri t~ I'n 'th Q AlUs!L®:~·~~i3 •. Ab OV8 13~5,~C th~ c:a['borll is in. soll.Ji t tOrt bli! t 8l 1::lODC ~t all: tU!al ~V CQffl,t;-ines with 'S'Cl'mlit of t ~ 1]' ii ron to 'form Iron Carbide.· Th is i~ AE,lC. ii'II1Gl '~Mitlll ins abou [ 6.1'''', ca rhon. h i:s 'iI',f:;i'ry hard indeed and is, ~ fV'ren the' nl;lme·

I'~M' ~·rJj,uT~TI["··· b - I.'

~c· 1.1~~ I!. 1;., . ~c:aYSI9i I~ w;~~ Illf~:t

Ide ntilr11,e~ ~ n SU!lQ~ Imade bll( ll":l9 Cerna nta-· :U;OR ptQ:t;:: eS6 - ~e:e page '11 1.

this Cem~ Iilti',e ,CO[rll'~i;lins niIU'C n leAS F~rtner. Uran) ~ihan th e A,L!Jste nfl'S fro m \N:nish, i [. Wa!S ~f,Or.m ed. so 'lh~'~ ~,~~,Ii'~ wU ~ be· same, IFer!'1r~, left oveli. In UiI..e· ~'Verl'~. 1'"131' Ce-'menlti;~'e (or ~'rOfil carb Ide]' c,-ys,ta II ISM lUll [0 ve:ry thin p,ll~tes\t wid~, silm~ ~a.. 'th Tn plin~s lo'f: f~'J'~'i'te sa ndwic'lhed lltnnw~ ~~ them ~ 'Uli's 2~s,embly iOf !pIa 1;e:.s 'flGJI'm:i'nQI a: ":9 '"81111'" ,(;:orwesDondil"9 whh dh~ !9f,~i!l1 0,1

~j!l'" I1L21.~Air~/'" of Fi,. T 1 Jr~~ t1 ''''!itmllJ~d ~~ flJlNfi~~ li!J!.ri Ini!t. F1miM~§'jnoJ/n~ uJ':Iith.!ln,O!!=\!t 1li!!l'fil:!l;" o:!ii7i'JQ\I!'.iintii"iiJrJ'mi i", r.hs dr05'fJ i'Y frf@fl' (J ~#i i:!' () (lJ' j F'U_

AlHilH!!I"I,il:e from which i'! came", Under 'the rn itroocop ti1 1111 esa grau P15! hav@: ~. '\I'~ ry' bea·Yl'iful sheen, r;e·semb~in~g that of Mother .. af-Pur.!'. For this, If@!5!SO'I1! fu lsr caned ··PIEARlffIE"". U -a,m 'sorTV' alxnJ~ an ~1i1e:se n am IB'S,. btU ~nar8 is a gllg~fiilry 8'[ "Ita e end of the 'book if y~ ILl find tne,m cf~ff;i:CiIlJ~ I ee rem ~mb:l!trl. The love:rsl ~ com PillS rtio ill or IPea r~i te is 0.8 ~.% earbon :stU II, S'Q 'I:h 8:~ 1:f1S, 'til a' ".e~fl conta in.:$: 'Ciinll ~ 0.5,96 we sha lJild Hl(_~ec't 'Ule Pe,a rr~he grain,s, ~o be su rround'e'd by g~ilils of' lFerrbu~. and this IS", in 'f,act [he C~S$~ 'S~ID Fig ~ 2: .

Th[ s re.combln BIiQn of A!JJst'E!ln Wm1e infO Pe!:llrli'le cccu riS ~n -aJi IldIrbcfII ~,'lee ~ wh,e.,~ C0()~ lEI! s~owly. Nlcn LJnlilil'Y. th 8 a mou m 'Oif P~illriHe wHI cleptefld on 'tine 'C'flmon co~u,ent l ni lia Ilr~ r bu l" it i~ ,a<lways ·~Jhe.r8 in 'I) rea !'eF Or ~IB s;s, pmpL:;lir~IQn. B ei'ng, aI c.Om b !Ina, to 111 of SOft a od du ct Pie i ~on ('F(¥F!Fh . .E!'l 810d ve rv ~ a rd. Ceme nthe .. h '~s '~erv t:oug:h.


J f we w.ere to ~nok at. !ltee I with a dilf@"ent carbon conte'If!'I' w:e' s'll1ouh1 Wind !:lim i~ ilIrr dt:aln{l~.!1il' tak~ ng plaoa" but" ,SI'[ dillereru. r:e.fflP@,fi~t(j(-es... flfJl!' C;(arloVf.l11ll ienc'!3, ~ n!l1in8~fs! a inC metal hJ rgists mbh,~· [!he da Ua on a ch~rt~ 'ca'U~d th.e "I WfI'ECiiairOOIi! IE:q u,i Ubrlu m


:;:!;: ~
ilt ~
ti: ~
.c;:' :E;:
U' 'I.:
'!if. s



:Mo, D;aQtitUnt. whk'h $11 OW$! the e·ffects Oir bOlh earbc n 1lin3 t:e'm,~ ~r~tlUlrQ. II ha.\II\8 n1 a dB :e $;Implffl,~d verslen ,of thl~, ln Fh; g 3·: lhi~ d~~ls !Offl1l' w~th ""s;t.e·ef· hnll;i '[uH tJimg.1ffl '!ileltldes east ~ron as well) and II 10 i1! v! 11,illir( !botherred w~(h ,t he' tempe ra tu r'~!i 1llI,~ ~ n the rrui~I'~iltl g fa I1ge .. '1:l'lIO~H~ s.iJft~oia·rnlv 1r-1i ~~ed w iii! find the cOm pie te dia[J1I'8m fn mOs,r bookS en 1 he· M eta~ h.!! tgV of ·S-~~st 1b!1i.:II· ['ili'erle' ts a \I'!3!rv clear Ollle ~ n. Bl9tV~loD'l!!!liti1l B'wtlar!n~'t~I, in ibhe :s~ctj~Hl h Ellai1l~ .• ~ ron a rid :5n~e t·· . n, is ca r! be r(lltl/t(~d ,il!~ in most p Ilblic ~ibfalFi~·5.

I ha,VII! ,shown the OJ3% s:teei we have ]Ut!'it ~jof!ll5ih:i,en!!d ,as a v,eniG'a I II i!fllE! • 1he U~~~· ~neSl p.or'int, O~· c Fit~"CfJjl tl&mper,anur'i3i. Is :S'~OWJi!1 by th;e ~ ina' A B :E, srrd ~ nE!: lower by D EHIE. Vou ViI I II not i~~ that tlile'se coin!(!lhj~: a t • '13;' i:, we wi n h ~v,e. a Icok at th i~ In il rn C!!,me nt, bu I be'for-e d'oOli fly SD. let 1.11$ lo~k af~' f! IV~ lea I u; c~=$tea I,; w'irt h f!I e a i'lbon ~Gnu~1'1I ~ 01 (say) 1. 2%., ~ hava :;hown a: velMi:iz al :lline he·rlt a tso. W,e sra tt ~/I [11 Au~,te ni te a 5, befQ!r~. lb\Ji't ~hhl) 'ti 1m'6 ~1 t;ofrl~i r"lS - mote tt.a!li - ~Ill€ 0'. !tl% w hj(;~ ls till!l,! malilimu m wh ~ch ea n be hatcl ln pJ mio.fl ai'!. ~ he ['t'iw€'r c:r.ut"h:;;gP.I telmpetaJ:wre_. ~ is. Is' albo ut i 2'0 0 C f f!I U't RS, 'C~!H~')- As th'e" :S11~ Ed COO'liS, b'B low '~he upp.a:r erhleat, wh leh is, ~u abc'u'[ '~UJO~ C; I'he A,uiu'Gnr.~e~r:Jrd:5 itsBI'~ ,too rich in c,DrbDfl thislirme, whBfeas 1J'M a c;rQ\!'Jt~l!J!s, e~,ili!I!lr1! jJ I e 'W~:i rk:h 1111 IFlEI'nrHe. So; 8S '~he ta ffilpelrl8jlU re f~III's C1i rhen is pmgl'ie5i5ively relected, bu it. it' '[5: n=i'~.ctlil d in ~ he T!Drm of' item CBf'bidfJ t C!El:m'~ru~ Ie ~ for, UrI'U'he fh!J C~5'!5' of cast i ren I he~ clrb on n nn1bl eJ'!l:i$l U fldeif' til ese. ~c ndi'l'iQfII s, Wle: fio d. th efiefore. t ~,a [ t~, egral ns .crt AUSi't enhe a·N·!I;it~lW bei ng SU !'T'O Ulnae d CIY 'fi'rI"E,[. :S;lr-eak.s,

·.a"tiI thl en gram ns, iCf ee m,EU1 ~l ~i1!:~ Ithe:re r,s tiD

r'E!!ii' Fe'l'ri'[fI)' a\!!illrla~b~I!!. Bv ttM~!' '!inin) t hg' '~tI9~.1 has itQ"c!ned the '[~w'e,r crirkall ~le!m'D~trat!J!f\e! (~rU!i U ill 19' BE) U1J$ Au:s;teon~:e h.ii;is. ag;e in ,I!J -lied clown w'idl 0.83% di:sso~'vlEl!d cameln. as befOUl!. Afl d. ,ei,s, f:ndQre, ttl is 'I ~,an~orm:s to Pea r1 ~t~! (I S '11I1s m ~~.mll Il::lOots

,Fi!i}. , ,4: i'JI'6im r:t1 Pf.tfJdlllJ 5WllflUfNkJd DI!I' IJ~ fF lum C,oFtJj'all ftt"fflil'PifJ'fulJ

'[hro,ugh me· critical. We now find grains of ~ 188 rl lte su rr ou ndliBd by iiJ'IF'il!! B~ 01- Cerna ntita, ,F jig, 1 41 in ~Qrll'ras~ to ,'h!f;! P'@~fli'[iij arJ d F~rri'te: 'L:rf th e IOW€!IF c~rlboil! steel,

'Now 100 k, :en i$!~',e~1 whh 0.8'3% ea roo,n.

YQil.:i wm If1Dth::~' flhat the: two Hnle:s, rep,r'El·g sen ti ng Lhe Upp:e'r' a rrd ~~we'li cri'~ica~ 'lempem:m,llJres hh'E!! "arrest po-h1lS;"') now coillc~det. It ls, -after a fashion. a ·'EllJtscrtth::·' 00 I u ti on, s'imill ar te ~ hal flO un d ilMl !S~k~~·rs. .til nd Ibr8.!~ ng :llII'cJlV5. IB olh ~hu ,cryS"[~ II lr,a O~'f'OlI"m.a rion ,and t" e m EIl'I,:13!m 0 rphosls of th e Au~t~i1h:a at: cur at ths sarns tlme, ,ain d' th e Aus1t.en ~{ia' changes lo 'Pei1ltU te d,iir1tc.~~y. 'his .. a n Pa.61 r.n te' r '!;Ilee!1 is, ~bo ut [1'1 e tOUgh8St U'n:n I; ~1iI b~, had wi t1n a llill !iJ:I!Il carbon stle,el. You w~1I: il'IO,[-~ tI,a:'t a's, a OOIl'l~sequ~n'Ce [lIt ~hi~ "Eu[~c'(.Qid·' al' 'I'J,83'% ea rbe n 'thlEi' 1J(j ~i13 r crfti~all '1lE! mpe ratu u~·s, 'fi:l'jI the v-',~ri(i! S ~ eel s 'IIary' consicler,8bly., a ~Of!!91 '~ihe Uln e A,B ;E~ llh~;s h,IS an important'~i n!Sll ~m 'the tem,pB~Htu ras need~d to ,~ffec:t tll·e an n€ilU iii g of ~'h e' ~:Il!'~~e~, The '11lw !;!'f it::lrh~;(j Ell iem p:E! ra liL.1I r,i!. DB E ~ de e:s vary a. Uit tle, bu [ :~11 rna ny p1.<!lb li~~hl8d VIq'"S1'OJnl~ of t'h 9 d:~aglrn'm. [t fs show n :as a .5;u'aig ~t I[~e', lfh e d~ f1f@ OO'I'lC@ ~!$I ,e'Ifi~'V 'iI' 'few degr~~s.

I hii;t,ve· shown ,0 ill 'I.he. diag ri) m 8 r! U miber of il itde !ilke·n::h~l~ indi~~ tin g ~he' 9:~~ in f'Orrna ~~!'ln - ac.tu 1] I m icrog r,ai~ hiS, w'cn.!lld b~

.......... --------------~----------------~)-.------------------~------~~--~~~~--~

I?~D" 1,5 ffliJ' .il~~ IJf dlli.w>n ,eoi.lmli!~' ,iiiilJ! ~j';j!i'l' ffl~r:Jwf/.~f (:J~ -t,o. .rJ1if.$ Of lIlf,t:1e".!!lejf Be~

and iIASt'e'tild o,f' findh)QI tlhem~el'Ve;s, ln a 1 ~tuJ CEI' r'io rmlu ue n wh I eh :hiHJiVa:5 tth 8 rn ~il an ty of 1'10 0 fil1 !he ~alrbon ,l)IIto,ms a f,e: ~lIfapped ill slde the, c ry:shl,I'S, with ~ nadeq~a~e s,pa es 'k~1I" d'lJ eml. II n addidolnj, 1,he' Au st~llitQ IS! 'oom~llledi to ffl'Ui tfl 'far mo,m-

. ~amoJil' '~h~t r~ ca n norm liillliV hold ,al~ "I he IClrwer [e mpe:FatlJ re. ih e. Aus~'n~!e crystfjlls air'll! pI.!! t ILintie r lei norrnn us in'l!erna ~ s~Jr:ass j,

,nd th~"Si ,rs, J~S[ th~ cro;nditiOrl whh~11 i~ .,a'5·~tialtS'd witih h,i!!! ron i3'Ss. ~n ~~dii['~Dn", the -Oe m er1iUt:,e 'wh'~~h is IPres.t,rilt is, unabl e 'to

-c rvma Ilij,tfl!:! norma Uv. tl.'l!J'l in::iluad Is eon-

is t rnlinG'D -~nto ra n,ee d I.e-~ I ke s t jl"uChlj.n~ (~Jl()wn as 8!'1 •• Ac·TC!lJJ !f!Jr"" fa rma'lion,]1 Wh ich itS very nard lndeed, In f~C1~ nt, .is Ih~s;e' "ft8ed ISiS,;· wlhich tHg:~pl fii th I! form a tiQI1I crf ;1 gclD'd au n:inQ ,edg,e:. 1his. new struetu re _, I"righly s~re$~d cry,~'t~I~ ~s50ci~'ted W~d1 Er~ieuil:or Cf~'"SUIJ~ S ot c.e.m,en ~-rrt~ - i 5 g~\lerr ~tle f'I a me MiARTE NS n~E:., iillnd ~~ '[1:1 til b~si~

.of 81 ~ ha refer! ed earbon steel,

I h~ ve aJ'ffi Eli dV referred 10 th e naed to ;ijejit the m'Bta~ s,towly, P:i:lIf·t~V '~O I~ IiI:SU ~~, ~1Iil"1 the \!'(i ri'lO!I.! s transfo:rm:adons heV\Fl-lime ~~ Ci ee UIF _ burt t h Is i:s a~ SD ne C;e sse rv so '~h:;m I~ we ta'iil b e. $~ re 1:11 ~:t m he m i!3lta~ is hol right thMugh. Il d'o~$ '~"ke time! "for t ~e 'nea l~ t~ '~:ra\ler~hr(J,ugl'!l to tihe i01.~rio..-., A ~~·m'Uaf oon, Fa [lOr! ,alpp~ ie-tl wne III c:;-ool~ nl"Q-, Wh'~ fI ~p:ClI'inQ rapidlv r"quen{lhing'fl wha·t ,a'bout the m6't;a1 ~n '~he' mldidr~ lOt the 'work;pieJc@1' l"b, o utsi'dE!' has cooJ eo 'r'I3JS,t, it is ~:rue,; bu t: j tis, etea f '~ h i1Ii t ~w ~tn I ill r'ge SPII! CVrfI'8 !liS, fJ5~ eciu ny) th,~ 'I;Onl may II'lUJ~, h,[I\lSI kept II P w~il 'Ine c,Clol,ing O'f the e::!(turior- Wh,t!!-[ lSi ~i; e. a flf16t::t '00 tho m etta 11 We can bes~ 8 n·s Well" H.-I s 'q',!Jj e.s:t i 0 111 wlt h :iii rUH h e,jj di,aUlraml' fig. 1 G. Ttl i's shows tram'p:i'~-a [iJre o~ 'the vertic3il SC ill Ie. a nd t~ me 0'" the i1'Gr.i!fOJil'l!3I~, B 80Cluse, me-[a Illu ~g~ ~ts, ,ej riJ d

·'angilt'ii~l3rs need t:o ex~m i ne coo.~ing, ~ ~!e'S, Wbich rn a'll ~a_s:tt hau,r~. 0 r d ~ ys ~'Sl ~~II ,a,s th Q~e wh~ch t~k'e onlv the odd se,con d OIr ;so' ~h,e r.~ !rile 5caJlIItI! h~ ,oomprress€!:DI ~ i ~ is" i 0 'fa ore ".~ ~g:tJ rithmic";, Th!9.' d~~g!ra·m shewn


oa. 0·6 0 e. '1.'·0, t 2,

~'. CA'R '90 N.

"het r(l'1 red Ib.air"·' which has tor 5hou 101 have l ibe;en norm !f.In:sed wn'9:fQ '!feu fece-ive il~ from th e; m erchan1:. Cli1llld d:mMfliIJ (E)'",g. . "B fh~'lll '10 rawn M ~ Idl St~e~") willi not 01 [~II lh~ 11tJ't: 'of S~ jry ctlJ.JIUJ ~ P'e:i2rl~,te~Fe iiTh,e~c'~ Pealr~i te,..Cem all1l~ ~e,) tholugh it m i;J:V a~ tar 'lhB m ect; ~ l'i!ic~1 atre illQ'lth I ,;llnd Ie.s:pee~ ill! II V ~Il,e: duet m ~V. b iEI ~ aiU&e (he ~Qf'TI i!'tg ,P ~,c ooSs has; disto ri'H~:d th e gr,B; ns, 'Tihe ,struC'~u res to~nd When the :5'~ee~' ~s CDO.te<DJ too qu]tk,ly fa r me e:lila IruJes n:; OCClm r ,!j re '10 ita d;A1e-refit. Sa, I'e~, !lJS now ha,ve a loak at ~he !9ff,e~, (p f Of.h~ rt han slow co~ ~i n.g,

rill'lh~r con'fr!,J:;iiing aJhd ~r,e di'fficul'l lD I!'epJocltme. FaofM',ti!;!lVe r, by '0.>l:8Im:j n:"n 9 al !Sr;n~~'pm en ~ 1'1[,0 ugh '~h~' m ic~MCO pe s,n expe ri e f' ced me till I I :ulwgfs't C~ i'J e as IIIV re '~he va riCllms cons~itufJ "'lSI of Peillrnte .. FerT~t,e_ and Came'lltin" and by ilo,ting 'the proportions, ,of each can liTUii!kre: li'ii fa ir es~u rna ~a O~' th e ove~ I ~ Cia rbiij ill co,rrle nt of th e specime:r'll.

'lie ,S !!;p.trril up: we wo L.illd elCpeC'! to ftl'rncl \ri:! ltV I ~tt I a ~'et,~U"Ute a ncl ,iill rc t lJir Fe rw'i te in a I:orw~ ~.a (ibon ~ m ~Id ~ sws~. ~iUl the I=J rope f[~g n of· Pe:iI rilitt ~ f!lClea'~i n!jl, ;:s we ,fa ~,pr,eHH.~h CL8a,~ caiJ'bon. 8 evan d, this '~he 'CB ml~ntj te wt!'ulld ,be'9~n 'to ,ap,p-f3'l!ilif, I i:1Creas'jr; 91 I., pmporlion ;H; '!hl'! c~,mon '€=iOf'I,t,ent rOSIel 'to 1 h a rnlil'~imlQ m_ ItIIssoe'iated with a i ".steel"' ~.e b~lI.J'~ 1 ,.1 % G!!f'bQn). 'W,e wU!J~d e)l: P€H~t the • oliO fJgh ore:ri.s: - and $,'neng d1 r.o in ~rea!m :e s' th~Q Pea ~I ite prolPo..-tlon i'nc.reas ere!. up w' 0'.,83% ca rbon. 1'h 8r~fJlfte r ~he Si'eal cou Id biB' BXjJ!lc[~d [0 glet Ii ~rd~l', with SiD m e loss Oif d~ e~l lily, Th is: is, '" fact. lh e cas,@', fig I 5. B u [ I must emph.a lil~e '~1;la'l the-sf! il;:an-

sideriinion s, iililll Ij:) ~ I iii only ~os,[o~ I w hi en n a s b'$ e frI' bo,t h hl6t,f!( G,d alii d ti:'oo,h~d SU')Wl V ~ ~ nUu 'tt~'e~ Huhil ,aH:lIms· have: ~'1ime to find their rig~'hl. p.11aoes, ,a:ntl Hl~ chfamlcat ch':enga5 at the 1!IJ'If,i\i'i~u: cfitkall~"e· have: [!~m;8 tD .com ~~ 9t:~. I'~ is 'kY1Plic~1 0'" B

L8t I~!S, c.g8'in cro:l!l~rde'r our phtc~ o'f 1.2~ ca rboli;l $:tee ~ ~l'l I s;o'V) 81)0 IQ C~ wh i ch temlper~r1 U rei has bean rli.'i~ch ~d ei Iher bV s~'ow CQO ~ ~lFllg, iJr ~ low he ~tbnQ. Th,a AUs'h~tII:mt,e. wm hails ID r~iv 'ttri~Iif'l$ For m,e d • :linnd 'lh effie 'wi II be AUS4t)E!'n'iite grai os: S'Ur-'~OU !ilded by ~'rrU!! CfJmCn~u'IDe. VVl tlnl nr III'W ,Au stBni'le mJjJs~ (if 'th e IC'Ii"f.stail s, Wi iii corn~i Ii'l 'CI·ne' I~ r mora talrl:u~Jl .8 tom~; - I:he ":soUct 50hJltiDfII'· cOl'1ltn 1[~:l'n. ~ow I@:~: II.! ~ lPed uce Itihre lamp 9J.i3 t U!'l!i V!rtJry' qy ieldy .. There w m be IrlO [lrme' fur the atom,s tG ~~,r,ranle 'ihhe'm~ ~(illves., 'nQ ~~·m;i;~ h:a r crysla ~ [!I'8If'1rsf'Onn ~ ~on.

i~~ ~'tre·s [0 ne palrItl[C!lJ[w ~;lee~, b ilJ I li~ lS 'l'!fp,ical of m mst BUlery steEl r sp~(':mnation has ~l'S own ;"S-eu rve" lik'i€:l' m~s. I ~ is lmpertan'[ to reB USIB th at, '~'O ffa r as- W'e1 ~ rJ(\< conce;med, lt m uS~: be use d ~H1111' ~Q I1JtI$:r-raI8 the ,~iffl~c't~ of '[imeit'8mp~ratUoo ~1tU~Rg;8S~ D'B't~ill ilTte~ml;eM,iCi," of ~ne dia~Qram ~ til ma; for e;>llpens.

LQokill19 at IF i9. 115, VOU willi see 'thaJ1 'th are 2H16 two .'S." s'ha~d CU rvas, On tlUl! taft o~ the l'i'FU;!l AB C we na_v>!' ,a lOne wI':! ere the :steel is A~ S'h~'i':j,it~c ~ in a sta tEll Ill'f' soUdi

I' ., "h C'" b. t '. • IL.

:S1l:1 ,U (Hl!ill, LiI'Y [ ~1: ~s u nstan ~f - 1'1, ~ I as no'.

ye t. tr,arH~iform,e d bu t is iready to do so, Oil the dg,ht i!)f' the ! in Ell) D'1511= W~ ha:\i'e lh.e s,tee'l in irs nnel. ro1t,~,nV' 'hllns,fQrm~d Slate. [n this area, if we we ~e 't.i!d~d ~1g abeu a jh e ~I .2% caltborr ,S t~e'l' ttl ~J@: wou Iei' 08' gnd ns ot P'e!Il!rUle SiL:Jlrrou nded by !C'rm m em'[i re: 'if i1' we're' th,~ O. 5% !S.'t~~1 we looked ,8t nlJ'l~ er 'ltl'llrt) WIJ uld b@ g ra ins aT Paarl i'N~l ~,UI'f,O U ndad bV ferrite. ln heMe,ern th e twe "'S·' ~~ rves tha suuc tura is, unde rg,oiirnQ 1'he' tran sform !31~.tfJ,n pmcMS and wUlI cQn,sis~ of a IT! i)(t Ur.e of Cerm Qn~: r[;~~ ~ ea fib~dBS)j Pe'alrl,ru~ and F err~'t ao a!!ld j ,of eou rse, some of 'the o rlg'f,na,1 A ursl0r! ~"[iB ~ ~a rb em [n 5014 d ~ a I utii on. II! e i'iI '1 CI '! he~ II In e ABiC. thl€ more Ail.Jst;s n Ue. lA/hi I!st clos€I 001 (he I i n~ D EF' mOire- or th e. othe r n'ls.

,At. the, Dcrt1tOm, of rhe "'S··$ two l'irori~Qrillid I lines ill r~ sh own d\)u~ d. At one., m:arked ,. M,s," the h 31rd M,alt[f~.f'i&lttfl S-t'a't'r,' to form. a nd b~h~w' thg I ioc· n'M f~' this cna 11919 is CC1m ~ lets; tl1 ~ me'ral is all' in lh e hard (;011- diIJon. for "~i~~f s,leo!"· IM~ lii@'s' ,i!l'~ ~OOlJl ~ 50..:re '~owe:v-ar~ M a ru~n5~ ~e ~ nno ~ a:xi$~ '~D 'th ~ right ef lh e iiI'!! i) [8 t ., F" -

Now', consider a PI9(;B o.'~ higl"ll'-C:illil'borrr stee:l a 1 '~he' Il'o'~n t • "0·; , h is 1'1 ,a'OOl.!l ,I 1ttO~C:. Ilf it cO"Olls !;luw~y it wm foU!'Jw the 11111 e UP. la,k~' ng pe,rtlr i;iI;p;S .2,4 11otlj'tS 101 0001 down ['(')1 1 If;;! C, "Jil'l e ,Ii ne pas~~ ~ hro llJg1h

I~, ,t~ Ii'i.... "e" '1 d~ ,',' .....

u©'l .. l1 o~ 'I'. i! IE! 'oJ! C UlIIVe s~ fl' ~e,1iiI uliIg 'l"u!:U

Iota r ~ ra n s:r"O.rM,ialt'io l1'li ''[0 Pe a'ifl i(fe, and I~a r'm~:nti t)9. has l~k€:n pI8,t::,e<. n1Je' m[~ tl8 rhail bS


"a nnea led" - ~ h"et s:te~11 hes had tirne t,o '90 [hrough a11_,~jhe ohsu'!!ge:s 'we t!1I'~ked about ,j!ijwlhn i Now loo'k ,!i!lt ,th a: line OR. The meta i ~l.sll$ ooo~ ad Hl!l"Otllghl an :udeI1t ic~ I UHnp~f81~f~ r~n,ge', but this tlrns in 1110 -n-nors' 'thalf1l on 9 S8COrqd" A~ rt~, 'POirtrf does, i ~ ICi\"Oi~ ~Ihe: ··S·' QUiNe" :E;G ih'at, ne lranS'foJm,al:~on to Pi1arIUl~ ls ,po~ible, Ehn it HAS ,crossed b01:h U:i ie: Ms an cJ M f Hne!<s. ij ndica'~~n 9 that tut~1 transform 9,t'i O!ll to !VI atr~,en:~i te

has taJu:~ n p,la ~e, lll~..s sam p'h~' i s "hID rrl QfII-ed1'·. lh(t$e are sxemp ~e.s OIr: ~ he two e!')f'U'ernes. slow ,[I nd fast' 'Qooldng.

You wiU S~eJ olf1the dJa:,g;rarm ill line "OS", wh~'eh JUST tOI,lCi!188 the fIIOS:'fJ o'f t~e left·h,adil dO" S' i ,Ctl rve. Th i s ~s; t ~e 5IoW~1Hil't rata - til'!' ··C'riticat' rar])!l:l ~ of cool ing which win ,a:,~'hj6ve a hd.l'lf lil a rode [1 ed M tEl rta VI s,itic cOll1Jd~'non. [Tho,e IOCSlI1ioi'i of [he, pefn [ "·S·' wi II depend on

~he ~,ype Ic!'f $;:Eh~tl ~ It m 1,19 ht 'typ,k;.a Ill' be ,,2 ~,r :3 'secor! ds], The QU!i!IF1 Qen shown by 1"he 1 inQ

.'~IU-·· 11..., . a. __ .' 4·· , I "r~" _

"'-11:, '.' ~ I! gOwevarr P' rijJe'e. Cro:ss LH~!I 0.11' curve,

_. .. ~.

,A B C" ,art '·V'· and • "iN". ~n and out aga ln, 9~;nv6EU'l ·V"· ,B,nd ·W·· some 'of d'iIU At! m'GI!ilite' W~1iI tr3ns'Jo rm to f'e~lrn'U!', b U'~ iii s die CQoJilFligl curve Oii1~r 1[1;1'5; to ~f:'ie' ~rgh'l; olF lITe I~tii~ ABC marne n't8rHV the rem'8inda r ~ill c-arry on down au to 'lIcmil"! M8~[i::HlS~~t~,. The' 'fin~1 ~!riN~Jr iN U l. ~he JEilfo!re. be rna ~n Iy

M.a rt:e nsita but 1Ili~tn ,at Iblle Pea r;I iti! ~;S: we~~, It wUI no~ be as hard. SUI, the p,~~~erl ee 0 r ~~'e Pear Ilit~ ~w U I 'm~ke' ~ l lies'S btJ'll nlg a rrdi a bit 'touQher. oil.'

Thi s, diagram ne ~p\S us 00 u-nd~fS,t~ I!ld wtUtM' cain happen in the esntre 'of a r:dece 01 '!ita,a"1 during th 8 'q ue ncb, U' r~ hi ss a ~rJud ~ GfiOas .. S~Clio ~j a mid is cooled a ~o.rng sern e nOB' such ,i1J]S ",OR''''" th en du~ centre of 'th e Si$'ctij,o n may fQ~ low ,a, I ~ne between "OR"'

AI '.~ns" .-I " h~ Ib.. f' I'IIL}' II:

arn!U lUi _ • an"", w~~~ ue tu ~f tralns;,'O,fl'il"lrer!

rrig'n1 tluough;' ij't wiU 1b8 "~'hrough ~~f,den,edi', Il, however!, it W'~~i a very thiclk. p;eee, the. eent~e' mii'g h'l '\,(li~ry' well' b~ COD~!E!d a ~c 1119 "0 U -~ ev,eo th 0 ugh the' au ~'slde fOUowed "O'Ft' '. The cerUr'ei: 'c,'~ ~ ne s~ elrnen IN 0 LI1ld not be, as I~ ard as the, outside - 'though 'it, may WJlII'U b~ t'~Ulgh:er;

One' af th ei P(J rpesss f'or wh leh some of dl.a a'i k'~'V~ r'IlQ etemeors a r,~ ad ded t 0,

_,..:I ......... ,. . I ., til:. •

mU1l.llem >Ca i uon st~il:l'eg'S I:S~I mlE! ~m'Prn'IJe-

merrt: 'cr~ ttt ~ "'~hrO'lJg tl liLB ri[J,enh19i'· ~'~lrBcferis'tks; till e' alltoy moo'f'iillu,;, the .. S" I~ ~, A pia in" 'unal nOil(e d Gila'riDOf] ~,telS ~ h$

Flg. 11, i!-1 -T/rm:- 'T~'lJI~mrr.rfj! rr~rn,,'riQ'n ,f)htlll'!'Jm-'~·CW&r"") ~'rJf,[!' .... ~_b..f'..I,.Fli'ilt;ilrl ~r'i:'':'' ~~ -r-Nkt~ o!r'Jy.PJ~J ~Ij.!noii Mi'II,'

H'td.I'hlili~'lD w'il1'11"""fromai.erJJ ~tJ, ir,fUiif. A,

l, .. _."'---
A1J ~flE ~JTE'_ ~~
. 17 ~
, ~tf:RAJ\!iSF:;lR~~flC N ISl'A,~r5
~ l,,")"/IAIlSIrE ~. 'I H s fE"~' Ii: 110 n H
I~ u
"-. -=---=
_ _
_ u_ ""_ ,/ --. -
\\\ <, /' TI b-:':': ~ ;b
:/ r- <, .-"""~~~AiJ'~ ~Fl- RM~l~O~ END'S
\\\ ........, '..._, ..... ",., iPEARL TE "('E'I'i,\EN:TIIT't:.
L~<I~ ~ IL
'\ ~:/ '<,
, ~ B., ~". r-.
. \ ~.. '_
\ \~~
1\ \ W~~TAiBLE.· i.. _I II··· ..."
-. \1>.IJ!fU ITE.· ..... I~ ~
\ \ \ ~C'
~ \-'1. I Ms. I -'
-,~- -_. r-"', ,_ ·' .... ,_.~~'I'--='= ~ =,-"-~ ..
~,-- -1:-'_-c-~r~~- MI· __ J __ ~I
. ~ '\ \
, s\ _\ MAR fE~: 511 E-
R' IJ. ~
" . " D,



!..d, ~ ,dJOO ~

l~ I!JJi IlL

::i:3QI!!1 ad lin-


n~,'~ ('01) g,l)od in !th.~s rnsp!8 e it. Bu.'~ NO '!:h'ic:k sEI'ctfo'n !1i!!f stelel :ce n be' hard ~nl~d right 'th rough. ~ven w hen ,liIlloy,s, OrB add.ed. for ~·'SHver 5teel:~', 'whr.clh con'~3ins, B litl'!!a:

Clii rom~ urn to h ii;!.Ip, rns U.t!lrs, ill Et II[m ~t is 5/ 1 6 inch thick. 1 ho_ug'lri th t3: ,I ass ~f 'lhalrd ness .iii'! 8 OOn [re O'f.a ph:n~e i inch th ic~ fS very sma II i rullee-d. Thi8 .. Umli'l Ul th rou'gl~ H cHd~H'! i no" e,,~phf~ ns l'ha· diffic!J! ~ties some I:imes m e'L w'i 't h w~e,i1 a I i19'rge ,section 'Club!)" St€i III r.o{;)1 is '91'0 una ,dow!i1 i;1n t"h~ point t'O brflll~it ~!fJ' centreheight ~n a sm~U ia'Ull,e, as i[1 Fug. 17. The 1J'01filt of tne toel is 110lf"ll 1 [lei! [~d in, [lnifl cel'llr't.l!'a m 'th e s:ec ~i,on ,a nell w ~III n en b~ ~5; he rd e s th~ ()rilg i fila I. Th~ ~ ess of ha [:10 ne 5S 'Wi II be till! he not r eea b~e If a ha lif~~ nell {Qol Irs .g rcu nd dO~I' to 5/1 6 inch po~rrt· hel~9h'L The c;um is 1-0. anneal and Ire hallr d an,. S'~e p.37'.


As well as hail'dne~ we are .reQ.'uenltIV c:oneei!"f'lE:d wid.. Ihel Shiif}lfJ' of Un! wOlI'kp lee e, e sp@'ei:a ~ Iv '1M hen m ,e,ldng ga I!Jges ,~,~ flO'rrrll 'n,~ols. A IU U~ th,!;]ugn I: 'will $ th:it: til er\B: 1 s ilikeh~ ro be II dlmen-· sio.n~11 enange' wil:t.n ;!!I'n the [ransIUrm,~'I'ion S wnU,in Ehe meIJ.311 ind' ihcu, in addition~ lhe nighly s1.ress~d clrV~te'l~ ''i~iill ~ . 'd,efl~cl" hH,l;! iiI:$ any :Slr~SSiBld ml~m bIEr 'iN i II lI! A dar Not Qn~ th al~ - ~he \il1I!! ry aat O'F ,cooU Fig (iau~e.!i,· a COfllUCl!IC1to',1ii an d ; fQ ~ "qu'~.n coil" d, is IC'O:I'1I'tra eli'oin Ks !1uddt!n in t~e e)ttrnme. I" 'the 'worikpie CiIl!!' is no~ e~ac'Flv !S'vrn ~ me bricall there is ri'sk of u n~ve Ii1 sh ri nlkage.,

II!"UI..LY QUE CIfIED.'"&i '100'" ~lfFENSI'fE:


oRl6lit-iAI,., [lUlliINE

r--2_ .~. ~-------I

\- _. ~---


L~.....__.~~~~~ .....

Flu:" 1'1 ,N ~' ~r;!J.~J:ft'ii_()n A'~il~ ,~J~~j,' io'fii11~ ~d ~. , 1fJ' (..i!~.r ~ 5i'fl~ll!J' ialfl.r.! '_~,,~[.fij.,_· .. t9'~ iAfiM~r!J' I!! oRi ~rNdfi'{Jl (he. Mvr"JIW •

2- '3 1 o_ ,2~J.. 50. 1 00,200 5~. 'tj4" 'p. t

'''IIiI.''- ~=--=~~~~S:::.;;If:~:c.~Ci~.'n;:::'~~~:=_. ~---~===---iI . .J..... HQur s.

h ........ ~ ~ __ ~ .. ·~~~ ~~ __ ~~~~~

The highfjr title coo! i f11g f,aU[!~ ~he 'g Fe.a ~!~r (he r'

lin eases w he; ~e ·~s.h,ai'p~" Is imll)o rt~n t we must use a :s~owe'lI" 00'01 ~f!lg rllue,.. ~'Vlefl thou $) ~ ' rn ellV mea [l1 'lh;a~ ~Jne' 1~;lJaIDch rl ne 'Mlr tha GsrUr,:e of th e work Imay 'c ross '! h~' n~~~ of' [he: ·"S·· C lJJNe mom enUi!lrUy. F@rtuntate1v tn'is Is not SO ImpOrit81!11 in art~~cl", fII 01 in.tended for m~'ta1;.-eu [ling, and in 'S"~m~ Ci3JS19S C81f,l b~ alfl iild~'flntage. e')il:~ sc~a~ Iy for too I 5: subj:e!'Ct t;o !5j,hQck Icad~ og. Th ~ fis,k of cr:mllCi<.in:g ~~ not gJ,e:.~t ~hen d6;[id~ng with ~:5HY) a ,~~mp~~ "'D'i'-blt bUll ean bo ~D~t,~ in Ihe' c~,~ O'f a m'Pllingcurter, with sh~rp corners a,'[; the, '[oath ffl:a Is.. ~ 1"11 S!U ell I e3:SeJ ~t 1 S, prude!it'l '~o sacr~~ce a little, ihalrdmlS$ hl '~,rdu.r- 'to be sure' of gett~ng 'OUlr ~ool h'1 one' pi'iiHH:i!', and ,a sl'Dwer method af qu,e'fH!l hilnJ!jJ !iI!111JS't be Sioug.llt.

1 n Industry :specia ~ lm·e:ti'l 005l, ~r,e ILISe'..i!iI" J:10~, ne:oB:ssii!lriIV beyond the 'C"a~ahm~;e5 of ~lhe model le!l"lisin ear r b IL.!'~ '1:1"1 tV do fJJged IP r'l#p~ r tE!A1per.a UJ Fa Gon Ira I. The- 51 m p~ es~ 'm~'~mad 'lOt us; is tC q uerYch In all 1 ri:s1£e'sdi of Wc~1 ~r:. The rlslk 0 cracking and dfistorti 0 n :R~ consfidarabh( ffldi..B~'ed VI~t 'the ~0!:i5 of trH1I ii'dn ~ss is not gm,i:j L II t h owaVeI'r" di,strc'!'(t,on :i!ij, of ~he 'fir~a im~rt~n~e. a~; when rna kin ~ ,I· g ~p g.8Jluge" ttl! i t ~ S w is~r 00 use it he' :spaGia t l!JiJ,~hard~ oi ng '[00 1-S;U,ll~l~ - "'ei ~Ol!l nd IGa I,j'ge' g,toc~ i ~ • j,Thou gh it ,c:a n ;a:l~o be obta lin a'd ij n black, balf a ~ 'WO~ U. Th ns ma ha:ria~ ts, a Iloy,ed: 00 I'hal'! oil-lquench in;g :a:lwa ys miss~ In!8 kne,~ o'F the, J ·S·' ICUr'i.!t~. ,e!,nd fu~ I ~ ta'n~bnrnadofJJ is ob~a ~",Ml. I'~ h; rU,lit a's tis rdl at s a 'w,a:'t~r=n~~Hl.·:h~n ~dstr..a igh:t ,e,a-rbon s:ree~. but is ,le!lC'8q,u8te 'for $h~ P'U1fPO'$l.


JU;$,'I a~ the . ·G .. ood 'S he;pherrl'· ·'tempers ~'~1!f3 'Wind 'hl ~ h~, ~'hQrn ~ ~m b", 'so '~hrFl. Pt~dtH"l ~,(101- ma kJar t~mpef,s h ~s h ~rd ,5,tee II agau'nsl slnaok· Iloads. It, h,ig:n-carbcn 1[00'1 ste,el.,.


'~r'Cii18'VII Y h e'a1 treat,ed. w; n h~v,e reaehed the ma:ltimUl m ,a v,a,il ~bh31 'h8'rdn.e's~. bu t iJ:t wU,11 be! very brit;'t~e., ,As I have [lI"ied to ,~I8!in. lite, ,erv~af~, a~~ under oonsi:def-' !':lIMe Int!em.a'l stifaTn and' 11f!IV sFiock ~o a,~~~g,. o r 'QV'~ rl ro ug I'll Iii a I'll d lin 'h ImtlV c.aIIlJS'EI! f't~cture. lhis .IlTIlJY ,~~p~y occa,s'i'o.n8~ IV evofl wi Ell: oil'-:t:i'UEi rlch,sid stre'al, In addition. til e grain sile Imav net D<I! as 'm1j,j!o~ r~b lie to Glean cu ning i\eUon as wie weu Id mC:8" ets;podal ~'y if t 118' initi;!jj I 'H3mp~f~UJIFU ~ poi'iIlt 'PQ" Clf Fig:. l 6) w,a 5 n ID t HBGfhr riijJfn'. !If ~ hOW~Vle!:F.. WO, Il! OW ee h~'iI t U\B s~)ra'el to ,I!'i! rata 1:1~,e!v row tempBi'inu:re thes:e !,'i:lf"¥51als can ,be. to :$om e e'Jic'lBnt, .• SUI Sfj~rtll'~eved'" an d if 1:1"1 e '~amll="tn~a [Jlolre. is 'ne I ~ ihlf a Ihl~ e whUe Scm,a d 89,n!3e ,Oir ,gra in r.e'finefflEH1'1' may be had ,a 5, w~U P For ph~,i., CllI tt~ ng, teols, whe!lre shock logpj if'!;g ~S 1i']'li'F:'i,:m i!11, ~ verrr .low r.e,mpef1j'ng t,emp'e'rature wiJI serve - 'I: hIS' U:SUI;9'[ rsc CI m tml~ndl~d i:~, fiboy'l' :2 30olr;~ though '~:h 15, did ref;er Ito 'lu rni r!g Eoois one I~r 'twO in th~ s' s.qu iJil"~ - I sh:a~ ~ h~'!l8 m,o m to say a3,bou~' lh RS 1~'ID~r I it i~, in addition, prudl)fl'~ ~,C!. te'rnp€l r ~ h~ raol~~ ha nk even mor,e, ~i.\l th iII~: ~ I dio SIS n 0,1 cr~,cJk !J ndfli ii th e cl,lilm pif~tg' foft:~s of dle !(iOI-!P~Sl.

T i!l!i rnpe rri ng ca III !se rve ~I"'! ,nil er p ~rpQSi!'. '~hi) iill!g iii,. We h'ii!lIV~ 00 en 'I ha [ ~he (llil eru::'h pn)dU,OBS M ~lrtB n~ii~~' - high f,y ~n!p~ S:~Eld AtUs:t~nTte Grysta~s ~nt',@wsper,sed with nE;!'!ed ~e· .. I,i k"e Ce:ifJ'U.l'rni Ul!i, Fa r $'CHfili~ purposes", ,howe~er. 'w,e need. h tigh Slm [1gJ~h ,a'rld ,~'esi~jie nICe nUh er tha~ h:a ~dne.s;s ,ats, SU(;f1 - the ,ch.lssic ~,$e b~ing tliI'e' ,spring. There is no re~ son a t all ~ why ,ijJ, spring sho:uJld b~ HA'RO~ [Ins €irigJil1eer ,expects them 't,o h ~ve ,~ h'[gh vie I d s~ress 'i3II1.d iii igh re~;i~ ienCQ~ I nd~s:tria~ Iy i'~ is; pO$$~bh~ 'to, .eI:~h"e-'IIe thl~ dlimcdy' b\lt this: do;es ]1I~d: :spe:cia j: equipme:n~. '~Afild~, iil1 ai1¥ case~, lcomma ~ci'~ I sprin'gs, ,Iit'r1tl s!~,~C 0 IiTI m.ide' 'fm.m 5 [r'~ligh'~; carri:! tD!D'~~,SU'IF;;!,~ ~., '1I"ha ~'n'l 'if 'W~V open t-o m of U.~ hi 10 hiil,rdBI'i righ'~ 10 L! 't (pre~':e! r1lb~ V in o·ill ~ ~nd ihefll ''''~em'p ~r ,tp an;::lW P to the de ~i red cond~tu'cn., W~ .,ehe~r~

[CI., g:u~rhe-~s~ 3110'~C - ·'bl~e~'. A~ ;~'his; ~B~ ~amt,IJii:i~ ] ~u·" n e'e-d ~e~ o'f M (i'r1!el"'l si,'te: cM nJ_e ~ IFdo ~ i n'~~ · '.nodu tes·· and" of GQ~r~, E'he clrY,s:rn I's a~~a_'~O~plet?~ 'Y ~~ ~~~; reneivedl- Tha steal wl;l~ blai . hard' rel all~e W m~ rd :£;tEl al ~ bUll nowh@:re nea r as ha I'd ~IS Je ,tpulr.rh1,g OO!l)I.

To sum uP. 'we ea n modify' ~he ·,S lructure ,of ,otir h~lI"den ed S"'~e8~ ~'Q $;yirt !h€i: gu IiPO:StI 'We' rIttJ·V!E!' ~'1I1 1m ~nd bV a !lte'c1ond fa rv 111.ea't [N~81'm 8 n t ,tilt eernpara '[iv'e~'v Ilow ~e!lil1;pr;!'r.a ItJIIl'i6iS. II 8h~11 be Dove riI n~ the dewliol Il'fBJds, '1'01" ~ari cus ap~'Uca Uon= r~n,er. b ..... 1 f~~ 'sflould !bam' in rnlnd that "'iT e rnjuriiiiJf ·5 aNa lh re~ p!J i'lpos!e s; '[0 Slre'5~ mIW9'iJ@ t~ til ~''ligh't ,. cry sta Is and sn

r,e:d~ re the ri',s;k of crack~f'I g: :~o l rn plf~)\iie ~he ~ ram siteI' so '[ hat vou Mn G-!!~:t a ke~ n til.! M rflg e'clge: and, ln some cases, to transr(1l'l'n u,:e Mia rtensita to ,Sl"1:otillJ la r 'cona~ .. tlon ~ im,pmrv181 :reiSiHenri::iI3:. II ,stl'a~t In ill r.8t'et·~ha,~ter.~ d!~a! w~'Uh '~·hrs in mCJ're det,a'i~~ e8peo~aU¥ in r\Elli~a'liofli h) tli! i!!1 $pec~a'~ n~'ed's of I VOl)' 1il!Jfn9rl:9, 't'C! oU~., wh~ ~h rn ll!S~' b8 'b:rauW11' up '[0 ~ 'W rry fini~' po I ish a:nd sh.a r~ letlge,.

5e\!,el1'1,~odd ve~r5 ago, wil,.en t'ne "-·StBn~.h:ud PlI'1!lC'Uces"· of rri oel,!!'1 'sng:in ee r~' tl!'llg W~ ba,fng '8SH~bn$hrell f. calfbon ,~·~ee ~ was, lust 'Ilha·t = .~ Fi Ii noy of ca ~b(] 1:'1 and i.H I. T tUB.. h WOi.J! q d eo lilt aJ~n a~e. w rmll u r1{~ l8'Sf for rt:11l1i3 davs: of. ctrt~n::Qa,l .. sme'~t-ed ~ron Wi!fl! [H/'H' h,nolU 9 n Holl~IJ flia~ was 's:ti U L!Js~n 9 HU'I1't;smliHl ,e~ui:Ili ble Itoo~ ~:;;rtee~ mlt.;uje 'fr-c m implIJ rled D.af1illllB'mQn,~ ctuncoa1 i~@nl and 'ry-picaUy fUlJ9i o-r 51..1 I,phuf a Ild p'hQsphcrrU:3 W8'8, «ornlal. l'Dda v. h cw,eVi~'r. a,l,mos:1 alU su~:els ~ Iitall'11 ~~h.e [' ~III;:! m~i1I ts, :as we'n, We h !iI,1iI~ 101'tt!:mdy seen: nOw d ~a stica 11'1 I he ~~tlre ~Ieris:tics 'olf pure i ron ~f\u aft!€! red by th tJ a;(idi'I'IQh ,of Iqui Ie 5ITH,II ~ amounts of c~11 ialOd I ne 'Slam!!! appl[e$, ~o '[he=:H~~

2,1 ~~ing ele me'Flts. The diagr~m' ('F ig. 1 :I 'On

. .

RJ1a:g,!3: 1 ,8,. ~ lis dr~wn 'for "'ph3ihl·· ea rhon

stee I. b U'I lei'i1cJ'!I. a'llo¥ Wl n halve·;a diTfer:en t Cti{Hlii eterls th:: eqy,i fibriu m diagram. sarna v,ery 00 mlPi£x in.d~e-d'.

Allm()i8! an carbon l.oo~ steeh; i[iI!tiU'S81 days co nt'8i n a bOI.J:t 0 .. 3.5% 01 Man g'ei n ~E. i ts m iJin pu rpOSE!! be. ing to QQU nt911",aC~ tifwle' effects of' 1'1-U;!' ~,millil rhv SU Iphu f~ A~ 111 is I~\le'l 'I'he @fiFec[ on n~~ 1 3: an d h ell! O~ 'on tnli!' heat t!featm,~nt is l"11egliglble!'. When present il1 nigher' amOiLJn'~:s - '11 % 0 r m I) fa - '[he . ~H:eBl, n!lfJ ecs s;pacra'l l'ria8tmiull. A few t'CbQ~-'~nee:1 S ,~.' S:rl'Jel' ~:hee1 Is; one - iI co,wna~n:s 1'"1'0' silver, bV the' way:' ~'ne r'uJ:m1f: re~~ rs to tts alPpe~ ira1i"!ice ~l ~filcl ude a eou [ 0 .. 5% of Chi romi ~m., PiJ,r~~ V fo he~ Pi ~n re1j n~nQ the g~i" s12'~ bu I, ~ IS{l to i rn ~i'('Jiva' "t htough lila rdeninQ ... • . .A,I th is ~e'iJe'r '~hlil!!'m ls so me ·sl igh t. effec ~ on tlil e sha p.~ of rh.e'

..,j'. ~,;4" . 'w.. • 'S·· Ii..

YI8Ignilm.S~ illC;~UI~ll1ig b,a - CUI'Vf9 ... !i.i!ul no

,siP e cia I t r.ea t m·~e n 1. i:s n e,e"ded. Ttl 19"" qU€I:llIc'hi "'91 te rnp@lFtiture is s;Ugh'~I~' '0 rf1f~"'" ifen'l; '[~nn ~5 ~.IL rhas~ !i,teais ~u,a e:s~€! rni-i1l1y. ''''~:m Ii'bOIl·· s:to@I's wli'Uh Bddltwf!.s t'i} i m,p,f~'ViEi' perfOrlifl,i) I1ce~

As Ih 0 aUov ClOnMrllt mites. l\1~weve,r.. an d. ;mOfif;!' esp e C'ia~ ty; wti en ~' aombin~ lion' .of alll~yrng erements i:s us;&di. 'th1en '(he: .,equ!r\talen'f: d iagr,am s Ui!1 FIQ!7l:. 13 a rid 1.:5

bec'ome very ~omplh::at~dl i nde~d. ('Chn:p,mi UJ 1r1l I' :ror examph3~ &orm;s ~ verv h~m carrrb~rWe 0 in its own ~ .. When I"a'r:edwittrl a steei I .cOI"lI'a ;rt:il'\g mo're' than ~bou l 0-6% of any or the~e el'ament'S bmd 'they can be N'i.ckeJ" Chromium; Cob;elt, 'V'anac:Hu.rn. T'u illg's,ten. M(dy:bden Ulr,'n. Th'illn i u m 8 nd 01 ne r8l lh ~ ,!;iJ.ll$wetr (0 t'he, Ifn~'~I~: treat men't P ifob I Bm i~,. full" the m ode'l 0 rngi'n e e ~ !

, .. iIl"Iii 0 "'~, ·T"'· n .1i;.. of • ~ a.o _. II~ II 0 3M

IIU' ... nil'· . ~ iI!'"Ij n ioe pu~~ce Of .;;i!' ~ i1lIICll'i.e u . •. j'Q

Cit rrbOl.n !S1!ee;1 wli n (ff ¥OU I Fe Sr;!(e it ~·s EN,21) make· elil:QeUa,r'ilt CGnnBcl~l1Ig rod bCllui., b !!J'I Y n tf;~, \f,e u have 'th e e,~ae~ ~>,"e'arl [fe-a Iment lid :i!l1~a i'l :Us, besn h!'fa: h, '1'lle;)1 •• ',j!! S :Su Illpliled"; at l!iOO'. Eye., m:o:r'e .sO I'l yOu ~ome :1l!I~ross anrV lelf tne higher ,911lhoyed ;sltesls -

h ...... ~ __ ~ ~-_. __ ~ ~ ~ __

8 nd QV~ n mOIl"e ~tl a,gi;!l,i n if H has com e frern ''''tvans: 'ttntiJ' Scrap'''',. H~illt t[@"iini111'EHTl 01 SlUch, witlilolU'l proper d~,~a, Bind eqliiip-' '!iTI~ nt, is ~ ~kelv to ,b~' (H:S8I[JPO;~fj'lhlg 1 f' n ~ I 'cata,strophic, fHowe~&r, I :shSii~. ln a I,;n~r ,chapter, d!3 al Wi'lh '[hit nea t tr.e'al'tnii'en t o~ sem e fjf ~he medij IU m ea ma n :ste 915, 'IN hIch cen, walh CSif'8\ be Haa'ied quite effe ~[~:velv). IFin~i I 'If. den't ro rg~n th<a'~ lb ral~ngj and to ijln 'e\il,fi'! n g rea te.1!" eXh1!'n'!:. 'wald~ ngr~ is' 8 (orm of heat [T~alm.en [I

There are, ·m.eny s,]tua:ti,ons. bo~h in 'fuU-sile ~n d model Sl1igm l1i,esrin g. ~h ere e h alrdwea ~'ng S IJriace l s 1"1 eeded blU l' til a cornpoIII en t iii I~IO rnu'st Ire shn shoek loads - I[) r p e:rha,ps repeated r9vefs8 I 'o,f kUtd., a "'''[!''LOSt 8$ bad. CrOSiS!=head i;U'II.d 9 udg Bl~n pi'ns a'lIa' te;:(amples. Tnilill u$l'Jla~ .sulggesHiJfi'i ff1ladle by wri rers of .1d1Tcles- h~ MtJdei Englnlf3rer'3 nc e~stWh era- l s. to use '5i I 'II,el" S tee I. h eJrd en, and ~hEU'1 l"e liIil[pe( ,~'a f::k~ Tm is is n 0'[ a ve,ry gooo sa ~u no n to '1 ha ,f,l robl ern, first. th,;,} [i@:iI11'periFlg Ireduoe s ~H,e harr,d nsss oW th~ ~eiEllrin:g' !in...llrlac~' and, secandi. tempered Ma rteirFS1'~,e is net itno: b@s~ mate rial for ,61 loa d-b e.a'd ng C'><~ mpcm.,e nt. H o<rse.s; -folf COY r~es: i A B uga ni typ~' 31 !dQe $ n o~ m ~ke [he be~~ of town Grfj m~!Il~s. a F1id yOU! would brei !lard pv~!O it t:·o make ,8:11 "0" gaugl9

10(;0 0 0 ~Ifl ~ a-'~11 oih 'to ol-reorn laths, no m,crUe11' haw' aJcvurate 11: w~&-.

The .~m $Wil:U liS 10 use ,9 rnl ~d !D n' rnadl u til e:a mon ~.ooal" of' ,specl'fh::,niofi! ,ilB ppropri.a I ~ In ln~' lemding: HaJlllditiorl!slI' and' 1'h &r.l to modi'fy rh e ,~urr~lc.e I "'Vle-r cf th eo m e~',3J1 SO that i'~ ea Ii b e ~u\Hdf.l!'"re ~. Yo u W II rem ~m'bef Iltlat [he aarl~,e-sr m~ th iJd of m:a;n ufactu re o~; hug III Oli) mO'Ill, s:lIQt6r ~nVQht eu i'~$ hEl,~t'irng' 'in 'I h'~ presenc~ I!'J~ c.a riJon. Til is took a long ~~me. but if we '~til"l1 out The ~ me process ,to 11" a short t.~m e ~'he n ,t he ea rben w Ii II' pe n et r.l1!IIle: onl V 8 sho r l d,~:na nc~'. !Fo.ii' mod-els· w,~ Olnly ne ed a th I n lav~r·- p9rnal~s as ~m·~'U .~ s 0.00,6 in. wou I d se rve - all1d thl~ ls wha:'~ 'IS, a;chi wed by '''CASEHARIJtEN ~NG··. There ara \i"arrOU~ ways h1 which l ~ carn bte done. S~ me: which don't ~ ll1\i1olved artyl hi r1§' more· '~I'H;!111I a b~ OW& larn p and 5Dm eo spscla I 00 m pound. bu I' al ire quite I!!ri3lc·tica I fOr 'I h~' mode l'€Uilgh, eo!' '()nce fJhls :5m1',ace, ~aya,r h·i'ifs. been carbU,ri sed t he P'~ rt can be h~a ted an CI q usnched a nd, in rncst eases, dCl>~!3, 111(11 need any 't.~mlpering. The result ~5l a cere which is s;trOr.ig1 encj tou gh, end ;3 su rl':a L:~ wh leh is ·BlI rnes t gl a ss:~~-i,a:rd~ Fur[llar. the process. ts· ve·ry flexible. ,ED fad it ~s I:l ossilbl~ to ha;rd Em seleetl lJfely" and even to G:fI r f)' ~Il t Ill,alch i1fi1 Ing IO~:U1:lnl'liQI15 om one D'g rt 0 F a com pone:lflilt ,aft',e r a no~heT P.HI rt has be,en S.U i!f.j.e~ ha mened. II give· rn 0 Fe d,~l'tali I::;;; a i 'It, e pro c~'d!l"llire an Pil9.e G,4~

Heath '9 and Quene . actice

"_- . - -._ . _.

I:n wis e1i1ap'[,!er I sha I~ Cd e~1 with tne L1Ira01t~ea I aspects 'Or· H eat T restm en r, ilut r BrFi hi8~iUrigJ ltd etali I: dis~!lJs~ion of the aetua I hearingl devi'cf!s dll later. F'Of 'thCl purpose 0"( thrs, clil·apte·i!';; ~hen!'rore. I shaU ·a!IS5U.fIIU! ~'hBl your :S!QYJ"IC~ ,ot: hear ~J Uke the e'fiig~ne (J~ ;y;~ i.! r Ao~ ~s-R'oyae, • 'adlequilii'h! fUr its p:uflQse'J'. I am ,golng! to lea,vt;li 'the COrJ~ side(~~)tQ ill ot r:e'fflpiring m lt1 e next ctmpmr. [001, as 'lh~:s iSi ~"~Uy qlJ~~"e 8 ~fj]ra!~! 'iS~'i1eJ.

Ille MaiW:,e'r,h~t lhre! fir$~ - a'jruj ~ mpre F~ live' - nereSsi'ly is '[0 decide wt.! au m,i3rUtrl i:l!1 you ;f:I re HI iEn'dsning. I ~ you a.m no'~ su re .abOti I! ~Ts- i1f lit j'~, just ,~ "p'lfllC9! of good $hr.W~ lJC"I.II h ~~ IPh~-k:e d u ~ fm m EVlalfll5 t~ ell Scr,ap, - 11m!lll 'my' a'dvlos: i':!; .. J' Don' 'tt'· ~ ~ h~ve 'bv 'me as I wn.r,e' ,tM.s 'th~ ~SAE IiS1, oif ste'fJ,ls which MiBI1l biE!!' frnH'lJd in a ,serap ml~10f~'c~r ~hes JItIa~$. If typed OIJ t Olil Ipope1f J' i IIlch·e:s wid . ,tI)~ nst w~~d be SiI;!'V1era ~ fe,e{ II (] ng. Less '~ha n 1011 e 'firth a~e . ':ill ~i n'· Ica:mc n ~~~:B'~S _ ,e II '[11 ~ ~~i ~lr,6 m'iJ.fa (Hi W ~s:S highly a~royea - and even if VOl,! knew Hun v~,u r Potl3lOe W8iSi cau:bOl!1 !!He el it I, Iii d pnJlbalbiv b~en h ~~n [rea rued alireadv i3il'l1d wcu'!i1 ~!EI~ lii ~e ,~m~er a nneaj in 9 biE:f:~m m'na rdBn~ i,Ill~. Tfue ch,a n~IB'S 'of 'fif:ldfng any !!ue~~ 5La'~e 110 he,a t l ireB t r~,n "I scrap-,heap Iii es~ days iaI!'e sn m.. Fa r be Iller t@ s1t.a rt. wiUn a new Blaee: ·~F .stock: ,alfter ,aIU. if yoU ·ellf,e '[0

heat Itfea~: it it m last b,il!1 rIo r some fa~·.rly j mporta nt pu np05C,

HowJev!il!ill"~ 'twuue. ,are CJ.~.Se:s w.nere llilieraJ~ (llf 'more or less 'b'OWfi p rO'veliliEI nee C.aJ n be,c I ed. a Gld j'f you allr-e in a Hght SD ot ~nd c,ain inlot '919 [; new $r;)iEl'e:~. Ih 1ii'1lI Ul~ foJ ~owing u:llb'~iB m a:, h'Blp Q n sugQe5~~ fig the probabhE!' ca rben co n ten t. ·o·f 0 ~d 'to(],~S etc, I emph fi! ·tJI'!8: worrd "e ldi", fOT .~ he.s~ davs BV8,n tl, e hu mib~,e oo~d eli! i56'~ m,e!,y be' made: from a nOfli~'tlam·parirn9 lili'C'k~ I alloy.

% C'il r!bOIi! 'Type Of T 0015<

CL -, CmWba~; IPl'~kax·es; ScreV!icl rive rs

(L8 La rge M.a SM ry ct:l'i~~~s; Q4,iI'BJt:ry l'iock-drlll s': W'ood-~p~ iu~rl1g W'edlil'es:

Cord Chis~lrsr S.h·e~r...J~ [aide$,; ~,~ ~ck::;m~ ~h's h C] ['seus!

:5;m'a~ ~e.r toid Chisels.: a I'd ·wo od= work.i'19 m.a c nine' ~u llers;


1 ~ '1 -11 .2 ,En glljiJ~ ef·~ co nilfl 9 t.Qols~ .0 ri l'ls~ !RIEl',a m ers '8~t.


:f4:a:rors.; E'ng!,,;aI 'IIer~.s, ~Dols:' Saw-nilE! s. W~re=df3 win g d i·e·s; Co~ d Saws,.



1.2.- 11.,3' '1.3:-1.4 '1.4' up

MiH1V o:f 'Lh ese' COy lid be mitld~ frem hij'gh-s.pI!3~.d SltIH~t, bu~ 'litis earn ,e'~~H'Y be. di.s~~rtl.1ul,sli~cII by I.} U~re! '''SPBf]k Tesr' ._ :s~e' Ute' Mo\~'t-J EnfJ';FJ' Hl1.f'Jdjj~o.Jt_ hn ·any ~a;5e, l1orw,!e'ver. 'l'ne' m'Er~~ .. ja~ ShDlI.Jld

fh.Sl1 b@' a rill1ea~ed (Se~ paig e l' 1 .. ~ and a 'small test piece du~ n s'~,wn aH'land tes[,n8 ~d~rl ~d with ()b1;! @sdm ~ft ed loa [bon ccntant as a QU id 19:.

IH el!lidnl We ~1.tnl'El' ah·.e9idy se ef,l tJ1,~ nee,c;I 'fur Silow k~ali ng. and I ca nnot ~Ulrlpha:idse 'l11Iiii n eed sufficie·n Ily~ The 'Cluesrr~ n &5, "How' ;slow"r' ~f 'pitl!~ in~D a oo~d mt:l!ffh:!!' Ifu mace and haa ted up w~th d'Hi~ muffle, ~"'DiSJ win :Sl!I fFi D~. Wi'tlM '~hil!! ,!.H/~r.er9a m,u m'~I ..

hl1 -ri!3l~t r. ~ he work. wH11 nea t L.lP slow~y

'€l,ncuJg.h it pu ~ TJ'!l to the ru'rnalCe when Hi,s ,81 h'"·eadv a t· th~ ~an;:b!fil ill! 9 [smpenltu ra. ~ I n SOnl'B' bO~k!i y,OLL wU~ Und t'hirs ceUeid. ~ihe' ·'.Aus'te:n]s1Ag Tem plef~;t..lJJlfi8·'. by ~ihe W',a y). Ir vou an:~ uSl'n9 .iii mo,i'~n le~d !Or seill bath lh Of! it: is, !l Q'~a ss~ry [0 p r~ hBra t the w'Oi!'k a li'lth1: ~m'!(W{lV; as I eltp~a~ n late r, ,e: UJrl w~t:h th e crd ~J)i'!!lry 'bJow-hil!ilrIllP or gas ·~oro.n !l;Qme ea ~~ I S. needed. I ~ is .al ~ t@9 eas-v ~o oVijl!rhe~'l 'thIn 'lJIfI·r1:S locaHv, ! find] jl 'tak~ abolllt five' orr 'Sf>l: mii:nu1.~s UJI bliIng ~ S! rna II 'too I' - :alba!J r i if'! e<h ~ ;3 in c!h ~ong - up tiC lh Er I~ firesl ,POiIFkt. ~!ld i'iI:: Ufk~s a Ht~j ~ lon.gH'f to cltm b fh~: re rm,a in'ili''1 9 60°(:, OJ S~. Th'ES, ·givs-s good fiEl'SI.!J~ ts, aM can be taken LEI s, a guIde. Butt,er '~o· ,be ~iOO ~Iow Ul~'n 'FrDO ·f.aSll. .AI th~ ;; ~oin1 ~Ine:r·:e is ,i! temptatkm uo ~u ~n tip U1e ga~. a~ U1e 'me laJ :se em s 'to be' makJng nQl progress,. This is ]uS"t lilt? wrong ~:h in 9 to do ~ The, Ii nle ,lIloms .are in pmQe~s or m ~'V ~i1I 9 Ii 0 Y&9.'. ,~f:ld WJOr{1 welcorn,e being hiulI'ried over. ~lhe' jobl Keep hea-tij'n~ a t ill 5:tEt.a av re:te Clili d ow he f.l t h~' m ef~'a~ !!ita rts 't'o Golou if up fU'r1h~r' ''IfC'llJ a F~' v,~,ry '1I1~'il! rr,y ~n ~bE;! ~ijgh1 ite·mpe·rau,lfe. Ove'ran, the .~hOlr·t an~w~r '~5; tha ( yo lJ1 III uS~ Y3~ you r ,i,llUdg,8:m en'l r alnd uy ~o ge t 'iiHlS m m::h exp i!riBIM os ~~ VOlil ~8 o. ~'f VOll! .re ~y on llo,rch ,0 r' Ik frtclhen ft~a hi£ n1), F Cf [h'B odd D·-b ii ~f'lIU \'!i~111 be used on ~e a nd then scr~DP·ecl ~he ~eadng rfll:ne ~'VUil'y' not be' an [hat c:rirfi;~HI, i:Hurt Y'OIU MUST paY' a ne!llt~iDf!I U ~:hH I~~ol is an import;a'nt on~. U.ksly to be u:s:e-d tor ,,·ears,.

OllflCe. u,p 10 tem ~e ml1LlU',8! 'ijrJ WI Imu:!U hold ,tl1!f3 ll;'u~a'l rolF 'sQm e' lj m,~. A'e ~ in ~ "H ow

101",(7 YOu ,~~,ve' bOUl te ma,klS' lS~ire r:h~'l the m·et~l. is hot rig h:r '~O 1t.h~ (iie'n1:fi~1 AN D !gi 'i1~ (lhOS'8' atom s Ume' ~O' drift ro theIr neVi. spot, ~ortu rUilte'1 If i n ~ nis caSal the' -an ~I@r is: i41rU it1e ·d a-fl nn'~e; meta.lliu rg~ sf'S ,tJlrI d g~ner;a. I~ons of biackS'm~~h:s. Ol/ilii:t a ee ntu rv ,Or more n.a\f\E:\I. eiStab1 is .. h~d 'Ihe 'rill le: ~'Hta.t 'r Of' CH~IE HC'UR PiER U,ICHI lOs:

THI~C··· iI'[I;II~[~S' .' .... tb . _. II 'r,. -!; ii;.l, ..

. ~ __ . ' .. ' ""I~'II!! ~liOl!! ~.I; C Iil~e 'Ill II ~ IOID. 1"5 u~ II:Q ,.~ 'I e

hardlening !:emt;ll-YJ'ra[.Yn:;~, Tlhi's, means ~Jhai'l' i 3'j'nch ~hl'ok 100 ~ shou Id be heated 'fo~ ,aboy.~ :2 0 mi flU h~ S. y.~s,. I k'nOrw ~ You 111!il!1!J e: n~'Vef held [he h~a [ 'mr as .t~TiSi as, this 1 I a m sa r.ry. Ibid that mlf)).alf'!S thai ~ )110 u halol,e n.~\I@r .achieved. the I1fIltJliii.!mum poss,lbJ~ iii lEurn1]n'!lj!'ss, either I JU!iii t to persu ;3;dliil1 ¥o(J I have set up \S.p @ciaUy a nd h~rrd IWnoo 'fou r Ipi,eoes of' l}~mon ste~1 'from 'ltDe ssrne bar hDldi ngl the ~em pe r'a'hJ1f'S! fo r OIli·S. 'five •. l'e'n a rid filtie'en iinhil·l!Jt~, the I,~ii.t. be~ 1119 • ·dgh'( f'QT '[he ill1!ch stock used. Thill' hardln~6s me,asuifed ofi my "v'inlageU S.h,~ r~ :Sc~ arQlSOOps' ca m@' O'lUlt at. 74, '76" 7 BJ B! f'KI '8 1. reEiPa'ct~ljJely ~ iI:tose WhD' know 'Ii'! B 1 r halrdlru~·ss I"! umbe ns W'iilll f8i11 is~ 'd"aJt ~ hBS~ fh:~,U'm:s a re' rEI II ~ow - bu I equ alilly ~ Ilhey will reaiise [h~.n the' ··Shon~t is no/[ sul.Ufb1e for sue h s..m=a:ll 'spBcimen~. A ::n.!lbseq,D.Ie n1 '~a sl. IOn the last sp e C 1m ~nrt ~howed! a. 1':1 ~r-d ness Of ,9bov9. 900 Vl.cke rs, ,a ne! III i!i i!S abc Ll j righ't The reduction! ~'n hamne $S, t:o i" [t1 8 $hon~.. h,{1j~ l;i1F\g '~m !alS, is qu i'~e; E!l",idefl t 'the "one minu:t~ p'ieQe" is :soil,er ·'as. ha,n'"ch~ii edf' than 1ifle ~'Ool ~ollJlid be- wtleil te~ered.

I ~ ~ s '[4ul U~ 'tfiUletn,a t· {j!ur tOOls af'~ r8~ ;!!iltive i V S.m,EIIII oomp~rad wilh (ho'S I: ffJrmerly used! in industl"'f - (Dr mdav. !or tlli1li,'I, m~a l1!er. trl'lli'i:Y don' [ co iiI'Iain m 0 CP meta II - bu ttlhei r su ria CD :~rre',a 'i'S' 9m all'~ toO 3fJ,d 'the· RAT.E lof h~H:n '~r3nsmi'!i,srQ" neede d to 1!':J!e I I~ven a f-;I nth 'L~ol m '[u II tempe ratu fie ;a,~ die ~~ill'fe in ~ 6 m,in 1I r€,s l:s' v'e,ry iI1;gh, C!earhl for '~he odd .s:crilber:",poll'1 i It i:sn~'[ alii that ilmpDt'tam r b uot for ICY uil1g

'.11 ~'...:I .... m .- ,- , I ,Il.. ~I· ~ iiI- b· '"lOne

(00 s, [,,,,,,o(li~ , a ner,. :s;~.9.;, ~ _~,I'" _ 8 W ~ ~ 'Y

va ~lBtU)U'[ [jhe use of is 'mO'~'Il.01ll S9llr-bel~h for ihlla1ing. fa rid ena of th e Q:Ma t ·ad\la[n~· 119M of this [vpe lo,t' fu mace ls '! Itlhe' S"i.lskirtS dime can ltnl' '1'19JJuced; the tate Df h.~ '118n~,fe i!' i~ m ueh baU~lf. :5l1ftling '~ifU3' oNP~~ in a O~ ~.d mitlllft,la rul m ace: anilJ IIE!ui ngli [. hfl'Dt ~p w'p~h '~lhe fu ~f'!,(l1ce :j,s, g~od pr2lIc~u'cej 199, Fs r ~ he rn uffle Itear[ilFllG nillmFl tsa boo t i1I~ slme as that tow ~l!1e me;taJi. VOUI !e,en!! hQlve ·I~g· he'i3!tin~ '~'liml:!i 'VI'II 'til i s W8'V,.

DB FUglht l\~RI:p'lnillti!JiH'fi. At fil'sl '5!i g,Jil1 h. mlghrl be a~~·iln11.ed ~ hat we 1!1E!!OO '~o l-ak.e, I be metal u:p' [0 ,Move the u pper ctiUtta.ll l'tn1l,e ratur,e - Uile 1 in Eli A 8 C 'lOf F~g '1 3" ~ but, m his ns, not: '~he ease, IF k-s'l ('~or high mll"bon taal-S1lb'e~.s, U~UU' is) we do nGf!d ~me ua Fr:ee Cem ercu'· wh en w~ qu er.lan" al1d 'd1is does not .~p.pIB,alr lJJot-!1 'tnfl m:elaJ ~i!~ 'f.all,~n !below tha up~8r orhtc,a I I e_mp~rS'~~n3~ S~cond; ,~;I(perd~'Dlce lSho-ws l.h~~ t !rie' .gJi'".B in size '~s more 'f,aIjjCllilmbh~' if 1b~. rpBul1 irs ''I y8nC ned hOlm oilI' :1 i)'wler tEl mperahlfe., As, .~ gene ra~: rull e! s:U! als flO ~I % i1J::;!I !'!bon CO·jrnern or ImO'1'ie ~ liS qlJBnclllBd frem b:alow lhlB' lII,AJpar CmlC'iJJi and th,o'Se' b-e~ow 0.£8% fromalhL'lv~ i'l~ This I~' ·'g~ne,nd·· ru ~@ - 'ttl sr'~ muy ibB ~p 8~'~~ ~ reB"s@01l1s:fo;r ~ep,B rUngl from it - arK~ Olii e e~ na'eql!lH~'11I eEl r~ ~h 811 iUi-i~ q uelil c~, tl.Hrl~er;Sllu lie do ~ mot v.ary much ollar lh ~ whole· ~f'iig,a' of c~rrblOn ~on ~ern. NOffa' I:h!~t ro:~ h ~~~ 'Ir'ealing OifH EI~ thiDlI1 'Jo r Pli! m' h ~r~ de oi ng 111 p~ ,rHl'Y 11®1[ Ii! ,,;piy - SGG: C~. V III,

Tho f(D,now:l'rlg n~bl.~ 'i~, d'r3wn up. 'frci'm .~ F'1 ~m Et.a r cd ' '~;UJ !iho'nli ~'I es' • fa'if 5,r,ae I.s a~ II c" whi c,h ClOnu~i filed aIbQUl'l 10. J: 5% m it raga r1e~e ~ WMiH ~nday h; il"egarda d ,aJ~ a • "i;i'lfa ig,i'n'· ~tDon slBJ8II. Th 0 g-;.(C'ti·P (ijlon ~~ tne . 'Si ~vB~r S']eef~. wh ~eh il;;on I:a rn~ aJ so ,i!! brm ~ 0.4 51%. ell r'&m IU rn,

Carbon. % 0.1 ~O,85 Q.61B-1Jl5 1 .. "6-1 ,,2'5 Above' '1. 2JS

... SiJ\lIer: Stee~"

T(!''~'. gc 7'90--,800 ]'11)-1BO "17"0-780 160-7'10 770--190

These temiper.~tu res ,~re t@ I!' 'quBWtc,hlng ili1 wat~~· 011" brit'ill!!'. 1Ft!! ~ a'''-qu ~n~hq ng ·the m en~1 is b est h ~at8d p ii;H"~aps. 1 0'-2 Of! C hi~hElf. iI~lWIt I do not adfvls1~ gtll'ng abo~e a oo- C~ F ~ ill::: STE"EL. lU~U a Ilv ~.2 5·% na rben whh 0",51% ICllhro m i u m~ Ii YO!i, mBilf'irnu m hardjn,~:ss I~w. m 8CU:)'~ • tr~l[ II rnu st i!i1i)'~ be hec~~~d rn ueh abo,v€: t11~ s i1r.9ur9~

111'1i'Il ,~U cel~,e s· rt i ~ mu'Oh befUfr to 0 b:ral n UU1 eerraet 'qllJiI!!Tlch'ino Il~m II ~n~ rut~ 1'1"'0 m 'lh Et rnanufactu r:am O'r file 'stoc1c~s ~~ if ·~;ne: best re:suU.6 ara to be obtained. Y!O~ wm net go fHit' wrong wi rl., Itne figu res fn the t~lble, but ~S' is fiilwi.yS '~h ~ ea se "lfi!\e n d erne rids mere ea re· .. ·" It'f du~ ,E N N o., or tho nBwer III umbur-:3 from .9S: '911 0.1 ~ 91.2 h~ifhi ch, lneidanta I '11/. rlil'CoJ1PQr~!it;: the ca rriJan coment in dle' !iP eT~~fk:a tl on nu m be r ~ ls known, th en 'refEl'I~EH'Qe [Q the B,ntish SreEi ~ Corporation 'rrn~¥ prodl!.u::e (h,s 1F~'qu ir~d inform~ rn i'c)!;!. '~Look ~ n the. tJe.lephone direct,ory. or try B S,C. Sw~nd~n H~ou Stil. FhJ·th erh,i3l;m .S 6"0 ,:3~A,R ). I'f i~~U~' SAE nu m:b;fi! no (SocietV o:j Au tOn\QIIli,ye ilEl'Iigil1!E!!2r8 of Amgrica ~ iSl trw 'IN Iilo Ih en td l!'liB i~5, '9 Iv e n 'i n tll1 e[r ha,ll)dbook. 'wh'~Gh $ nOIlJ,[d be ~yai'l :ab~e 'in Ule ~'oca ~ r,eftH"elrloe 'I ibf:Eiiry, This gi\j!t!s .alillmos,[ ALL stsali:s madu, w U,·s..·s.P&~~Il,ca,UOllS,. i3lnd ifhay don't d~f:'f@ Ii ImiLJ ell fr01111 8'S 910; m ~Inv have the 'ijiilmfll Iilullil bf3'r~ lin 'lh ~ ,C~ se oI lh~~ 'Q]I...,hali'den urng gall g,e ste'i!!'~s, th e 'p rO~i/;I'r t're mpe rat!J res ,~riji [9hlf~n on 'th ~ ·wm~JlGir.

As .g f~1iI Bi pOI nt I!!Jf ~mfort, I hen;;.e It'S-rn llJe:ra W I"lI!S, 1<11"6: ncr! oridca ~ Ita a 'f~w d eg ree s'; most ~ I',ee~ rna li=eI rs 0 iva' a HI ii1919. ~ f ,0 ni¥ becau~ t "Bre is'~ ~c I'era nc-e gn th a ac't lUa.l 'Ci!,mDIII con ~e n'l. ~f: vou .are wi thin 'lOCI C V'O!u wiU not b~ r.~r wrC),ngl. p R ~J.iVif D ED you hold 'the ste e.1 ltD f@rr 'U,e~ p~p;9r 'ieng I,h ,o,f tim~"

J ud'ging tih!~ T'em~emuuilll~ This is whalt :~JPara U~~ '(h,e Irme·n froml th e boys I 'the ohi"" 'limoJl'.!. ,co!J Id ~Slij m,~ t)~ ~llmDst ,to a. d!elgree

jO~:t by look.iin,g at the ste91~ bllJ'l th ev War-'f!, Ita me n~ !iiQi carbon S't~~'1 is II day 1 o~ng. I" l/,tHJ have ~' g,iiill!:!;, or e;1 e~~:~r ~ fu m~Ci31 wtd'dh if~' fitled 'with ,~ .PYfOIiTlIBl'~ter Y'IJU i! fa: ~n nc d lIf1i'C'!JJh,CV" - pi'I©Vti dm1 that 'VO LJl eheek the S'CClJ.racy of the, ilFl~t1f!J DTie lilt 'III ~w ~!l!(J ia'Q1fl'iln. ~ ~'f it has fila iJr¥ rem e!~!e r II give some hili! ts on m~kl'l!19 on e on Ipage '] tfl".~, W't~h gas, 0 n'" fi re h siui ng Wit nava :to r;ely ,on the c.oirour ot Ihe nU:itat Now I' m ~ke ne mis:take:' '[hi~ is an 1r=:~Cl' meas Wire of the ~,e m pe fiiltt I1J re - i In 'f8C!~. 'Df1Ili{;! ~,~nm, 'Ill;" Ipyrll4!m,~t~f m,iiik,e:s use of 1[he'eoilOllIr,. The f'r,e '1 !LIe ru~y af 'iJn~'mrion cri' 'l'ille atom le $tC'iL!:(ittJIf,$ i,S ,~ diir~ct fu nction of' th e ill bso'~1JI ~Jei tem'p·er,ii!I:'uJwe~, and I:h tS f'r,equifiJ n(;v dete mnine-$ [!he C~ i(! li'r '~7f '(he Hght which l's, amit®'lc]. The p,rpb iam li;e,s in how ~'Q describe. th" COIIQ~"'F Thu b Trds. in my gamen ~rGbaJtil, wou 101 nott_ recognise Y@'!lj r itl~eITi~ a:5J be:ilnB ~,d a'~, ca ill And'l' for '-h~'[ m,;J!rlle:r, som'E!' 'f'sad:!Brs ma'V hEdiV'iB bls'9 I~i~od, i'n the]r 'lildnsJ' Ql!fdV rro:x.pIB'riionce can giw' V'~!l!J1 a IPI'i~'Par ] IIJdg,em,erU ... , !For whu:U: it. fs 'wo rth, Olen e.r~1:io!ns 0 [, b ~~cbm~d~':i ave r a fhIOU~:a II1d ve.a 1"$ Dr 50 ha~e adop,wd tlii eo mll'owirng . tUl,E:! m,es(' 'r'O~ ~1iI e: colo!J rs iB,S ,S if,Qn ~n a r'QI,!,U'~Ij,I~IV dflm, ~igtu, ~B!Jt NOif, On any accouElt. unti@r U'gltl t from iB fI!lJ.jore!'s~e:n t. 'm:u'be,,~ wh ich mak,~~ a pi'g~a ~i1Ir' o1i anv colou,r j!JI dgemend.

""!llii"'iIOOP FlU,," b

150r),C erJo~,c ,Bi2,5,oC 850bC 900l)C


Du'lll Redl Blood Ried C Iile i'll' Rt;d

B rugrht lC::h erry' Red Aed

Bri~rhl RIBC Ye~ low·~rred

The' .blr(~s'~ '~h i Wig 101 do h~ ['01 nil d ~~meone 'wilo has 8 m U!ff~e' fu r~~ce wl~_'~ P¥ ro~ eter, ,~~ arrange :il!! cl'!!,1b v~~il 'I,QI 111 e ~'m~ a'i T !l3tinnic9~ eollfage~ snd h 1j,Ve 'Ii'n e 'fUif:n fJlce 'brought up 'to the '\j.~~i()lj's ®~m ~e,~ t~res, so UUIt yOU con 'Siee wh~"[ it nraUv h;!!oks ,n~J~.


fH ave a pia ~:E!' Orf clea n :s:leel 98't In p.~Bce - don"t lre~y on the ,~p,p~BIr':aJnc~ led ~he h.!wfi,aCQ' cha.mbed" There frSI 11'10 .8~,ib8~iti!lJt~ 'f(l r lhi S, l.YP Ii! of e~p ~rien [i.e. H'O!,j~e\fe,~'~ W If'U~Jljj ,,,IO~ I hav.~ ta'k~11 'som~ eoh:nu ph Q,toQrra ~hs: of al chu'li1k_ of stea I In ffll Own i!11t1itfle, a iild '~h 6i ~lrilntl6lr !rias don it h i'i t'I'l«:'~~~ h~n'~: br.!st !"il] ~H1Pr\C1dL1~ Eli these- on (l1ED,i;lJI3: ,33.

, -

As ,iill fu ii1h IB'f ,gL!J~de'. ~ ~i nd thalt Uhe ia'jlQe r

!boil if! g Ir-j rig {!rJI'ne' 01: ~he sp~rBI type) en au r C~ed:a 'BOA: ,ele~tlric, G'Oo~ef' reached i'lid stabHi:sed al:~ j' BO ~ C alte Ii ru nni ngl 'm II. en 'f.o r 1, 5 mi!.",. w~~'h ri!~ pa III over 'it: a r:1d 'the Ur~bs'd c~t fil 'CQ~Uihn TYfJ~ B,A clo~nH1 stOliJel. bu mi ng "Ph IJfl1a,ci:~el"' j '!,nil3' re!.g.g~l1aped [h'~ngs) lay beiwe~1fJ , ClOO and: 11000 C i1l'flter abou t 1:5 m inu ['€I'S dr,8'w'~ng up til e ~r9. ~n~nn¥.!bed !be~'filg abou t: '7 inch~s deep"

fIil,ere fIlU"Q i1 Jaw ether gui'de:s. Tha critica I 'tame fl'tiiil'iltllJlr~ T i:f ,I:!! Il • t~ fn~~~ poi rre~ ~'i which th ~ oed o:~r 'wi III SfJ@,m to h!iil rag ba ck, Th i'!i, is an ~fild-i()a-tjtGr1 that VOU ,~fla with ill abou t ,500 C c,f' U~ e ~'Eiq~irfjd te mlPe~tu re. ,! In pii;! !is,in 9',! pro~ided you awe ab'r;;!i ve' 'this arre'S'1 pO)in't you wilill 'Gift Some' ha fde l1li nQ effect ~ but nQn'il:I! ~f VOU a ~e' be tow it) Ve ry Ii! ear to tills, ,aJrre:st poin~ - vary sligh~ 'v b,aLow - ,Ii es, 'I'he •• C:~ rie P'(lIinf' a't yuhict1 ~h_e s:tee,~ ceases tQ b~ m',argrn~ W;;;" You can k,e.E!lp 'che'C'k~ng wUh a' magfun or" as I do, u sre ii!!' :S rna II ,CJJm pitliSi!S. B e, C:aIi'~fJlUl~. '!,hOIJ,gh; n e+Eh er iT! a gmus; na n" 00 mpasses ,lliike 'he-a't, afl~ 1htE!!1ie ~!!il a wisk 'th~~t 'the m8gnet milY 1J'~ok up a sma Iii wrO rk~ uecs ~n d 're to I'B't go~

The[i~ 0 ml s:ome "'T a,~TIipannu n~ ~ n dll'n~ Cr;a''!{®ns'' a~analbllell ',olf two t.ype&, O~'h" c:hs'!i1ges co hlur V!Mlen Ih ~ U~ mp@ii"~lU rEI ma rkEl'd on the pac;ket is r~\EI ch~d; '~he !lrth,er l $ . ·.s'~r:oketr; o¥er tthG w-o,rk 5f! d 1rf T1. mel't!ll, w'i~,hin twC!! seoonds the te:mr:::u~ril'~ure is: ,as ~nd~ea ;~er!l,: if IOlilg~ I!' It roS, 10'0 loW., ~1'iI;d [f Shorter. too h,igh", IBoth a,n!! preUy aCG!iJiia(e p~Cillllld,ed '~hey hav'fm "t 'been in stotk for V'!rJi,~lrs~ bu ~ th it!y CIlo, Irleed ~ nl'~'~e p~Gltice 1111

({sa. M'loe aiJlI!' made' ~Y the "M·~ rk..aU Cofl'il ~ralf:lll" _, an Ameia'i~:al!l fir:m -. b.ut~ ,ulh e.fS a re a,v,i!j:ilrafb~e h'o m 0 aly'9r ChrB ml't; !tJlls l1d~ Riehm e n~, 'S UWI"ie!V_~ Oil" ~,rom T. p'~ tHud ~iJndl &. t'!!), L'td~ Rose KJ Hn ILa ne, R'e.Jldil"l,g" 8:e rks, For usa i'n m:uffle: tu rnaees w~ dfO'u ~, pyro',m e ~ ~l:1J ti'l~' w:e,U-k 111O,Wn I'S~'tg,~ r Clones'" (We!!rl ge rs ltd r 'iEtnlwia:

Sl_'k,e 'Dn T!rel 11'U) osn b ~ y~ed. 'nilese' Cll,Jirl Q ~ef: B'~ t.'rH:~ tOlD 'whe,n the right ternpamr~um ~ S, ii'ea,c'hed; und arr,e uh:d in pottte f'!/ kill ns, w'ne ra C'ilBlr.8Iiu ~ 'tem:p 9'rat.~re fG~~J~e~ i-s sq!IJ8:lIy 'imIJlCl,rt,l:lInt lbB1Y hi!VU tho ~i5-Bd'v.afll'ra'9G Ilhal ~,hey C31f"1j b~, usad Gilly ~li"I;~~ so th Ii! t you [lllfil€l\d' them by 'the do~en.

fA ,SSlI!iSl8 ,of' pt,oPQn~oo m ust ba' m,~~n-'

ta.ned, In a~1 this, ~s if'! ,aJlll aspsCIS; 'of he'tn, frO~ mern. If yo ~ malke 'V~e odd'(orm blol cr' pu'n~h on ee or lwii'CiB ~ vaa f. lnrBflI dUll' c:hlrt C fi page j,6 S;hQwingthe heating Icijh!:HJf'S VII m wi ee'~: a~ ~ v,eN.u' FLeeds", .Alf!id, 'for 1IJ!;l~ m p,o'rt,a,n"[ ,I olbs I' proy. i,dled the retrr.p:eJia'bJIlI'@! I ues b~tw~i~n ~he 'two crh r cs~ pO!o:ts ~ i.'fI'~ ~Oi'" S UV8,r S'~ee:I:, be,MelJ!11I 130 ~c !iii nd :8:30 ~'C ~ ¥'O IiJ \liiU ~ ,g'l9J~ :SO M E halrdtUliu!19i ~a-~t th Ol:l 9 n n 0'( v~ry 'goCJd ,iiII t th.'Ii! I'W you tHalrdil3,~l too'is. f8'ir~Y' frGQlHrrnJv 'thl8lll v'®y win v,erv' saon d'iai~lop [he fSQluu r :!l~nse w!l~cn 'wi III ulf:lubl€l Y01!Jl '[0 war~ by E!¥~: i!l1 ;;Iny case~, you have '10 J ~~G ~ the lColou f unde'n'" VO\itf WOflkB'hop

. 'rrrditjmn.!!il\r InO~ thOSIEIl of an i'nelu S1rial ~'81~1 tf8atm'e fi t shl(]lp, e y l~ if yOl! m iiSlkoe a'i ~ ~o I,dllf" OWn U'u!~'I~ till rid ga:!lJ~~pZljS:I' ii1li1d ere ha rdenln~ MI'A:3lCmn ell' !=Hlil"rS a 5, w,!!rU ~ '[Ji'lIBf1J VOUI wou.ld b-:e w~Jl Ii d\l~'sed 1,0' ,~cOk, out '(IQ r a, s~oond,~~nd miUme-·(JJj.nuf!~' ,I@f ev,efl ,8 ne1N 'O.D1@l!~! .or look '~~ .som~ ~·f '~he ,ml1~Br afll3ng~-men1l:S I ~8t~,il' in HI hil,it)E:!lr ofNa~~'1ler.

S'~lIllnil .. fh~s, I~, olf '~i'tItJl" ~m\pon'~ln(:e, um al Ie ~~,ej ·t~al. ,as it, lr:JfU.lhSt b B gm ~n d ~'1l1 anv caJsa: tmt :i~ it .~ it f~fil'!ii'i~,t,o~'~~ wll'd:~h ha.s ,al ~nil-l~ which C1Uil1'i10~ b~' 'mfm~d on the nrff'ldini1 whel!i!l~~ "t ,~;all'lll be a' nui~ne.-e', if not .a dl-ffieu I'W Il!!lSh'Qg ra' fi!"!IY ff1llf!j 'th,e S~(!Illfng

(i;!l'3ln !be nrd'UC19d bV s ~,u~ IiIgl ~ few' p~ ~Qe~, of df1j ch I reee III ,~t Ule mQU th ,~r~ ~ ne muffi e, just a,g'airJ<s ~ thiB doc r. Th~s w'ilill een su ma any oi(yge n in the m,ij me _ o,r mas [ of it - ana, r!fJ~d!LIce' lh ~ 1 :ew U,jJ ~,I B ita .Ctx~dis Ih'8 riiHuall, ~[Jon"E use Ico'k'eo O'T ~or;rll. ~Jterna ~ rv,l!.lv '[I'go@r8 are 6Om~ . 'An t]-Gtal!8' F.i'~ilnts,·~ [B;Vr~li,1 ~ble .. · lh fB\!re are 11.] sed by ee r"8'mi,c e lila mil! Ulij 1':5. b!Jt ~r. $qJUia!111 V' Irtf~cU'VE!!! 'In pliotecling s,tE!18L I ~ 'Us p'9,i m~, Oin the work a nd irs effe Clive up to 8fO'rJfI d 5:00<1 C. I usa it \tli!H'Y' S IJcoe~ lII,y. b1;J1U else US!, ~ ~ulbs,1t] tut!31. . This is ICII rdlf'JJ;;i11l w hh,s'nl rilg ~,~owderecl ci"l iililk j iiTI bmd with ~'l8r 0 r !m18'l hyla'[lijd splrlt iG! nd p'alin~oo I~f'!. ' e-' 'Ii m es I bi nd Ifmn winlti' DV~'r ~Ihe' tOp. and loTaM lh iii! t up' 'with tn~ pa;sulei as wei L mne 'wire m'U st. Gr ICOlUlrsS~ be pull ~ed eff IbeicIr'8 quenchingl Thl5: iiS effeoU'!/,e also" Both na\ile ~he di:sa;d!Va n [8ge 'that th@' p'filnt ,,)r Ch8'lk 'len d s to I 'i,ne~f'lde5Ge' I' ~n d: ·so '~raw nt5, ,PflO p~ r cololli r judgf::m~nt. N,o m atltie r ~n, ;a rnutf~e, bu t fa'ta~ n' !ilsin g a '1rO;r~IiI" TIir9! ,~n,5Wer to, !~h~, is to h~v~~ ,8n idenUta~ pie~al of som p' stee ~ (i t, 'ne.ed nor[ b@! C~jf,~Dn s~eiBU ,a1longsid ~ ,S od 1~:)fo\l!ld ed yo u e:riI$~ rEi' lha,t 'both -:tne w"Or~pl eoe, and th<e' "las -, 5peci me'11i ,iue ,eQ uaUV heated 1h.e ~s ue r' C,i:9'n be uS,ad to judge dH~ I!'";olou ~'. ~-h;,rr'c1 cg~S1i 1001'(, 'Ihei'll- sma! II part'S wTth soh s,t:)ap when h eatin9'. This Ii sa tid t'O a'Vold ~a!'Ii i!lg tOQli b ~Il I m ~st Gf.'Inre$s II 'have nat lIsi9,d 'it rmys~lt

The ~e ,~I~"0 thn~l1i QU i8n D: hl,f,'Ig modium!li ~ n co m man Llrse~ 19!a inl W8t'IDSf. bl'~ ne. ,ltInd oi~. Wa't@r [$ che~p an_d eai!iiV to ,c;bt~,in~ ,ijlrld wi n SBlI"'I.IfeI a ~m'QiSt a'n the Imod'El'1 ~n"LQ'~11I ii:!:!in'!iii t1i~ods\' fj,nfiie ,g~~ a ~omewh~n beUJ8'f h,[ilf.dening Isffe<r.1 and C'a n g.'[Vli! imol'i~ I~'ritilfl coc~iirl g - ~'h~ t'IUJ~ ar:e 'morre u nUbrl'lm. D'il ~a 1!iiI i5.SlE!ln Ii',a I when tqu~ ru~~h'h'!l'9 com ~ iel1C ihapes _ '~he rsUgh~' loss of haJi"d ness irs


oi!i c!:)~~nad i s ~' 'fa;flf ~)CCh~ rige 'fQ,r til a r!6du ead r'isJ~ 'o-fi d~S'[DFt1fon a nd cr,~,H;l{lifil9.,

The ac tu.~ ~ >CtloU'ng p.r,otO~:S5, with the thr<€'e til)! tl1!'Ch~iU"~ Ii S d ff'f~,ref1l'~ ~ i1' h~ J1Q'l Just a case 011 d~fjfe renee in dt!gf~fJ (ll' qlll',en eh" Wi'lh p~a in w.a ter U1E!' ~'ni ~u\all ffffect is tn@' g'tetFI'fJra;-tiOIll of :s1~al'!fl ,~11 ovsr th~ \IViOfkp;tece., TnTs- Cij,Us;es; alii, i,r:n,enl~e and :sudden COO,Urtg effect as lh~' I atent heat ,of

.. f " b," b

\l'IiiIIP0InS;jji!UH'l) 01' walEn" rs V!i3!ry n I'Q:ri.,

HQWEW1;H', ~'ht$ IresuJ~i frn dle' 'workpiece bo~'nQ b~ i!il1l'k8'l~d in ,~ staa m ]~ck,e1: and :S~B'am is a ve IIY peor oondu etor of has t. Th e IcooUlI1g If"ti Ie 'we iUJid dro,p ,d!i8 ma ~~ ca!1.! 'if ] f lh!is ~Ins~ ~'a ti n,g c:oa Iti 1il'9 we rEI! rH),t

rEil moved. So, '[tu~ work li'TUJI st ba ,agiUll-ed ln ~ne ba ~ I,; ~ f [h is is d.0I ne, ~'~e iil co 0 1';<11'0' ~rocE!~ds. ~t I ~a irly r,ap,id ,and still!l'i~drv rate LJ III ~i I th e approach tOI 1 00,1;1 C. ~As: w,e sh i!l! ~~

'He lal,e!., on ee the [e,mpe~llllu:rlll' Ihg'~ ~r~ Ih~tli I~ abo !Ji!'~ 300 Q C I:he r,iii!t19' O'f oooiling is; no~ iml~nrn'alilt).

In ,(lile case ,of' 8r~l'!!e: ell sh'flillar prao8du~e takes P~\i!i~e:t. bU'1 '~'he' pr,e5e'nce alf the s a It ]n th e: W'~lt~r :I!€i errHi· to '!lJt~fd '~he forma't~o n of th el s19.a m blanke~. F!O!r sam e ,reas®on t he oo~~ ing iii P lJi!i:lI'ro 00 be mOre ~\I"~ III but it is 'r,;:;iS'ter - abii:l'iUl'l [,wice as fast ~s waterr down '10 3(104;1 C' 0:1' I:'h&r~about~. B r'k~e' ~5 inva~~ab 1'1 used ~io r '1'''I'!h~rter'' Iq,!:Jie.r~ch ing stu~is. in !ndus:trv. and the f'~guf,es ql.u'lt,ed ror h ardn ess in ClO 1m me,rc~.a I tj:;l!ec~TjcieH1o"s aJ I a~u rna th~'[ t;11e wo~k Wa'9 Qi.!I an thifJ d 1m

~ 0%, :5all tfYl~Ji~e r b.ri ne.

eH I behijves Q u it ,I) dU~J@ ~,~m tI \1'.

I~A'~~uming a IPII'\'O,PiEH' "'Cold Ouenoning OW' i~ used, .. Motor on·' wH I hav ~ q(,j in.~ u D1p~C!I!dic.t,~ b I,~ resu I,t's). It 1:!ljl, sJOW'Bf' 1 n the initi'ii;d cooU [fig! Ib.eca 1l:Is,'E)' Q]I h@l!i ,a m 1lI,cn I OWt;If" l~nGlnt hJ8ifH th sn WilttiF. 0ll1C9 the "va ~a In bla nket'" 'st:a rl51 101 'form r hitiwever. t,~e' ~OO 1 in 9 ~a®e hvhh the ~ame dlegll"0'e, of iQli't&tion ~I ihi '~vrv' 1~'tU~ dinsrtm't 'from ~hat ,el' w~I~:er. B!~IQW 400,1) C, I!lowevew'~ ~he c:r.1 oooJ~ th,€ work llIG ry much :s:IOW'BIt,. Using aJ it'etS;[ riig,. it 'lI!V,i!!I s, mu rid (wwt,h 5 tl~ ~~ una~i'l:.a~ed

fhJ,j'd's) ~1h8t waU~f wot!!ld [a~~ about ,3'i secen drs to' [lsduca t'h;8: 'te'mpora IIJ ~e o<f a S,lSnC'ii1! rd DI'(lbe 1miT'll aoo'!;! C 10 ,42,IJ,v c. an d DI~' a boy~' 5~ S!e'cc Iltt:s; - no 9 rea t I::HftElr@lnc·e'. ,!'iJJll wh,em~s 'the 'wa'ter~Cio-Qh~d Il rob ~ only ne,faded ,ei 'to tei ,Q,(' :5 .seiQollds ~o f'8~ II to 20000 C, 01 r tcek ,2 5 saeon ds, Th i!:j means tha;:[ bo~rh fru'~dls, owing 1he' s<~e~el tihrough '~he ~ owe ~ c.fiiti.c:B I ll!!mpe:ra'll.i m, a ~ ill bOi!,JIlt ttu~ sa ml~' rate - el ~ iUght:s'!ower: both tIIf13 l'apid enough 10 pr,ev,ent '~he [Jrans,fO]im,a'(ion to Pe:a!lH'Ie. Howevrl~H'~ the m'~ch slDwer iI",.n9 'of coo I in 9 in till-it! I~we r m,EiI ~ has - below 400 Q C - wi'th 01 I means th~t tlil e (Iflf!l!"lrform all ion to M,i3lne nslte ~alkes ,~~~ce i 11 a m ue h m'(ue ~ei~u r,a,ly f:li1Ishionj and this rtdiJoEl:s Ultllrisk cff dlhihlftlen and cracking] considera!bly. The M Sf" len~ tile wi~ ~ 'r~IJfn ,Emywa y. 'a:ve~1I'i if 'w,e ~~r cOOl,h3d frcm ~58Y) 200aC. 'This; U:~st was. of cou rna. under tql,ll ne 8 rtif~cia II ooru:m lens. m IS' .me'ta Ii WOU ~d not. be' piI'opel'lv ha rrlaned e\ll'e ill wti d, the, V!ta'te r - W'~ rI,eed COO Ilij ng rates o.f thcuJ.SI~l'iId!5 o(;r~' dlW glre@ !liImi nu ta ii'll rou'Q h th ~ crit'ica I r'~IiJge 'f'Or that - but ~t do~s give air'! indi'L';iiltn"i)'n IIl'f' th ~ dliffe Fe n l' behaviour ,of' '~he ~W\O ~ruk~s. A,gli'tatioli wi~1 redluroe' ~lhe rlme taken, bu t til ~ IC,haUIClfa'r of the IcooUng curve' win be' s~mli~~u"

'Fc:J r m ode~ 91i1Igh1a'e'fs. fhe !f'e'MreJ" 'we C~n say 'n hIt in 9 1B!r"! Sr81 wa Ie r willi ,sa r'\te for 0 LJ r Ir'I,e,ed5 I bu t brhl'~ is (Ji',sfe,rable wh en u ltlrnats ha rCJJ:rnlf!lss; ~!lil ne ed III d. (] II '5h~ uld be '-!!sed forr' m i~ ClJI tters and f'O r 'ga lUges or h ~tde'nre d i ig..s - pre:fe!f~bl'V ysiriL:g 11$ proper (~ll-ihawnlaf1h]g steel for Um e la ner I as, ii [ is form Li I 1iJ1't9 d' 11:0- avoid d~S1!OM:ili)n~ Tha

I~ ";'1"'''''' ".. made ,f,"''-'m ·"-V~.... - ...... d" ' - .-;I Co - ~~ ,.

bh ,'u .... I~ '. : U":"'I '. ;r,jI "",Ulih ~ ~-' IilllE:li.II ;';;;"8 U'i' -

'lhttJ, 00 !i!,rne sort ItfEe.d by 'fa rmers fOil bl!J'uar:

ChEHi1Ilpaf 1'h an oomesli C: sa It. and' wi1:hov [ the' additiv~s,. som'!j loff whii'!l;n may no~~ be d esfm b I e for a ~,l.!IB'ru~h=bEf~ h. An a ttl ;, 0% ~Oll!!,iltiofil i~ 'g€Hll ra ~ - 1 2,-16avga IIQrI (l r 80-,1 COg m/IUre~, In III se I' 50fH'Ei! 10,' d'il e W,E!I Ul! r wiN e\l'alllori1B'~@ a indJ Ihis rmJStt b!9' made up. ,AII'l loJ'd [,est w,;a s, than. a frWih ~o1il'lo WOLI rd

r~~a~iq~~ rH fX)kJ~!'I ~ft~tJ,fll.~j.I·ro' lWlnJ} ,IJ' :3 'X',~ in. U"6l}j gJ{iw 11."'f}M,gf~f'I~ if"'! #~ ,!J~rh~r·~' rmJif/Q """'tlN.

l.. ~~~~~ _. __ ~ ~~ __ ~~~~~~~ ~_:.'~

A ,"-if/lieui.,,;, 'W!:rf;, IHlmt~g' III ort/tJur t!il~ett~ ~ t/tB~ ,ll.fJ.' ~~U.JI ~ (~~t:,r'~d m;'l-U;' rho .r}ftglnill C(J/f)rJf I$. l!{1(}fd~~d ffgM~

FrJr gflMics.r lil'CiG"Ul'IJC:fI' tlWUf (;fJk1t#' J5.aftlpte.'Ii '$hi;(I1I;i !7~ ~Wtfd 211. I)Wlii~ fmm 11I MW Peed Dyib f(jtJin!C1.Pt f~$:~'B(J hI( a ~/' !11j'Ur$.



iIi..!Ii.n~D ~~i:l1




, ,

" . ~ ,

'!'l11""ill15D ,au· I


IfJs1'fhlfH in H't, but ¥OU Cil!liIi' eal$i,l V' ma k,~ IUlp " :s,im p.,~e .leS'[ h'yd~o ml'lte'U" ij'f you 'wan 'llo Ibe furg,S'V"

A pla'5,tic tube h;, ~~igh ~)e d ·sO' that itt

oalS wfl ~h ths top a.beut i inch a bov e '['lne' .~lJnace in p~ahil WaJ1er. lt Iii th~n €taUbr'ii!~8id' W 'S1-'l1ing' it ~ n blrilru~ of d ~fia'IiTli1g Siti'\elilg~hl5 .. I f V~llI SU~rit: WILt h the 'q ue FIlch b~lh 81 8%. iI,I1D Ie I '~'t 'COW,n whun i t lD~iS ~ 0% VO WI w~ n b9 w iUili n rlhe net ~ery i mlPor~a nt ~ lrn Its. lDe;ca rbulr~ sat,on ,. 'Occasion B 11 V on f3 fiihd's, a to~~ lh at has be e-n pro,pe tty ~re~i'tJe',d j. everrlih'ing! as h :S~1lQU I d be'. bu ~ .som~how' it does nee S!I;J ~m 'EC, be, ha,rJdl, A fii'e ea n "·![~UJIn l1'" it. IH Qwa'!ler. any !l!I R@mpt te ;5 aw i It ~n ,tWO f,e<SIIJ lts in ill s a·\I'Ij b I (lcfe wi th no tee th Of! it I Th ~ to aJLISe is su ria1c0 d ~ci!:!lrb urlsat le Ii - ,d'm euter :;k~'!1I(ll'~ ~ he m etal hies fOISt some Q i'ts c1iH'bOJ1l eonte nt, alld ~1' 1'~. 11 at ttiii rdanab!lii' $';t'e'ei ,iii! nv mora, Th i is· is the II'lrh~l~n of th1!!i ei d c,1 acksm i'th 's ru.l e ·1~ rgle la rg~ .ijj!If'J d odnd srnal ~". The tooJ Was ~I~wa ys 'rurg sd QVFJrsig:e .. so 'then ,i:! ny dac3irbulrised ;g'u'rfac~ w~ull iiJ. tu:n/,e to! b,e grm.Jlf1 d (,if". The probl~ m II not aeu f,e ~o r- '~h e mode [ e. illg,inleer., as hie: is not, heallll1g 'bc~ds wi'lh :ali ~m'ks up to iI ooupl~ tC~lr ~n.che s :$q u;a re ~ but ~'r cain happ·en,

rm. is €.:EI.llJsea by 'lh.!±t aet [on 'Of 'Dxvgen an 1.11e- Ime,t31~. and ihis is on e reaso iii foil" .&vafdi ng 11"19 USS· 'Df 'oxV-g ~S hereni rig la'~~s. ~ t can also be C·aI u sed by seale: \flour wU t Ir·e~a n fIrom Ch. t that W'ro uQlllt I ron W,il,$ IT'! !;ld~· bl' th 19: feacl1 on ~f ~IiOIi1 oxid ~ ~'~h ~he csrbcn in rhe cas-I[ iron. Tl1~ re mooy [5" of iCOIJIiG'e, 10 avo~d S'C 11 U ng in l!la FIrs I plac~' .• as ~ y:ggi!il$'t ~d :above, ~ hi v,e V£!!ry lit ~Ie ~r<oub ~e wi'~ ~ [ .. olOls a r.ou nd ~'1 6 I,~, ~iS' j !ila111 :sqlJa Fe. bu I t.he· few ha [f-l1 n ~ h Lkl'les· were a~ I m·ad~' de I~'be rau;jv abo IlJ t 11 f3'2. i reu::h o~,e.r;size a t I~' e point '[0 pe rmlil.

'S1JIfrf:i·chlnr g rl,n(U ng' down.

Q'ue i"ltlullting,. Til IS ~a f!I ,afitS~, from s@'''''~r,al TZrurSiMfi_ 'Th ~ h,r·s [ - sheer 'f.o rgJ€:l1fu ~fl,astil. Wh~' tf1e work [(s, left ~ n th.a' m time tao lilJ;l!g ~ we C'~U'!! ignore: 'the ell! r19' i:$ up tID

VOLU 1 lcu~ai] oveiflhea tJj ng i'is, a ~m 0 S't iru~~i'l:1iI.b'h:!i ifr o.x¥=a c'i&l'\i' h~in~ ij~ u~ed. a nd I Igo ini['C ~,his in mQr>8 d atla ill' bne r, This ~vpe ~~I'II be lrrapa ra ble, wi th Q)(,j d e Ii ncl us lens mrmrfll 9 in th~ g.~a in bo !UlJ"La a c"rElls., ref:'] d r.t rTrag 'rhe .s.tls:el useless far a ny rh hil Q bu t ·ars a rn ~5811 • The com rnc nestt difficu Uy, '~jhollgh ~ IS W ~'t~ wowkp ~eoes which are a[Uu~t V,6]'fY ttl in ~ r wh~c.h heve i9 ·V'e~ uneven 011'0$ .section. Tne !lH:.i·llli~e l!'-poin1. hi, ju~n ,~lW eh .e t.i! tH~':' 1ft 1.s· hiriPOSiSiblt8~ to heat 'Ihe tDper~d s'ecdon e<lfoiri IV. fl'lj e ~e meth; h-ere ts ito form '[he tapBlr and the p1li,~'U ,by grinding afUlt heat ~rea'!'m ant, For ~)ther. cases, - iE!'.g •. , "''\i'hell'll'i!: 1f1ere is a .SIn ~~ i prQUtIlS~~ t1 on ~ Is rge r mass - t he. ,remedy is, 1;0 fI t: a "h e.aJ'[ ~ink;·. A :pi e<e~ ,of sera'l) iSte:el wi-tli'i al n rrhe. i~ 'it h1G·t (()O ~a rg ~ iii pi8:~e; so me thing '~f!I prtl partii 0 n to nu~ m·ain 'ma 5S, of m,e~all ~ b~i se,t over ll':l ~ (:iaiic~t~ p.8i rt .. and! th e WhO~'B he,!! tied up as. OJiH~'. TI1B 5~~n de ii' pan l,s !pi'iotected from 'th ~ direct hea U of 'Iii! ~ fl~'i!'JU3'. Iilnd wil I reach the proper t~ mlP I!!'ra U.:llua: jlU 151 tha sa me, beth by Gondu CIT~in flO m '~he m a i i\1 body ,~nd1 by rad is (1 on '~rom !the shh~j~d. The Ipr,~tecti 1'19 :shi eld m ust, '0 f COLI ~s.e be rem Q,ved tJefOfii' qU'B'nrehi rJl~I. No [Ili'"obliE! m arises, of co LJ rsa, wit I, lu mjJ ce htFl!·illIlt~fiI0 •.

tvI BU~il wihieh hi! ('j,ve riheaIed willi a ~m~s'l cert!!! inly crack ,0 n '!.h!f!' q~ B'nc:h. II1 e ,be·~'( pr.ocedu ~8 ·~s; [0 s Hl P wOr1k. is I"iI nea·1 'th epi~ce", a"~, start iii g:i!il i n. 'I t however. '~hB: :ste;e:,~ has been b[ough'[ La ~ badlv OVer temp r3Jr.~~ uwe - yeillowv-m d, fo r e~mm pie - than 11 Will ailBed I"I1;I'Oi"gllngl be,fQre ,'I w~11 b~, ;an.v li! se 9!g ~in. I f: it hi !iii s g'ct hOUffr 111 Bri ~:tfi!1. t hr'uw i L away; i E 'W~ rf f btl a nv use - '10t a!;i ~o~,11 ~tie'e~. a n1vway.

Whe'lh,e r wa Ie r. br!n B. or 01 I fs used. som'e debr~S wi n co Ileo'l in th e bD~1em of ~hG lank. In the e:~oo Gf 1011 lhis m,ay include: 'S,om'e slud~ !1!', which m ~g ht ~r!rt~ ~Were· w.HIiI. 'I h,!!' q UIi! rich. 11'11 i rJdiIJs try 'elabolra teo m eth ods. are 1U1S:l:tii ·~o k,~ep 'tthe· 'ba thsr cle a.IiI,. bu I: for us. simpie1r' me'll, ods

d - I ~ .

~1r'ii3' ~,U I,m bl is. fllJ I" 'W~lt e:r. JliI sri: pOU ii I'r. away


............ ----------------~----~~--------__.~.~~----~~--~~~~----------~~----------~


a·nd use trt3:s:h. Ba'i'[:'e' m,ev Ibe Ikep~ lonOfil f i'l"Il pi ~5tic oon113ilm~rs, not m.~t-al) and 1 he',n rllrI shed dow., the s tnfi:, wlth p'lerf[1f of w,~tJe'~~ i ( :~ho u~d ~ast a Ion 9 Ii me' ~n'f'IV;;)iy. o ~I is 'more precilO1J!,s arond , ~ but a :simple .s1.r.;a:ineif' can be LI s'@.d nli' IfDmlOVe '1 he· di IFI. '~~ep ,~I lid 00 dl~ o iI-badl When IiIGl ij n ~se'. I '~ri d that even irf1:er '~WO y~a us mv own '0 n-ba'th '~eli dom ne e-d$ cie;anl PIg. nnd I usa al~ mar,a dll alPl mlos'l mad e'l !e'ngl nle,ers.

The pnJlper o,il ~11 Quid be u sed :~f 01' all !possible', There ,~re various 9 rades, arrd [~~ch oi~ com pIa ny has ~ ts CI Will.. I use IB" P. "QUll! ndi fa A22, ,. . though ~ he' • "Olll ern dlla 19:·· ls ai most aSgJfJoo !I nd chea 111FE!'n, i [ is unklrtun~t.e th,l;Il these o11s .,a're· n 01 II ()l"lg.~ I' su pp~ ~ed ,~n lh!ij!1 old o''II1e '9 alll~.n Uns. but a .25, ~'nrel ~'~Ibc!jt 5 Qallo.,~, drum Cil.l1 be :shared 'be hlV'80n h'lernd~ - a nd a 400 ~ ilt.M d'm,m 00 1JJ~'d be ehe\Bpe f ~rdl ~ for club purch~'.Si@i'- Feil1ing a spsclal oil. a g~od iJ'~l~ifiidh:1! O'ir' O'f .about SAlt HJ' to ,20 vis:cus,it'V' 'wi1 ~ serue~ B ut NOT m ctor ~ 11, wtrli(:hJ Is bl e:nded ,to r (lU ite dltnfHi:-:nt :seNioEl' a nd cha r act erl st ~C8. and m,os,r emph/jt~'c'jjlly N 01 ., used' mob]~' oi~; This is DCWlJ"Ijrt!;j ht dfiil nge reus: it carll CtO n taln up to 2'5," ~r ~he he3V1hn fri!!·cHan:i 'Df P€ff'O'1 and ea n 'f~'~sh o~ io$O a f LJri~U's I~ r,e' i'f used 10 r: QU Men i n,9 hot: metal.

Th~ ~iZE ,cd 1tiG' qjJenc~ b:ath 'mil;ls1 ae~o'rd wi'l:h~he ~iz~ hmd q LliHlti'ly~ ot ttl e work pa~Jng ~.hrotJgh at ilinY Drne time'. Wh@d:l.~r w.e tief. blf~ rH~. or oi I, 'the a rnoy rif( ~t1 @uld be 1 iQa~ Ion P f},J Ib of ho,t mata I (, 0 litn~slkg ~ t.O avoid IJIii d ue '~i3 mlpi@ ra'tu f~ rls:~. A h ill'f·in ch tGio'l 15 incli es II 0 n~' Wfiigh 8 , O-:3,:5lb'. IFor' ['he odd centre pUln:cn aii!d 'simiiali ~m,all ca~u.~1 jo'b!3 II k'~GP 81 I,~rge "'GO'ldan BV'nup·' tIiiI, as 'these' I'lii!,Wle Q'Ood Ud~. but 'fo:ll" ~'U S work 81 pll a'~t~c '·[buU ~~'r's btH~~~ to"~ d'se£: V1B:r¥ we,U., nhav c.a n bE. had wing .I idi!l~ _ 'Thi~ wi! ~ hold up· to ~we ga~.!on.s Bind is v,ery robust ._ it wi11 ,9Vefl w~~.h,rtl'nd 'the oc,caslttIUI! accident w'ith ho'll: mlB1J!ii,1 en uhE!' pl,a s'~ic JI II have a

18 ~geir t!n 'f'D r .011. wh'ich once h eld ~:m U~5iol!'1 p~int::' this has a ! !d. b!Ji I .;[1 m 'S()nr¥ [0, HillCI t~a t pre'se-rW'l day rpa lint tins h CI1l1e V~ ry pe ~~ tops. 1M ine he I'ds ~ boy t i 98 non. Wh'h::h j'$ ~fui t,e ade'Q 1J8I'te 'f,~ ,(!IU the work II do.

The initml ~IB'm'p@l'~~hJf~' of the 'bath shou fd iiiot be- 'too co id. T rue, '~{ou g e t ~ beU"8'J' ~ iU~nch til ~ colder lt ~'s; ~ ~ have :;I n acceum m tocls quenched in 'fir'eel}l1g ,~aid metcu ry I ~ but you do have 10 'oompromi Se again8~' 't h~: r'isik of eraeks, .sam E!~ hl n g

- ,

betwee iTl 2:01:11 C an d 30 ~ C i.s a bOIJ [ fl{J 1'1'1'

Howev~'~. if! the ~!i.i'rT'! Wi elf" ~ lust U S8 'loa p water wh!,en has srocd in th~ w,ofk~hClP 'fu'r a whil€; iin w~·~' l draw £lOme 'rrom the ~,ox. 1,!tlIP. Oil should be at ;about .2.~5gC. Thei!le -r'igl!l ~e~ alr,1Ei j'tot c ri'tiea:1 - no n e<ed re go rou nd whh pre€ision t IFje·~mO'm eters 10 rne·e,stl f'e them 1 A usafu I po; nt tCi flO'rs ! ~ th il1IIt· br'~ne or water at 10g C w~ n give- a sim~~ar le:di,e;c;;1 to '[Mt Qb'la~ned frc'rn c~'ld jQil ~ '!fI dl i"F yo u h 6!·ve pro 0'11,,8: m s w tt h fa wOlrkp'iec~ CjOns13-'11:~Y crack:rri!g In the harde ifiij'a19 ,ij!llnd have 'ncl~H vau CDU r d '[111' Ii aa th1Q [,1ll,S' w8te.'r/b:rTTle to 5~) 0 C. A C] Ule'nch In 'water at 910 ~ C wl fI not ~ard ~11 i3J: :ei! n~ bUl ~], ca n t100g he 111 t h,e srsel a l'itt tBThe eeol irIJ.Q in 1:1"1 is 6;-it,$(!j [,s !II rnost certaIn 1[0 era SS t hie· ",s" ®U Ne. w~th 00 m!IJ p.~.alrl1te forma Hon-

O.uaDchi ng Techn~que; This· doel'$ requ U~ :som'G' ,iIltt:~r;rt~0n. IF!3!r 1:-00 mElinY peop'l~ !5et the: woo rk i ~ th 13: Wif"~r ,il'rid swill'l 'it. abo!..! t V'iole.nti\!', The rec_QrmlTH~ndifjdo:n s~en in some b O!~ks. tha>! ~ he ·w.tltelr ~ n tl'11 e bucke'i be 'set in wo!ary 'ma~'iDn ants t'he, [(JO~ 'lake., ,d'lnwn verticaW, 1:U one s~d'et ,j's eveif'! man" ILl lfl'r\OlI1:IJ.1 1118 t~. Look ,S l Fig. 1 8. '11' e water 1 S" p'iElssing th e wewk lor 111 ~ WCFk '5, P aS5~ nu 'thrOugh the W,Er~Jer: _ SBme efJt!!e~ ~ wi'l'h [iii ~ res U1U til at: '[1'8r~ i~ ~ ti0du~bo n in wa te r p~s;ure on the d o,w;nS~Il'!!a m sijde. Til IS me~o~ tl"i~t S;!&.a1m w'lU ~orm mo're re~tHh on 'I:hal 'i5,ide and '~t will be unaer& qUi&oched. The'~! 1's p~e'ntv of motion ·to di~il'iliIIC8 st(!am ~M' the· f1:''OfH. and lP~rh;ail~

IFill' 'UJ: fJ_UJNHiMn-g. ,-ttlMlJi1W(J''t'flJ11i~ pM!' 1ft! ~~_~~ .~~~~'~;'~;l1ll\1_rlif ~i\l.""~. ~dii~ ~I' AJI J',u;.<Pm. '~o!!'_J~ gO!"! r~ idgIWrl','!:Uhm

'-fill' wm tlll' liP9f/.!1!iIMt.f1d-

~n t~] e s~d'eiS·, biUi't very Ii ni,e at the baek, [Hst@J'1ion ~S' ij'gl~V it~ tfl e: ir; d i~h~ldj ski ned fi~ e-bBlrQe n e 1r5, usa th 8 5, ph ~no m enen tos I r,;;:lli:f)h~en .a i ile' which Iii as 10 e n I in .the h iliD ~ i ng II The' '~ref'S ned rn eth od is 8 IrBilmlvply S LOW GifCU~ rJ!r rnerlen of [he wwk, ,ootnbi ned with an e qua IIV r'aill'ly Sl0W ver~ fcal up iEHld down rna Uan. so t h,n [h~ w;Qlfk tr,ar:'Ii!'~rS on ~. lieHc~1 p-a~h Ihrou~'h the Q~na;nanl. An sid~s gel iequ~~ tU::fU'~ tfU~ ThlB motion shou I d be- jus:1 enoug" '~o remWf3 ~~U'eilim bubo res as th ey rnrm - no mOre.. Aflyth ung mOm viG1'e~ [ .[~l:~ n t ha~ d~s m;Q reo h ~um t han QOOO~

Fmr :a ~OI1,g a Ild !j1'l3JndQ r· obilec'~ _ S3'y a b:ro]:oh - 'Hv,en this Qen~ 113 ro'lr11FY mo~ &0 n r:rIla~' b,e 1'010 m uoh. In Wl1 ich ~·a,5.e 'YIO u m UlS~ b,e ~ofi!te un with !O '~l'm·p.l'B u:p~ a.od-dlowirn rn~Vf!ln'!lelf'ljt.; ,(J)gr!;li in,. r!;ll st enough 'U:l1 remove ste31'f!1I biJbbh~s: but no mon~. YO!iJ! O1U~'[ uy U!l~S for yourseU _ a little e~pa r.i'm eli! ~s; b-eU~,.. than :se1ve ra ~ Ipage'~, o,'f ml·nie. The· cbletr .isi to rem [Hl'~ [he' s~:!?Jalm t.~ b b~.'~s. l n

ttl Eli fii"I,iddle IDa! rt of the queneh - Of 'U''Re V'apCi urr b'anke:u in ~ he: case of oi I. W~t'lTl .ii!ii very 1411 ifge objet!l ¥ou in ay have tQ mov·o it III ore, bllJi t s~;fIIll ,ge "tlv I to ,e 'iI,~Jd not oooi snt, bu t cI'~iUiy a ~a r-g.a piece '!'ila;fl:·ds a 18 rger q!ue !:lch t",f_I'iT'ik, a rid V'O'Li sh I!J Ul~ d IFl:GJ,t ~ rv 10 ge:,~: away wl ~ n an i nade~u'21 t,e volume a:rf eeolant, ~n ~'ndus'try; O(tOUr:SB. ,e·iab"Dr·eH,e SYs [Qrms Qf' pra ~e,ne rs, un d~l'\i'ta:t er i e15", €!Ind 00 o~" aJr'e used to 'g,e t a CO n'[r,O lied Ibut r':8,m m Clve m~rU t)f~:Jn@l- cO 0 I !i!Jll!l. ll1 ~hilt!n dle wCiI'k cain simply. be Inwefed_ Even so, it d [)lies 1"l.1~·e<d a ~ at of ~rj(pe ri m~·1:11. a i1d Tr1' bS, if1ter~stij ng! ·to know t'nat '{he best 'fU8'S - IIil.wn '[ho ugh rna de: by t he' thoLJ!~ nd ~ .iii ra sri III ~i!1 nd q~ en ohed in brif'! @:.

Tn ~:r!!i' is: jus'l Dm~ pD.rrn a CQlII ~ the ,oll ql!! ~ll'nm w'hi'e~1 may' be h'!3'lpfu I" I Illnd! t hal a deepish be [h i:s bett~ f' [h air! 011 e o.f' 'IIi e. sill ftH!~ v,a'i U me b !J'~ • rr~ Ue r'.. This me 81fi:S Ih ill t '~tH~! type of w~rkpie<::e· which needs an oil IQuench. C:!J n b1!l! m D)liJ'ed ['IfI;or,e in ~ Vel'tli cos I diir;ectio'lI'I 1:ha Ii'I OIrhewwl~e.. In m alnv

cases I 'fj[liidl til all: 110 f-o'Uilly rnorion is, nlei,ed ed-tilt a III.

St'a;g91 QUle'flI:cffd'ng The crt~.i~al pa[Fl of the qu€'n c Ir. [s to g~'t the W(ii ~ teiduc:ed ~ n temporatu Fa ~H)S.t th e Ikll1se ,of the ",S·· eli rve (Fi.,g ~ 5~ Just 't() rei min d you Il ,0111 Gt;!1 past thiSI RJoi!ll'l" thi cooUng can ee CDuite a bi[ ,s:~oWlef' - Mane Insire, WI n :s,l i'n t~ rrn, This bei Flg soo then~ wo uid seem '~)O b-g no reaOOifl w~ty 'we shoo 1'(3 no,t rem ~ive '[he woik. 'froml th~' ba~:n once ! i has gOrl aiOWlf'l

)0., S~V. JOO to a50°c. ~'nd coo'~ ttie r(!stt 01' :thrL3: waJY ina seeend bath, Th is ls alo lila in co m me rCN' I ~h.1nt:s al most IJ n~ve r:~a~ h;. III has S'l1\1~J"il ~ a dw ntages~ The' prirrhlll'ry bath does no:t h ear~ up $'0 rnu clll - irn[porta'rnt i'l yo u have a III ulrnbew of pieces eo quen C h. I'r usln g' brln e, file second bath can be d'BaJM wa ~'er. w hi!ch WI n r'em eve most of 'm hlel $.~ It" ~ nd (her'D wi Ii b ~ ~ ess @VopO~'ir[ i"!1 "from ~'he brine b3'1 h b,5e I f. The re ls no n eecl 'for ~.gha'1~on in rh ls seccnd IOcHh - i h e me1a~ !:i.a n ta ke :1 t iii own, 'II rill e. Th~'only ell re yOlll must ta"l(re, u£, (0 av(),uc!. dr'epping '~he· w,oTkplece., ~$~eQg all '1/' If ~~ is l~,agd ~e.. I T. 'iN III be pMl~V brittle ,9'1: l'init;;, sta,ge,

P'~rtia I QwenchiIFl'~ liheil'e Is 1110 n l'3'~d ~o Q u€ nch '1h e wihCl,le of ,a 18rg e: work:p~ aoe ~ r1 0 f nl~l!iI:d u) heal ttl e 'who h~i of rt fQ!r ~ hal ff,.anel:f'~ if on~y ~ i'B n fl seds hina anh"g- After ~eforgqng ~he end of mv Ipieka:Me, for ,ox,a mij:l'~@ - a n a C'I' wh i ("~1 iN i II h a\l"~

lSi nneJal:ed hI EM; U~'9 f,crryil[lQi te-rnpe1f"ii'tu nl'i h~ abe 1Ul'l EMiO g C - ~ of. rst _',eart up W be'tw~ e:n • '8 lood;· and "C hBfrv~' n~dla rid q u~I1ICh ] us; 1 he end e in t:nes. t ne pO'jlm ~s ~heln bf~ kly rub'ba d with a broken 9 fJi'ndS;lon ~. w~ ~ h t hI!! hot JlOar~: ~a~d on my s'malll ,Inrvil 10 act as a hf;l~it'-sink. Than, whl~" lhe poi n1 is elaan, I hiOld it ~JO the I:i'ght Ur:] it]1 ~he coleurs fO n UI1 ~Iil ~'am psr '[It~ P!lJill!ll. Th UIS th e p 01 n [ Is hard ,~f'ld I~,empered. but 'tthe m,alim body of t hiE: nU(d is r'l'flst1f\n~~lv 'sol"t I shalll be e~!paJFt!HrI9 on T empering in 'c he next chi8lpt.iE r, bu'~ ~ a 1'1 say nOW ~hlEU this Rlif'OcedUlre ,~s qtJi'le l@gJiti rna [WoI~ 'lh.Oll.J'Q h nowadays on e 'WQ uld be IlaJ~p;6r (!rar IMIPOnanl tools~ i'f [hE '[lB:mpa'f heat could be h,LFJ'~cl 'rOf longer.

1'0 sum up. We must heat the metal slo"",ly i bOlt" '[0 flJilSlJnll t h f:i f lt Is hClI'~ riglh ~ thmlllgh and ~D that the tn;l,ns~[lirmatiOf1s needed hav.e' SLil'ffiiQler;r~ rIme n:; -talk" plac~ W,e must "Soak'" the mE!'tllll at the h,riire.hi!n.In 9 t ernper'ature. cho Ci £1 rI g U'I Po lempBmlU'r{! app rap r~ e:l.'!E1 [0 t'n!E1 n~ate ria I bei rig used, The "qusn ch" sh ou~dfc.IIrj']Vi· i m·m'ra:l1i :l1t&IY,r ~nd I h ~!3' imtil!SR ba donre ~ IT1 03 mal1nQr which [rernOIl:rll'!!i. stea m bubble s wit hem CIl!I,U'Sidi')@ vi Oh:~fU. ecld les in Ihe coo:i ill1g rne dlu m And th~ QU ~nch ta n~ mugt be :proportkmed to lh e :si~e am::! qu~ fn~ty 0 f 'ifJhB work in hand. I f liB U this is in om~.r VIC} u -!!'nou I d gel optTm U!ill h iii! rtln e'S:3 every 'D~me! It oml!y ~em~;l!in5 10 ~!elmper i1 Sind til is we de-a I writ h hl lh e nti!( t c:h iii Ill(u

The nUB,d for 'I;~m:pl~ Il'~ r1Q has b~eefll' dl~ur5Sed i fl C h.l l, ,,,In d 10 $om e exl~ m the ~~m iili of lempar- !!l1~1ilI~ But 'wh ll 5,1 the' 'lure neh 'lemperalu ~e is h~i 11"1 V eatsily de ~e r-' mined. depe nding' m ~I n~y on t ~@ ca nbon 00"'[ iiI'n1 of the S;Ul e I, 'thiEl' tern IDe r ~ fil,g ~elll'~e'ra'ture dlepen diS ,iii I mOSl em ire'!'v en 'Ihe' u5e, '~C' whic:~t iile t·~o~ w ill be pu r, ~ I 'pi:;, r'lat @¥en sufficlent UJ ~s;av "'laU~e l'ools·· %01' '~,he' 't'llE!'mp~r ntii'iB'd'~Jd (S~IV) f,or '[Un1ing ~N lAo 'wHl' be 'V@ry differEnt from tJnat 8I1Jilf\~~rla[e to a lClO~' ro cut eh n'l'~d C(9:~.l i ron The effect. 8!5 we, have Illreadv seen.

!II l. . I .. 111" •. J

rs to i m pi rove t 'rI e tCUJI 'g, fH~'$!i- -

rJe~~ance t'Ci s~ock = at ttl ~ lij'XP ens-e of t;.arru! O'r: the lila rli!lneS's. A. ~,ool not S LJ blac, ~o mltl cik! such a!1;ii .iii f,Ue,. m BY. i101 b-e ~ M~re d ,ar~ al~. w IhHe ,a ~pri ng wI! ~ ~re ~~mp 8'I"lOO 3[1 most ~o soft. I ~ i(;)i lows, Ull at .crlnS'l~ er~_b ~e (:! er:sQn~ i l udge,mE9'n'l must ,bi£! ueedf ilt i!:Hill'if 100 lake account oJ '~h e work ileliu!taJl1l'y c,one In ~he s.hrliP- 0 [iI e re,~SOfil -fur U1ili't'g ea'rbonS1~"3~1 '[~Oi;S '~I1,!!;'tBad of ~ISS f~»al'1: ~o\m 'tn~' f,iiI'cl 'tlnat 'they B.fe han:f:er)! i's U~ca't it i;s; very lfE!'alSV ~i) t~mlPe f t1l) :Sl!! it d~e

~e~. .

The change in toughne!!lis and tH'!lrdn~:s.s ~IS all'M~d,V 'b een mentIOI'iH~\dl. bu~: ~ ~hDW if] 'flJ rl'~;H!11il' dT.1 fairs Il'I' lI'n F~g 1 ':9. I m U'S'l EllIi!''tp'h as·us~ 1 ha't the i ~'tri;8 ~ rsh8.fJlJ of [h~ 'euN~ win VI"ry from ~![,ee~ t'll] 8(j~ei,~ with 8Ome. '{'Or ex~mlp~e~ :shOW'ililgl ~ ·'p~ak·" of

mUQhn ~s~ at 8 relative ~V low :mem-per. ~ I must be. ssld, too, 1hi'~ 1'h,~ k~s!i; ,of hard'.,.e ss Irmav be m or€! a p;pa im]ll than Ife~~. a nd liS dif'ficul'[ to ,PU 1 ,8' n'Li fIIlll~r to. ~nde~d. [11 e poJnt ,0,1' a I:athe, [00 II m,il'V well show a variation of [wu polnts on tne RcckweH 5'Ca I D UVer the. sll.lri1t(le. ~ H a rdn ess U~Sf;~ ng f'! umbeJ'$ and '[h ek dotell"m'inatiol1 are con~j'defBd In Cli.,~,.~

Thera ls a lu rther plO'Rf1It, and on e wni eh I b.e:~ie1jJ,e 1~ o:lite,n o'IJe'rlook e d. J ust as Cj UO'D:l3~1 ciln~'ir; g speeds 1"n P rod L1ict'~on Eng ~n eering 't"Bxtt:boo!ks are ge a re d to in d ustrta t ncU: mod el ~og; nf~!o!!r~ng" m:mdition.~. 'so are th@ IFCCQm m'iEt:nded Ie mlP~:ring! '~ll'mlp-e'r,a.t'lJ:res j'n to-@1m a!'ki;!'rs, 1~'1i t'~'~Qg ues and rme'la Uurgv teriHhooks. ina' ~em p~~' dtey -5 Ug}SlCil'S,T for iill carDon !ii'ree I la the . oot "~or Ie'xa rmple, aoou m e'S '[h',~ [. Ii~ Vii n!1 be i'n US~ 'for ,iJ ~Fljll ~!! ri,e~ of ,sh i'ffts: o~elr a 441 hl:;! U'r wea,~. (ActUBUyl' pr.oba'bl'v a ,56 ~'Dur weak ,8t thllii!~ UFO a' the !book. was wrif.t~ 011 S ~J',rrH!!' of m V 'fotml i~coLs h,tlV1!E' h~,d 00· miD m ntH n .h EI i~-1 n-' hou[r's wo.rk in tW'entv ¥Ie-~rs,~ So - Ul~ you:r fudg llln8f'!r~r b't!ltU in !mii nd th:e dltC',us;sk~(l! il[l ICh. ~ I. and, abo,v1i!: 81~. ,€j~e'l'jmen,t 111 i\1 pr-e:m,ie;r mcdEiI 8r1rg'ine-ering' c'iubl, i's emir aliI.. the • 'So;c:hny of' M ode!1 is I!ld E;w.f;J,eri'" mente! En'g~'n!l:'8r5,! I' ~

''[f'Eiil1iip8ii'art1!!lrtl!s .. Ha!"i!i,il1gl s~ld al~ tnat II willi ny '10 g;Q~ somu, h~lp In ~'he f;o rm ~'f '9u~tI~'~i'ru3s in I[h~' ta bll,~ b ~IO'w,. I have ruml

.............. ----------~------------~.---~~------~----~--------------------

~'Q 'an r-

. ..,

100. ,~, 300, .:11100.

"!i'1E1~~E:RH'4G f~MflEiRAfUIH:E _, O'C_

tnto quite a dl'ftk:ulry 'Q<1IJ\er thi~,. ,~S clIi'ff'eY'\Bn~. autho:ritij eS, dllff'8f,eiil ~ sleelma ke rs, !EiIn d dHfererti~ users. quolte V"a roving 'te'mpors for th·~ same lOO~ In pa' ,Ame~lGa!n r,ef~'re~nc@ beo~ SiEH~~m t() Igive rig u res '] 0

t'OI 1500<(: higher than do IE u ~opean Ones. lh is m,EI.'Y be id]Ye!' w the di Jfste n'~ s'ieel 9pee'i;-flc;a'(~'cmr Inn ~ sllspacl h r,~ p,robi3bly becaus~'~ a I Iii eJ el1d of '1:11 e 1 '9'~Jh Cintu ry. wh an rn 1lI C h err the w ~)rk ;,av,a,s 'IIi rst

T1EIM PEA Il N G TEM P,E RA ftJ. A E S fOR VAR [0 US TO 0 is

'-\r.b!nlJ'~ 1,001:1(: ~I~S Uj;II'.ewiml~l '-OI)~C PiI~k;;DA l~§5~275I:1C
A!I:~ leLJi.:Iinij Bl!I(lB 21)!) Orlll W'er'j SIiI'tsm 2:Hl PJtIJ!IIl!f.' TOl;!itS ,2 , [5-.2''-:5.
Briliss·~!J IfJiilj]J '~,ool~ '~J'(~-l '90 ,Orin ~Sr.rni'llJ 22iO·,24Q: fh~@i'!h)~ ,2JO-i~O
c~IftY~:mC'!f:4!idl 230 O~M~ ~lia-~f;I') 2,~'5 5erDi!!!II:,Ilji'~' ,200.-
Cil'Uli!;1!iI i~w fffilJii!j1 llt60 Eflg'i'lIi'iliflf'S, "too~ 23)0-2.60 T~p.tIl .2~O-220
C~!d 'C~'''~'I 2SO'-~,a,ol G:alilij~!i 220 SOi:!!h~tclfi""El'rn ,::UlO~290
Ct!!un'l!i!l'mbDr~ 22;O'~24ro H'!illmrne~-he,E!dl 23~2,50 Shiiljiiiili'!' Too:~ 1115-2;25,
CEJ'1Il1!re:9; ~brth-Il< I 2 'III) ~dle f{ij!p~S,'i i :2QO..2,201 S~r~ .3OG---ll'O
Dr~ f'S~DWilngl 2: 'I !5~2,2'5 Mming, CU~\!l! ~J 2110-230 W'CIi~r:I Cf.'iII~e'l~ .2 c'I5i~:al:5 N.MIES ~ '1 ~ ~~ Sag ~mtn!iJt.i'~ In '!M i.e~~ ,!Dr! n~rl.hj! l>cols

j:;U ''Slhrog..- 'Slasr" may. :lbo illJ[IIl;r;mJ.>c.d: ~t i5<l~'~h.~Iy. ~1i'N1i!_:f 'Hl!::Iyre'i;i lhan 1J'1atn g'glrqg!n' ,!;i~l

liqlil'~ P'Il,i ~p~ 9 ,27 5ii c

Dca rio: P,u1rp le 2,8 5 ~ C

p1Jb ~isheti.. Am ericanfirrms 'worked th ei'lii m~'Hi!hllFie'$ rat ~tF',ii,]rha ~der th8n W~ did. ~ III [t; B ~ a~le' ~. ha~e ~ried to iron, Oll'[ 'these d1fferen~e:s" but where in dlOLJ b~ I h a,ve ~B il1d~d 'towe rds Iltit; Idw,~r ,tii~g,llJlrB$. to ~:alke aseou n t' CJf [ille ~igli Uj!f duty evole err m ode ~ eilgi eeers' [001$.

The~e 'ttem p e,ra-tures ar'e. 'tlr adinona:lly, He~t;lfl't~d w~th '"T8mp~irin~1 eolours". and milln" publlcatlens :~imD,h; rel[,er' to "straw" ~r '·bh.ld3:"j iosU\@~d ot quothlQ fhe acuJ~1 (igu 00 hil ~ c. The f'()U'ow~n g ee n be US~dl as iJ gu.ide. b~ft ag8~:n, 1ill!!! m ~Ir~ :sligh f: dille ranees bertWlaan different pubncal'~DiU~. Tnere j's aiee IS prob~,'~m I ill ~ F¥\~&g!lr,et~tiof'!; wtn at sort 'of' SIJriBW. for e:lii'i m[f:dl~ II


te mpe'r:ii' w~ haw, belen ill d\f'~5~ d w' use in th e pa;sl an~ f:a r too liIigh. When '~h~' aoc'Elpt'edl pract'ice wa'S 'n rsl eS1abU!;';h ad ea rben mt,,;1 IOIl:rr,s, w'ere; ,IJni\fe rsel rV U H'fI" both by ,modell e-ngi nee ~ an d l~ ~ ntJllilG~ ry'. Teel secuons weue targb1 - i31 31- inch 'Bdta lIlil"llia W'fJiS, dfn;lg'n;~;d for h:E'i!U ... il1 c h WOois: - itlJnd we used 'undust.tle r practice wh ere, as I Ii ~iVe :Edr~ady p@inl.ed ~ ut, tli e Ctj!'11t nng ,ed glet,s we ra subJec::t 'IDOL a III e, OF 1 0 heu r' d,a;y,

I t :~s, f1ibv~ous '[ha1 W ~ 'm ust [~rnpe r down 'the sh 1lI'Ji1 k, o'theMi~!l ,t he cla m:pl f1ig 'rCl~C~S wm C.iUJSQ rI'30il,ln;!!, but uh,ii:j, ~C~IU;f)11 clo.lltt.'~ng adg e ts s e ida rn sU'bject tin anv shook load - on ,a, I,athe t.oo~, at ~east; 'l:h'll3: ease of pl,a ns r or sh:a,p€'r toots is diRer~n t,


,tJ j;ljOl'~,1iI1i ~h iJTI "ill" !!':CilfJlf.irl'1.l]l 1!'d,~,!I; lJ.~~'4tfa, '(!In' [Ntflrl 36

Abor\i'1I! about .31:!UJ Q C

Now. v In! eu ttl f'lg edg eJ! is 5Jubje,cr.t te heatiilitQ" We can use a h]g'he'f cut t in,g' ~:pelSd wHh '"Htg:h Spe,ed St~el·i :sh·rt.P~¥' because hs 't,~mpefnn-9 tl~mperi1nure lles b@!twe,en S{~O (I'nd '100~ C': sam e gra~ ~S, wi II '~'[ilil ClJ{~: wha III rs d-hot, 'We use loweNI' iSPEM~ds; w~ rh car,bon ,slee I' beCd'IJJ::3l!! if' the IO~ i p~']nt does get ~t, all ho~: il 'wi! ~ ··r'elmp8f' down" and sQ'ft:B1n. CIIB:ariy I th fi1' ~,~w'ali '(fin:!' i "~trai [EH1tp;s ring ta mpe r,a'tlJ r-a' I he: lre:s~ fisk lot damage to' ~ he to ill I pojnl ~r'Om w,~r. An dI '~he' tH~rd<!ii r t hili:!' 1:,col polnt ,is l!o, n' whh. the' 10 rlgel" h 'willi UI ke to h eat it iJp 1'ci ·(f~l1I,ge r poilru when Un I!I'FlFiiI(:,[) it ··temper,~ ltsetf· ;f;B od ,~i)Se.s hall'd na ss,

Fo~' ~1MeSi~ r'~Bf$u.W1S 'my P1'8C:tUele- 'fOf $Ome 'Um e has be~ n 10 ~,e.m p e'f ~ath~ hj l')~ 9. 'Ve,irV

Th9se eelo urs ii9lfle alS v~ ewed in d e,.Ug h'l of Sil'if'on~ '~un~steo laml) ~'~e(HriC ~'igtn., Tb~"y wj'n b~ quite at falJ~t i'r- judge'd under a. flu'cu:-,eSlGlllHlt 't CJbe. We sha II look a r. 1:11 a U~'13 (If t;:ololJ r -te mpe;ri'iilgl ~ n m 0 r€l' lei ets i~ later ~fII the chs,pte r~ ,

Spe:ci'ol (;ase ,olr liiUfho' 'tOlo,ll. 'F rfSit, hn IJS

hink ag'tdii1 about wh~u W~ ers doing. ina' obrltt of 'teMpering is to i'nc-rease '~he Is !.l.uhne~ - res i'!,!"ta flea 'to' ;11 celt iffiid ch'[~i',lilg - '!BV,un 't hou g h t'h~:s, ml~in'l s a ~jUg h,[ k~;s:s of hardf'li~~5. Ie tea rly', in a een tfe~p!.li noh Ihe Fii~k. of da !ll1.;i'gl8 fro:m bt~'ws IS, !ioRsidBra:bJe. B ut in 'the c~~e Of

.. ..

lathal to~JS., ~WH EN IE M'IPLOYfl[) ON TH 'E SORT 0 F W()I~ K. DO N I~ B1V M.O D EL EN G:~ N E ERS~, I wOiIJIlld ~1liI g'ge!l!11 th:all~ U"Il ~

:llgIH~V = ju:~'~ $u'rflclJen~ '['C) eff'0ct ,I!jl lirtls gr:a,i'n mfifioment a rid to 'g1VeI! some stress reI hld to ths crv~~'fiIIl struetu M; th'e~19 ~~ ~rm SOm~ marked inCJ1i1'iJl'S~~ in toughness; I f rst, temper I'll e wA'ate .tOol at 'b,Bt.weefi! i SOd C and ,2:00 0 C. ,!iI nd dle!'l "I (i!t: d'ow n" ,t he, s h ludot onbl 1')'1 iii f,'ag hd 2: SO a C wh i 1st k~epi'lng the !()QI pDirlf~ :cool e h he F ~1"iI a bat h of wlt'i r 01'" by '-II.s~:'ng [he a neierrt dev~ ~e of :sticking t ne bu s~ ne:ss an d: irirlO a ne\lV,-d ug I~u:r~iftio. Th l,s, gi''''e.~ ,!!xoe'III8'n:I' rasu ~t!i:~ badl ~ith ~'SHV'err" S'u~er' and with a :s~raIgh'1 '11 • '1 :5% carbon Sl;te~~. I use an eiJ€I n more ,refine-d, m ednod for mv 11\I'j)ry'-nJ,rnl'ng teels iii! nd these i~O r 3~idIB7" work wh en •. Ornre = 'men'taUy 'hAlil!1illg" in notre wood. ,and thi:3 [,5 de ~ It mU, on page' 7,4.

i'ell"l~p a;riln,g ,PrQ ~!i;!:d~r.~ To 'be p mp E:I'r i V effee't.ivs: ~he' tern P !I'rin g P11i'ot!3lSS rn U'~'~ 'be given 'tl'me to w·ork a,nd we are a~so 'f-aced. 8 S' in t Ii (3' C ase '0 f; ho-ati n 9 b efa re ~uenlOni'!ng, with 'l:h e need te be sure th a t the- to{!!~ I~ h~r right t:h:i''Oughl. If we haw ;6 1l8mpe~dl su ri'aee 'with ~ b ~1tU~ COf~ we' t11C1ve n(H. re iii ~'~¥ red liI ce dI 't n.e ri:s It of ere eking 'und 9r Ilol~1 at a I~, The' Iru Ie' h~ ~ne' SBm·e - ONE HOUR PER ~IN'C~ OF TH~CKNE~M3'. ~Iho'ugh this IS not Qui 'e eo ilmpOflafft ~ n th~ ~,fi S~, of a too! 5 hal'1k, wh~re' .n!i'fiJlf' t;em(:Jer between ,260 ;and 2'9coe wUl !s~Ne'. Fer ~hG to'o'l p.ohn. of OOUlrse. ~hB rllJ~,e appl ias ~o the dlnek'nlE!ss t'~e're. n G'I I hi!lli t 10,1 t'he shalr1lk. Now. c n1e IOf 'tne virtye'~, O'r d1181 ·'c!8s.~T.r.:al" ~~mp~riti1g m eUaod - a now! II'Ig the hea:l ~o cra'ep up ~ he sJila'n.k. to rile po~ nt - 1;5 [tia it t n~s ~, ea t. li'3v€: ts.. ij n m:fle: m,i3!hl., U'frOIJ gth the It!;Of'e of ~he:, 'teol: and pmvid!@d ~h'9, 51'!! an lit rJS, Ii eated geu,tly enough. the. "'-soakirlgl 'limle:"· wUI ~oo)k aft:la'li" i'tself. Even ~!iV!J, tl1 e~~ Is, a risk that ,the, tlamper may not b:e (.:om,p~~'!El: yt~s:

I I(Jl0W rt WIOrk~~ .... b:u I rU Is $~ ea 5Y to' m8~e' i I ··work bet~er'· ,!;1lnd 'we ,sii auld a ~wa~ try f~:Ji" perfection. We wn ~ ~oall~, at this, '·98 S¥

... ..11\,.

meb IO'Y . In a m,eUTI ent

T em,pc9rin g sh(~IUI,ld tilJke place ;fl'~ $lOlOn ,as rs (:u:actitallte alta'if Q~ ewu:::lifing. Th ei to 0 I sh(l u~d, Cif tau IrS~. tUi!V'8i cooh~d to !!lot rners than 500 C:, mllind coo ~'I rII.Q 'to 1'"0 UI m 't19:mpE!'f\tj'~~;we i:'i1l, *,'f'61IF. The iF(jiH~1!~ai1' "Ot 'lll'is leil(pedilkJ!J~ ternpenng IS th ~~ the m BEall is u.nd ~r ilfJ1'tern aJ 5'n"'e'5:S; 'fn:~ m dle' 'QlNJnQII1i ,ali'Hj 'i~, as is most usuel thl!! 'Wod~pilec,e hss iii '·'sba I) e' , ;;IrS ~tr>PCi5e~ to behwg j !Jat' a b~ac'k '~1-nere' J:s, rh\lk of soontaneous crackin 9 ,~ri5~:ng frO:m difffi·~ fa lil1:ia I Iconl rae fiQn as weU _ There is '8!ISiO a r:i:sk IQiW •• ~ r:a2;'ng·'· -

Om ~ IC racks: the<!1le can ,a p pella'r 'if a ·~oQI is te'f~ roo ~ong In the"a~q(je~nched c:ol'lldiHot1.

Tihis need foCIF' "h sste" ls ens raasc n why ho,rologis.ts, and glJrtS'mif~hs< ~ike 'Ihe ~·bla:i~n goff" pre (;,!!d:IJr-e - the tern P~l!!'IFll1lg takes p'i'ace as soo,n as 'I he' work ~o rn es out from th 8 qu~ nchin~1 01 L I'f 'fur a ny m'aSQii1 tempering' rnu st be da'~aved then it Imay he.~ p if th,e w,o:fk ~~ ,s'e't, I n ,~oil~~ng 'WEHe r 'r.o r a qlli aI1it1!H' of a n he ur or So befor.e se®h"i!9 U' asJde to await 'Iii e ftl"l iElillfGatmenlo

H e.aftin'g 'for T81m pelrin II., Firg;r.. t·he '·e-C!'sl,riH 'way'· mentiof;J'~! ~bovilt~ Go' aUld look at the ~c)Q:ker ~fI 't:h~' kitche:n. You will S0~: UU\1!.t 1'1 has a 'th2rrrH~st~ l on 'I.h e. o'i/ten if' gas or el'i!;:n~tric firedl, elf ,~ !buiU~in '[,iln~r it'! 'it i~: 'nr'Bd by saUd f'Uel, 'Y' wTn. I th'~hk. fill"! d t'hat t'h,e' ~ Ine ~nlOsta I, g,1l) ~$ up nea r'l y '1'0 30C'~C - ('i3'!rtahllly [0 250gc: - OIF (0 ··GiHii M:5i ric e". (Oeg ~e,es Cent-igra'c eo -= iI ,40 ..... 1 ~ t,~J1r"!'~S Hi! ~ gas rri'~rk, ,e! P1Pto.'li m a,mely) So. you ha v,~ a Qood t ne rmosta'iic:e Uv C'(Hl't:rCl'U,ed. O:i!' at leB~t ·'~J!!·mpera~,ure ind'c~H'lng". l't'm p ~rTrJ"lg ·hJ'maJce en "lh e. pr~m fis'8's ~ The oookery Iba~k wi III gl~ve VO iJ r~e ~e'mpe~Ii"a'w re:s, ,e nd if' you fI m,~· 'til ~n gs righ [ you s~t yOY r ,tools, inl 't he ave!'ll .a !ongside th e ioi'nt. Tha t,~ble be iow g h.res d~ e 1!IJ~llail 'tJ~m petiU ilJfe~, 1l15~d i!'1 th rs, wrlt of hea t 11'1rd!Btment' $hop. 'th LlMgliI "~:h'B time' lin tIly V{HV ,ill iiut dop,G(JIdiftg' on 'Itl e judiE) !!I'm er:i:~' of '[11 e aliJen~shcp 'foreWOmJiBII1.

111riS'h s,'tew 2 h ~Tamp-er~ng, (Jii e" wit! leh Can be, used to

Brraiised ~lg'B,o;n. 45m: C:H;s@'nJllE!!5:~ 'teliimp~i'"'8ltytU3 ,as; niyn !Is Is "ormally

2,h,: I,as;~ sila:ge, o-f 'roast, duck etc, 3h, needed. Ulu~n~hiril9: 01 II ~~ Iii! Grt~ 'i~itabhal.

~oa&t eh Teke-Ill 2'Om.J1 b: 18:$t' stage HBwerve If. Y(bu do 'iii ~,ed ~ ~!.Ubsta Il'ItilE! ~ i::~ 1I1~

of :roast beef. 15trJ~b, 'tilline,r - a l~"'lJin one m'ltIiY' rcn\ lh~ QH

Cot1[;a,gre' p 1~. 1 ih; M i nee, pij B'$'~ ,2'5m loca~ ~~ = and U lIHS~'rig '9 as; hiS [i !fig, a 1- Ail fa

Ch!2.ese s:n~aws. '1 !5:m. '~81me, nail '~h@' !5:!l;Jn you woutd IiBBS kilr

Y(Hkshl Fe P I;,.ldid ul"g~ 2>5m: mc.s~ ~ies~ bra;z:lng" _ " ,

2~lm: F~'r.s~, s,lage of res st du cik cr The Salll, B,lfh ~s ~Jhe norms'l met hod lof

t"U'nikey, .20-30'111. t8m;~iElnng us~ in ,pnt:iIL1,l'Hry. Ta'mp.uin~:

S~DrHHt 1 Om'~ EhtHHt 30~40ml, salts are QU~'1e' 1I"1!nOClIo1IlHS .. beh"l!9' a mi~U.m3:'

Fili's,{ ~·l~'GI~ or roast. beef o~ S~oo~ulm Nillfi"t~ 8'rlldj ~~'1:assijl!.J'm Nlitll'a:!e.

Or (ltuk, 20m. ("Ni~rJte~ ~and Ni~ra'ffl'~1 wlhIc,n I'iIl.'B'It;:!;, at 11 600 C. AgaR n, you I'!I ee:,o ~ ,su_bS'~afil,H~1 cr.mta'linar ~ alii d II U:!!llli:! t,n~ QUI'~,er ve:5iS;e~, iff!::IHm 'S i"ii old.,f,3 shioned g'llu,e-pcn. Hg :20 shows, the ~etup;' ~hli!· old bo:i Ii ngl iii ng ~' piClitEtd 1I P ,l;M, a 'S~ h:~ '~or a 'few !parlee fI,., a Ih '~1ce1jjlIa UDJ ,~llId yo Ul se~ lnE! pot ihel!'"8 en a replacernent, Ordhi! ill ry Oil arc ~rv thIfH;'mOmei'ter,5~ 'llJsua11ly nirt rlOQ en 'tm t!·~t a rill! !ivai ~abl~: 'wh ~ch go up to 40i:)~ tC,~ and a lie no I: el<:p;e nsive - '[Ii ev can be had from la'boJt!,u:ny ,e~ uhc~ Ime lilt $U pp~ ie rSI lei r Dn:l(m~d thrr,ough you r 110(:811 pha rmsdst. AUern a t!lv~IV U1e w€: u~nOWD1 "·;R.a!:li~itheY"m'" :dl'al In ermarn8 tel'S can b ~ us e.d_ 18 iIJIlt 'fox m'QS[, of CD. lilli" w(!!,r, ,!!In love n thre'f1mo m e'l$ r 'from a $,crl!! P'P&d IOOrJ!'ke~ wi!~ go llID' high ~nou9h - though h' may be' rna rkedll'l'I 'f,iSilh Fe nhel't.

The salts, a remallk@ted· ,tdga r' V alugh ~n Il Co.. l~g'e: :$t n;: et; B ~ tImij ngh ~Im li nd ~l m~, bg th al ~V 11"1 I!:i lime '11i1 h,i book riS pub I ished the!' U 511JliI I made I IB ngi'nee r· ssw P p]iEl!"S 'willi m atk.,e~ them 'n r~nhefr ·:!nna~181i quantrUes. [D'irect .sup~1V 'from, \t,a IlJgh,u'l5 m ~V lfilval\jE: a "ely~, p\J reha~ei··I. Theil'"e are. 0" COli ~s~, ~ num b e r of: b ra F.l,js,~ bu ~ I'h e onl Ii{ son I h a,\iQ used is 'the DEGU:SSA type TS'150/AS 1 4CL I~, GOm eos, tai6 tEl ,povudeU' of '[he. ('.0 ns'hne nc;( 07 do,m'fliostic ,S1I!!i I ri, b Ui~. n-,'u'Sl b 91 Iterpt dlFY. as ~It Gan ,i!!Iooorb rnoirfW.Ulia' ·[131iri¥ quiC'k:~V. h ~s' Jl"tO n-to1!Ci r.::~ ,an d' 'the on IIY S'e ~'C'Ulg, na:~ra rd ~S: 'th~lt,. Ifke ooms' 'weiedki~'lerSt h~ absowhetd into wQ~dw'ork. ~ a r you r O\!"'er.a I hi~' it

,60~ 1poC


,2g~~(;, !:iiNl~:C

~3D~C ,M'SQ,~

I" ,~d~l·tiol"i'j y·c IU prOM b I V nave ~ deie,p{fY'~m chip-pi:! n. C hi'ps a fie co~'ke d at \ 10:0 C' 'fur '5 rn ~nutes 10 i' SO~ and ~lil'!gn i ·br(n/~~f\eu;f~ a t ~ '9 B,a (:. bu t ~'he 0 il can 'silfely be tabrn IJP to .abou [ 200-,2.1 0 g c: 01"1 in ele,c.tric eoeker, ~OnB, has ee .010' ~ilr,9jru'l! !Oi'1I gti;l s, as Uri ~ess, 'th e (J,iI is 'rr~5h th Iii il8:wl nS'JJi~ ~1i ng a nd ~o me ViJlPOY r ~.

~I' ~"1!lIi ~mpHiili!' ths above w1~h rhe tab.18" QrlI fIPI'D'916 ,4:2 yO~' w~1 r ~e,~ t ~a't tl, is

liliesria we rkshop G,~" 'l-empe'r malr)V lof your loots f(i·~, you 'W lId Ie pe rl'o.rm ing hs !"10m 81 affiae. ~nd it l's, .0 Ill~' 11"1 ecestillry to Deg;Ollate ImU'tI"H':J lIy' aroGE!pf;Ellble 'telf'm!il 'with I~e rrcPi'ie~t,or II Thefu .ij s, Qf 'COlli r Si~., no rE'it~1iI, ~so 'far' ,as ,I £I,m cOn~erfIJie-,d, ~nyw BVl WrtV rh,el 'o'V e n or ,chl'~--IP·afi s'hollllcl not. be III !i~d '''~OIJ~ of cOCJkl!1!g hoUlIiS~" and ~ n ,t hi:s 1SiiJ}1ne-ct~o ill kt ~s wonh noting ~,ha l :a '10.01' w~Jetr ali 9 tn 10 b!8 N~'m p0'r€ d ,EiVt 20~)1111 C i·s

,", k d ·f·· ~" 'k d·' ~ •

I1I,ern !!Jetter '[f'e-ale·· ~. tt 15, GOD e'· "~I vr '~t$

~ U rrme ,fit 1 90'~'C ~ han if 'mere IV "heated li~ I th9 colQY tS run Lrp·'. The frvi og oi I. e-9111i:~ alUy. 15, IIJsefl!ll~ ;~ 5 t he he al tlransf,ef' i's e~UeTIt. 'The ,0 ffdy 'C,iiI'Vea1 Ii waLl Id ant,er i $ l,hat it w,oihllid b~ PJiIL:i,~e'nt t;" U&E! ,af'll uven rH th~p-.g,a n t hiB nrnom ater, as: I[hle th·e,r,mostat 01'1 d8m es1i~ took,ars can 5jj 8t Iil~ [, of

callbrmJom In dme. -

YOOI 'ClfiI. '0" OOil r~~" Ul~9 ""frying oill·· a~ a rBmp~lirfg a]i 'in r~e' we k5ho~'. laind yOIlJ 1lJ~y mU I be ,ab~ i9 t,o obt!ijliliil I.h e ~iPe1lC~,~1

.............. ~~ ~~~ ... a._~ ~~ _

.'. SlY pperts CO FYI bu st:i on" . ~ de-a ~ 'W i'~ h ~~S-af:9ty·' ilf'1 ha,jig ~ '~r~it'!tmeru~' 0111 pC9ge 1 O::t iilnd oln I" m crutJOln rhls now te reassuce yOy U,at We' a're net 'lad king a,b O~ t flr'i'~!teria,1 'which is, poJsorlO'l;Jl:>"

T~e' g ie'a"t adva n1'~!Q e of this meth ~d (II ik~ ~ha'l using the QVefill T!lf 1;niU '\lifii'lJ have comph~tEl' o~Jm:r,ol e,f '~ihe _mJl,~ra'fJJrra to wlthin :Ell degr19~ ,~t s:o.l1l1ere is no problem wll~'1FJ ··'time·' _ '!lOll can Ire,a:vfI1 Ilie w10rk .in !aIS tll:i ngl as YDIU I rke. Af:! d [I, e a'C tuI ~~ ~lm B n~ 11 be fil Ib~ r. :6itT! 0 r1:er, a 5 '~he h !i3'·il'~' U-,Q fi!$f~'r 'is '!Iery '9,000 ~n de~. lh e O~1Je thilr"Q you de h ave 'to Wi1J~'c-h ~s tha t ~he're j'G i'lD oil or water 1t!rap~*d inl 11'111 e h,ol'es" !IS;' 'th V!ii would b ~ d 8If1ger,o,!Us. ThIS' procedu ~e tSi first '~o ~ni ng the ba'th up to th e wor:ki'ng t'emperi;ll'u,re~ 'The work pi ~~ ca n be :se1 al~1m9~,i d~' th ~ pot 'to dry rr: you tu,~Vt~; any all ubt;s iii ~GU ~ :~'t b E!'~f'fLg ~hy. (With ou'-ij ue Illrehed w,oil'k I usU.a Illy' wish in ea mon' :~~U8chl!!Jl'ide 'C,n" :a 'l'l!:'~ m i'ta r d,ei&lr~,a,s a III It). You ne ed some m !it:iJir:i,ti ,of ho.ld ~n Q '~he work. - ii! t5 no f1Jr'! .Iit1lr'C'J]1 rig abr.tI.l't ~n h O! t mol te'in s~lt to 'ftn-d it:. A pi'ece of wire wound round will seNe" ~ lilrnn:QrsCl, '~he m etal :s~owJy~ '''I'(U!IJl w'ill II"!lOi[i ~ e ilhat thfJ''au.Jlro~ ~'ns. bu~ willi ,st,~w~y

AI, _:20 A 'lfi~ ,''e'n:J;!iIi':'~' .Ii1!l~' blJ'Ih', r~ ~Yry 1I:iI!~~' 1.1; I ,r;;I.!;lN"~ ¢1tJ~·pnt iI4 ""if .u:.F,!' Qn d{I~t!i'!> ,r;~ di~1 NfN,~ .~ ~fm{oIlI iC.!!Ift ,'Dn liJe tf;"rtm'm.~IM; NIJrmiJJ,., ~'!N'~ /lJi.h. fnr!uldrtfJrI bJfjr.o».~ it' WI~"Hi ~t;'Fid !Jil~ ~J, ~, Wtil.f I"1!III rrm~ ~r' rhO' fJfrqrr~,61~~1j.

rise i8lgaTn - the rn ~,!3 n at, es a 11.111 e. .any need to lncrease the h~'i!l11'in:g' !fa'(,e.. Il8av~ the work ii n for Ule 'iJ ve'Str'j'b e·d ,'ime. h ~wjr,g a n eye 0 n the t8 MIpen:ltl!! r~; 'ro'~ 'may' h~v~ '[0 ,adj uS,l th e C1)Drtt rnl ,5W11t',Co'h from lime '"1'0 ~~ m ~~ but ~f it .sta!\fs wi'lhin a, f'ew degtn;! ~~

':1-,.- II~ I.. fI" Th .

[lidS W I', ~ ue 5U IC!I ent, ~ I e PIf!iC<e!' ean Of::'

,a n c,w,ea 'I 0 a~r- 00(111 aJte II'" the dm e is up lihe:re ls no need te "quaneh": qu~nehlng is onlv lIl,eH:::B5li!iU-Y when. as ir1 flamh)~ialt'ng. s torre,a heat i'!ll 0 n@, p,a,r~, Oi r 1:11 e. 'I'o~t m.ight overh ~fl1'1 t he 'fl8 r1. b e ing 'Iem'(jered Any salt whi,e:: h iiI,a n'r3 r'e s C8'I1 ,@'~sIly b~ w~Sin€d Cl,t(]n warm w:!!I::rer aftarwa rds,

- .

o n~, ¥ou na'Ve' ~m'ps'red the tOOl cveud I in ttLi$ wa,y 'ttHg' sh i! nik 'Ciii! n b ~ Iql, down" with ~ gals; towch; $5 I: harve ~revi 0 Ul$~¥ el(~I,[iI in 00. 'W'ith 'I"lfll ~~ i [iI 9 Icut U:mi. El~ 'bits. t~ps. dh~:s. or a'~w 011, er tam p! ica:tl!d tools tlhis ~ s not neCI!!5S.f!! ry. 111 Hie ease CI'r long t,oo I~ ! ike rea'!i1llers you moy ha;!,v~' to lI$e ~' osetJ wa U:~'If-;bath w~ t~ sam e 'me a n5 ,olf holdh1g' til e toO'~ lJiPrigl, ~ in orde.r Ie, I i::!1 dnw n the d r.l,,6ng ,Sq]!.Uii r,e' Qf'! '~he, end"

Th'e1 sail ba ttl 'fs nu~ ~n!IJW~T 'to ~ ~mo,st d II rlil eI' p;rable m:s me [, with 111 ~,emp eri'ng_ Fo' cern p~ e_)ll sh a pie,s - e$ ~H~H:: ia ~ I V m' ~ Iii ng IC'wrttEiFS - h ~s 13!lmoS1 th~ '()FdV 'way ttHn lhe 100'1 CH,n b~' '[,8m p I!~ d p ro~ erl y. a IIld S]~e' I ~ no prro'b~em e:i1't:hM, pr'ovi'de<l t~~ ~JO't l:li pro pol1:ic'll1ed to 'lh ~ ~rlle at Ihe w,o rk - ¥!l~ need ab®'!Jl 1 01 b of ,sa I t 1'0 jt' One ,I b of stell':! I

b LIft '~~ i~ n't ,cr~t~ca~" y~,!1,1 must:. of cou, .. e "wHn'~:mber '[h !lft 'th e t~d,e wil ~ Ir'jse wt1'erJ [1119 WCl,rrk 9 In e:.s in; don '1 'Ii n '[h,~ pOl' 1,00 'hll~ 1 lFirn,I'Uv, s' detail ~oint on heating; W~1e" ookl,. fa cru~m 'IN iilll fo rm on the !(!l,p of the ~al~~ Inltia~ beating mU~,t be slOW, and tt ~!i ,~d\'!! ~9'a'bl~ tOi 8ip pl'v jusl a ~i'fUIB hea' '~O -tl1.a

10 lIr~~de ,!lU: til 9 top of the I~o't 't1O ge t ,.a Ii ~ ~I~ m~lt :a round 'the crust, A, lii:d shou Id ifJllwoVs, I be i'n p 'aCE! 'WI1l.!9'il, l'eS(6 nh"ltg a saf t, ,pOT. I

GoloU r T@mpGf1iw.Q., Th~;s is: the method IJI~ mM!I!'i 8nghle'~'f8 are accy S,[(Hll'€! d. '(D. Obiri:au'lilv. 'efV1en ~'f VOl! ,have a S81[ -r"Ulm~ee jt j I.1I5,t 115ft,' t: worlh Rri ~g ~ [, !,lIP 'irf all [iha'i re~~ t~e!at[119 uS, ~ ~~!I1QU'"den~dl SlCr-ewdriv!i)lf and [flSii'l8J are manY' [ebs i III 'tine ~veraJg,8 War1l:ts.h!lp 'F-olr which :s,olplf~s,ti,~;~u,ed m'emjftbds,~a ire not wort h 'whil,e. Of COLI! m8~ H' VSlll' tHiI,Y~ no ~~It~b~ll'~h, and ~ ne' u~ft 0" imoT.Tl1;~tlG O''1,sn and ch'~p pa n1 ali's denied vc~. th9j!ii you II11l~S;[ us-e ··te'm:pe'ii ee h~ IJJIf"S·' toO ~nd'l~a~e t~e ~e mlpe ra IU ri!'. ~'[ C,iU'UiI!Q'( i'n any wary b9 d'isda1"nllad as "bad p rilaieeti: 1Jk.a m 9r~Jhod ,has hi een used! 1(\0 r Qlen'tu r'~es; for gW>Qlj'\d 5, and pik-eah ~.a'"d:s' iil'l1 Ull8: d,~y.s t!eJ01'l! th~f,e we're anv i;a'tn~,[.o.ols.

Thi! ,~llO;iJr,s, a~u r'Orlfn~d by a 'film of Gxide 'wh'~ch i~ '~elY U,i n iJn de ed and: w n~€ h gets [tftiic:::kei" as 'th~ '~~m Jj-I!i'ralllJife incre:a;s€lfS:. It wou~ d ~el~m th~'t the ©cJOIlJ ~ eha ngB ls, i Ii'J '~aM" d'l:.!:e' tOI '[he If ght re flee ted from [t'ire' sul'hl ~ of du~ metal itrsellf pa s,sing thrall! g,h differiD9 thickJl esses err the ,~l!i:ide. Cer-talill'y ,the IB')l:qCl ,calonJI r deas de pur; c! 0 n bQl h '[h.ei W~lCie [Jri' mer~al a no 't,ne' SUI rlace fl.,jl~. The diffirQf1 c,e~ be'lwe ~'11 'i hei c~lc)U,~' of 'ifmil'c·· steel' and l"igih~~8rban ~n8'el ~$ :smaU, bU'l '~s lhe're, as ;::; '~he, ·[!If(e re nee bJUwasn t h!]. I of ,q U'B nlC ru~:d iI rid ~nqUEU"llch'€<i lcarbon s~E!el. The e'rfelC'~ 'f.s te li\i·e a ""',iB r.iation J!1 'Ie I!"rIp~ ra'UJr'e. f:~f ['he :s;ame sh,a de,- ,b !Jt~h tS Is on ~V Ui;e odd dellrsb ce ntigre:d el a:nd is n ott i m port-a nt. The, stuiaoo 'fini~1:I ,sllolU~d 110'[ 'be lO'O ]!i!~ish ed: a du~ ~ Ibut ,SlmOOl h matt ,S~ n,!aJce ];s, baft ~r:I iess you ~rt9' 'bh,.l~ing 'Ih e s:[J8'9'~ "or ,tQ'SiJn'fJ!1f~~ ;!ifFe,c~s. nH~: 0010 Uf5, w~'n, of to~.'. l1~n h~to e.a en o1'h,ar if In e work i:s h~a~fE!;d 'from Oil! ~ eri d. ,8jIfi!d 't hie,' shoo!d be' vi~e~ ,in ,a, di'ffJu se' I ~g ~H to av()id S,P.c8 C lUll ~ f letfe~tiQrr!s. 'Th,e' most U~lH~1II d~if1f!.tu'I,W' is 1n ~eiiijd i'nO wbEiI'll tc Sl,tc p': th j :S,lraW 'may app.fiH' ~ID be UJL) pal!e'. ,a1nd '[hen~ before ll'Ou har¥i '[im~' ~1Qi 'I:tn ~rlI k", be'~Dm~s 000 dS,ft. TMs, 'is pefh ~ p'5 iliIJ ,s:tmng er argum,eM[ f'Or sm~1 ,a,Dld ge'ntlg' he'~f~~li!g tlit ~:n ;~ mv thB't hlES

gone' btlHc n'lt I! ~ 1 does Ihel'p tc h ii'ilU a1 ~'i~ce of ~ald :~~I,ee~ a~ o'ngs~f!'e for ~om.'pa ~i~on ,~f. 'ttl e 1t9rt p:1;1! ~~~It :$lrer~ i~ ~ he ,~im~, A6 son L1 as ~he eeleur 15, ··righf· t~e, ll;e'Ca ImU,5,t be ~1II en c:Jiled ,_ In Dill or wa1,er = to pre '!IEtlU ';9 i1y healt slomd in Itine rsha! nk O'f llh,~ [(DDI from 'ta'k1fi1g, it 'funher. The q,IlJ1B'JIlching :S8fVi~S n CI PU'[pDSe 'so 'far ,9:6 ]:he aetu a;1 '~e:mlflerh191 hi, CDn c~rned.

The w,t)rk ~fii be heated in a b ~Qwla rnp, ush:'!! g ~ 'VE'RV ~oFt naml~. b lifE wh a:1iI E;I"iI'e,r possible' ~ usa a ;s;pfrft: i aim P" Ills 'Q ~!'('e' a cteq tilate for mest ,Stz!e'5 C 'mol, an d ~hough h la'i<e:5 ,~a llhlBf ~ C I1s-ar 'ih:a~ a gl~s b IUrm:H 'thllS is. :an I to 'th e good. W'e ;e re n 01 Ill'll a hurry ~ II'~ pr;Qv'id~:s, ,e Veit"i! CI~'2H1! n~me, and, one 'which, dlo~~, o'ot ~n.'u~rfe~,e' wIth eeleur 'forma,ito n, E\i!~n 'so.' It ~s lr1~c~;ssa rv to "em ave' '~he work 'fro m 'the 'Wi!O!ll'li@ to ob&~~e: th ~ coleu r. as it win JiI!Ill d ~velDp p rap er~Y' i n the ,P resenoe Q~ ~!J rni ng h,d ~L Illnde'ed'. lr is pOt~s.rb~e 2it::['!.,Jlaliy to removl!e d;lfi!' ceJlour with 8 r1fJ.duc'ing 'rvpe of 'fia!me~ 'IN,~ Ui!,fi'llly. VOLt If'! IJ51 Ike ep the 'wo~k movi rilg abou I in t.he 'n;:i'm~' Tn orde if to, 9 ~t even ~eali'ng 1f you are u;!-mlil~l"1in91he wholi~l~

Ob~ uc::n:s wh ich are ,of i rregu I,a ~ shOJpe 1t:8'1n lbili! cnffh::JJ~ ~" Th~ he;r' .m C i.J:!d be a,PDlh1~d' ~:O' 'Ihe hea\ty pillirt of~ tllB !i~ c [ioi:'i. 8 rid 'VOl.!! mu S:I: I!t,eep a very ca,r~f:ul le:y,e ell d, in 91$. F'ill"lle (:0 line rs ;mav'· ·t'~'k,!tI off" m:to [11 e blue: befor·e I Iii e main bndy h;tJ s re'(±H~ hed s:lrillw. For s'IJch wor-:k I a tW8YS, i;j,52 '[he sa'i't ba1,h or dom·e:il!t.! G OVL'J n,. B lUI If yOU m IiJSt' use iii 1fJ i1ime. goO ve ry s'~owIV ~ ~dead. lihe d [ft~cllll ~V with d"! e clin~c1' iii ~cnln~l m uthod i~; 'thllt 'we are tJ.~pl¥i' ng 'Ehs h.e-I't fro n:1 'the ow:s1d e, ,Ejlf'i!d 1 he irE can be nc 9UJara lilt ee fn;ti ~ 1 ntr i nt:,ern at ~ S~lru CEUre lS up ~)O It:! Q te'Fmpewatu re; it ceft3 in Iy won''1 be H you heal ~CD qu ickly.

II iF' ~I'alme hea'iino' is ~h,e: ,0111 ~y ma.E!,n~ ll~aij'labl'E!" t~en 'VOl!! c,an lity OJ'l,e of ih e!: '·,se:unt-direcil'· ml®thods. 0 ne wl1l C'el; ls of'tlQI"1 Ii€roomme tl(fl~ is t'o brin.g 8 t.e irlv thick ~r~ee'l p~ate ~p '~)Q just be~O'W dull red

8'E1d 10 ~'~po*~ the' wo ~kp;~'Ce 1~ '[h e i"ifJldiiantt h~!9Jt 'tu rni!'fi'Q tt a bout th~ 'wh Ue. Tha hi'gher 'tempe:rlng [,oe:m;~efa l-ure.[S. milly' fI!;eed '!~e lJllate t,CI be Ired-hot. V,i:i!U C31Fi d:o ~ sTirn i!'!:i r 'U'!li r'liO 'with 8 'fi'welbrick Q\i'l8 iil:' ju st arra nge lEI 'r:aw firrebri~ks tliJ form aln apol!?1l bo~, h fll'at Ilhem wl,th a to roll. a nd ~Ihe:ri !hold 'I ne wo:rk ins r 1l'B' with tCW1Q!5 - again. 'll!Jtn ino h a,bou~ a~ I m he ~_ime.. Many us-e a :sand-b a ~ Ill., A ]:rsv\~ m- dry &"8lnd ] s h:9!1:nedl ffiO m be~olw ,and ~.he w'Owk eith er 'ilaid u Pi 01:1 i I 0'" 'b i!1riedt '1.1, e sa ffld beIng turned' ,~skria to inspect' 'lhfJ colours [rom 'tim~ le t~'mB. Ut help·51 '00 h;a:v~, ,aJ thin piec~ lof simi~'~r mah1"~i ~I I~id Q n1 th 8 surfa.ce @·f 'l;h~' b L'Hl in [~at ·t5! sa, to .aGta s an lin d ~catoil'. Th e .san~ mUSil, of (;ours~. be kop[ 'W~~ ~ :9;1 iin~' 'wh U~t he:art:[rng. 'I,D make SU fa thalt Tit' is a tan even te mpfjratu ire'. I would ner recomlmend SfJn d fo' tel m ~a raturss ! n the ., PaJ e SHa w'· ,region i bu t 'r~,F deepe r co lou rs it wo~~ we!! n: a'S soon as yo W see a pa ~8 eelou r YOll ~rt©w n~a ~ the clher~. 1ii3're not far ibll!! hind. Tf"atnsm'i:s;si;on Ta mlpeug This j s ~ he ~·clanlcer 'wirV rr~F lathe. 'tools., but t·· 'call be l8~tefll:ded. Th e 'tool i:s, heale d al ~he shank ,end. and i'S 'linis rtillS b.l u lit ~ 50 the pu rple: - da ~k. S'lt.~W - :5lrl),w - ~ille :5,tnJ,w ('.:O~OUlrs, ru Iii ~(iJwa rrd~; tne' ~:UJ; fit, As socu'! .~:Ii lh~ pa.1 e strr~w r@a!::heSJ [he lregiofl of d:m cutting -edgEi' the to~t ~s quench~d, pairu dOW!'1i "n wa~er. Th'el \I'~rt~e IQ'f (his method i~s. til S I h 81118 allr'in~dv su gges~ed. 'Eh.i:I ~ lli:~ Ii eat t1ralU'els ,cown i n!;ffd·e the m etal ~ ,j; nd we can b ~ falrtv :SU~~ Ih ~n ttn Ie femlp~ r1109 h~s, reaghed ths' ICi~lntr,e. f~u! dTm~u ~tV' ~ ~

inat th e ·tslm.~~ r hi: I,iI rH'J'V~f!I. from ,poin! b:1ii c:;tw,a,ms.. ~:n ~hlB' ~a$e Qf a ~nl;1'e~1"oG[ th e 11·& Vi ~i I b€! mla"rk.ed dTff8'j"1enC~ If! ha ~d1il95S a~'~ml fhB cuning' ed9 B. ,[;jlflld a 'P,EUfE;iiflgl ~ool 'wm 916ft oo1Jte ~ as h is rsyro ilJnd. Thlis Is til e 'mia'in reason why 1 on:a1ngfEfd m 1he: "two-stage" lermpewin~ p r.oc'eH~~· al'lIe,iiI elV described. N everth·eles'S, ~he I!iI1s'~hoo ,~s 8U!l.DrU], a Iild if ,eare. is tak ell ('\li\e.ry 'Q efll th~ beat, with [h~ 'fJame 11'\10\.1 E!~b;aekw.erds:~ !iil wov f1i.lm the p'O~~rnj' 1$ [h'i! 'work gets hOlled s;8r!!imCl,(l. rv M'Siu'i'rS. tan be assu t.ed •.

Th e t~ e'a ca n be 8"xten d~(L IF L9 I.: l :Sihows 161 me thod of u~mp~!'ifl g, ,8 S;,malt mminQ eetrer, o~ 'the ·t"VP~ lused l(l ho[()k~gy) w1lhich is sCI'i~wedl ,IOn to, an a·mOl ICOIrBt ~iH"_bor; The co~;p-er rod is '~hf\lrHHjed ,and sorawe:d i 1'l10' 1 he' IC u 'I. tie'r • and he·a t(!O lIN r~ h is Ib~'ow,1 aim pt. Til 12 hea t run'S dOwn the red, thre ug,h r.1'rI,e m etBl1 of the cu t ter, to (11'£! lea (11. ~lh)'(e' :that ,(IIFile' ,C utter is set Or! lh~ rod as snown. 90 !'t-I eJl! Inil3' UiN~1~'l a;l"tf:!: m!;llM or less 10,1 untrnrm di:5f.anc e iro rn '(he 110[ r.od. FT Q 22 s!n'oWS, ~ '51i'm 111 ar device i III UOO: tempering ,19 die. In this c:~se' nH~ die ~!S wedged ili1t)o 'Ih e lfn d (J;F a piac a 01 COppEW tube.. w n,'c h hal,s. 'ou r slits 'in rh@ end, Thlsre 1S a ~\[ln ILlf' ~neel WOQJ nns'ide th~' tube ju~t h~low' !bll'( liflot itcHJ~ch~ng~ ~'ne die to pmiiltim hDrI idr turrren~8 'rVOlTll hecllmg t ne ce n1 m· Ipa r-. Th~ tube' t rs ns;m'i'~ s rhe hEl'al t tD Ih € di e hom (he OIU U19r p<B nil m Ertel and th~ wh ~1 e :~5, q ue'nch ed whrJ n !'he-' c:~,.nting: ledges fi"E:-:~ ch UlI ~ tfg·h I" lE: 11'll11l@iI!'lUU r~ Agaij n" '[he he,at~ ng ,mliJs'l Ibe .gel'ntle:. The

Ifig ... Z,' tJ.~iiJ;!·1;J1,;';!1 ~~e.'~~· ~lfijfJtiiflt ~ ~"hifqJE'J[J,jJJt'.riJiIrlfrfJi c",,j'~ ,.

FJg •. ~TORJ'P~6I:!g i!i diD, ~ ;:~p.~.I'I!"1I'Jbii:i' ':U:!I'JllI\1I,~ hr:o'o':Il~_ ~(iI'H ph,J~'fJl ~18F1J nal-Mthln fAt! 1u-lJii; ~f1 ~~~~'ilC8JjIJ.J 1) ~jr~lJQl'l 'Rim ~;?

8~tmntagl' h,~r'J ~~ '~f:"un th e au t:sid'e of 'i'h e d~1iI ~whh;;1t1 ,a ets m,ore Qf ~ ess as a. ~p'rfli1g in ~rnee ~ is, hOltilll'r than ,1i'Ie: ,culling' ed'ijee, and ~ mOflB diE!! ep~v 'ternper,e·d - ~ S l'I, ~mUld be'.

~ d'oub~ if, marli\f pecrpl'e m a ~U3~ t,h eil' OWI'!I

~ .. U1~g' saws '~ " (I:,se da¥s.. bu l ~TfF! i!·a r OIj,j·iI;Idi1.& c:a n be t'·em p~rl~d; bv grippin.g, blRwee:n two W SI,sh ers On a bolt. h e'ld by ~ l'Iu~ .. The heo;;] t ls appiied by heauing '~he bolt. M~lny othe r B~ m,p~ as wi n eerne 10 mind. Th e Qb.ielc~ ia [1-1 e es me if'll ~ II C8:S'€,S; fJn.t. to, IhB~ [. 176m '[Ii e part Gf It'! e ~ool whi·ch need not be halrd, tiOwa1d-s ·the, ~lIr!~ rilg' l!l!>dg:e: and :~a~ 00 nd. 'iCI arra nge lhing~ ~D that wnere pOS.5tble the heat tr~'IISi '_tl!Ii"CUJg!'h the h''Uel''ior of the tcol, rt!~tl1 ~n8 ~lhe cuning 'ado e: fFOrn'!' within. IU.nfmg IOlit This is acppHcabl~ maunlv (0 wf)l'k wh~;ch h~s beIBfIi ,aU q u~'n.r:hedl. .As soon ss h is 'r'e'mo\il'ed'fTom lh e' Clluan L!hi Flg tm I n ~ e_ t.'Ool or com pon El'{i1 t ij S he r d O'li.lEH" a sm:aJJ "mftme u mil ttl 9 rl®ls~d YB r o.i'l i'gilii'tes and burns aw,a\L Tne b e~n so rll3Jleasl6 d hhl~ wm - i5 t8~J~'n fnlm ~h~ to rch or Il3Jm,p fla me1 te !lTIpa r.s 'It-! e work. For~.a rgll:ll (i" pi e:ceS ~.1tie:- b~oks;· :sugg'8:0~rr bj'l1!d~ng some ilrljn winll to"iJi rild~ t!J hold mom 01 II. The "'t neary" ildua~d is thai't ~h e 'temper '[~m pef~I'm 1j1i'8 Is, ~ohned ~rith I[he 'fiI iiiJIS:n lr;Joi nil gf [he 011. This is ilion SiB I"I!S'i1:'. -ririe 'n1!3is:hpoln ~ r 5, rne rQ~V a n indica tior! lof '[Yi! e '[~mpE=namJ jI':'O' at whitb ~ u ndil!lr ~fJrv ~nti·f.u ~~a~ Gc:lnd1itiorl s'~ lo'i I J,Vm $CUU,': to igrnil,e. Th~ ,91c~I:.fl;a~ t~mp.i;u:.eUIJ[B rbeked wi~ I dape'rld On '~J~'9J 'maSS! of tli e 'Wqli'kpij9C8 iEU1dl ·the amou lilt of .a II ~erta:jlil e;d, iIs Wl!BlU 8:$ on '~ne hlli~8t1~g~ V.e llii.e 'elf '(h~ [) iL f'~1i' the· e'~lPe'r~encec, P ra ct~'~1 one r. and for "'Elf)!' ~m ~IU c!o©k ~..a"5 I ilk~ cJ!iprln gs ,cillo pa~ leu;. '[11 e system 'works W!eI:II. b n,n tile-V" w]ll~ hav~~ e>:lp !u:ilm en~le,d a 9Im'2iIl~ deall IUU!'j m ts~ ilmponant wilU "'·kr;'Ow ttl eilf oil'''· ~ IMstN'cl~cms 'D!1I c~1 d l~oolkg 'WE!lrEl '[he ~e su ~~:

'elf d ec a dl a's if net ~en l:tJi,ries G'~ trT a I with ~ne ci II - 'fro rn th e sperm, ""lhial'e - ~ru 1 wlth thie YfllrietV ifJlvaHa'bht an d !JI!l:,ed' [oday ~ w.ould ,not care ~O Igivle' Iny ij'nrst~\!I:tron at :all ,~cepl '(0 "E';w:p~rimenl flrst", It: works \!levy effetli\i'e~ V. but ,t1~;e.s need ~)!: [:)erii,~nCEi.

'10 :iUJlm U Pi: lihe~ 'dea I( a:m p e r-~ng ,medi urn ·;5 [11 e 'Salh or c,i~' ba rh wi r.h th I9J dQrn~stic o~en or chip p~n a p~,F.H;(~c~bte all.t~mat~vl$. Wid, [titi:'S'6 methods: the 'e';I(ac~ lOfiAllUI rIB [urn 'Df the, wo,k I,$; ~ nown, a n"ld Go,nditiOfiis (iii n b0 V""€! pe !:nced ~8et'iy. ll~,!.'3' use of OOIOYlfS 'lOr judg'!B th~: t Bm~ Bra,U..IJre is s arm, but nErec'; ;tt I ~u'l e tria I a iild expedme nt to' jru dg·e 'I he [infS 2IICc,I!.Ha tely-; 'tlie 'l"em pa r;\ULii r'lilS- wn II [he III be w &tlllm n 'm,he 'lol~'re nce" for 'rtTFel tv~€ of work we dc~ The, actua~ d~ 9 r0@ ~f "[emp ~~ri., ~ ,ne e~"E! d, should be oon5,'tc1er~. bea~lllg in milFld fh~t most of 'tJhe M commi)nCfar~io·n;5 In H ~d .. boo;~;s e ~c arro 'f-or." in c:i'L:Jslwia ~ ~o'nd it.orlS. nOli 'those .of th e 'mod II !er.I'ii~giil1e,eli; Tbe l.i3 m,per IfU;l;6'{ $.h~1U! id bfJ h8~d far 8 pe riod = ide~ ~1'Y f,~:!! ,o'ns' til our ~e1i in c;!h of sect'~Ofi - a fild shouid 'b.a 8 ~pl ~@!d ~IDWly. Tlsm'~ IS:ri'n~ shou Id be cBrrled G IIJf~: 8:!i 500 n as pOIS5H:J lie i~lflt!ij'lI' Ilh'BI 'in'~~U8~ glil Bill eh. I willi add jUSll on e


'"am Ipoi:~'it: 'in ~ome caSQ-S, W~' do w.~ rrt ,~ :SY1rfa~e to Ibe 'clf rma)i:l;mii.Jlm ha ~dn ~$S and'.at[ lhi& 9:8JIT:H~ ti:m fa to ]iuiiva a Ifhu3' Qr:~ilrl ~ we3'rJ'ng and Ir!J'b~tl'D1g patE:s are' taOOi5. ~~ tltis, ls $,~j du!o it h~ wonh uyh,g a t~m,p e,r

iiiI:t 1 OO'~ C ~ j IiJS~, ibon "nell P srt ilfli wat~f' 'k.t" hi lif~n-holJr or ~O. 'Thi:s wU I, n@iI:, ~~dli.!l,ce 'th~ h~rdne~, at, ,a~:I. btu 'wU'1 aetde\i'e sam I;." '~lll'a!Jfi1 ref~fi!,emjen't For ··finB1 grai'nf· IC1iJJ'ttrng il'OQls ~ S:I:JQlg,a',~:a' procedu I'\~ On p~Q:e' 74,

Heating E


llie IOpen F~r8, There' Imay be a lew"model BJi1rgli1e9r~, who OW]' ,~ bl iii ck.:laimUh':5I ne,iiI'rtih, iilfld perhajss mora who have rn nE±I'rJ,ted rhemftom ,a;fii 'eN!! diifil n" g enerauen: ~t seem s ~0 have tl ~\flli! an es,"SenUa I pl ece of li!quiprn-o,m ~1iI the earliar tirnes, II do, h,FiI,'v,e"a :!ij,ma'll

'O"n9 .Itth 8 handl-d F1W 0 'hlf1' and 'rho ~9h ~1 fs ua~ maij n'[,y for snl~ tfl¥ wcrk, ttl nd lhEl n IDrUy ra II'e ~V; I hill '!i,e halrde n,e,d ll,a,r:gf! obje(;'t$l til it. Thli1:!' last job wa.s,'8 IPi"Ck,ue pOiunt" !In'ld I m ~il con hl:~ '[hart wi t1cU,ng ~he ~1Jand le pt a b1t w~alris~me! The for'Sl,e was the 1!Il.a1.1I~'B11 t:h~l'lIg 'to lJ~fi' ~ ap.~ln 'hom: :s[lvlng 6 "p:e'f1SiiVs' gas - 6i~, Clf COu f'Se. the po fOl Med.ed remrg ~n 9 as well.

€I;l:"' ]$ th e usu i811 f'u el - prQper eak,e, not ~ne soft ~tu'ff sold for dhDiml~s'[i(: fi res, A· ,en a:l'uHina:~'lve, 'the ,agg-s:n~p'iE!d m arn Y'~,alc Un re d flJJ e'l f·· Ph u ri1i a ens" "~ ls ltqndy. ii!! s: ~lhe 'e ggs ~re mDJ1~: Of lesS' Qf 1U~'uro rm :aile. Hc us aC'O;B ~ is 1Jj~ ~Ie ss, and !Sl\Quld net be 1i.iJ!iOO i!EV~n 10 start UH;t ~rre, iElrtd. MeBm ceal lit Us beU,er-. F e Ii' ~ arda Ill~ ng ~lI n~'e'd a f.a~'fiIY dl§l.r:!1: P 'W!:ni. hot' ~ II t nro ugh. 1'1:11 ae"~Qve: tl1i$: tne- fuel m'Yst 'bt ,~t1rred iljbc I!JI! in th e e8:~,~er' ,5,l~ge~" One'a 'IJ('O u h ;El"V',e '1B nh;o g~'low,ln g 'filrabed 'rh e' '~:e~fIi rn UlII be

USlll~ with diacreticn ~ VQU Ille'ed ;a draughit' ran~U1" ~'ha F'i ~ • 'b l'i3JlSit' ~ ~ The work j,s I ald OW';l i:G1t)"'-f '[!he fb~ at fir:s-t - In 'fac't! lt can b r! ~ Elih lfl a-re. lQr:ehe,lftTI1Q;, wh'iI~t y~ u brl 1:19 the ~i're lIpl. :rhe., pisclE! i's '1h en SiI1U in the ni!iHln iJ'f''tbB:

'f1 r€l:bed~ but 'wh leJf~ 'you eao SJe8 r.~' '~l1Id !lJOSE!iI'V(:!1 tille' COIOlIjf~ i t~ m US~, be: t~ rned ,ib~li,lit at i iil'[elrva~!;; $0 tha':[ Iji'iG Cline' slde ~$ u ~pEllrm'C!I,s' f'c;u any Ie ngth !Ci)f 'time, C2I re. 'tikaJ1. it is rtm:l [ ElflCpased [0 th e dke--c:t dr.8I1J,g'frl fro m lh a; farli. s row'. iElV1efll. hea[ij ng is '1'1'1 f! C rd er ~f the ,dij!lIY, al!JQidi ng tlil Ie lmplngement either of dlrect, cool. d ra ulg:i'l'l or iii dra ug!rn W hieh ~, SIS passed tli1nl 1iJ'91h any 'e;);:tra 'hot pan of the ffll'@. Overhem! Ung II"Ii'WL.,ES t b~ g!lJa rded aga fli 51: II'ke the pi,a 9 U8 .. .a nd \1ou m ust Ibea il" ~ n mind ~hal 1118 meta i willi II oak octd'r3!r 'than it is. !JJ r1dl yo U Q 9~: u sed to ,obsQrvin g th~ 00:1 our 'b'fl contrast 'to the hot c eke, 'V!D U lagon bri ng. ti!i 'f!lJ!rge fire u~ '(0 1d50C~IC: ~nd m,etl8ll at 7S0 "-C w1 U look dead cold :1 rt eorn Pi!;! n son,

A us &fu I 1'); pl3d~ ~:., t, ii tOI lUi g?~' tbe "S0I!'il1 iTn d~ rei et m Blhcd. Set a p,rece lof (s-a vi' :2 ~n c!fl S-~Ie II '~lp eI' 'in 'the midst of 'I~'he' 'fj"i"U. G C~ Ihis hen - i! Ih ~~'e abwe the 'tempe ratu re VQU need - and 'he~~ the' work Instde U, VOl!! are 'l'hE!'I~ a Ill! lie H) i u d'~,e '[!hetemp ~rBtllJlre more dir'9CUy end, 'Wl!Jrtlnerr. wHI he pflo'l,ec1:i'ngl 'rh.~ work'~ i eC!e IhO'ih 'fm lin cD~d dll"~u 51 hts and 'from locall ,o\!li8!!he a't~'ng. ~t. is slower. but, as we, h il!Ilv.e seen .fa,~ heatill1gl ~5 NOT th e prime Feq uj'm m ant,

II) e mll'8:s:t"i G IFrn ras, Th i 5, is ,131 ",r a ct~ ea I

a~ t~f1f11a'tivre 't,c 'till@l' S rm~ tW1·~ he~ rth fall"

,i!I'li'ii'!I'-!:illlla- 1- ... -;I'I;~-. IEiJII Nac.-. ';j;.1i-.. rn'l5Id-'

QI! ~!ll!I ,~!Io!Jr l~j~vI2S. Mli i'er 1i:II. _; .. I!O!!""~ !IIV ~ ~ ~ __ . ~ Eli

rhB~ iC,B st in.glSl for h tiS S[iB'i3,m [~ng~'liIe' in

'FI't!i., 23 A ®fflE'.:flit;: dlI~ ,rd lJlh ~ i,i.Lir:!' br;! i:ff'fHl i"D INrat ~fA' I') ~lMflJg.

h ~S b~dnJ,(jmflrepiJlace! Tih~ ord ~nary ,o~e,n Qlrilte wl:111 get ~01 ,el'1lo!Jg!n looly for vtnv sm aU work, bu t 3Jny' closed stove Vill ~h a Ipi,Grpe Ii" ai r contro I can be used for ~ fll'ything: 'tJhal 'will pass 'through the 'firuru fi'rehars.. (Fig 23) As WUi~h ths '~Q rge. eakle, or J. pi hu JfiBCi-,e,J' can be usad, ~ h,~\1 a h a.~ 1"10

e\lll;p~r' en D~ u:S~ filg' ,iiI'fillbr.a:ciu!1.

Th g 9 rrate: rn usr 'nrs~ b ~ e~l~a~ed 0 ash ~ nd d ir'! Icier and 1 hl~ filre th en lnJlij I':~ up by !3Hri'di og '5m,,;d~ que f!i tft"1.~ o~ 'h.i(!,i at a time u rnil til e 'fh'e:bsd Ts ;:s deep 3$ can he! ao~c;m'm~ch~f:ttedr 'lhfJ aim 'i'f'U..J,5'l be to ge l ,SJ Ul{iil,form rata O'f' bUIfI"l'irl g right thrrough. () nca th is 'i5, acihiev8d ~:h e fron~' ooOf$ (or lOne ,crr tli ~rn~' must 'be ope., ed and 'UUl. .8 lr V,[!II'IIQ in 't'he ashean :edju:Sted 'W Q'6t the fil'ilB' ~bo,\te, bu t: not tee m tlch ,iii b-®VE. 'ttl! ~ uun,p~ r,EnUr,e n~ ede:d. fore, 'tool shay I d b f1 ~t un Ih ~ 'IJPIJ ~r part of dw f! fire ~nd.. a,5, in the cass of '!he sm'i'l:tfs. hrei~'nh. :s'h c'!J~d be OJ f'!iled a btnn ;8'( if'!lt~N'a ~s, Yoo n eedl hawe no fea,rs, 'th p t: !1t won! 1 get 'ho'l enough ~ 'm e S,tOVt91 in I~ 1,g. 2,3, It;a n be b!fOuglht up 1-0 1 OCO~C very 1~!JJu:C;ldV ;~ndENMI. and, ~f 'VtOlJJ find 8f1!IV c1ili:ker ,~" y'Our 1~~r:1Ue! this Is an n ndi~!Ujgl!1 thal: ~~frJ!B g)nu:e ''[em ~ !S!:r21 flLilre has~, a [, SGl;!iTi~: fl:m'e~ ~-iB ~rn ,of 'ttil'9 ~nd!8r of


1 300,0'(: i The mla~ n p,Fot)le m I 'fli nd !s. tl1 a [ l!ffij'Uke ~he sm ith'~, hearth vcu h,!ive In POS! -live centro 1:' t1M ~ fe~~on:se, to ,iiildj u & tmlsmts of In'3 illi'r valve' ~s, 8~OW, and vau iur~e' to a nti~~pa!le ch ~nge(s ~n '[Ii e ra!le' 0"1

b Url"~fiI e~

iN 8'L'1l.Jlr~n'v. yo\)! m'!Js,t M,ke a eeouet Q' Vi!:! ur SlrnlJy.nd ing s - it I S 'you d' 'nre',8,nlnrug iff1fJ ~ a~ It ,Bu1' the m ai n o'bJeGtion I ha'IifB to the use O,f the d'ome::!n'~c stO\r.EI fer hard en tn'9 ls, tbat the 'fron.t gr,a!t9-bar~ J)llev,e,n t, 'In ~ Us'u of a pi~c-el of: pipe. Ho.w~ er, wi1:h t h e ctosed :stove there ls ~ ttlt le p,ro'b I ern in ~'SGak:iJn:Q"~ enee tha 'fire h.'1iIs reached its t'emp e:ra,ture ~ r lend s to, "St:8,Y pu t" for q]ui~J9 ~ong enough 'ror he li~e of worj.. rnc,Fi!'1\1a'Uy dD"~. hi's valry useful f'~r anr!tnll~

1 ng., as [he piece ca n bel 8 Uo.w~dtc, coot w~, h irhl~ fire ov,ur'l1ight. EViE! rI i:f th,a' Hr.e j~ nat 'lOlil t" ~ n lh e' m;Q.rniog this i~ n eH 1m,pm ~a m~ ~ I wi n har~e coolect U'iJrOlu 9 h thEi. Cf']UC1~1 rang e very slowly a nd can be \Set I rl ~hle' ash,p'8ti '~O 'finis~ off-.

.som'B Ib~ak.s s,ugg est, til at th ere m ::lIV be 8 'nm [Ii!~n cy towa,rds bo,th .51i:'a Ung an d deca rbu r~ sat~\O" whe n U'S~flQ th'li]' ~Irm~ t b·:5 he~1iI rth. bu r t.hhiii I1Ilii!1'~d.. Iii 0 l' cauS'1E!: '!!J~ toO much ~~Tleeflll. ~~: iSi tru€i: ·thai't i8 h13" h w1'tl1

fj;. 1M flI~,,' "'[f-.tIiJIl!~"r ~iJ.{Ul'd/~t ~.-urrtlJ i{J'9'l1. $Jw'j-~".t1 ~ M I'!Itf -~llIfj1' fQr: .s'~t~IV. ~'J ,Jr.::t' l{iV~.i\I ihibr*e~UDfJfi.'$. [(iI ~"mD ~!1"r

'8jJl bhlSl csn Id~(;a'r-bln'r1S~'. but wt; are 00'( deaUfiig w~!t,h !'he s:~~e Dir work n errnal ~y dena by 'the oidl bla(;k~m~~.h. V~ilJ m:av n'eed ro ~ke, C8Jr8' if '~he FU\!!iGrtij ng time ~s hs t~ an hCll,!If J~l' more. bu ~ :~~: Is - 0 rdy' a case Clf ~0id.~ng diir6ct; lml'~ingc:'mEHn of tlie bl~8't'., Soma' sc.alll!!!: wm be furm,~t:l. o~ ecurse. but r,enh@!i' 111~iSts: w1th d"l,i}. closed ~iIOV~ than you mlgh:t: ~ ma,g,ine. The alt'mo5'pJ~u~ I!e within th e '1rebed Is m~inlv' carbon mon~~ide and f'!l~[mgelil - rhera is m u,~'h ~~S5' OxygilUl pr1Melfl~' than in a f,~rn~rlven fn~'8'. ~t is good mm~~i~. Df COLJr;S~. to remeve env seate 'AI ~ich may b e pr~S81'n [From pr~vlou.s work. fflel !I.J1d:ln [B till e 10m m ~ ca hl~ ,. . on black bar,

More s,c1.rle wm bs' '['om'led 'in the h~~1!igl hB;c:rt alssQcl,,~ed wid, f1 re .. a n nea Ii rig. an d ~r rl, e nvoidln U;fJ of ~ ea l!f3l ~Si Important [\he WO'r1( shourd: be Pfio'uHHed- [For overnIght annea~ing a geod W,ij,Y is to en Oi1H~'e Ii'~, in 'n rec~av ~ ~Q.T ~rie-C8me fitl f,~jnfofG~d Wi:flr. iror. wl~e. 'Or pu'[ h, in a tl n O:G!X packed w'~fh Ihn~ with til U't~le thirco~1 m'i~ed wl,tr. h,

IU QiliVliIIlm ps a'f! dI~~trrche~~ M osl mod~'1 e'1gm~eifS w~lil haw 50me form Of ,~ar;affiffl or gill 13, 't"Oroh '~CDi use wh en 'Ib rSlhlg and P' is "cUJJ ra ~ he t 'dl1ese ~'lnQU ~d be' tl1 B 'first res~ 111 when heatin!) fo If hall'i!I e:rn in 9. ~ wi n

draa ~ with ~,he ~arieurs typ etS fn it!!iJi'n. I m O)lSt ~ron g1'V ~~,o m'mt;'! nd 'thra:~ 'V'IDu N EVER1, e)(Gep~' 1n '[h e; ITIi(!!S[ dlff(JJ' ,ne,~es5it~, [jJl~ o.~'..A1Ole;L~I'i!i'lle ~o r O;'(y~anv~"i ng ehl~) f.OF alny' 'form o~ l1,er,d 8'nling operstlon UlI!1~fI'SS ~he iha1S'j3 Dr .s~ch ISQ!Ji'~'m~l!1t j~ PlaJrt of your da'ilv work.. Ev~ n ~'ha n 'i~ is risky. First., i'f 'th!!' '1f1~ mliB- '9~tlS too d05i9i to the wo rk, 'even imr a se(:ond.~ ~n!ll't po ~fU wi n bee {jiijrerheliii te d~ dlf1Ciii,mUfri~'~. and ~'lmoEj,t cen:al hly !lu'ffar tom ,o~tide ~ El!r:I iE5~,iia ti ~n I: 'lh e '9 n",ff~n bo·un~ dlll"ie~. Seoond I h 'r~ very dgffi c,ul t ['0 met ~ven hefJUng 8S the hll'[ SOl,UCG is, ,so c(!:ntC8nf,nrted. I" -'he & rna ,j s ~n::ljllUsted tOI ,a'ljj!okl sea Ung thl!!'r'€!' ls ~lherl.1 rfsf.: o:t tn~rJes!.!i' ea r-, IbUtr1'sa'tion which 'wt::HJld resu I ~ in craci!Urlg en quench[n,g. frl"'l ally. It is: !al ~\8'rv el('pe 1Il~ sille m etnodl of he\~,dng. f·,e w people sere m to ,~ppreciate, that rh al Ul~lh the, ~I'fjm e is very hO'c: i[ti~ Qed '~he' ,jJ e:tu al heat .QUl~ul is e!:!i:tm m'Edy ~OWi ~ n'r:a et th ~ ~,t!I rg~s.t no:z;zl',e 'if'! ~Jhe olJtfh II' ~LH~'ed 'to 1!,15'1;! ('for weldinQ i inch ~a'eel pian!') gav~' out r,IUhe,F" 11~S,9, heat 'lha.n cUd my !i rma Illest l;l;~ rrafli Iil b,tuwl;a mp. It i:5 a c-a se oof h OifSiS for CQurnes; for its purpas a. 0XY--:il!I ~eM,y,~ene wrch ,does hs 'wa rk ViEln{ weill ilndecd, 1~:U.Jf~ th:a·t wo~k ~s ,"101' heat tIieQ~me'nt 101' ~nee~ un ~es$, yOy own, ,eJ

lI'em(ljl i!:I'r..,r~f D' ~ J'~ (i "h~~t;; IlMit~w~ IJlii ltfiFYll) l".ttlm ;Ij ')~Jf Mown gnJ iBlClL

"Shlll rteri:sing" su ria c-a h'~r(h::Uiing p~all1 1 and that ~ D .. IiI;~n k,ahr I So. ~ i3't W S, turn 0 ~J r ,iJj'ttJerttio n to 'It, 9 gi:!ls~ai r type.,

'~h e' T'Mlwt::h f~a ffllB" T1, o;ugl1 ~ 5111 all, be 1"8 fe rring lQ "gi~S'·. '~he. S2!·R:i.e rem~rks Cain tJp appHe·d [0 [~, e palfalHin bhlWl,iI mp' fI [I mil1 The' dl"f~renrc:e in ririe· '!'uel ls not trnportsrn - ,the' iii eilni ng VB! Ufi' P er p'O u net 1111aJS-S O'f fus I WqilJ id or ga ~l ! s v,ery rrU!(;H~Y [11 e sa me. aocl thri PB raUin nte!"ro~:en"e in U SA) rs 'va p;Qrri~ed be'fe:re bu:rnirug. $.'0 thall .[ he ~ii!iIme Is ln all e&se·r1T.Bals;;a Q~S' n~'me., Such ~I am es will ~IP pe',21 r 8 S ijt!l Owif1 ln Fig. 24 whh a Gent ra! cone su rrou nded by a 'mo, e or 1 ess diff\.i sa au (IB! F' ell i1a~ n, th tJ'U (j'n i'1:5- a!c·tuai .shope wUI depend on l:he 'Fuel, lJs!l;d '[hel 'tv~~ ~)f aIr !$upgly, ,and the alf/fuel ratlc, Prirrmary oOmfbl!JI~nion occ~r,$ wHhir t Ina lnner COI'1 ij' and t~ e hest rBllf~H!I se C8 uses de compo si1'ion Qf rh e rest ,of the ~u,el gals,. l'h ese ftu,el oQnsf'ut Ulent:s burn r n 'the' oute~ ef!l~eto~e. us111g any eX'C:~'5~ ail pr8S€l'rlt within the name .a,mel alr drawn i., 'from ·outs~d e 'as ;.~e ~L Tha i nnef eons t'l8rmpEu'ii'ttlU'S' wbll saldcm exceed '11'100CrC bu (. j UlS! b a'y\o nd th e· ri p of It; Q inn er tOll e (h·e figru r;e 'wi1 ~ be I rf1 e-;.LC ass of 1 600·[5 C (The' lh eor,eti ~·i!iI'l m al~Tm U IIf'ij is higher still ~u~ is Hol, reached beG~lis_,e~ nO burner 1'5. pe iif,ect ilIJli d 'in any C<ii se' 'th ere ~5 co ns id e r ,Ib,~e wadi,1i! tin n 01' hea [ Fn~ m The 'fla me i t s~,~ U.. II! le·yo nd ~.h; s;· p.o,j nt th,o: fica me l<tm p ar·a tUiI",e d'imi ni"sl1 es aga i 1'11, 8:5 shown j'n ~l1i1e :s:'k'8tclh. II ~:3, no~ 'alw8V~' ,a ~pr.ecia led tha [ .21 ~imHall" h1!!m p.e,ra ~lUfe grad! eni't OOGli rs

Fij:g , . .:fitS i!!~ t~jJ m"t'fp "f1f1~5~f'P ~w.'!}{)~ (,~ pili:' Ii#!'l,g.~ jJ/~~~Q' "-L'!,I'lHiJ.~P:llJoRibffl. {C~ifflBl' F~4~1 iL WJ,

nu. :;29 ;r~;g 'rfj~~ -M 2 (l..iJiQ 1I'ffl'

. I~~W nta, 1~lNYiINI~/l" m~ ~t£f;ll ~a~i!! trtJ'm l_1!~ Ifli'll'~ 11 • ~ §n' bfl m-m11'll {f().'Dfmad ~~ f~r' ,nrq1.Wl.tI!'!'<!)~l'l' 'PacrJl!.pI ~Ij!~ ~WJM',~J'''"ftj:"@riHtJm~fl~~. ~ tfj.f~'1·t Lifl.~

Af!A ass the frame .. but til i~, is th e ea se. I'W {tter:Q is a to ngl :i I'ii na r cane it" rna.y be. t !'un. he~tin Q' 'wU ~ be m on~ e·ffi'd en ~ 'i f '(h e fh~ m@ i laid sflJn§'$lrJ'ei the wor~ W ath er than be 1lI1t:e:~8d stra h;jill· [iii 1; it.

11]131 'Os [fie Ii'S ~ form of the f~anla w'ill, be

~he SJlme 'roJi :ti!'U 'rue~s\. p>E:!;rnap5 some ~iiHerenoe ~ I'll 00'10 IJr ,;;I ~d srJ me fue~s w nil liij~ .. ;al • ·,sha.rper"· ICOrl e t ha·1!1 o,thelr:iii,. biIJt~el!'e .is considerable d ifTe·Ir·~n'C:.iB In Q:HAffACTEA eff' fi1 alm'e betwee n 't I,ose w;hJt1fl, com e from a "s el'~-bl o.wn'· bu mer, ,£uiCh ;as those nOfTVh-1l!1y u~Bd on Pr~iPane: . 0 r Ililn~ It a,n~. and lhcSiB' which h a,ve S :sepa rate:l V con trDIl sd ai iF s:upply de ri\ted from a 'b1U1. OF bl'oW'~f .. Thera is some ma~I."1~lbly wTde. control ,orf [rue .s,I:l@ oJ the PpiJ1! ~ wi ~ h t hie ~li3Ilf-b~QWI'11 type, bu t any tf1mlng'~ in eharscser ~ ego (ToO rl'l "bu sh '1/' to "r!le,dIB·') rtquir,e'5' a {;;r.iFlge ~n burner hemt Wilh 'the' ai r"'gas torch tih ewe is e~rnfjlrete (lontr·pl (if the 'fI3mre~ benh as to 5ir1fil!' (Vlli'I'hi,n re,eson) and eharaetar 50!e1V D¥' m anipu latlj ~g ttl e itI'ir and i[I,~$ OOln trol ".!v,es. l"h e!'r'e' is no dol.!! b'~ thtu lhe bu rl1ers Wi1'h 5Qpa r~te aij r ,j! nd g,B S su j:lU)ly and ~ntrtO~' Biie by fat lile' ,mO:S;~, ,!!.'ffi CHelFllt .a !'ad ~C\l'l'l,il';I8lillhiil!lIlt to USi~~ Th'a s'ei~'-blow IrI PrnJ{anE!: brazing lorch r,s, of COlJln9~. quitEt Cilt_~ab ~e of the;t worik a nd if VOY h Ii9ve' the ru II range' of bu rners. w]111 lac kA a illl ~ Jobs fi''0rn 'th~· I a f\ge<$~: to th e .sma Ue~t. B~lt the'!!

do n.eed ca refu II -aUe rnhJn both to 9!ii!rs pf!' :E!I nd '~O burner head '!lj;e~,ectll In 1i1. And Ih~v do n ~ed tle.a r 8~ u reun d ~ he lti'u me r htad eltoe jrlt f''Q~' the speci eli I o:ne5 wnij'nn navl@!' e)(t~ nston 'UJbi8'~ beyond ,h~ ali - enMa·inmsrlJt holes. Whelfll used lj'n ii fin~brick "cave" thSJ name· must h~ve room to de~ top o U rstd e lh e len'lrnll1ce or 1~1 w~U i"blow' ~.8If ,0 'IJ t' " • 'The P:ei r,el'ffh, (ke r.ose.·ne ~ b I.OWllrBnlp is rath er me ra: flI9i~b~e. ! ~rge ty IDe ea use tll'e' 'fue·1 vapo'U r Js !:I'jl",e'he a 't'ed'; b !J't ~iso be calli se In e ifln~ m m ~ iJ.[i Ii lin i:t O'f pa lJa'ffin ts m lith wi der 1 han 'I ha t of Bu~a ne, Prop:an~ snd Mifiithane U~L Se s G-asl so ~:al tlnr air uel rat to is rnu eh less cri~i~~L

.An rne:se ~;I ~m~S wi I t i'~ '~h@) Ibu mer ~i~@l is r~~.~t. ,~cead the· te mp:e r aty r~ neei_d ~d for h eat treatm ent of sree I. The re ]s· rI (7.1 problem hsrs, HOlIi'!Iev-~r~ Wf;!' are coneemsd with even h ~8ti fleg .p'fIld~ in most C 9'ses. with "eeenornv", It hi d~·slrabhil '(halfhu' flame be shert and brD~uj ratl'1er man one' wh~cn, Iii OU'S h equ a Illy .'p ~wetfu'I·· Url 'Ulrrn.IS of hea tire I,ease) h5 long and n:e etUe - Uk e~ WUh th1!e. a 1ir/g·i:i! s· typ e '~his r~,t!j ~~ is Of'! tv title manipulano;n of rh e e~lntfi(.lI·5 bu! 'witlil ~ he ~el~~....,blQwn torCh th e b L,Jim ~ f head m IlJs,l !he s:alaeted aocoll'ding~v. Thn~e. descrnhed as, ~'brcad blowhl'mp"" a r@: USU lillll'y 'tnra' most ;e pproprhne.

Ap'p,lviiFilo tlhu "I'arne .. He~l traln~f,e'r 'hmm


ASlm e ~'C wo~kpl!Mj.e is va rv p,OOI' ihlte,ed. 01"1 [est a piece' of su=ellabout ~he shr,e' of il 51 "16 iil'1C~ ,$q. lad\e toe L ~:a[d n;jU oill 1~ ratJrick, t,~ok ~ve minl1l[Irtl'~ '[0 brlng up ~o the! ham ening 'ternper~tull'e' ~ '$om ethin g I1lke 1.500 u ni'ts O'~ 1'1119'81 'f~om -ttl! e b IJn'H&'f 'tr!~ nsf-ening e irI~ '( 1 0 neSlt u nU'S h) 'The S'[~et Nlot a IIHr( good see nt! By' ~8nifkgl i.!I P' H !jl,jm,ph~· ; 'calve'" 11 k~ t'ina'[ in FllQ. 21 the h,e,~ l ~ n 9 t i'm,e w,~.S re,ijjI ~ c,~d '10 ] (J"'5 s:soori;d!~,: ,liiOOli.ll,t' 5,00 he'a~ il.Ilhltfii. Not gO;od, bu t bEnter ItJhan b~for<!'. You wUI .. af il!::iOllI r.s:e, qo(na '!illY own worrds, and 51£lly tn8 t '~h ~ rive m~ 1il!U "es ,of ~ hc 'Ii rS'~ If~a m~~e i's ra,UuH !too ~~!a fr:u 'I'h e h88'·I'IIQ""'i.I!IP time'. a nd you wtlliilldl b ~ Q ~~ te U1j,g ht But we hS1!J.li3i [0 H'Cll [) t h:e' lemp~raUJ ~E! f'~::ri' :abou~, Hf1I;!D<ther qij ;Brie r of an hOIJ r and it this is. t'OI be' don i3' ~nl th ~ op~n fitebr,ok t~ e burna r mu':U b~ ke ~t ,B'f. ':Lii ~ fnrclit[lisl 'lhQ wh oll'e dm e. U:5~ ng the '·'cslJe"· j't can be 'tlirotdedJ d.CJiwn. Mlofeo'v'iI'r" !tIi8, the work wlB be heated ia'~u~ly by radlEl'~~ em fro'l11 hot,flrrebricl1< it


FIOI. ,2:7' .Al ~jJrk' b.trl VlN'( eHt!~rJ'itI 11~,'J~ ~1'1'1'1l!:'''''''~' V)m~r rAir !M.i' ~~ ~,' 1;1 ~ t~Q 1I'! .. ,;..t ~(/ rop ~~ IIlGr~ ~l'Yl< IIH" ,iMn!!'1"ii!:- m~r~ ltv ~!)P~-qlI~~ ~'i'Ii!l' ~

w un biB haatad 'mOf,~ even'h/. And. 'fina'lly, If Wa halve several p:~ece:s '[0 hru'de in 'the n We ean r~UI!I\!Iiiif, 8J 00 nsJ'd,era b I.e. arnou fn Q'F g,ifj S ''flMe .. ea~a:'" is r,ea~ Iy ~ H~ [I e 'furnace.

The lrm~I'Ugerl11, use cal f reb·rick w~ II tJ eth save ~'a:s ilnd l~n~Ylre .more even Ii eal'th'!9:_ I use '!h re e '~ype s, first erd ~1'iI ary '1fil~1:!'ric~ fro m 11 to :3 inctnas, lin thi c:hl.ness., 1'heS'e a ro r'f;o/fr,ilBlctory rath ar til a n he'Slt MI1 s~ I,a lOr:;:

1:h ttV w u~ I wlthl$ta nd va f'Y' h ~Qh

remparatures, S~'cond. Ihillhtw~ig'h ~

· ',., ,- ~ - ,.,m _ r!l-+ ...!11.e" .... 11: 'JO,rL.'·I" b. ·'IE ""-"".;"I"'·II·

IlSI!.l!~8 ,HUJ prh .. ,r;, ...... ~[~-!!!"In I""rw IF iiI!~.;J'!al "'"'

,C8l11d .. Fals~in" MB typ cc:a~. Th ese ~Q(il1I; a nd f'€l ~'i ~ ike cork an dare. Inlt!:nded fQ II' h Baf i nCitJl jj,tTiiJ Ill· b eh ind 'w8!i Is of ft~e'b rri'C,k, in fu rrUHlE!S. T'n,e'v Ban !be err '11 0009' C: a't O!ll e end 8fid di9'~ d 'cold iit rh e. ,o,lher. ~ nd i5!!f!! lBlJ8 Uat;:d,a :un I"h e ~aiF'I1!B' st~,es, ill,S fiirebriek Both Ii rre\b['iek a nd h"s!JJ~ i!II'!·ing br1i~k~ ea 11 b~ hald from most buit~@(s merehents, 'Title

. -

th.Vni:l. t)I~e ,~re '"Hot F,ace"" brlr;kt - more lre,fhnn,o ry th film '~h~' Tin,sllliati-ng 'type ~wh fen a ~a' '~ni:elb~e and m~H "i!!lfl ~ round ~ ,2 5,O°C I a Illd wi th fflu:ch 'b~I"er 1H,a-a1: If'I,Sul:rni ~ n l'h t] [l 'thJ.~ om inafl' flIrebr'~Gk,. 1h ~S:f3: seem to !be av,Uiibh:~ ·'O'n1~V 'f,foml spe elal lst su PIPI ~e rs hrlg,. M,e:ssrs flliim8f~':n Ltd. PeF:ldle.OtifY Tralirl:ing E:staJte, M,a'lil c'nes'tr:!'r M2' l' 1 'FJ I or M: P'K I n,s'~lat'if!lg LId. Hy~~e Works C:(d'i1:hes~e;r CO:2. 8JUt Th~y can 'oe' c.ul w~1 h 8 .saw alfild drined~ a'nd wlll 'Slall1or: !l'"ea,s-on i!h~e loads, All ~cce5iS;O FY whic*~ I find, most ILIseful both upon opan -lir0br.i ck .tiInd in hJrna,c:e~, ~s· ttJe lin~e c~rBmk; "'lri"-i'et·~ as used bV e~n:ame'U'fu.s - Fig. ,2,:8. I use UU1:!5B 101 ,!l5U p:port work 50 dlii:n na me C~nR g,~~ benGJ.eJ'th 8 nd~ l:n fu nnace work. [G! enslJI re 't1hat ,the U Illde.rsh;:l'Fl ot 'the' pi@cu' .'S r,e,t:H8tiorn heat€ld !1IJnd !U)'~ by 'GO nducliol1 'mr.~ m 'll1i1e m:uffl9.

IF'ttiiftnfi~-s Th- -b.rv~""u:5i ii'i~'! 'e~aif'i fif\Fiom ,tl:..."" _!y_ . _o~. __ 00 ...... __ ~'!i!"'~ .;!!,~, !'" , ..... _ I,~I ...

~aVl~ ;5 a pi'lope r 'flll R'inaCEh Tlhoss' who, dOl a

Fla. 21 M~'Ijf!1~aM~dlF"tI il' iilii!;l~'!IH~ rikdfJ'f'''1#OFI~i~6 .. 'Mllp .. U!iM;ltm ~·~~,tU$ ~~!JMJ~-q,~ J~iHi~lr.!,', il)"11 ~e'f/J1Jt~,

100t ot br.a~il!ill9 m'firV well: ha\!"e' one' '(lit '[he Q~d "W t]le;"· 9,alil"'fin~idl 'foll'ges wh ich ~ itll the ~,~ys wh'f!'n I ~1 iilJd 8ICCS,!i5 to town gas~ served me a8 bra zin~ llfu0i rth. hEta! tr-elWtment :shop., a~ d melIing lu mace. They ,tH'!3: '51:11 ~ ava hI~ able" ltriodiHh:ujl 1,0'.11' use '1l'1Il North S'ea ga,$., ~m Aleo SCI ltd h:radTn'g as Wilil ia m AUday & IC'o, ltd, Sum rpe rt 01':1 S~V\e'rn, DY' ~ :3 lAP) b W1i'~ rali[i1e~' cos'fly. r m ~f'raldT 'e ~t fc If ;IDa 'sa ri'(~ l,ili$ P ~a,c.i:i t~Qne, r. wh~, needs, hea'l for ililll '[he p~rpOSJe:5 'me:rrtioned olbove. the¥' ~ re, I ~leUleljl~ I 'the b est srna U g;en ar~11 p~lI'potse h ~aUI!ilgl unlt avtdlab~ e. The 0 fii~" ~rawbt~·ck. is '11"1 e ~ack !Cd 'Ie mper~~u r,~' i li1~ication; Ib u l' 'if YO'ij u se hea t su'ff1(;~ en L" 10, i ihl5,trry tlhe COS1. 'Clf- ~ U fila YOYI w~ Ii be prettv e~lri: at e 01 01 urs aIIiiVVVeJIV.

"The ue. a r'~ h¥D sma~ ~ fu rll1ates an the' f;fI ~fk.~'t W:l!'ig:c'h I know cj' w~ich may be w~rt" hJ(i,~ ii"'lij tS ~, The -flj list is simpnc i ty i I".deedl ,_. the A~co(Sa ~. EXp.oiff" PIC i'lalble,

'Fot,iglQ, Fig_ 29'~ lntsnded for '.d'S,€; ttl( ilinernte farrie~s 1tI;b,road~ it ea n reach u.~ te '~ '~!50 ~ C a Fld i~, V€iiFy I",a g ~d in h e-ating UD. 0n o~ YIP 1'0 n!!;mpBr~tu il'e. '[he' SIUIIJIJ Iy can ibfJ' liIe:d - ~ he fu II heat. '0 U tpu I is equ Iva- 1'1I1't 'to i'1ibOlH '1 6kw. Th ewe is no pvr!lfrU~'U"" aMrd 'lempra~a'[ufl~ mus~ be jlul91~d bv '~J C1lliJr. Very ~imphi: _ a ~mo:s[ crude. _ but ChiNioP an d efTs'clive. rhe SiB i::Of1l d h~l ~ he

Fig'. :alnu.1' ~A!~I>'!06-·' owt.tlh'J Ptf'IIMr}q Iff~g f.rttrnii'lM'. T~ '".r,;~n6w l~ .9j, ,IR rwltb x ~+;... frl£ft. 0; ~~' i ~, d~,~fj "",d i!!;'l~r ,I!'t'lild ~200"C w}#1 tt.Me:. rrq,rm~,"w.w~).mAl1dPlttfq~

:SI'IIll'8 U ga!±;}-!fired kiln as !Use~' !by enarn e~ ~efS. m'~rkJetle-d .by the FI ~:m,et:a:st C~. as dH~·ir kU r.1 'type tN 1 000. This l·s, ratedi tlO reach 8,500C ,gFlI ru 0 minUIJl.lE!'5 IOf' so, snd wl~1 run U p ~'Iil' '11 000 Q'C. I:r {$: fitted wij r'n 8, p'I{n"om,o'ieranD man ua'lly eorrif@ I!IfJd 'faring r,a'u~:~ lh~' l1"h\~I~im'lrm be; og eQ'l!J1i\!'al~ef'll 'tOI 3tkw. The' cila mba II' ns, ,a,oout 7 ill'1l ~, i5 ~ 11 x '] t in ;Bind it cain be ~r.~, on N.Se:a '9'i!!1:S\!o Pro:piiii1Ii:!!., lOr 1'liJi~l'iLifl. F ~(lli. ,3,0,

TtH~U:!: are Q'th ars, of eou rse, rn va rying deglie'es, lo'f &oph iSithali th:Uil ,a nd :aile'. AnYQn e who pr!jct]s0:~ ~IPtie ~rt 'clf en8mll! UWng ~Otr :somB . tVP'8S rd' p-O'l1,ery r 'r~ r ~hat mi~ ~ tew) wi! II heve SU ch a 'flUfJt-i ce whicl, can us.y,al tv b:e

IFid~. 30 lila fLil.Mf.ff'AS1" l~ foro kiln, 7'h!~ l~ fnr~rrffjrJ f:tJr 1I!!:fii' b~ i&f!'itffli5'j'tn~r:::il. ,.hiIr ~. m@'ti r~,IJ IJtJe.qli;[J~rJ.kJr fuMt [~rffllllfff' ,up t1!!l ".200fl'~, U ~ fli.f'~tl! pjr'm.rtt.l'1I1l'~ tJiMi f$ ''ittr.rJ {J,l!lm rfi,hlJl bm~d dI i!I~ ~UPPI'I ,tN. f.ClJ~fk~ ~smsf~, ,I.{d}.

~ha n Uri ~'9:;tes'th:lg ~t rim as. ~ B·u't see' Ctd X. '!f1U b'fI :F u rnH,Ce lM'O;5l of my own wQrk is· done· e ~tha'r i Ii1 ~iii old i9i1~!l;Iif'ic rn ume! er a sa lit bath ~ but ~ da make' 'fre(ll;Ul9'll[ DJS~ or: a rlg~g'Bd lfP ~g~:s-nr,e~ tub ~ 'funll,ce .• ~1"1!"OW,fl ~n Fi,g. 3,1.. Tho tube, A~self ~. ;a pi,ece ef ·'1 ~ "(it! tlli;hea.~s'~ pipe. r~n'·c of 'til ~ d a.)I 51 wh en I !U(5t',I d "[fll!",o'p;(!l:r!' ~ le, ,! ·viln~~ge· ') mato ~CiJrS!

a bou ~ 15 inc~,es lorng. Th 8 tu b@' is! su pponed 'in 1 inc'h 1.hiek F,QIIs,aln bricks: with, ,iI! ho.~e C>UrU lJS:~1iI 9 th Ii! ord~'n a rv ·[3 nk hole ,c·U!ue'r. ene of the. ecre Si f1!'om! 1ne dri~ ~i'l!1·g is used '~a p~ug the :ba'~k and as 'it has a ho~e frO""! the p~ ~()t dFil U ~hi s enables me to sal fJI hom e= ma de ~,lne !'11J"IJOCQup~e insfd,e i'f' n"eed be. The odu~r tore ls used as ~ "'front dner''. II gnv,e mor~ de'la~is of tI"'ile OOM.trIlJC']]0 n on p ~Ige gO. b UlU it· IS vewy u~efliJl 'tor It~'u')se' odd jobs, whilCh ~ro[p U~ 'which are n,aith ~t ~'~lu,g)e snou 9 h 'to wsrr,(i!!,fij t 11 ri ~g u ~ ,hlE!· m uffl~. 1l!J r uivij,sll en ~Hjgh to ni]lJ:~,1 1'0 ,~Ir'ec~: heating.

~ lectjric iM l!Ilfth~JS - 1'1-1 ~r8 an: m any small 8,h!ctrie m ~.dfle tlJrn ~'~BlS on til ~ n"tt;u"k~t. ~S(llml~ f'l!J!~ labonU;orv ww)rk" '!LlI[heil:'s, 'or 'a'ila mell ilftgl, .e r!ld ' ~f0Vhdl eiD: th 8 If!fUlst r&oonomiGai heating drevloe 'whaf5 any


'tI&l9d' quite 8:5 weB for h e~ T: treatm ern, '~, ~lls:o' the impli oa,lt'tG'fI l'h~~[, fOf rn odel eng~rH!e'fS, b~:h~lJg the' sert lo'f 'in;firrliaufS peopl~e they are, it 'wo·u~d IF'lJO'~ be rid fffleU'~t U~ ·~mrak8 v~ur own",,, Thhi is not as ~a~ ~I Ir~ sea ms, rhere h!a~e been more if'oritJUJlln illS lo,;:u ~ s,nd e.¥~ bf'@!W$· 1'00 ~ ~ over '[h~ combustloo of' gas '[h M ~n most C;l''i[Jficl'lles, M ,ung iii ~;eli"ing ~ i l i'!;, .nUt Illi.!!s.( -I ~Se o'f prouid~ng r[I je'l' lfifid ~igh~~n" 1.1118: ga~d It ~O!t5 need a ~ (1'1 IO~: e~,pe li'11T'i1 eflt .. rand I woul'd' suggest. '~,nat in b~ do ns' Dutdoors; ,~l Ursl:

Id',e'l!E!!ved i'gn,irrioll1J a s,S'cc:i>a nUl 'WiUl ;ei chamber 0,1 a cub;~ 1Too~ or- so ca n b'Fl mo~'

'FliEj. 31 A ~!l'l1" ~Ie I'1lf~fIr1;~f

~fI~rf!J,jC~' •

Iii ,g., 32 T~ D,!JihM"Ji .~Jlmltr. ll'utJltl!" ~bl'i MWf)f~ {lP «ii toqr!"BiG:, !r .f:J! fitlBri ,L'Ii'Ith .. prf4i!"J'Wlirl['lll', hi' ~~ ·1f'i1~F a~fft!lBI(Jr"';j;OIi!l',;g1 ¢I~ ~;r..~'1"",~~

··saakTng·" is I'H:1:!sd ea.. Th'BY do 'trak'e a [8 Ii' rime: 'to he r:n Y,P. bl!.lt on oe at the operating l'8mpalr:attllrB' US'e! Viery UtUI~ pOW~f Indeed, An ,eJte 'fi'~1te'd w'ith pymme:;:ers ttl ass dlaysr so ~'ha'[ ,ij [;C1lJr~t~ ternnere ~JLNre eantrol is ~.osslble' e\l1en if ~he're is no lhe:rm o,s 'U;l1 1 , H eati ng is tad ialn't lmo '1M e wC! ~~ ,iii ~d i ( ls, aa'lSV' to 'avQirJI 'SCB~ ing~ ~"s'~ but n 0·\ lea1S1. t'hey' can be ~e'ft to ~ool!t 8'h.ref 'them;sehfe.!il, wUh S3fffi!'ty. mrakingl n 01 n CfrS.e andij l f no r ~hrE!l'mDSlad~a Uv eon tre ne~, there ~!'i I!.Jsua U~ a ';'·'lh.erm gil rU:9~·' wi)i(:~1 bra·ak~ the. iI:.~rcult if '[he safe mal!timiU m ;s e)(ceedeeL My own ~Fi·m., 32) w,a~ Obtainlad seoolllli:l h-and mr th e· preverbia ~ 5'ong SlO me: d m'e ~:go" b U!'~:

Ei:VHIil new ones .e rs fII0'[ p rohibitiva·1 'if e~p~n si''\/e' - about the S8m~ cost ,~rS ,ii!, gas'firad one. Mi~ ne bss a chl1llmber 5 i ill wi~@ ); 4, ln ;II; 151m deep and 18, 'i'"iltsd at 1 OOO~C mui m'lllm. though rm(l~U '[od'a1,y GO up co ~200°C,

Un Ii ke rh e g~!l-f~edl typH<;l, it is rela [JfV'81y easv '~D m'aM';;:'8 ijour own elec~ria 'furnace sa lon~ as y·ou 'lake the Ii 0 rm'a1 Il rEI CiS uttons 'wh Eli iii des ling whh ~e'tha~ rns lns voltages. AeadY...v!JcuM mufflreg, ,8re ~\I!.ai~~bh3 i'ro'm ~~ ~h m rms' as, (jlifi U!e·n:k.amps, Griffifl ri, G~of9,e!. and oth@'r la~~of~to ry equIp m ern Su,pp li$rr$, ~'~Tney ar,e ,spa re opa Ills far [hai,r

$l~eUida'fid rangl8s; Q)!f mlll'lfl tbS~' and th es.e ne~d no mOre '~han Ei,n C'a's] r:lgl h"l j:nsu ~a ~ing m91~er~~ls and a metal Or '·Syndnvo" tor ib 8Q U 1 'iI,s'le rn) ease. H e·atln!jj elG'm en t 51 alr.e i811S0 a,v,~!i~able'. ei~he~ in me form elf "Hrn IA:od!5'~ Of ··'Ha<aUrtg Bricks,"' ~ n:!'ffirac'!:my b~ e~s wi'th etem en ts ~mbedd'Bti iifb the race - or as uefr.e crary I ubes wnm a III a1'ement w.o und If'.QU lI'ul He m'EIi con !M'rulct'~on ts de E!fl'l with In Ch8pt~;f' ~ X ;!3,nd thai 0 n! V :point I wou Id mail=!iliI' 15 '!ha; vou s:nou hiJ .seeJk tln~ Qwic@ 0'. 'd~e! e~emerc~' :sup,plijIIlH"S 'e:~r-Iy in tl1 e prc:l1ect. F1g~ 3:3 S110WS ,ia nome-madra' Fu mace which is .s:upp lied in

f~. 33 -rill" ~,(rF,Ir/lll~ ~ifN;~~DfrHr ~t1.t?t([c f.!:m:liilG\il. rfiJiis ~Ilc.d: 1f5 till ,bff' {~~ IjQ~ ~rrlll'Ktjr:;i!lll Nflr,; I~'ilffi {JIj{lhed ~l:RfflJ'ofj_iI'!J, 1"'11'" tl!:l tlll i:tWitt.g~~ ~A-a ~~ . ,~~~~, Gld"'oQ~ c~ iutll'lfflg (!l~m,!!1J~·i$·~iI1.l'l'j'l!II ftilij'r~ ¢' ijp., ~.i'lt,hi:!t'". ~ctJwt.fl0'J(ftn~fml urJ},

,., klt" -f-orm by Kanth a 1 IEII.~m'ro h ~a 1 t I flIv~'rallmond~ Perth P'H'~ 3:E.e. t~ough a's shown It doa~ need ~u:a'rd$ fitt:irng O'\IIlr the e I ec~~[cil conn a'ctto,ns.

Sa 11; Bo'llhii;,. I have a~ !f~,a;d:v fSfe'rJffid to ~hel salt-lbath for temi:ierilirng- N:elJU1il a:r.d nont.Oxi[; sa ID ·.~r'B a~so 3i'llan ~abl'l~ tic! r the' n~ ghe'f'er8,hJlr;~ needed befo·m qutS'nolhi ng. Ih!f!IV mU:5l~ net be. €·sed with '~hB' ACT'IVE stilts us'&d in cyanide- iha:rorenin!ij! - the COl n,U~!Je nts of th~' 'oeMtf1a11 .~ ~t~ ~~e IriC rnera ·than oom m ~ ill salt .~ rod aU nil !:i'h I c rT del m iJile-d, with :t!! ce'Vf.:a~ n a rrnou n ~ oJ potas:!lli urn ch'iori d ~ to gi:v@! (he' requ ~rec tl1 errnel (l;har9lC1 ar'~~'U~. Th is 1JiP Ie: which I U !!ilE!' I O'eg,iJjs,s;,E!I, l~lS'6,SOIWS7,201 mlE!'~Ui ~t 6 lO'o e ,~ nd ean b IS' AJ sed U pi 10 sbeu t '1 QCO ~ C~: j'" l~ tibta~n·a'b;~e '~irom th~! sam e oource!S as the b;Hni~e-n r,;g salts. I.p ,·45 ),'

, Th e :sa1,~ ils melted In. a welded st eel

. . - . ..

"pet". ~rn innustry t;ne5B m~y 'be· ~arrgrB aod,

he~rn'.IiZ! d by 9i~S ~)<r 81'18C1 rh: &ty - !.:! sua Ilv dAe

'forme r - but 'for d,0 'mcde1 8r1 9 i~,~.e;r ~he \H~rt]C81 eIB~:[ricat tube furn:e C;.9 headng i;I pot m Bid e.tmim s~~'O'I 'tiib.e ·~s '1h 8 rn bI ~t Icon~@I iil~,~n L 'll ~~, heating' pres'Bnl's cef~ali n Il rebl IS rn $ (~)lh ~ r ·~11 ant h ese a I n~),ad1y rnentlened] and an ~~e~'~rL~ hGine'f is e3'BiIBJ ·t,c, 00 n1r~,II. Th~' S~:l·e of ~he' 'pot de pan ds on th'B! w,orik you W{llrrt '[,01 do, of eou rsa hn.JJ'~ U"",t ~hv<wl'il hi! Fi9. 34 i$; qU~t:le. ad~q~JtH.£:!, The ~,ct 1!J161 ~ pot ts ,iiillDDU'l :] in. i rrt:ern,i31·1 dl ~ame'lel!" a Vld 'is t (] i Fl. dee.p. with th ~ s.a~ ~ batlh i'ts:e&f a bout 1'; til1. dee!lP' (¥'Oll! m IJ'Sl alrlQw for '111 e "tide to rrise" wha-Ili '[he WQ'rk, Is pu1, ~n U. U is; lMI 'tact a ~Mlla!n hOml8'Emi!'~'e '~aboT8torv' furna ~}I:!:~ and I 9 iV8 d e1 ai I s ef the C:Qril5truct~on ~alt,~r." ~ t is. 'pie mapsi. la rg-e'fi ,t han is tea III V lII,eeci9d fQr m'O(hil~1 'wo~1k bu t you need mom f\Or d~ ~ e ~~.elll'[~·8i1 ~).Vrt!m,eulr as w~'~i a'S th ai '!l1/tUIo);.

For tho ; nl'rial m~ ~t l'he Si'I h. which 'b'ome5 as a 'filll1~' powder, is P u t in t!J abou! 4 i rich 85 be~'Ow 'ttn,e top of th a ~ot ,a'lI1d, ~s 1nl~ melts, more i:s \;i'e~ ,~r!i3J1l[.ld IV a dded ~~ '~h el I !8:'ij!\8 I $1 nks. 'Whl'l!tl'll r,e'-I'f! eIIJ[·I,.,g . SUlilslBqll! e:rqt~y ,!:iI ra'irrlv hrea1i!V' irolll He slnouh;:J1 be 's~t lOvell' ! hu' mou tho 'as a lila m cnlsl may mr.m wbiim 'the' ·salt .s'e~(S ,tm cool1:ng iBid [tune· is. hJlB.t H, r,rs~, ,oJ 5Iplttl:ng!. H O,W~'i,lelr. so ~P:flQ ~~ :l~e 'ttop Ell red c,.f 'th€ll h eatl~!QJ e!la'!il eli~: ~ ies a'DoV\e ltn 6! S-allt '~e\le II 'the cri, ShOl11d melt from ~ he- olllt::sidB inwa ms, wIth lilt} su>i!: h tr.TJltd:d,~.

ThiEl' workp! ~c~ 'should bi@! pre l1ea led a I i~ I~e 11 it :i5 I~ k:aly 'to. have wate r 011" on ~ n ·Iny h-o l,elS,. and if 0!nv h c,l es an~ d·eep or ~ ~r~'e S:OTnl!: con !iidaradon sh·ould be gi!v.e n ~o ~hese. as '[liref1e i:s. l1J risk o;f 'spu nil[1~]' of hot :sal t alSo line' ah' I~or. WDrs~ •. \l'8'POU ~ I trap p:l3d in i[frre· holLe' e)l;~,mds.. 1ihe 1p~leGe can It.nen 'be S,ii't h"l th~· ba th. wrth €I wi riB: "han dl'e~' i'f ne~d b~, ~A .job '~I!kEi' ,a 'f~ ~e' orr tcrraper can. Cif COU1iSe, have the tangl pro'lrud~ng hom 'Iii! e sU'~,cel. Th~ immersion ·oll,h.l~ wo~1k wn~

Fig. ·34 'f'JIur ,iiuml:'('7:r. ~{J"orlJ'JMIto 1Wl'-" A~~~~ ~q~'~J'I"r. 'tlDt,IN:i1. "a~'lt-Wl' l~ r1r!~otid Dfl1 ~~'!l1} N.f}~1: lA-iii r ~hrr' 'roI$ON"' ln~ ~~ ~'Q pl'tl'V~~ uu w~f:!J' ,jjl ~I-tk ~~m.nilf {NJ'L

re.mIP~Ta. ~~lly reduee ~he baJ'rtn tern pa.ra'~ hJr:e~ ~[ lI.~erre' ~!i! nensee 10 ,tj,dJUSl't the· controls .-it $!hGull d r'e cOver very qu j,ckiy ~s th ~ne: is GtlO5lde rabhl store of. 111 eat ~ I'll' rne 'ru'mlaJr:;~. OnllJ ' thiEl'nl:: th t" wOlfki.lfeC9 C an be I€:f-t for .he prest rib sd time wh1ch, '~bll' a sa ~~. b a 1'111. ~~ M~ HAlF· THAT fj;1EEDIED Fn~ A MUFFlE FURNACE; ie, 30mr,I'IIytes PQr' Inell afrU!1 !CkrH\9 ss, ThiS' ls one o,t fne G riea t ~(lViJ o'tBl9 es OF '[he' sal ( bath - 1 hie' ath Br ltJaiM) mat ~ha h ~sjting is bou IfId to !be! lJl1 if a F1m itl!'1d to th ~ cor reet te rnperatu re.

T~J' wtDii'k Gitirll be· QU'9rl1 e had in wa'ter. lbrin~~ err o~ I. M,ost of t he .iild heriifilg ';8~'t wl II '·'i5p~JI Ciff'" om Q_ liJench ~n g. in tlu1t: Ifli'r-st [w-o~ and ~~e: re~t wil ~ diS:5C11 V9, Thi~ wJ II fiQ iI"I,(a harm. ,S,a'I'[ w~ n. nawever. coli ect in the· boumm iO,f ,61'0 01 I b\Ellhl a,l"'Id tl, is, 'rm,;ll!i'f. be sieved @ut all inisN'ails. As I h i3lv,e said, the· tal! it" ~f. Is 11il1J~ te, .h EI rrm I ess ~wl!1e·n cold, Itw:l iS~ molten SlJlll rn ust b ~ treated wiU~ the ·sam.e Iresp eel. as n .. a t. s,ccorded t,@ mol(eJil me;~aJi - SiE:B en. ~. O"~ B nd dt1';'o ri~ c~n b9 d Usp@se.d of -down the· .51 nk wi [11 ,8 g:ood ftu $'~ of' wa taJ:". lin w nnc~ can lu~'cti 0 n. t ~'u~! m.fl~~ riB11 0 a IES rJbsorlb water reNa~j IV. ~ n d the ·!Sa I~: p®wde r sh 0 u~d b~' kep~' if! I:ll:astic bags in U!ll ;alrt~gtu ICOJl~~ir'i@r, F~t 'the ~ame flmSOn, 31 Ud shoUi Id ba· IkeJ:u 0 n '~tH1 POT whe n n~t in use.

N a UJ r',it Uy !i !Jeh ,a. p~ I :sh 0 lUiid no'[ be US-fUJI' fQ!i fta rea tOO I·s~ The S,iI t1. revel i5'nould ncU be' less tiJIfln (hl1e e-qlHi!lrt~ra ~I ~ f}Or 8,1')0 u~ d ~. JiS'e MimJ!!'B 'ltD,elf!! 8:fa in ~h albQv.e ~:nre top ~'F' ~h~ hea liilOg 1~le·miran l - ii'Ilrl,d ere lita~ n~ ¥ ~~QllJlld II"i ot a p plr,o~ ell ~ihe lop of 1.1"i e IPO,tm In OM S~f,jise ;81 ~8i1';,e.r d ~mete r intd sho:rtlE!!r ~8p Ih wo~il d he~p '~rJI[h is- j',esp-e C[, b m: the ~:u pf 'the tl!Jl be ~nd h eati ngi el'~nl t=nt '111 ij'1lI ibleommIB$, rath af ~igh, Sa'fety precal.ll Ho ns, i!r~ [i e~ilt. with in Ch~ , ,C~. but ~ w~ n e rnpnaSli~e 0111 EI' po;~n i now. The Uqu id ;6 HOT. a_~ h 01 a!;) mlll~1en br·ass. ameli 'you sho u Id b& Waia r~ nQ' p u,~,pe.. g09:9 I as., ~~tWeali:"1 o'Ve:r,ells ,aln d a cap. DO N'l ny l:,CD'

ft.'gl up'" ilIl sah 'po'l';, U mlll st b ~ ~ro~:M'J'(~Y

~ns,tructed a iild be Sill Ud II! nou gh and h@'llvv enough m:n ~.o 'tip m.rer. mil' ttl,!:!, hQ'1 sall,t w! II set 'th e floor on fllfc jlu sa as WOtU Id hot meta I:.

FlUlm'H>Ci8 Conm(J1. Tbere is no m~'~ihod or CIOn tlrol of 8, 9 as fired '~'uma tS' 'wh len is raasen a b~e J,Iii 0081. eth er Ih,~l'i .1 rna nYo~'·, It i.~ rpo sslb~e to oJbtan In m.c~hJlI8t~ ng fla me burne:~, 'with [:rm:rmost8lS but the cost and' romlp ~jc-a'~iion would o.e' d'ifficu It 'to' jusdfy 'ro F' 'lh ~ rncdsi an g viii eor. El ecui c fu maces ca 1l1~ nOWBIIJerj be· eentrellsd iIIl.lI ooma rica Uv i ~Iii ~WrO w·~p. 'The I~'i! S [85.( a nd eli ~upesl is the j'!E'nfngy COll1trol Ire r" - as ls used on [11 e I, O'l'pla tes ,~,f rnes t iha c~fie c QOkBrS', Th is: Is, i III ,aRRct! a si mrphBJ th",e-s,vji~u::: h, 'With 'the, dl~elll set at '·0·' dle C u rre rn ~s' off aU '[hEJ !~m,e~ ~gt at .ot, 0'· i1 JS en aU the' lllme, II n b E!'tween ~Jhe eurren L is swhch,e-,d on anen o~ ~ n proportton - tEl g.. ~t ·'6,··' '['fie eurrant ·~.ows, '~r 60%, oif the timErr ~1l "'4" 'IDr 4Q~~. B:nd so JOn. 'Th'~s is \I'e~ effect.~V\e. :and :spa ~e 'oookar con'(ro I's, ~,!O r lij:lj,fli!'n One from ,EI S'fN'31P cookerll :a!fe u&~alily r,ated :61'[ ~bo~t J:kw. wMc,h is, CIlll!i1i~ ,~dUqU8t~' 111'1 mlos,t fiiillSceS. 'The eS-:1Hlrntial Ts ,m! p;lot ~ a m p. for l:t is, .:alll too 'I; ~s.y Ul . ·lorget''' ~nd ~~'~"'e 'j [ 5W~ l1C!lied () n alii n'ig h t. AUii! in. cDr)ke r ~Cll!1tro Ue JfS have ·i1Il '513'1 of Qo,nta(i.l!li· SIpedailJv ror Soli,ich >8 l,aimp.

Th i! ~ ropeu' 'Thurm [}.s~a t·· ~ 5 fair be·lier. of COIJ ~5~. ,a ~ I.he te mille rattm rE! C13Jn 'I h'f~Hl, be 00 nWOIlled with in. clos'e ri mUs. Tn~' cost i[:i g·r.e'2liter, O'~ 'OOllJrse'. ,~S some form of J:!!.iay or ·"·w~ ~d st,ate"'· ,switch i~ rJ ~eded ,SiIS· weil ~ as th e "I h~rmoc~ uIP~·,e. Th~s. l,anBt ,CAN be tl:'.e ind~catl ng d~elt'moeouple. ~ !.:lIt is IIJiS Ul8 rly a sepiP1r~te e!hnnent Thfll c:o~t illfld It;;Om-· JlI~'iCatij on dOfJS d lfllJ ~Pld. of 00 urn!@. 0 n th e d'~ Fee of CQnhlO~ needed. Fo F' fhe ~Or1 of' h e'~t treatff'l,tU'!I1. lAN) 8 re CO'!l1cefl'j ed wij!h G'ne wh~ch wUi hold the hlmpe.r81ure !O within +!- ,8:<tC W(l'lJld serve ,end +f~ 5i!ie is as lIl::~oS1e as ~'l1l, necessary: ~ n lSi tJ€"e~ mt1 k:~r5 quot',e a te!'m p-e;r.a ~ ilu"e ira ngB F,Or 'l.n lei!" pruducts,. u S,ll! ~ I ~V 2.00 'e. w ide.- Qu !u!


"f:r,~lnldV ~ I h!~\iI,e! fo ulnd' ~h:~r! ~!fn.~1 ,6n1 '" 1::)JI"ebl~f!l1, with my ''rg'v eentreller type is; "·fi.aI\9~thJ l'fH~'· ~ I Ikll'10w pretlt-y we'll W'hreH'e rh,e d'rtIJl hss to be 8!8't "tor ,~~v p.e n~ etcls r UH1J1putil'[U,re:'. but I have. on rnera l'rHH'I one oCC:.Hisl,on. been cal~ed awev 'from the Scho"p, and forgotlt!en to check til ~ temp8n~llture before I oav~ iilg.

Siil,i ri1: ~rnlp-s, Fro:m the ,SI; 0'1 ilme t,() L!, e red leu I e us (' IBy no means ~ 111113 hu m b1,~ sp'ilii l l;a rn p is q iJ..I~ te in"lnillu able a nd, I WOu Id say. e~n5etnna I wh,Ejn daa liill1g, wi ~h ve'fY srna II ~nd de I leate p i1I rts, ~ 'I. 1.~ che~p. h pl~ovh,1iS a ve',pY cteen ft em e, Sind it Cll9;ed~ 110 hle',iil'!iY g;~s conIes or 'lraij ~i 1'191 wlres 'to h~,ed it. My own ;~ Or! e ,of. I'll e I il't:h~ ~:dCllS:5' ,fJriff,~li~, with ~ round wl~k ,~bCllIJl '--k - fnen d !amete r. but I d~ u se ~ ne' 'fro m ,~' spirh 'Ii red mode~ whioh ha s e 1,;:1 r,ger. Ua ~ I wick 'fm:m time 'lo lime. '1Hl,g:l.~SS Om:::' win bringi

Fi:B!. 315 .to /#lit ~ b.lid.Jif)l,W.!I • fJ I~~t!i,~:

n~ll'I U3'jNmu.loof)

Fl9~ J:6'~.m:,.fili"~r.l_iloll' loog.'A, II Jro;h~ ~g, tM 'linu~lhtt'W(I~

'~he_ ~ In~ oif a 3~:2 n ~, di,a:l1l~t'8r ~,od uJl ~ ~!U6'nch! ngl. "t'9mper,a<tu:re,q'llJll te: happi'J! ~ halve ,a:llI'eadv Irdlun3d '(0 ihEi' use of ,~ sPh r ~ arn p for ~m:pEHiing. For sen b er po UlTts a lie' eVE! n t;ny bodn-g tools tt'l e, 'whol,f! pr'Oces~ can be' ,ciEIITi:ed out with th uS U ttle ('€I Ilow . H,l!!u:ll in;g,. Na rtilralUy I you ha,'ve '[1:), be iibl~ t@ hOld ·t ne nor mata I. ~ h ~I",e a ~re:ardy m g~: palgi'1iig ref'er'iEI'n ee' '~~'I:h:~s fro m t'lm e !~ '[ilm~.. I n many i3irtich~$ II have ne a d T h 10 author has m ent i Q ned holdi!"li] tho W:o' ~ W,! h ·"pl,ief~··,,, This doe-s ~'OT re'fer te th~ n~ !firma ~ :metCt1a~i(;' s '(001 wlhi~h. Ibe In 9 'il n[ raasenable Qus'l,it'll) hardened wHI War I os~ U"l@:ir' u}mp~'f '~( so U'1~a:~ed. Thr. Iref.eiieniH~e sheu td b~. to ., B 181:~sm I th'~ pHe:rs~' - d)8 '~ilym~ul would ICa II t h eiT "T©l!lgs;", perh3p~f A9 35, shows such 1:

P8~ r, and veu wi'll :SQe' t h~~, 'th It nOlie' h 85 81 m os1. decor.alt ~8 'CUfV'~15, ih ~s: is '(10 gi'il~ S.O'fme: :($1 [g'ht sprin,~ ,I Iii th~ ~, oJd In g', A rin~ hke the ~ilr'ilk o.f;fi' chain cali"i be: sUpped, OWl" 'th'B' h a nd~;as tiD hold ~he nO:5'~ Clast:l. d 'orr r In work. S~r::h Ip~'bers or 'Ulngs ~ome ~n man~ s'haplB5, ClJ't t:ha t 'blhcwn h:iil ~he rnos'[ 'll s'Cfu! 'row heat txt! a tme rnt.

Fer sme:Uer YI,iho,rk ['he .llli6bo,flUOI1 '~\Ol!"igls" :showli1 i., Fig J,e, S'E!i"\I'e the samli pu rpose. u sa.1l81 ~y made I~ r- ~[~ un ~ess $ ted. '~he.y can be used ~,t:lI gr~p ei[lier w~tn 'I h'S erid!; or within t ne · Prj rig"'. 'I t i S~, ~ ow·ever iiiT'l1Jort~ rat toO 00 ~a rn '0 I"i~V ttl e best QU B I iW e\1~ilHl thlS~B d'a cU;,o l1all ~y lell! d [0 "c,OS5 tliJ.i:d ... ~'B,g'5" and the c:heapB'i lJalf'iet'Y !oflfl1 sold fo r haft d n'ngl b:~u~CJ i'1 In ~lhe fnr~11 9 p ~,fil airs U'slEdess. Th9V can' biB obtain'r:ld '~Iuou~h

anV re~UI~~lble: eherrust, tt1 ~:HJgh th ev life utdikb~ ,to be' Ii tiild ~i'Ii stock., '~ttl a:U' cases: the l1..,sa~ O'~: tthrB' lafnlgs shou'~d b8 W',~ rmed bEttor@! h:e ndl ~f!i,g ttle m,e~}ail.. and Itli ril ri 0 ac~cill 111. dlouJdl th@I' be wert wh1h elther w$tar Q r 'o:n"

'I~ ~tula ti 10 filS wtl ere '!lhe USB m · 'p'ii~'r'S~'

lS 0.01' poss'libi!! lhen iron wk~ c:c~n' be' DOW!'n~ rCNJ nd t,o ma ka a han cll e or l1!1r.8p-ded ~i~u,o!Ugl' ,a' hQie' i"f '[h'~H'e is one. tSeB '~ig. 2a.) RememtbeJi that wtlen "th~' irS Il'II g~'t5, hot it both g~8Iflds, wh ich m a,y rCOSf!'I'I 'the' hold. a nd losea S'UIHlgr:th" T a k~ ~re ~ nat u 'i~ S~~l!Jlr~ I ;B,nd p l'oporti0ne d to ~h8 !31i.,~; of th e ]ob., A t i~ha. :63 me 'ti rns, usa wlr9~t~~ l,5 I:he ''lllg'~ 'that win be ,dEClu :i3r:11iB. so 'thSft h w'il ~ n()~ in tertere. whh rh-e qUlli!i'ic!l-uing action. The~ I',s'm ~ ins th~ (tiIS$; of Uil8 p8l111' wh leh ts SQ srnal I t nat 8),11en thlWi w~re w~u ld ca ~SB noub I e. Th e ElJliifw,er he Ii'fl' ]iiii, ,t,~ h1e\&iI t 'Ih Eli work ~ n a '~,~:"' _, jUS'l a pieclB ~if 'UJ O'fl. sawn In nal f:and t'Gi !J)!.SiI ,;:!!I ~ ure !I1clil l~ nk of S;~,h~ti depth tHaI "~, 5~irr~n gi~ ne'i3'd ed : the pan willI fa iii to t~ e bQtlom a ~a rete 'wi"! ieh ~tr'ipSl i t e~ S1eaml or '!Japour. 'Th,~ h ea t co L1'[ent of th£s, f:if[jV I] ~lns i~ sO sm alii, UUJ't .~ lFiie, QlJ@'l!iIi~~ ]S ~~mos~ ~M,ti;!llntanemJ!s. 3IrlY-Wat¥Thev ~I" '~e ~f P lledh'Offl the b Cll,::U, lID tne ta~1(, Wllth 1'110 fea~.s; 'itJ'h:at '~Ile co~ I'ing! wHI be

too'shJw. -

CQnD:1 LWialH. D,c m est ie f~ r~ 5, lEI! r,I d the OOTrnl:a1 br!:!,!l;ingl tOf\clh ~iJrU !pm elll [ VII1 n cowr mg,~' 'af '~hl~ h,~a1'ir!ig: '~fiI'ai!l~:~rFlIt'llf;'i!t S, n lfI'erle.d' foil" Ui e m oda I enQ'~n ear 'wh Oi.5~ h~ ~eJf'IIi rvg

ptirQ-9 ramme is "eeeaslon al", Th a: sa me, h eat sources sneu Id ~a'\f~ ~ tha na·~ s 'Of ann e 21~~'i 1iI.Q1" 8 nd ,b r~~ti 11-9 to rehes mIlli!t iSdequ e,i[:e fo r "open hea,l1;h" 'c~ s:-e hiHrdenill1! r,~fewn~'d 'to in Ch iiIIP~e F 6. Those who rna !tiEl a ~O~ of s~i~d~1 'tOG!r~~ whc:s.e wt:! ric ~nvol\le:s Un"e h~rdl8'nh'llg of: [liQs and gaugss. or who maN!Fl a pr-ae-:tiee ,o,f harde:n~ng weai"ing, pa r~5, on theh' m ade,1 S las ViI 8' aU OlLi,g nt :tc do,l wi~1 '~nd rrhiB ~ "hel simp~e e;lec.'uic tH g~as=fi r.'ad rr:irlJrfla will ~ t:J Ii~'p a g:rea I ~ ~a~. ~rtd rile :sah:-oa th lelJ1e.-n m.o,re so. F,er temper-iog aU b'ld'~ ihe' '$'imple~:t p~;rts '~he low~uHmpennu re Sa It-ba'~ h ~':i. ~~ Ir h BV,~ ,~'lr8ad~ ilf1,~ icarl;ad'. r1if eaisier a ndl mo,re- f,enelb~e,tlna In ;~IIilY other rnethed,

ln ~lsinQ bralZin~ tor'Ch~Si; ~IOwe'iilelf" i~ ls esse,f1~ial, to .set bra<zin:g praC'(l'c~· aDld brsaln g' 0X;lf]iFitil,",~e' as rrn e. y'ou must · ·thi nk of dle EiI'tIQ'ms" ,~S it WG'r.'e'1 aU ti,e ,time. The temper,atiUlre hi, high ar tWlan is fU~Uld iEld f.e.! Ii' sihftH'-Sl:J I d sl~ng an ell is mor.e i m ~Ofta n'l. F IjJ r! her. ,QU h.iiV1i' to h CI'ld '9Jln ei'lle n. te mlpe'rau~ rl!!' ;mr qli~l!e a long ~ ~me - hJ ~t, 'the' IOp.p~·Sli'[e to bral~ng l~qliilrelme nns", 'whera ,I ~)ng h ~~ting ca n ~use probl~:m$ ,~n.d wh~I1'B' we ,d e:fii H:rIe iF8tl!1/y' ge I ~Inl~ pa:l1: hOtit18i' ~h,an d,e rest so ttun 'U.@ ,aJl I o 'V' ·w111' ·'follow lhe he'lf'" Nil'UH·,ally. 'i1: i's l'mpossibl a [0, loover ;Ej'\f\ery eve ntu.~ Utv tOr eve'ry e~D I!<Herlf~ ; ill a ch a·p tar n ke '1'11 is. blui' uf: yo~ keep 'the "p~incillli!i~'~ outHl1ed IEHlIE''lier ip IlwaV"i hi! mind ''faili' shou'ld h ~ v,e no diffic\lI hV in deyi Sil ng a .SB ill !ri'~ c,rory ,Scheme f,of' a nV11i! ~ng cut 0~ ~ he c rdlinary.


C· H A r:lT IL' 'R-: ~

I .: I I:' ", P" ~. u

:S o :fca f wre hov€! bele! rl CanCE!Tn @[:II wi'~h w(irk wh~ch ne ~ s [0 De h a fda oed rig hi ~'~ rouQI1 ~ tOOJr'3~ ou ru::;hes. ch n5'EHs, a nd ·the, 'I ik·e - b 11J'l U'lI.e ra a ra m.~nv a.ppl i ca iti~·n SiNh B f,e SU RFACE HARDNrE'SS oriilV Is needE!~t 'I n~ el.i:His~e (a se bei ng a C rosshG'i3,rj, p iln. S:u (t:: In ;3, C;O mlPon ~J"I t eou Id. 01' eou rrse. ba made fr'~ m "" SU\!Ieil'" stJeet h eJ·rde nsd, .a'nd III ~J1I l\emJliE red '~.O reduc~ ('he brh11re;n:f!r,~:

HtO'IIlte\f1Etr~ the, 'tempering' WQuid rtC'll..Ice the, 'i1U:Jlrf aea he rdilfle'S!; and S:QI th@!' w ea r ~tl:s'hnalilce - and 'we h~vo h ~d to u sa ~'IlI

. - - . I I' Ole 11-........ " ••

ii!\RIZU1!irMS~Va fir.'illle:rj,a. In •. !f:I6~'11 ~,yfi ru ~lg

we ~c.a'k~ a ~ ow to 11 m cdi urn earbon ste e11 nn induSlry. 'IUGiliaps an ,III,O¥ '$'tee,ll and miiJdifv' [11 e sL:;fY'C'lure o.f ~ he au IE r sld'o SO t'Jl1at th is, ea n IDe hard ena d withem t y ndu ~V atfeenng the! ~@re'., Tne m'ailll bedV of OUtr pin wi'U th if;! n ha~e a U (he e Ina r(H~ te rhrEi(:S of th~' "rni ~d·· S~iI'f! 91 O~~9~rrFa.U V' lI'~(uj bu t. ~'l'U~ s urfac~ Is BS hard as a rlI IlJIhbi3'fn P'eJ'relri hard ene d 11·i.~ h-ea ~bon !Ste@'I_

To 'brTng this.abDLlt we ~d{l,Pl .a: precess kn.oW"nl as ··C3~burn:S;l!lg('. YOG w'n! a-el::,all til e ,Chaptl:!!r II ·t1nat t'OI m ~'ke. . 'Cast Steell"' 'from wrO bI19Jht irn:m t'hl~ m8nt~ wills· hle~;3Jte!tll ':(aJi a 10111 g' p~!':lOll lin ,t ne ~tes8 n.ce 'Q,i ~.a! mOJil j ·SO flil ~t t he' 'coS! rbon cOfite,nt o'f 'I h e 'Whol9 lirHH~J' 'wa~ i I1lcf\eased·., FrJll' , ha:rdl~ en in,g th e ;PII'CH:-;S;S, ~ s si rona C'r Du'n It! eo I'n ~aft'ing' Ili"m!2i Is much h:~ss.. with [l1,B r'e:s UII t ~'ha't the S'kin onlv '~f Ule' metall 't.oke'S up

'I h ~ ea rbon, I fi!d~ std'tI~ Iy the '[i1'11le' is suer dil.att a ~:si flQ of app'ml(;~'~b~e ~'hi,C'kn6S'S ~ ~ /'1 6 i'neh Orr 'more - wi! II ,ialUOW 'rar :SlY DS'E!qu ent g ri'ndin~~ Fc r Im(id er,1--rfl(!l k.~11 9 'sud depth~ are IUif'Hju~ ee ssa ry ,U! nd w,~ . .selriorr rasert to g ri ndinil) a.nvWCi!¥ r ·t nou,gh we' ma~' LaiD the, surfeae 'to ~mplrove' U'~ e: ·FiJf1ish~ Wi [n tl"!!,'IC'k eases there' ca n !be ii!I: cli·nnre<nsionfll miBln 9 e ~ bu t thera is III ~ ne~d 'W wOrrv a'bou t u .. rs· 'fer 'th e depth M C:'i!iIfburislm'ti 01'1 norma i 'o,r mod @1-!lTI,~ k if'! g.

ICh'ilCie' 1'1, fi!! patr~ has be Em S"-lI rlace car blJ! dse d ~ ~ ts 11 ~~'[ed ,agi!i!li fJ1 Up 10 fhe' ~1 EU~ de ni 1119 tem p'~'rcn(!w~ ,a nd Que nehed. WI:J CAN u~mper i~ ~f we· wish, but ~hns, ,~s, ne: m,,:c~sylrV end Gi,JIGn If 1'[ is Hl!!)lj,ghl Id~Sl" a b ~e h) r,efi ne the gra'i f1i a Un le, , OO-'~ 40.;1 ( wil ~ su mrCiGl'~ Hew e¥e<r. w'e (:8 iil m odNfy t h{ IprOi:'E! ~5 a'lin~ s-o- dsr.ive' c ne Q:f ltrt! g reai '~ldv~ri't8ges. err casehalrd:E!'l~ing ave thr-o lJg]h ha rde fli'r1g~ We' c~ri m·iS)ichin·e tl"! L P ~,e,clB ljlt·fif c~:rI:H.i'ri$rng but j;.;#r)rfJ Q ueneh un g~ 'l1"bis win remQve· tli el' o~':se- f,ro rr '~'he m!achin~d pun'S. Qli!en~hi'rlg wiU ~l:aVI: 110 eJrTe,ct Ofl! th ~ maGh,in ed :~ljJ rf~ces. ~ ne the~8 wi~ i b~' ·soft. lhis '15 '1 ul Tarn Oi rtn a J:J'r:3ctice f aind many i!~lngine!, a,nd !iTi! i~l~hi n ~ parts ~fc desJgned 1)0' tbe Ire~~1ed ~fi1 llllitl" fas" ion. IF,bQ- 37 ij sac 9 ~e '1m :poillu - 8 pi~ 'with iPI ~8rd e-nled I~ea rirlg SU'iiF8 i:e tIll"I d 1 wei ~cr;ew ~hre:adS:, ~ f machll' hom SihJ€!~' s't frsl ~he8'e [hfle'~ds wou.t~ b:el' ,dflfBd h~rd un!e~S

I····· .. --

-- -


U~ mpered~ vet if l~'e<y w,er,f!l ~113 mlpe red to ~he s:a'fs h~rd ness lh0' we ar resls ~.~f'I iD~ of (M pllfl wiiU be reduced, perh~ ps u naccen- 11iIi.ijl,. The pi n ~nOWI1! ts, in 'fact m·a de: of CQStllhiude:nred mild s;ti;!,elA,t "a" 'the IP~n is rough mil ell un ed at '~h~ ends. 800 Uit 1/1 6 ill~1\l eve ~s~e. b 1,Ji! rh e bea ril1 9 su rf'ia(;;~r hi, A 1 • 'bin U bes bee!!'l Ci9lrb iLilf'i'Sl®>d a II Q\1' itllf1Id then the ,~'aSe' 1,ulmed ,a,walyFl'ictJ11 fhs erJ,d~. dowli1I 1,'0 'fini&h slze. 0 ne 'Eh'~ead ,~~s been sere"wcut A~ "c" I'ne 1[J~n ~s r;GiiEHl a~n&[ r,el1ea'[ing and qm:Hu::hing ~ [jn~~-S1:a~e ;J< "in,! w,i!]S ulsed., Ffrn~lIy" f,lrt, "d" you Se~ Ihc rh ~e;g.d. curt en '~he ot.h E!'IF end h! r ~te,r qU'8rtt;:hilngi~ a rid i't'l ~ who,re -c:rc,a'!fIiEid up ,Iii! nd ~!tsh~. 8:01'H rl'1l re.~ d's are soft, .cj·!'spile t!\e f.e ct ~hat one was' C!IJ t b·efor'a' an d '~he;e.r ,aher qu'en e hing', 'Y,~t 'the' b~'~H'lll1ig iOif:f'IB,G.e is de"~d haird~ and took lhe [eJ1rlh off 111161 '!1 teo Th'ii;l' h ~rd ~kin lJj/'i;lJi, l5ub~fe'~ Ue nUVt m a~sliJr8d ~11! d fOLl! nd 0) be belW@ielll Q.da3 and o.oa 5 i neh 1.1iI ~Gk.

Then~ are other Si'UHUliI)f'!;S, where ~htfJrdBni ng C·Bn be Uli;~;:1 't c advarnri[,ag'~. F,d.1 ~almple ~ a tCom~~e~ form-'~ool can -be II1Afade:' from rnUdl :S'~ ee~ ,8 n d carlJ urised. AifnJr ha rden~'ngl It, wi~ ~ nl,v-e' ;a :s~ rface he ~dar i~fil a n temp~r'!,~d c81rbon Sh"H~l 111'1 wi~ I riilot SUtnd r.egrinding~ hUI~ ~he' Ileoi I~Fe· 'wU~ be 'Slightiy I CI,.ng~f' and ; f h' I~ 'yo be used C)J'hhl' th'B' o'noo W8 1111 'lie s~vtlid ,~ lot olf IFlJ.;perO&jve malelfi:a!. 1M ade limm carb~n ttRel e pivot pi flj '~ir 8 iith If. [~€;l'Il'ln~ w~i I fi Qed '1) !:!De' teJlilnpor;ed: caSlah {i rde ned - :I'h e:oo' is fin m;eecl. and 'the' VU~\!!i f fe:sis(al[1ee willi be

Ifiill!l. 311D PI~~~· ~; M.S, ,rJ~fi "" ClJ1iJt.!Mleg. 3'1b;. il h'ef Wl.Wi'i~ll1p,. oti'.d' iftnfJ UfQWfJiI..fIiiifl j_li'fi1 QiJ;a.rpJiJrn ltor(ffatJ. :Ire. '''if ~lI"I'~ ~ ~f',fi~lI ~'l!1~' o!!'J'iid·twit'nd!in~ J"ItJ,·fIj ~!n (fl1d_h;~~ !-1I'.Ma.ct"1!'W,Ctt.t ,t\f.idlfhl! wim&!! .~1l~ up-;. rtJ.\ll bMtmJ!l jmf~'(}.J.fIdi.rI1d~nf, bill bo.tjH~wt'lhNith~;!iII!R.

Igr.aater. IlliI'l AI~rV:.Slij·tuation 'whel'lB the p~:rt is· S ultlJ'e,c t to sh OQk le ad ing ,0 r' wh 8 &'8 '~oughn~ss, 'is !1I~:8dod klr other ~ea'~OIihS~ but s,t the' same Hm~ r.E3:$JS,'IS'r:I C~' ~lQ 'wear ts reqUire,d. caseh ~ude Inll og ts, ~he ,ans.we r:

V'QU ~ta.vi13 me IlcI!d bea ~~'ng core· in a :s:tar1!e 'to talke' 'tlil'la! sue:ss:. and ~he :SlJI rlaee een ~ ditior'!.ed 'e',~' fta<e;i!Sl WCI~H,

C~i9ll1rbli!J ris,i'n'D. 'Th eJr"1! iii re r'h.ree: ImiJl;r 11 l~rU31lhcli:lS 1.l!1. U~~. one of which, ~he' erctiv,a sa I t-ba Ul~ ~'!5 n 0'1 :s~r[oa bl e fO.r 'mG d e-I ,enginee'ii'"s use:s: as it fnvo'ives ,molten cY'a fII id,~ sal lSi. wh ich a,r~ I enha II'y poisonCH,J)S;. ln indust.ry the next mos.l: common method i~ BOX CARBURISI:N!IG. ThJs In"'Q~Vtes the setting of th lEI' wolt in :a heavy welded 5it'iB€i ~ It'iO:!f 'il n~d wlth a cerbUir~sinSi malteria'~. Th i! lids iliB m ~eaJI ed all" ; '11Ul1ed" Wi!fl fi'reiC~ liillY. The' OO:li'li'lpcHJl!"lld used hi sll3cia~ Iy iDOJrrn,1J latsd: I a rge Iy ch a moal. by I w'itlh a ddr~: Iii ve·s ~:o 1 n erie ;m'$·e i':r:$ efl8c~livl~n~ss, He;r.fthlg ~'Tmes. are of th~ order a' ,~;~ he IlJfS Df so·~ F,or au r "sn-~ ii!IU p~rts not,td 09 w e!l!tjbctr:a U~· ~ jI1t9 ra d'OO. I h ave; used .sum" Un ibo)C$fs - they last· ~'Or two, ar '11'11 re,~ hea,ts - or' a pi,Sloe of 5~\ee! pTfiI'e: i n ~n g a, on e len.d fi'tt!!l with a. !!l;c€l"RWiBd phJQI and U18 otnelli se81~d with "fin~cI8'" Ui~O'I,e., 'firE=,CLAYI not 'Irlrece~ m'~rn_, whi't:lh wi n S1.O't hard: lobu81in.abla: ffo 1m mO:5i1 bu~ Idar"'s m eflCnaii1l:S I, The [.ial liD tlI rJi:5,~ti'lg el,ement i,f; ~harco~1. but thfs. by ~'~;sen;

.. I ~.Ii.. , ....... .,..ri,. . ,. b"

,~ s~ow ,~uj:r uilg. F!!.n i"'iI",LiYator mu sl l~e

added lind Sodium Cilr'bone1e ~no'~ 8;icar-

bo nate'l ~"5 'I:be mos,l'fraslly obiliCI'intillibie. A(j!j about '~% by w!3ligh I t.o til e ,ehawcCi~11 fJ I1d. mi'x 11' !ll1iO roll! glll'V. Alt~rfi ~lh.l's~'V yau t t&n ,add ,5'0 rn Ie 'of the: "'O",en H eanh

d n~' ... N ';:1 •• io.." k i "

com POllH'i! • "- ~ S!'s~ 11l~~, . O. ~ - • w,~ I C, ~ ! sh.a II

be n1en1'h:Jn]ng Ialtl~r, Abou.~ 5% w~n ,stlff-k'Lo (Ilir.f m'allefia~ s ,C~ n be used - I h~'!,l-e su ce'~ssfu Ily casah B rd,e El ad u sl nt11 0 I f.I ~,B'~~ her b C]01'laiC~~ wf,al=l p€lid Ir[}und th ~ metal, W.or example ~ Fl'r~5um.abhf ~he U1ln min 9 p,rroct"ss previded ~FiI aetlvator ~

Till fB; WO rk rn ust be co mp~ ~tEl·,iy SlIJ HOuri .. died by the; compo ~nd. wh~Gh :shay Id be paJck~d d CI,w If! hard, Tne' I id Oil ust. be sea led aga i:ns1 ing ~~:S' ~f in! i r, h i:~ d'1 en he a led to bat'Wee!ll S80 01 C .iii! nd 9209 C 110 F a Ie ng th of' 'time' whh~~h ls deterrn lned :bv th~ dep rh of ease re cp.dre d. Th e 'filrS1 hoy ~ 'WI II pen eft rate! abo m 0.00 a, inch and' 9 case cI,ep,m of ~ /1 8 in at. may be reac1h edl a Ifter !iilijva·n hours. (lhi:$ .til SSIi.Ji!in~S we ar,e ci3lsi""9 mik~ 5,tee~). fer model eng,ineer~:s wo,rk Ei depth .0'(- 0.00 is, H1Ch Shay id b a adeq Us Hi! I aJli d ,i3] 10 ~e~hour heal win b t:!' (CHlg1 ECnOlJ 9 I' : an'v gfe~i'rer depth Qf Ic;e,$13 m.av '~I'II'~Q relei ~ sy.Dseqlll en t Q ri ndi 1i1!9! opera tion.. NOlte' 't h.a t these 'ti mes ,a,retl'ITies AT 'II:':! e C8 rbu risi ng tli! m PIe r,a ~\IIr@!1 81!!ld YOlll Il11lllJ1st :a n ow some iE")('tr8l f,t) Ii 1:l.ri nglliilg' liI D. the t,em,p era 1:ure.

The· bl»: is t1 U oW~d to C:Qot. :i:! Ild lli"~S can be! OU tside '111 ~ f1Jm ac~ rf: no subse-C4 UJ8 rU m ~u~h~'1iI ~1i1 9 i's ~equilre"d. 1111 e 'p,e MS, canl ~:~, e n b@ lake r.1 OU ( - ,~nd h efG it 'is worl h suggeS!1n'9 ~he Tn~1 u5:i'on of ~ blank '~e 5!:

FigJ. ,38 ;114 ~~~h5JOf!.Ml~d fl ~ }:flJ·.t Imtl .Ii "~I' t}'ffJlJ.mJ iflIt.I, ~tM ~ 'f'~ 1iIi'ltl lilJ.f msn ~'oI!!'~':rJ~ ii':om' ~~11't'r'! t/r.!f hm~I;d.~~

Fr~,n1(ht.. ~ h.h.~ li's tot:~II,v La InT'llecos!i'a rv f,o r caSH of. Ih~ -~hfiCkne-.s:!i; VIJ1e! n ~ed - ,i:I'nd !iel!d'o rn mil' 'til Tc~er ones. - bu r h i9 ~'(iU nd $Olme'tl rnes th~t '$u.-li! C~ (:'f;llJng ~pp !!a,rs dun 1'191 'fh ~ 9 rij ndhlg oper~~~ ion. a fuj norma I pliac1ice ts t .. o Ie mper .alt a.bfJ~,n 1 50" C it e~~e ri,e:rn¢e' ~hOWSI ~¥13 r 'th Is ts ~ ~keU, Oip;91~-lhe~fith CiiMm"iburfshlg. Cla;ed be».:, c~rbu rt!iliifbg is :se-Idom neede d for m odell 'wC!'rkl alii dl @ ViI'rl less eha" IIJS ad. ~ f' on I V bBGEI!lJSe it requires 'the U5E: o'f 3. muFfr.a. Though h ean b8 done by s@ t~ing the bax if'! 3f'l ~ pe n 'fDre: I ~:a'VJf!: do ne th FS, .: ;[II f'! d i I is,· q iJi te efmct ~V~. '8 $ '111 e Ie mpe<r'fJrh.lI ~iE!S at It'i is :SlRg 8: are, Inot :alill tha t c i:i th:: 1JI L I~ oweVB.r: su tie c'e ha rdeni'og on the sm id'B." s, ~11~8111"h has b@ eon used for well over a centu r'I/. aUld "is, m om than adeQu iits' 'tor tt1 in eases, In thi$ ~:H1JC~SS th~' me't~~ l~' bmuQht up toO a bout 800'~ C ~ b~l~ween 7 eo and s 5 0 ~ - 1lJ5UJaliV 'referred '~o es ··ibrigh t I'e'd·· _ TU,e' part i:s II"! En 'il::oversd with ~ S!pef:,1.a'l com ~ou rid. ,either by d; lOping' !O r by ro lliing ~It abol!! t ~ IlJ iflti~ the surfac@ 1I"@[j lI! irinG ~af'd:en~'n:g' ijs eomple (elv cOjJered~ The com POU nol in cOl1ta 0'1 wU'h th,e; m~ta I nlt?hs, ,andl carbO,ri Irs ,absDlribect lhe proee~ Galj1 be M pe\tiI!tJe d s;e'!Je'raT 15M as if 3 thlok,er .C~:$e· IS rla®ded. lA, SitiQrlE:! ·'di,P·· pr,ovide,s perh BPS, 0.002 to OJJ03 iIFllI}t.I~ 'The. com D<)und- II h a\'V~ used. f,o r 50~ood yeaf8 i!iil Kit~H~l'Ir~il N'Ll. ~ I and i'[ is fe',~dHy obta~'n,a'bi'e f~om mod ~I $upplh~rs ; ~d tllJei:'IJ from goad ironmo!1g~rrs

Some' f;~H!!1Ile.'l r1 i l:II'fH!r$ q UE!'ncl1

ilmmecU[B te ~y if no ~ nterrm edis [6 rn 80ihining 'is n~e.th9d. btU I pr,efer to reh,m te bB'~w~en 160 al!"L@: SOC C'C. ~ atwavs ~~Ie p ~a[il1 Wll!'teli:'. Iii ougl'lj brln Ii Is, p€s-miss ib-ie'~ 1\1'0 grabl' refining Js natBded- The f\~HillJhin9 'C'itse: w'm be ViliH'Y h till rd - so m e would say it 'i~ n.eJ;-ch:n th:ii n 'wn'!h b 1))(. c~fflorisi· b IIJI i~ is v·~ry lhi 111. ~ '5,9~dca m US8 I e:s<s th ~r! two ,a p p~ JcationfSl 3'nd Of11elf'! W.ree Of fay r, b~ t i hSiiil"0' vel[; 1['0 flWldi a CCi'se Vii hi c f.l W,~5 not 'tlhick 1!!l'lIlough 'For dl~ purpoae, intended.

.... --------------~--------------~ .. --~~------------------------------

pl:s~0., Thhii, can be r_BI"1Leat-ed" ani:! qlll en c.ned LO -~~'Bck that :i,uf. ~c.i[tti"i'[ hardness h~ s, baeiljj ~chrfl~. I use ill P i,~~ of 00 und ba r tI nd grind ~iff 'l:h e. sfde' to 'f.cD lim ~ flat ,@f1:sr aus:~chprtg'~ Tht~, i~ erched with 2"S%. nirrle a;Jilijd in wa t1err .a nd, ,85, s~em ~ n Fig. :3 8. 'g h e d:ep [i"'I' of CfJ se hi, ~ uit1m· vIS,iblE;!!t ThiS '~tl 0 r ~ uf,5.~" rna,ij nnfied by' th ~ I 'c~rcu1 g;r.ri't'lii'~' ~'r tha ~eclmen: Uiif!! actuall thlcktlS'ss CAN be- cail 0 u~ ~ued Iff velll I ~ke I bu I I am. as rEI fU~I~'. (lom,e Ii t i r th e lest' 611 ows;, fhi e case io be !I-Elcleqy ai'~ ~ ~ ••. Aov' "part .. maclun i ft~f I ca n

f'~w· be done.

We ne,x1 h&ve to he r-de n Mhe: tea sa. but oo:Casiillilfuil'ly 8' ~LJ:nhell' op~rart.ion milliV be desilj'flbh~'. Wle' h:eve h~ld IMle m !18 ~ we n above '~'t~ crlrleel le mipe ratu r'e 'far qu lte a wh~ Ie ~ iOfll!ge f t na n 'WB m.igh t for heat treating il ca rb on SOllBat This may ~ 8\1'8 ~~OOd .sern e co~rs8ni ng O'T 't ne gr,a in. This, win not be serious i'l 'th e t'irnleJ wa~ ~ III hou r CI ~ l.a 551> b'LH if ~OIF! !;'!3'1" 1 t oa n be wtH I h ,aue i1- dln'g' 10, ~ f 'rhe brH!,' was Ilea'leel 'fOt :3 h 0 iJrs

'Clf rf.fie~' ~ w.ollJid ,e,lwavs Ire-fine the gr;ain :s :e before ha rrl:enln.g. Ttn,s refln ing ~ S dt1l ~f! b'l tU~'~!'ing to !aJ '~:9mp9mj'6 U!fa Which dell! ends on [h~' ealFll~fI C1fJn'D:ent, O'f th e tirEgJna:~ :M !a'er aSi u nde F':


eiT!f;e ~at'!d r~ .... ·C

o. 1 0.,2 0.3 Ct4
'9'10 '3:90 B'1'O 8fNJ Jth~a'l fiJir the re'gu la r, "on e hoy ripe r inch or t hl,ck n~ s,s·' and th'an q lLie neh "r; o~ f ali abQ'W] 30 ~ c. "'Fh is, ,I s NOT ,13 h,a rd811ingl p!I'Gi~'1 b~1 so'~e~v diwe:c"ted UJlI r'E;jdU(l;ing. the. grain 'sl~e: 0[' Ill€! CD~-e. In Ja'Cl~ with very mlUd st'S.el ('~E! low o. 1 % carbon l air coo I i:ng, will :510 ribc e ,illI,nd 'the re ~s no fb,eed [0 quane-ti_

The ~almpDnent is then bmugi~'r. up 10 715lm-1iBO°,C~ The hf3'~ftting th·ifj'8 ia, :shott ·eIlS; w.e ~fll:3' 00 nCBrlilEi d Ooniy with tfiI ~ "Case'; a Few mip l!J!te~ i $. e·li1ough. alii d 1be. !IjIIork is, lher! Y!"'~iUJi.1'r~~ en ~Jmd. II h;~v'i: all rt~iaiijy r·am,!! rked ,ill n "he' n eled 'for 't:Ei'nii ~.e·~~n9.

N atural ~V. 1 r int'armlfitU{II ~8 m-achinill1:,.ClJI rs :requ irid: i I is necessarv to ;allo,w th.e wo rk to eeel, This t::'~11i! be ~ncwed in ~ill~ bu~ ~ UJ:i~a Ilv c I;BJD a p'ie~~ 'of' 'f! rebrick 00 '[OD' 'to reclu Coil th B Italu sU ght Iy. I t is nQ'I' critlca I at a II: ; ndeed. 'the m i's mt[l~ t ha'( II fl ri (g CB ~ ,;I COur~ Ulle! whole PI'(:!CE!l$S ~ houglil n a ~ u ra Ilv !11 e Imor,e IC.a rsfu Ill' Ih~ re mille ra tu re:~ are obIS ar\!' ed the b'e't t e r 'Ililii! ~ f!lSIU 111;s., An eceaslens II problem ~s :seai ~f1 g. H OWE!'IIer. W~ are' d eai ~n 9 wi ~"Il a, M 11 LOr ~(rr :f'U, most, !rH~ d lu rn earben] :sibeel and '~I'uiH~e 1.5, no ne:ed in Ui'i:s, case to hUilt ~!Q\"il V. Whe n cs rbu N:si;n£jl i'~, is 01'11 ~V the :::;11<. In lh ~t IS ,B:r1!e'C:1ed 8ny-way. I [ 15, nor pos:t~lbl~ ro use 'i,nti-scal e pai nt, nor a ':!!lei r-bath, bu -, 'fo r~un ~tli:il,I~ tli I! ecrnpou nd its~l~ ,do~s have anti-seal e: p m~ ar1~ es. 111' is. Gt 00 urne. only' prudent to rem ~\'e' a ny' BX'i sting seale from ~ La ck b~llr· ~ if ons i'i &e('!c$, t-o' hiilr'Q~lrt 5u(lh) bef'UI~e ,!i:tHrtirH). Th,ll1fr~' is. C'~ OO\JfS@, no I'i~~an why yOUJ 5 hou hj not' hea t 'E he m,etii;!:~ in a ~h'-'h! "0:< :Su iro,Ynd~'d by ~'ihe Iconnp ounct I, harve do-ne this ~c'C-asionalll 'iI. Whlll D1 i, have G 1i1.U Oil be r o'~ very :sma~ ~ pan'S ~o dea I wIth a t once" I tt 'Salves: 'li me. Yo U! do hS\l18" '1,0 Ibe su rs a,t, 'thE! ~o n'~:l)n;:r1S a'm ~ p to It.~ mlpelra'tu Ire.. !Of COUlrS8.. aln d ¥(:J U ~Sh:D 1J.!ild usa' a "ti, in'· (sha now) box rio ii" 'that re'ilison. B tit such oj IPf(,g:rI!30'!Jr'IB do as: r~ the r :s~a~ I th~ innate !i1 m,~~ ~chy of IOpel"l,...hearth ctinbu ns,lng, Bind vou iiI'(1e u Fi'i~ ikely to ~,et /J,et:l'el

- I ~ '" II... - -. - b .... , - III"~ - ....... '=II,j!; -.olio -II

re;su ~1~ fUry III.:J!S ~ng l'!J .!.lr_iiIl:. ,~lS....... C';"goi,;lllyrt!al '''I.

mal",a cbnvIEmi'e<nI~! 1h~u is a~L

~h'jw alfld then 'D h~ re' m e,y be diffi~Li I [i ~ ~ in app liVing UU! com POy nd - on !!I ft:rl'() hE!t w ne ~~j for rE!,>:8 mpte - hl be -s ulre ~ha'l it wo'rk~, on r~e ,d I'3:si f'{td1 'r fi(;"~5_ Th ~ camp ('Ii!J! nd e3'_n be welt,e! d whh 'wal't:er a Il1d ·a,ppH ed as it. paste" II hi Inen heated \l'"e rv gel1tty ~o dry ol.n~ dt8r- which [he ~roc6'dUll'@t j'g !IDS deS'C'r~bed abov~.ThBra ~rlQ ~'itufMk~l1s Whfr~8 seeondary if1i1ac:hin~'C1Q1 m~~g 111 be I'iIltI'ed~d with bo~ cilub lM-ilSiWl_g bot can 'bs ililWi'dtBd with ~ he' a,pen hrEtiil n~"!l me!tnoll. ,A, !SCIF,e~ 'mlr1f1j'il!ld, for e,xampl;ei~ CiBli'11

be prOrUJC led 'rFom, the: action ocr lhfeernnou nd bv wr!1p P ~"g wTriJ' g r shi rn ~l ~IE I FOlJJlrtd it, T,aIPPe:c1 holes GBn be plug~e.{1 wlith ,il '~itcrllW. and IIlI a in hoi es by ~'~!gerti no plugs. AlFld. of Ii:: 0 IJf,se. ~ f iii II Y~'ll.t ne I'td ~ harden i s '~!1~ fB;oe 011 ,~ ta.ppe l or tha e rul fJl a ,tooOll ~t ~s IS·a:S,V sno u g h (0 rde~i5i1;i1 m esos ~D we:stll'kl the a,ppl~[: Firtr~}n of (:ampc IU1rl d ~ n ry tD '~ha ~ p,all1~c y~; r spot

S,'t!Ui!,ISi fOIl!' 'G;13 :iiShrElirdiQlmllng. AllY '"slriaJigl~ I oa r:t_)C!i1 stu@: I ti D1 be ~a;libILi ris,ed - yo UJ ~i! 1_ ~f' ei reu rnstan ill: e.s: 'lI'@qu i'lre n, es rbu ri ~Ei S!ivilJ:l 5lt&eH Aft!. a rule" howeVe,f. the pr®GE!'ss Is n"o~m:g'ny appH~d te the low-carbon ··mi~e! :S[J€~I$ er .. at mest, 1'0 'inoS:!3 wij'~h carbon eentems be1cw ,0+3%" FlI"ie- c I)Hrng steels can oeeaslon B Uv ,'resent I)'robl ems - tj, e IIll'chJ15lon:s wM'C'1fI provide the ~reil;H::;iJ'ltlng

q." ""'I 'l'iI"~eJ<!''''-''lI'1!I' U''''''''' D i, 'nao!O.a ... ltti'!ii On' I

"""IL'I' II ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~-u".- ""1 i;3~ ~ ~ _ • _ ""'I;! '1;0 _!fll!!l. . -;a

WiIll! Id i"I ot ad'!l~~' !box ~~rburi:s,ing 'I ht,~ 5e 'ma!tlBill'1i'~ls. bU!.~ h a,v;e :SiU at:: ~~'ru Uy 54JrtSc.e h,a~dened' UM,em by th~ open-·helu· h me'thod~ S1e~ ~s; sR~e1fica Uy d lifSi gned tOt ~bo)i;' ca sehard EI'" ililg ~re aV,~ iI BLblil~t Thl8st! ~S LEa~ Iy con ts f.n :iii be UI'[ 1 % of N iekel. tl'l e objao1 b:eing to ~du~ t!he gra~ n :g ~o.w t n during 'r~e plFolonged heBl~nQ. ~3i'lri3,ight rCa rbo:n ~n~'~ls inu~n d~d s,pecffic:aUy for IOBseh8fc fi! f!I in 9 D¥ e ithe'l!" IJ rocess a Ie E r 32 C (080:M 1 S; ~ rn S'S~9?O/ 11 912 ~ W hkh I ~ O. ~ 5% ,carbon. 10.13'% mang~~n~.:sJS. -~'Jld En 21 ~ 'l3ICM '15'~ which is C,15% ca,'bol 1.3% Tll,;:I ogane&e'; s~me\vha' slror; 9'19 r ~ I ~O Itonl~. in 'lens; fe :nnwlJg th.

AUoV site.el~ sholll id not be, caseh~rd'l!!med w'l~ ho~ t da'["3 !l,ed Ihe~~, ~r€i8I hTII~O.' s;peci'fir.n, tion'S, fror., the m a k'~rs. All such .si[ Efeis 3 re "hea I treatable" and you may we 1'1 s'et U I-!i :adve~ COI1lW t i o..r\S d y 1"1 ng .,11 e. c:alrburisinQ IPMCe:iS if you do l'iI'o'l get til e ~em pef'B ~ urCt tight.. N'ever '[Il' 'to caseh;lr,d'I!1'O scre,p :s lee or offcu,];s: from Hu~ m ;acb in e-SFnl pr ~sk i r lhl~Y Olav b~ illrrvthlng; 't~,olm ~ow !!±g'FijleJ('" stea:1 'hn TTl"IrJ k inn d~~Of~lirv-e ha ndmliJ ~ ,! chil'"o m e =, n i C kle I'~ mt ~ II,yb ~en QJI M' -ti t~ n'~ u." a~lloy.~ o fill 'th e ath ei"' hSIii1d; wJlouglu iro"-

le_il!S~ IV 'i:d&ndfiabll Ii!!! by 'the 'spark te3d ~~ha_rde ns be-au rilfu IIv'. artld '!frO l:JJ CAN 'C8Si~h8rden cast In:rllli ObVL~U$~y yOIiJ must .I1iJ\1'8 f"~ind to the' sh,apE!' oT the castIng - oompl~' ou II ~n e ilil, rn avcr,~,c.k i rl 'Ihe 'qu en ch!, b.lIt ha rde ni ng the i!!lodi o~: ,a' IfJI !lJn~~i!!:r [t! Ii 'B"ven 'tl ",a~ue=~ookell' ,pn;Si~nts I1Q' plrQble'im$. ir(armpl'iB"s., ~iQ. 39 !Shows: 8 few ,eJ(,ampl,~~. TtUt left is ,a 'blE) n+Q in ~ made :~,o re,,,l aloe 11he' ,carbaJlriB't:t'0 r cent ~ol on !£!If'll anciB'fll'tt rnot~fro.;CJ1~1r.. Brighrl dr.aiwn heK:~ gQO biU wra'$ us,'Sd and fTn ~~1h m~~h~nrttl d DO mlP11l1.iUe'ly WI ere hardf!'ning. The thn,t'ad was ~olteoMd W!'I'h '~hmn lmn Wir.e ~nd whiteJf1'tpO. :Eft rnd on;1 V 'm8' bi3JI'1 and 'I,IWJ5 d:ipp € d .'Iin Kas'6Jlit No.1, I t W~S qruJenched di rect after '~!he~ second applijcf;lltJon, Ct.'lll'l'~~ top 1$ the~ 'l;[S nk~h,trf:t :r\~ ~ ai model steam englin6 ~ ~hJa • ·W'B 1i':IiH1'l son' ~ ~ ~ lth ,~ h a rid e fi ed em -,- ~~~'f1I, I In '[h ~s ~ase th i! be-alri n.QI s!Jlriace· wai!1!' fihif.hl~d to dTm en sioln. blll.'~ 1:1, e ,!He IIfI whf cl1 fiU, rrll"~D tti e web w~s le'lft ~ /32 'inch 1lWF'Si~l. '1l1e, w>[~ rk~'~ece w~s' fIlOit paned off 'f'tom ~ila stlock ·itH ~h ~iii, $ tag:e. The Ml.ung wa,s, gl~'lien the Kas,efili1 [fe81:m,6r1f~ ~w;. ~. being dipped :fn till Ule oomp C! Uf1 d onl, ·~uffidti;!!:n'r~v to .ca\li~r i't~ Aher cool ~ng $1 wi¥, n~'i re~,t or ~he tm,a~I1'ii.'!{tJng was eom~

p'l e'lt~!jj' alnd pa: rtlt~@ t~jff-~ tiiftE't wh~~h [119: fI.entlged en,t:! w~s 'fin tshed. It: Was then rehaated and qUr~nchE!d. There 'wag ne d:rfifik; uitV at ~II in n'live:Hng the S.P~QO:~ on ,ttJJssfimbl'v·

'Top right Is, ,ill' dliffDQ'~11 t' situ ation, 1111 i~ is '~I UilP In!e~dtBd 'for f1rnJ.shi nm; 1 h e r.r, tern al 'mlif,iii3'd 5, of t,ile' bo~oQid chu C b I!.iJSEj ~ on ,my Hoi'12alpffe~ I B'~h~, The c651: of a ~ ~Ingth off sil\i!JB i: ste,el 1 h ~s :5~z\e W'O!L.J Id be prohibi'~~''ij,!i~: !For th,~ ,~IT.! I) IYli't or w(p,rk I't' har81 'WI do, Further, ~he re! would have' bee n s.ome tii£!k or cr,~:H:l(iog eue fl if gr~h~lt lea r~ WtClil ra lltk~,~., ,EI!; Uitle tntr!:!!ads have she liP roots and 9J f1 rwe Elng,le of ,5 ()g. I'~ 'w~~ m!3ldfiii ,C)'f blf/clt m,illd st::~ e'i Ue. no'[ roHBd~ mat Ibrigtn ~ Il'awnj 00 th i;!'~' th,ere' w~~, no need (0 n 0 nm811'i~e. q'[ '~irst. ,I t WtlS given ill single lre.atmI8ftt: wiitn K asenit No. 1 :Elnd qllii~'C1Qh-ed d~ JeC'[~v, Thtl cu nin9' ~dgel3 'were w,ry 1ij'!iJ hUy st,on~d afte rwa m's. I't has SBN'e"d i t5 flU liPose wilr1t h

·U' ~ ~

no 'a tl !II !l:: IIJ~ t t:f!iS",

Bottom len: ij's ,al drill] ing' ,j l~ 'for sOm e cv~iln,rn;er tOove:rs; ,~nd lh~ ,~s;o~ij:~te-d cVlin. d:ers.. 'til ~ fl u IlfIb~ r gabtg thi"cugt~ ~ he shop ju !jrjJy 111'I"g the use ,cf iig5. I'~ W,:lfS, m:a d e '~rom l8,right ,1i)r.t!lW1f.1 S [ee I: wh't~h 'IN ~ 5, Ji rst rulr· m,i1Il~ i:n~ cf be ('0 ret m 31C,h ~li!'Il~ ngl• II t W~S

- . ,

-. -


'G:ea:r1bu ri~d fcur 3,0 m IOU tes ~ n a 'loba,teo, '~in usA'ng a rn iK~Ulrle of eha rC:0i311 an d K,ase!'li [ No. '1 ODmpOUIFI d. 'itl ls, was done '~el e II1sliJn~ 'lha,~ 1'he, lnlii'ar :5U1 dace' af thtl' h 0:1 es W',;j S halr,c:h~·fillB'd. B·QUom, een [we is ~ ne g!r'oo~ jaW 'for a drr i'll~ ing vi l:ifI, W h id~ wa S easeltalrdl8'lI1oo . "ope ill h e;8jrn~· ', '~ha p';EIi1: be~ n91 18 hj, 'F,rJH)t?" dOWiFJj~ i ii1 a lr,iiIl~ of' corn,polJ nd, Th r.e e, doses WelS S p,p!1edi. There wa:s a nul ~ scel h, 9 on 'Iii e, b'.!1!I:Gk, snd lu Iitt a 'very l'iUI e dis:torliall'l, l t wou Id have b~~J1I w~:~eF' '(0 normalise it !bef'ore' m!:H;.h~n'ung {'B D M S WilS ~ 5~d) but the' "p,U h 'wa!itr net :Sii,dfic~ an! te wa rraf1Jt' tha m iii k.ii"! gc:rF' ,~n01'her.

e ('J:ftom righ ~ is, :,iIIn, ex~m p~e of ,a spec'i:B~ mrlrm lOClll• Th is 'WCll~ rnsde From mllld sl,~e~ fo,r nO O:fheJ' rea'~on t~ui n \I''I!in ~ !had no, hrgn-c8:rIJc.Hil of: T he r~'gh t s:tze a nd only ~ Iknf.~.&-d stock ot .at s'i2~ whic~ (;'0 jJ~Q b ~ m!ill Chlfled. ,IJ,Own. Thls was g ~vl13Jn dos-es o'f Kasell,it IN 0. L a UOW,9 d to cool, and then r'ieh~H~d ,9 nd q uenehed, The co rnpou nd was, ~pp Ued onlv to the eeol tip. Th e r~$lU I't 'was outS"UlI ndi ng, The c-a's!e W;;I;!!i, 'thick elru:.IlYgi'n Ulf! pellrmh: nQ~n st{mhlg of the t"lP f.EH~e to give a shu rp eitllge:. aJf.l d the pe ribr .. ml;1n~e I~arnameln.'[a;n,v 'nu !il'!,ing ,gti'l ty hiil rdwOC:leh:'i,)' Sy rpr'r$1 ng., ,A:i nO' tern p-tl,dl1g wa:s needed thil::l tU'tUng ed g,~ was· h';"irde r tha:n cou~d hilitve bs,e,n Dbtaln~d win, a COt1-


~e'f1! l'fo na.l t.,ool stoeiElt And cgflit~a'ry i 0 s·~.IJ.~POS4'~ mOln" su C ~ '~iOQls. h;ave ,gl h a rde r t.i jrIfIe rurn~n 9 1:1, ea eo Sl!Co'Hc woods· th ~1iI ~~h en ·t Ulm ~rn g m ~S!~ m eUl~ils. ~o r '1:11 e o,nll ipJ' ,rOu [e for t tie. eSCilpe o'f th ~ h'l!l',!'t~: $s, throug h [he loul - -Ind. of :eOiJifSe" ~n Go·ol;;n'l~ e~n b~ Lj,MdT (::(JiiTl"~h,l'~'I'OlfiL C,~:,.~eihali",dening is noe a sub _ ,@j.'ritutoe 'ro r fliue,ugh, h:aJrd'~'n'[n g, wi'lll a hi ~h ce,F.ibol"! stee I,. but ,B process' 'wh'ich ea rns: lts 1J,Iace 'from i~\s v~rv' natu reo We ea:n djes~g~1 a ,o.Qmpo,n.ent In m aterla ~ whi ch pro,vld-e1i ~he! ~ngUl, latigue resistance, or other .plfop~rnv IrlilE!'Elde.d ~md then S,tu'face tnardEr'i it '10 give ~n e reqlli ~red wea'r res~ 5t~nC'8, "11"1 ~ f'!:a1UJII'9 '6f the precess is s'!lJcl"! 'thit 5e·~ect'~\lE.l I~ Slirdi~Hl ii"l'9 IIC a 11 readily be applii,ed~ ,a rid !~, e!risl( ,~f er ,a'cidn9 i£; ~a·ry rnu en ted uced, U s;~ of '~h.e op en ~ ~Ni,rta, m,e! hod giv@$ Q.ll i'~ eo ad eQ!!J a U:: th i ekness 'I)f cas Ie fOf 0 U r pu !i'pos,e:s and is much ~u'j c~ e r t h:am 'I h rouglhl ha rdlening r w~ ~)h the need fo ~ subsie,que nt le.mrpe:ri'ngl ~ddiingl to th, t'im e'~Slk~n. Al ~ he sam e ~ime, c;,aseharde~in.g CiJfI k:ae LIlmd far such th ir] gs at; I at he toe 15 e teo if cirC'u rnsta IflCIe,S' demand. ,0 ~~ fi r! ~ I po ~n[ ~cs worth '! The re ~:5 orten 11'0 :re:,a I need 'to halrd~'1iI !±II flll bbJ ng su rf[ljc,. btl [ I'f: r( ~:S h 6l rde ned a nd po II.shad tt1 e ('fact'i ~ tl 'Ios$ w'ill i bE! iredu l::eI·d. Th'~ all most .glas!j; hail'd~Ulrfa,ae p~cdu~ed by taseha'rd ~n i,n~ liS ca" reaJ a;ft\l'antaJg e ,j n al~ I ,Stlldl a:p p~ ~C~l'tiO!ll5.

.... recess ~'e' "S"'_:

. :.,' ~. ~--I. :.L ,-". '.. '-:-', .

~'iI} An ne,~Unl~ ,NOli rna tis ilnl~"" and 8tlf~ss fI:el j'ijj\ii,ilii'i:g 0, 'lhese.'~ hree processes a'lI'e ofiE!'f1I con'flDJSiB~'. They are ~~riil·dI' (j!Ut ~n similar WilyS. b ut the thre ~ 'BJurpos~s are di He rent ,. Alnn~illing i s [he 501ft en i1ng o,'f :6 I ee'r pr~.._ \l'jouslv h~r,d ened J' 'wh'e tlU:!l r by !n"a'l treatrF'!·eru or bV eeld working, Nr;rmCJliS/W"j'{J r~ ,~ proos:s;s whl8'rn t ~le 'fb'G;:etUl ~ ~ .sll~LJCnJ re of l'h~ u8~1 1~~ n=stlrJred '[01 "nor mal' 'aftelF SQ me' p'~eviou!i oper,il1Iltion - say r'0rgnngoSy~;sS Re'lill' IS" 8S It':S n sme ! miP~'io~, tl1 e relea S~ olf 'Stfess~S w~"!ich rtla,y h,erv,e Ibeeill locked up ~n "_I~e' S'~e,el. ell ihtfe~· bv h ~a t In~~HmGf1't' or !j,y Cl~l:1 0, 'k'!tmilllgl, ''TI~ m'pe Ii Il{;f· Is a ,~IE! ~~~I f~ rfll'i! of stress rell evin g" 'We wi U dea I w itlll t1 es~ processes: n n '~,\1rrw.

A,mnie,~Ung.. The su~e~ wn I be M ialrt,e nsi'~ie in struC'~ a rid ;'t is necfisa'ry 'to cba r'lQJe '~hi$ 1.0 0 rie cO !ita; rd ng pe'~ rti fe 3111 d e it he r h~lr:rtle or lC~m i£mlhJi3 p 1EI:S h wall let h,alv'e, be(1ln !had ~ ~e S'teel bee n COo I od s~owly fro,m 111 e (n! ~l,![iI1 lEi iJ$(!I~ n~'(U C; st a [!Ii!!, fh~s, m ea n'~ til ~1 we mu~~ ~ II"'S~ blftl'llg ~1 to a 'I emperalturre high ~nG'I;J~g fn [0 e·rnsure t hal the ~ti,H~'i i~ abo!\i"e. the tralnS'form ~"1'iol'!1 hm11f)1B r ,Enure. and lli en ~G~I 'j I at ,~ ra'[e- [~~M wil ~ a !low IheJ 1:r~'IiI':i'" fGl'm~Hon 'to pearn t)~.

I n 'the ease of ~ow 'us rbon and rned I U IITI carbcn steets ~below 0.'85%) U'~is WHII be a bour :3010 c: ·8 bOIVa dll~ 1II,p par critical. but 1'0 f' higher carbo n eontem a 'Eempetatu re' >5C1lilfJawhCB t above th e lower critical wi ~I stffficeT The recQmJTi1!!nd'~d ~rErLli:res are g~ern inthetabla below'. (SIBt3 also Fig, 41). II n ea en case lh e h j,g-ne r ternceratu ~i~ r~tates to t'h'E!' lowe r ca rbcn eOrU'1E! nr, N OfU!' is t'~itl ~ all tQ whh ~n ± 1 00 C-

Th e me l3'1 rnu st be iii eat-ed slowly arrd then ··,s,o,~ ke d' 8 [ 'r 11113 a II'Hl'S;£I trng templB ra tu f::3' for on'lj;!' flolll,r pe:r irJ ~h ,of 1 nickn ess - 11'1 t'lle ~as e! 0 free I (l1!1!),UJ Bf sa~Uon $ the sm ill I ef rHmef'lls.l On i~ H~ i&~n, ~ 1. 'sh 0 u.lcl th erli be cOQi'ed as s~ow I If ~'S lO~n he oont rhJs d., I'r h e ~t,e d in ~ mill ff.f8 'with a go:od he'i~ TllIsuhl:i'tion t>C!l the' ob.amber h m ij r b@ w lowed to '1:001 dow!1 rn the fum~Ge. O'thenvise r~ mllst be set rill hoi tii!,8~ ~s 'o! scm e 'shn 013 r m ~teri;a ~ wh ich wlI II r it!'ta fill d'il e he E9it. Thi n. 1 ~t'!!1. 5er;;t~ons, can be QZ.>QQled betwe.elf1 t'W\O pJe ~h,e ;;ilted' ; I!1$U I Q, min; b rh:r:ks, The' h~',g'h~ ~ tl1 @' carbon COntull1 ,[ h~ m'Qre imponan'lls 'the' ,~,o,w ral'~,e of oocdlng. For ~1'·mHd·· stlff:>eli '(h,e prece m,~v be ooo~,tt'd in a'ill" onc-e it :has dlrop,lle~, "0 allo~nd

e'1rrbfl!il~ % Th .' ~C,' _mp ..


F~'~" 40 flf.ii'l'!]'l!iMft fIi rJu. fjT.ljlM aJ ~LI!'~ .r:tt~~d bit {ffll~Hj~fll'NN7fg fN~~~.

400 ~ C, but ~t. irs, i nadviSiBlbie 110 ~UI8 noh fit' ~v en frnm ~ I orw lempe~hl re'~ Note 'fh a t W0Jrk fflVS[' be fu! ty plii8 hlij!;i.t.,~'d b~iror~ imml~rs~ ng hi! a sal [- ba th f9IF ,a n i1ea Ung.

An rH!!,S!U ng hlgh' spimd sfooJ is :8 e nSlinCy DIlJSlrn,e'ss 'f,or 'the amateur, lesper.dallv as alny subOOCl.uent: ihar,eiltlilif'l'g Imay weU be' D a'van.d ttH:,~: caijlabiHties 01,1 - th e ~Q,ui p'Il1(Hn a."W,lli'llable'. How,~",er, I'r such an cper:a'liof'l fll(i'~st b ~ cBf'fied out the p''['ece shou Id b~ ne81led 'V E PlY g,fO,w'iy to 85 (JIG C. h·eld th e.rEl' f.or one heur p~r :~;A.LF-iAlch of ~e(!tlon. and oool~d 'U,ery ,sk~wlry i ndeed ~ a mq,rlffl,~ rurnac\e: is almost essential', !3ifid the cooling C!Ul be best one Cl,e d bv proglf1e ssh/@ly IF:edlu'~ hn i.1 th e p owe r inpu [ u rnj II 11, has fal rriBrli to ~f>O !.lInd 550 CII C lbe'mre 'tu,ming ~ t o'ff com 1l1818'V'~

N';O'rm~I' i sill1.O!~ JUte F forgi rig or ron in B 'a me'la~ tlu! n a:~ ural Sh~$l0 of"rh.f: "'grali ns' w~ I b~ d'istartle;[] - S!E!!,e!! f~gl. 4 Cl The $I'! I..! eg ~'fCHii rr1:ay ~~ IWEilI"! worse Tf so m e of tliI'E: fUlI"g ilng or h:!.g. J bendingl ha'9:, be~ iii c!one .a t bellOw th Ell pro pe r f'org~ rig re'mlPefalUl res lOr Wh~~Hl ttl Q !1)Und is b~ i:g ht-d faWI'll. 1'0 reform an d mfin e the Qlr~in :ij:a:.rl!H;:tL!l re it is 8gai n n~H:';es58 ry '(0 r,eh~a t 'to, .a bove ttl e 'cri1 ~cal lemperatuffiS bln ~o ,~, Ir;jjl'H1J er I, igh ar degree '[11 9111 is n>B edBd '[or iN"! ne[llij ng, Si5p:etia1h~ l~or~h,e hng'h cartmn ~1ee~ S.

1lI1ie~H31 m ust b~ takEHil r:~,gl1't up in®o the fu II auMeltitJc reglion, FO'VlUJ18 u,.~~ 'to:oi staels seldom raQ,l!Iire l[1arma!ising, Whii'c:ih I~ n eed ~d ch'iefhl to i rn P J O'\l,e '~'h ~ m ~ ch lilll e>llbil ~tv et m edlil.1 m a nd 1!!D'w C,S! rb011 ten d !alill ory~ stee 1.$; 'lhe 'mllI)w~f1 9 tDlb~e 5t1IDW~ reeernm jnded 'I'CIJrn'p~ r'a,tu res,

C~rbo., 9a eLl 0 . .2 0.3' 0,4- 0 6
T,em:rtDJ Ole '920 900 see ,86'0 84,0
0.:8 1 .0 1 1 1.2
820 83,0- 900 925 , 0° C U pi CH down hlo rn [h,!3':s,e: 'iemp&niillU res wi U ~rinve, Th e lam p ~rfj h.we must b~ lITh31rria LI1H~ d r 3S in the! case' of iii nn!:(~ting;. 'for' lone II Q'Ll1t par inch of secdon. and Ul'~~ co e I ur;,g 11"IiU 5~, ;;ga in. bp. s:low.

Fig-, 4-!~ 'S~10WS fhe ,i;!n'mea~illlg and nerm ail ~sing n.lngt on '~he ~ fOfI -carbon dhJ,~ ram S'~ss. IR.el i,ef'~ Ce.f18 in rna nrI.lJTa c tu r~n ~I r;!'lI'OC:Ei s~~·s :liodu,oe considerable stresses wU:hi f'i th~' lIT!; e'~a I. in po rt i cu ~:3 r e 0 I d dr"Eiwlngen d we rd lin g. Tha former sets '~,he 'slll ai,aoe sk[n u,no er .oo-rfipressiori: and t ne re m ~y be a hl~Ji1Hj-ilJP 't~,nsi~ @' s rress in t htl OOfra. Tho rB~I!J~ ~ iiS 'rrh,61,t: when a ny ~:a ii1 of the' ~5Y rf~ce is, ramcv8d sym m eIll ~ i.s, ~ L';l5 t ,afid the· ~.'hape wlill d~stlOn.. I n weld i'ng. pfjn of the meta~ i~ bray ghl UIP E" very I, igh 'N~m p e,ra ilUres, ffil1:il!;!a.d and diUEn;~n1:ia~ con'tFtS e don be'lwee n I'~' is and 'I'hi a' oo~d Dr r,eladv'B ec h:l pSrtlS can indllltt9 !~'rtr~'SS~5 - oh.iI;m sufficient 10' dlist:ol1 during th~' ~ctl.l1al w~lldlng. "The de9n~e~ of stress ,re'li~l neededlls, d~ffererH ilflj th0 iwo cases, Cold drawn .0 JI" cold mined s tee1 may be rHI i·Bved su'ffh:ir~ ntly U) previfJ nt d i~'tortlo.n dJuri ng machirdnQ !by hea t;!fIQ to' lo~tWl!e" 400 g C ~li1d 5000C (aiild iIlHQ,wing the pan 1.0 cool Tn ~'ir. It, i~ imlPot1~aht; U13~ 'VilJU elrl5IUwe E:Ve,j1 haa'ti 11191, olh~ rwiSB 'til ~ I a's1' sun,e may be WQf(!j.e th ii!l fiI the r'l rst due 10 {nIB rima I upar!s.lon d ~f~,tirarH';e'S,. Fair w'Ef.lded i~ompo nent5



" . :-:-

b'~j'TJdhlg Wit~1 wire ~1i"Ild' encasing in whhtng~ Orr by [he use Oof charG:lOal in ths m,ufft~ ifi ,t he' 18:Ue r ls used. ~·owevt:H·. 'for srna n ~a,rt~ ;;!lIn Ing;~iiI iOY~ rneth ed I~ deacri be d In 00 me, early books, 11119 parts to' b ~ ~l!eaterl ,!iii rs s ~l ilrl a b~ "Hied wi'l'l'il' ~dli!.llk.ed Ii nil e '" 'b uir~defr 5 II mi(f' ~ mixed] w Tth ~ p, 'to 5% of chan:: ora L The I a UeY' a bserbs ~n" ,oxy'gan ~ ril;!! ~enf ~ bw: is: nO'1 suffill!li en ~ to ca~ se a n \I ca nOll ri'sTng. An cth ~r gueih U'QCip@ sUQr9I:ts:ts, rhe ~,J!'H!!· ot !fine cas~-irOln llJl rni ngs ,a s t~1le p~ck ing m,~dj'unl~ Th~ ~~rffiur: tm8'1hod does 'wa.rk. b!Jil the heal insulien!ng tPIl",npeliti'es ;of tJ~(!! I'ilme' IEH1IfOt'Oe a long heating' ti'mIB".

(:2) fb:;lha rdiEH1Jj'ra !JI.. I rr! tl1 ~ Il)OurSB of' 'rime too~s, mav be fiBQroU.nd! ~Ci 'fair tlhill't Ul;~ tip 'j.s· b,rCHlght b!l!ck i1"110 l'he: mo.u~ deep~v

Flt!31,~ 4,' #!~.!'I"""r~"~~D ~fJ~nt:{J l~fflI)iff~~''tdfl~ ro!!'~ir,t]b{i!~~Mi'Q~,~~.;;r.rJi'i'<~~ ,f!Jqvt1.lbff.tJm. ,tf~Ofilm. Too iIl.~liu u!wd/~ ~~"it!n~ 'Wit/J/~. 131.(fJ_'(j .JlRi~r:rdJmMr!i {j'il4N4~.

t1 .arn mh~!~rr~n g to, ~ih!e ... s ma n ~Ha rts used in me de! s, 11.'0"[ [0 tto,m'e:~made' bf,u'dge.s la'~ If,!] dT!01 ma sts I ~ it: ]9 best 110 give a f!IJ~ I :Eliln ne-a'i

iIi'h - ..-,j' i·' - • I... ,.' ~ Ii: - i.. Id

~s ,~l.· e concmon In !~I ~ IE' 'VIC~ iii Uil1y OIL 1m ~ja w~

ij8 qu:L1e UlnkfU,'Jwn.

'j? ~'I'ts wh ~ch iii ave been iii eat' trea ted wHI., lelf COY rs e, be: under c(arll~hj !f!il\eiI bh~! {finel'i!:: rysta'il i'll'i!' sIrs' n - [h'fs, ls IleJa~ of I;h e fJlI3 rdrrn i il"ig P f.'\O cess. The 51lJ b 5eQ'iJ,e.n1 !Eim:plllnrn'i1 r;ln):c'Br8S i~ a rio ~rm O'F srrass (!oli~t 1!!\I'J€!!1 though ~n '~his ca:se we ahilo ai m ;~~. 'Som e eontr.[J~ led fJ'ialn$:MlI'm'ation a~, wn~l

~, J Srr~~li nllJ. In 81 ~ th e above pr,oc:e5s"i9'S s~m e su rFs C8 sea n nQI is; 10 b 13: IGo~peG'rlt.:dl. ;and til ts can :oe a nu ~s;a nlC~., n can be pre'1r11;!!n.t~d bv the USfIi of' ~ fiI,t~-s(!a~'e pEiilinf.

'temlpeliBd n:li:gr'o<n" Thls appl'ies t6'sIJgeia'Uv '~O ~!!,jI'OCi!dWofkrng too~~;. blll,t eold ~hlse l'iS a'nd s~,rap8rs, iEi'!JJr~~e:f ~'fl' the sa me 'way ~flld h can 8pp~V to sHdE!:r~.s:1 '[oohs as well: 'WhBlIiI Nl~'S' hoe P'P e ns ~here: ts no; op't ~o:!I1 b u ~ to 'r'eha1rd~ n" lit nn~gh;!' be 'l:hou~~Ti rhat i'l 'IN cay Id Ib,~ n!~Nr;@I~s~:rV' 0 ri1'~V til) !I''B,he'a I. ~u e'nc:h. and 1'iE'm p,e;r ag:a UrN, Tni'$; is well ~ lJulugh 'wl'th "coarse" toels rna de fTom rr.ehltJllVlely ~ow carhen s lee I:: I t ve08 [ mv pickSixe, 'wr,eck'ing bar, and sim.i:1 air reels in th at w~y. !But U you '~ny to :r-ehard en a hngh-· C&rbO'fl i$,'teeillt.ool In th~~; 'fash ~o n the m suits wii II, iii ~ bsst, be dt~ ppo'inttnQ ~'ii1d 'yO<!l.I 'May' fiind 'I:h art ·th e t:GO~ CUllCks, We m.iLJS't 'mS10r,t= 'lth~'. l!meta ~ to. the Clem d ~'I:ion 1'[ WBS be'kDwel'h 9 initia ~ h:a rde n'j ng 'precess was carried out, arid lh~:s means 'I,h,art h shou~d be 'ffi1l11 tv ~nnaal~ first, . .I Ih~vf!' ai rea dy dea~,t w;~~,~ - he' process, I3lrH~ I~'here is no n~'Bd to rep.EHi I i·t Howt€ver. I ca ill add a fiefineme n t. ~'f '~.he 11001 ,crf some imc Otr'~in ce: i$ to, be r,ehgjlrde ne d h w'ill ~rV to re-U~ mper Ul ,a bouilt 30CP~ C' bef'tl,re com m,en O'ifllg the' ~n ne;a:UillQ ]lI'roce-ss, 'Th is w rn ef1i(tct -a n alrlilost complete s:treoo relij'e-t 'Ie 1 h~ ,SUiILllClUr8' ,and I h~ve F;lev~'fi had a: to~,l cr.ack 'wh ern thi's procedUl ra has, been fO~~OWi8d. I ~B 00 m mend 1'1. stlr'Oli'Igly fo'r ~l1ose tools wh erl! 'nil is co r-sid8r~ib ~e d iffer,afi!,ce 'b t.~w,een 'Vhe '~efnper in '[hi! sl'!J ii:1II1 k .Ell nd ili ,- h@' p,crirn.. ~ t i~ Olii ~V neCe~5iiJry to Iheat f!Jp very 'g,errrt~y to' ",b.! UiS·'" allow ~1, to' 'CilO~ jliJJs:t iii:

I itUe. a!'lel then '~O 'Pro~eed with 'lh e· Wul ~ ann eal ~rn,g he\a.'t' ..

(3') H a f,d!eni n gl lIJil'1li'i1!lrnllJin-1:a1 T:oo~s~ The ~·Omalrn!9 nVar· ~urn~ II" ha.:Sl, a p r'Obiern m:n mm. wlit.n i III most o~he Ii tV!'i2'S af "t'L~fnrnl g~ 'lhe a!'1 l~omprhw8.g t he cutting of fa~ fly dBI! P Pili! ttems, on dn i! suna ~ Clf work '~rev§<:nJSniy t:um @d by rlrornma ~ m~ thodlS tOI ,en a ccept~ble 'shape., Tll~ 'Hili'all ~ffie,c~ d ~~!B nds; e nUil'e~'v Qn~he fBlfil'ecUo~ o~: ligh1 'from: the ImiU,IU tLUd1F3: of faee~ !;ilQ 'form e;d; - ~'n d w~~,h wa:U e:<ecUled ~ork a~,m ~st ~e[unng nlHeclions o:a,n be. seen '~n 1il 'Y!ih~Od Uk~· [EboIilV.


IH ~ s problem is '[worolct IF~r!j1'. '~here ~'~ NO m ~;ar:n'ii wh er,eby' tha inciGe.d decera tl0 n Ciiiilli! be' ~ol~s'l1ed. T1, e; ,s,urface rn !JJS[ be f,e'flre ~tli:ve vli~Ul "toe ~ 'J'in i~Jh·· ,. Ttl i S su rl,a;cE!' f ni'Glh can ne Vl€lf b~ lblil! tle r tharll 1hfJ ,tu "15h on ~'he. "~O;ad, ~rLd for this raasan lh-a sh aJrpe'.ning 'o,f ~.he 'to-o~ ~s take nl 1]0 wha~ m~gri"l: sp'peair '[6 be e~t:r.'1e:m~ Um,it~: A'her 'fo r.mi ng with n o:m'lla~ 9 rll,dn ng rnethe ds €i'f!id a fi n e ilrnd1~ !!rn:IlI'ii e. the s~Ir1:.a'~e is "'rough 'pol ~s:lru:~d·· IL:Isl iflg hard Arkgn sas stnne, 'tile mol b.;e:ing' tli~ld rl1l ,~' 5~;n;~c:i'a~ Fg ~ the ._ G~,n~ oo,taJ't" ~ wfi iGh ,elll su res 1 ns ( tnnh the eu UhlQ a ngl'!3' ,a nd tJhe • ·p~ue irrll ,~mg~,en are ac.cur:a'~JeI~ly ~ormed. h is tiMan h3pp~d USI'rl!g Ul~ Rrn as ~ o,ilistone dust 0 m iii brass II i!!iIPIJ ttl nd 'fifn~III'y ~o~ rs hed !'stU I !.J~ ling ti:l(?, gOli'QiOS'UlIlt) an i)'11 Iron I:a,p Whh JeweJlers, rr(Jlu9~. The; fJrc!bh!!: m ~s; ~:hallt modem to 0 I :Sloeels wi II not gi\t~· the refin ecll gUI h1 !\il~ whi ch was n olFm all wi'lh it he' :S't:~el US;E: d Wl~urn 'lli11!!' ,il Fit w8!S· b 8,jng dav:-e I ~.ped. ~ i1 d th e !Do,m mOll CQ mpb~ i nt i·s t ha'l' . ;'lh e 3t:a'el won "[ -[ok€! tHl,e pC!~ Is""'.

1'h e iStecQl'ild cliffici[.;i I'ly is '[h lilt s:u c 11 ~ tooi may' n aV'eIi 10 'm iEI'k e; t~ ree. :olr fou r 11 u nd m~ "OUts"· e,~'ch iT ~ different M'ttil'i!g O~ the apparal1 U5. It is 'cqllJ~'~!! ij m ~os$iblle· h~ re:m,C)ve r·[ for Sih~H'Pe[:1!ng Qnoe' ~he process, hals sUi lited. As, pre" T~ U$~y fil! 190ilT ~ ~ed~ ('he ,only f'O by wlnitC~' '[I'll e heal of ~uning [:a n e$Cj;~.p ~I is '[hrO ugh th ~ too ~: tlil e WlOrk.'pi 91~,es ate 'v,ery g~od l1ea'l ~'o~u I ato,li'$- Th'is m ~~n~, 'tth;a, -. 'l.h e tool mll~' ,r.e,m'tiS'in s~a rp and. h 1B..n ~l~ .. hard oVltr €I Ion g' ,~en,cd ~ a,nd1 ~ nv loss of 'shaIFpness, o~fi be 'f:a];~11 to the effec'tthleru~s's o,f the wOl'ik. Til e!laa: two ro q.u'i rlE'l'm fl'f'",ls" fililltiSi ~r'iil i n ~ ~~~ ~ Iilfl ma_ximunl hard ne.s.s. It; a n not be 8c~I'e\i!®d WI tlh the Inorm ell c.9rb on t)il]ol S!u~lel:s ~,~ nd e\fen ~e~s, So whh hlglh ,,*pBsd Stalel~. 11 I'S poa'S~b~ e tlo a,~hi eve t~e b'~r,d,ne 5:S recg Ul~ ree bV ,ll:sing~ a 'fire sund •. ,A,fiOO'f ~nneallnng 81 abo !1U '1700 C hI nd on 00 a~c~ unt till ~ove 1'9nOC) :~h 8 [1001 ,c~n be haJrd~fMl!d 'fro'm 'j"6()Oiel7 BIQo@C Glfld qruertched ii ~ brr,flI'9. Th@

:3!J1D~eQlIUtHU '·,gmper'Pfl 9 ;SliCd!d be as mild i!H1~ ,P~ssiblij' at l~'le point - I dOl 111-0 mOr,e, ~lhaf1; boil iru wate'i:" fot ha lif (lIn hour f:r;H" ~1J't1[tfi!)g fram~ '1,ooi's.~ b!blrt ~Hd 9Ht~t lOO~ is m ust be mmp ered at II east UJ s1i.raW iil"ll 111 e :sill "1J.'i!:k-

AI t.€i',~nath/ety. whh .' S nlve·r StE!'~I'· a gJ:afn fS'finrfl'g p~oceSiS can be Cai'rri'ed aut a~rl t hi's win g'~'IIe qu ite 's~,~'~s,f·atCtQrv - !l3ve n if ~b 191 purists W1 U sav ~"Sd~1 nG~ as good asa -g,@1li il,.Iu'n'~ IHDI't~8p'fff"ir·1

A'f'ter mach i n ~ng the IP ~e ell! to '~1iI e rs~ lUll ~d s'e c~i-on iii od ro ~g~" 'f'e:! nmi rn_g the 11 ec'~ e:d 'end nr Bflryl ihetn l'O lbelwo8 n II,CIQ C an d 85(1),C for on e nOIJ ~ e'f 'in til of ~er.:til:)I1, I n the 'C!i:H:se' 0'" reels wi lh ~he ,s11 6, ioch 's,'ll ijare shanks t:h~ • ',ui if'll 9' ReiD o'n" is [!he i neh er se b@J!l~f1 d the poi nt, QU,8f1J(;h in o~~ ~[ ab!TIIll.U 2.0'-:25 riC. The working e1na mltlv flOW be' 'Q['olJn.d - earerulliv - :ilI'lmo~1: '~D finIsh size" but in the Clli~ of the heavy 's!'~d t[f,l!S~' I!Ci 0'15 1/32 iru:h '~boul d be I eil'(Wi. lR.ehe-a ~ s:lowl V again, bu [ 1)0 1eO-nO~c. Oiflly; and (llueoeh - in brine' _at 15-20'oC. Ternp~'r im'msdiar'UeIV to nol 'mDrl~ th ~11iI 1 Soo'C 10'1" ,j t. !e,Qist 3 a m j'nu ~ e 5,

ii;! nd ~ ne n · 'le1 down·' Ull~' \'!;hiifll k of s;nde re 5t too~ S WI [hi ~h 19! ac'~u Ell 't:: llJ'ltUI"1 9 poi nt kep1 Gl}cl i'n wartEU, A.l llili,s '~'e' V'EH¥ Ilnle. iff a o-V, of' 'the h ei'mrl e&s wi! i c<e' k,st bUi t i~he· hardenil1g ~'tr,e's,~e's will 1"'I"i1nle been re~ Ilev@d. Til ~ met~~ WW 1~~8lVfB: a ve ry f~ n~ m~lin ill nd be as haJm ilJS p:06:s1b'~e.,

14~ H'e:Ei1 Trurt-manu: of~ M'edium ~,a~bon 'Stee~I.. So ~'a r W8 have b ~ef!1 con:sideringl tfiI;e "III i!udC'nfn~f o,f s~ ee~ 'tD ma:ke CU 11 ing to~ lis fd nd ttl e ~ ~k·lEi. 'but thtillB' ~Ir~ m.anv Gtl\'er IC,e:Sle~ wh eliE!. 50m e 'FQrrrJ of' h'B:iifl treatmenl "II,!iilll i mlProv~' t.he QIIJi! lity of tb~: 'm«l'IJ6 fill ilJl :in othen- directions. Iindeed. by' 'far U~ e Igrr'CI''e'S( amou nt 'o'r: heat 'l'reaUTII e:n ~ ~nl ~nc:hJlIi!i[rv is di ~Hcle(:ll to '[h ~3 'eli d.

I r y~u ref"e r back to' Fig. 13, tan dJ' IPe rrhaps;, Irain! sh ¥ou Ii menlory from lilli' ,!iHiooch~ri~J~d: ~l"t II) you win! ~ha'~ Isay~ O,~ 'OialbOfi! gtE!itE~1 ~ nde'" nO!'J'n',al ne.. slC1,W~V

c::oQled~ ciOlldil'nOlli6 CO'l'1S'I's1:$ of g min'S ~f pes rl:ile su fliQU nded bll fe rrlte: ia '[("ugh, nl,a-~fH"\t~1 5el' inl a mau:fr:Ic. '~rr 00 ft. matel'n;al The r-esu~;tin91 !lrl'ee ~ l'S f~h-J,V tOlllg!h !fi1ftd ,m:rong - "[;je.ner'· (f.'Or 'sOme pU_rPGl~8~J ~h8:!'1 m'ild ·ine€l~. SI;! ppose·. now that Wie were lio, Q lJe rich t his stee I 'hur'!9 a hig~ 1tIi3JMpe'H"Sl1.Ylr,e? There IS Tnsuffi'o;ieo~ carbon present forT tots I U~ nsfo ~ i1H,ni ~'!i1 i iIl1!Ci th e fOrm 'of in:! n1 ea [bide -we know as Mia rtenS,r~ei so 'ltn ~t '~ho' stru etu i'\I! wi! tin e ffecE. be '~h8 ~ ,of hiEllrd Mil rten ~he' ~·tU ~u t ed' wWh fe'rll'"~u~I. 1'[ wll~ ,PID~'SI.c'S'S· some o:f the eli ~ racta r mf rill h]gh~carbo" s'lea:~ (h ~fd ness an dl "~'aug rnil €!I is) and s,t)m;!e of rhose associa led with "rn i I d" or h;:,w..-!Ca rbo n s~~ ~I; ,e! [Jcti~ ~tv ,ei nd sahn ess, IF !Jrtfue:u·.. we lea n temper '1'1':1 ~ SI'@<8i. Tl,is' ~las a IconSi~d@F"a:b! ~ a troQ1.. as in '~bB ea se €l'f h ~g h ca rhon s~'el. and ilt!J this ,ca~@ d'l i8 lSe~ @icttOill of ~he b~s~ v~'mp er,atllJre t5, d'Le most impoJ'it~!In it' part: of th E3i 'tre i:1.itme'JIl't. The, 111 i~ ~.'l"IIre of 'lemper,edi M ali"],'B'nS'ite arnd 'ferritti'; crys-ta ~s, ICB!Tl b iii' :ad~ Us~/e d t'O g1;Mie1 higl, er s~iI'enQ(t h. hl,gh ¥ie ~d po i'r.u. bener tmpa.ct' re~i5ta nce~ C'I,f'ld so on. Fig. 4 'I :Ii nc,Ws '111 e i!!rifuct 'On ;iit tvpica~ O.4~ 'C:illrboo Meal, amd V'Cit] willi not Ice d~ al tlru;!'re bi a tj'~p '~n dille' ~'mpao'~ rtGS',sta nce (I ZOo d I mpB:e:t T iIE!'srll in th~ '1ill1rldle te m p@ring range. Thi s nl8:~d nor we ~lrv y-Qti tOil mUM', as H. is· slilJ CCM1Sidetf"sbly higher 'hna n th;M~ ol' ·the unl; ~atBtre'at,edl :gteet

To give ,an ~xample .. Ilet uS can,5idelf.' 01;.111' @lld 'r'rTQlld E~B. (OBOM4Q f:n the BS 970 '1 '9:7'2 niom en Ghnu J1e ~ I n ~hrg, nOrm ~llrsed ~crncUtion 'tYlliaa I prope:ni iSS wow Id bo 3,8 T/sqJn. 'tJIS y' :2,1 '''/s~'.i F1 YiEi,~d: iE:lon ga [~[] ril (d-u ~~.~ I i'ly) 1896 iiI'nd ,a n 1;Z!l Cl I fT'i,p,a c t r'~s,is.t~n ell!: '~'g ure' (Il'ff " S~ '1 7 ;~t. lb. n'9 m e ~a I i's Au steni 58d o¥ 11 eadn; to 8:30~SI60;~ C for ;1 Ihou u/inQl'h" S m1 then Iq iJiB nch ~d in ail. The! ~e m pe r'1111Q re:mperatur'e m o~t 'U~>e! n be sell-ec'!:ed accordhlg '~O ~Ilne 1p~(ilp~ r1ie;s 'we need. 'fc'Ji' m DldmlHTI '~\O !JJl11i!'l1!li,'HiS a nell 'the mos,'[ amJlJ)DUS h~IIUgu~ ~nlldl -.sheck !Ia~d"ng CbndltjtOF1l~, 'Uli s, 'wC)lIl.!lld be be'[we en 5. 5 C


la'lild: 6,5 Q ~'C ,8ind 'UH;~n ai'r oooled. (N'!C) 19' ~hat 'liemp:ering salt 'win not oper;cM:e at: 11!l1's, Mgure and th e work must be dOr! 9 jlf,l a mlJ'ft1e:). A'( 600 Ii!! C dTH~~ U1S WG IJld be a:r:ound 412. ''f/sq" in I Vi 'lId po'inl, about ,28 T I 5QJn. ,ti'~,ng ~dGn D~'~ihap~; .29% - not a Ql'iiiil';;n c:hamg~. Eh~JlltJhlf! impact relLsta nee h~!i, gon a up to 80 h.l hi ~ iii reu nd f~ulr time'S ,~!5 9 rea t: ,a s br;folie'. The fa ti,glll e res,lstan,C!iS' also wiU be i mlP~G\lied~ If we tte'm [l€:'Ilf! d a't 4)00;0 C: we WJ;)'Lllld raise th e UifS, to ~bc-y t !SO TlSlQ JUl., ~u:t boo (h du c:tlUty SiI:1 d ;shoc:~ re~isla Iilr.;e wou Id '!:H!!: less - lhou'gh sUU, better 'Itum '[h~', of UIIE! nor-

rna ~ised stl!'BI..

F'o!!" c'(Mmplet"i'c~nj the norma lis~ ng tWi!,mperr8'lu ~ ij s 840-:8:S0'Qi CI :bu t if VOiL! ha~e ,t N B wlifiGh 15 bri g11t dWi(wn fn:,l,m th e Oil H 8w.:~h3n~d and 1 empered Q© ndition ~'O.H.t~fr. in 'the slo<ckhok;!Jer·s· H~tJ it ls, iii., f'~c~~ i'r1 a DCUH' m1.S: toughest ,~undition, witt! II' V1'-S'ld ir)oin1. o~ iilrOl;jfl'd 416,T/sq. hil. a nd an IZ(Jd 'figufie '0" a beu t 60. You !alta: no~ Ii kJe IV to b~:t[g r· "h1is~ H OWlev,er. mc!S.t E f1!;J1:13, i·s, supplted ~\O mode~ el·n~l'ne'ers,Fn, the br.~~h'i ~mW!FI S(,s tEl' wUh no h~;a.[ U'1e1aJ tm en t, and norm a I i s,i Il1g rn :trv be P fudenl be"fo r~ wo~kilngl on i'r~

Firg. 42. 'r~ iti,_Ju~~ ~ ~iuftfj!ef(nl1 t~!I"j'I'I'!Uf~ ~tI.rflQj7!~rljtl$ qf;lli 1.i.IPI'~~(J..~ f.iJ~'" .!i~(laJ iff,rrlu~i1>r~'Ur:r:I1.:fyno f~,f)m ,:r.iI'gU' 8i~C'.






,2OJL 300·. ,400~ 500!


S iflli'llUilir treatrn ant can blel C:(!I rried au t On ,,1n1"o~t an $IGill wi'[h a car.b:;u""'I1 oO'Jllten t ) 0.2%. But it is. MOST im po l1alfi! ~ tf't-9i'[ you knew exa c~lhl what mc.teria ~ 'i{!l:l'UJ 8~e! ~·~.a,tflng' and' wh!U tr@91mleal: 'to giiV,e it. Uf'lfOfittuna'le~lI' most f~rm$i fiiQW &Jelfid dl ei II' weil'~ a\u'~ to Sf,lElChi1ilists, ~nd Ip~lb'ng:hoo, data ~ [~ard to cerna by" ~ f '!h.e. !i'~)ee'l ce!il be Identii1ed1 w'tli! an ~'SAE number'" U3ciciety 01 .Au ~"motN,e lE'ngi ntll[! Hrs. USA) rih en ej I~~ eJi'h,e SA E ~ • ~ IH 1~'1'i dlbook' ~ Or 1M8Qt!liner{~ H.~lndb~ok·" can glive sa me gW'[iri,mee s, The preble m for the modell, engllu1'or ls iJn :ge!',~C;i\lng rtu~' IreCiluirerl

!i' I' . , I "

OOJlfll,P:E;!JlI ng "·1!i ~·!JJlr,e. ~ 1, i iii; (nil I: 'IUS~ traU"I er

In~n til e inlitia I ~,ue:nch, t hift th,~' 'finel ~t{)l=i!arH~.s dep:a rid, an d' i;f a fa.~:ge (~~ lsrnperi rigl lie'ffilDoe raturs s is 'cff~wed til is: pr8!§l~·nU;, I! pUlZre, Peril a ~<S V,(D'I:,I m .'911 t lh·; nk: ij ~ safe' (0 wo rk ,at t~l,e mJidpo,~n[ of the .,ng e, but ]111' d, e. ·iil'bt':i)nt'a: .of' s~}ee!~r e data 101;1 tilnnct b!:! :Stll rle' lOT wha I rJ rap erti es ,0 u a~' lm,p rO'\i~n9,. SO. hlt anry i, sa [ 't m'a t me n r. of r'fludilLJlm ca rb 0 A er ,aUoy st ~ei h ls bes ( of! h~ r< tOi d'O n oth if'! g~ cr t,OJ ,go IDo I h e fnlll,r;1,tSi'fI1 head. ''il'lle Ima~ke~s of 'the s} can

j1J8 ¥ou ella pter: ;a nd ~el rse, an d it y:o U 9 jV,e tl1,e e rhls,I'ij S 't eel Co q~'o r at ij'.clJf~ t h,~ sp-ecificltt.iefll nu mber -3 nd Ithe ,a:p'p 1 h::-a'~iiIJl1I yo 1.1 h,ave Tn mlina til ff.V shay Id be' :able to ~vld,e 'Ira y w'~l'h ,d et~ il ~ d "~lg u res bot h for hilltW I he ~ ~ and 1.0 r temgeri f~g. I t i~ for- 111Jf!al~.e that most of 'OUI!" work do8's nat liiIee:d hij'gh '~::9M'i Ie or high· fm p tlict 'Va I Ue-5l - a rrEi I [nop E3' d,a ~ 'th e cl!a nt ~ h ~\iie Hi vefil (00' Our o~d f(i~nd ENa, wm he~p' where somethirng Deuer' ~ha'n "SDMS,"" 's needed,

I ;:iI:h[lluhj~ perhaps, ,add a fin~~ F!:~:H~'L 'The Qld B:se:7 at~ 955, wi'~:h its "lE'N·"·' If!Iy iilJI'IJb~r~~, 'IN iii G 118 p'l acelLf In 1 9 7:2 w~ [h .€i flew ~ lind fa r tmore ~ ogies i.. sp~cmo~tion rDtef'Bnce-.. rfh 9 III umber ~u~e'l f j in m ~st, ~.s,~,~ 1;e'Us uS tilh€l carbon c;1OrIlh,ljrllt'~. [] e'~ ~Ii lis, ire: Q i\l',trll !f! . "M gdle ~ E ng·ina er~:5

·Hs ndb~ok'" a rid iJ'!l App.3., a rid ~ wouh~[ stronglv reoarffi'mllnd '[i'D,a! ~ ii~ u srt,lEIJri: us! IilOI the·sEi Oe'w' nu:rnb@rs - I'll 0 t reast' lb~~lJ~:e' S;1ee; ~ i$ ,fu:st fl ®1: ibe.un 9 m e:d ~ 'to 'some of th~' ~~d EN numbe ri ,any m ora. (This incl ud"es ~ 'favou riif[)8; o~ m Ina - 3% Ntloke ~ lnul EN21 U The "new'~ Briti":sh Specinc.a1ion h~s been j'n lIS>9 now ~f O\f~r ~ I) v,e'ii!I~. ,after a~lII.

(!iJ COl I' 5p Fin IS:, We ma h' 1 h FJ maj,c Fi'fY of' eu r coU spJrings "rom wlJre which 'is, .al ffl ~dy 'na'r;d en e~ a nd ~el1lpe.rle'd," ·Thu act ,ef oCillHng them reu ndl it'ne· mandU~i~ stresses the~:e b&YDnd UU~ e;fast:h: m:nij't ~'t'he :iolprurtgmalke·r·s. term ~or d1!iS is ,hsoii.e;.ggilOl:f" i I and ~lhi~ aJc'[u.iilJl1y n mIPj,ov,e~, "~ha' stmng ~h of th e mate~i~t Howev!9l". In.Qf,l; :are eeeaslens whetn thls i~, ,just noll, pO$$~bh~ ,_ d"tE:' ga~ gel or: wil'te;1' lis \'100 thi'ck fur th ~ d is m~'teT' of the mand'II'@iII'. ~ I('] these e fir€"lUlm s:tance$ it irs 1i,e,~a:5&aJrv tOI :S.QiftellI ~'ifllifle iid) '~he wlll'e. Wi ~d th~ ~pltingl a nd '[Ii an harden ~liIn d ~it!m p.~'r agei n, U n~b'rwnat'eiv w~ "Ido rn h,a.v,~ ,de:n,ii1!,iis of 'I~e, $t,eel 0",1 wli;ich tlh e wi re

is. lmads'" I t may Iii!! betwee n "1.0% carbon, 0.4%, 'mangane::re; and '0.1" carbo fl. CLB% OlE!! nganese. ~ t slh:~ uld be B iii nealed a [ ,ilIDO!.!l ~ 7 eo Q C; this is; rial: lL:rHi,CI ~I bu [ t\h~ 'smed I' m i!!! S$ of 'the wi rfJ dQi8 Pi mea n Ula t seme' (:8 rn ml!"l.~H be taken over ttl ~ coo.l'ing. l'h ~s w~re ~~ n~ ir~coo~ fasl e!1 0 ugh n':). rethan~:j~fij, Thlij' ·sprill1Q1 c''Im then be w©~,md. and: 1 8UggQS:t ilia t 'YOU i1Ili'~olw I;lh h~,r fcr SUJbsequen l stra tching: or' OCH'lIlpriB"SiSiofll to ".scrag." ~ he sprin g ,iiI·her he!lu treatm ent~ Close g co:il tt-J e'en ds a'nd eh ne ~ Ua nan th em on the: grfnder e·r form du~ h::HJp. as Na qui redl at th is sn.gem

Di reel h~Hd~ ~q og with a fl,a! m·~' ~!i m Os' U !1w;,e. Tbe:T,e is risk of g el"li I!1g :SDm e parlt t'OOI h@ti' and it 15 l m ~ossilble tlO be ~lIf0 of let~en heat; ng. Se,t '~he S'pril['Lg Oli sp I'll ngs ~nsid8 !li Sle ~I or co,p:pelr jt,!lJbe :and!' lru~;~ t th D£ to 7800,C from the ou[s;&dl a;s; ~w'fiI~Y ·as you ,e:a n. The :spri ng~, cos!'l tb~'n be 'l'~'ppl@ld ij,rrrlO! the @]I..,ba'th - '~:he re is no nle,;e d m


S,K.~N IQUE.NCH 'UiN E~' "

MS,~ M'F.

Fii8i. Q ttftiJ~fi"SJ:i,() rJiJjIJ'IfI~' gf r.Jjlj'. rJrJi-j~'I# -tfOJ. ilJII,(Ml!,!l! Wjrf'~ljU~r IJ~NrfffltiJi' lJ~fjC;Cu. n~.~t.r),~,:! C-L'tAJltt~i"$Jl'iIlhiJffffl'V :;.IJ{U./....I;J fh~ fR,ttr~r!,~:iI' r~W1Ii m~ 'JUS" r" ~ i'M~~ wh!,J'~ M .J'i"4~U' f.;j lI!?rfFl} fmmhd.

,a'91~;.6I,tJa 'fior SOl sm,~n a ffH.iJ::5'S of: metal and 5'pimlt 'f~ame· all1d a~~QW tl"ie a ill tn, burn awa)l

the ~p ~:ng fia,U in 9 to the wi! ~ be' 'Std f.. Oue ,",eh io o;jI Wheli11 '~ne nam~ 9:10 e~, "lJ·

fid\E!lIil1'. VO&I must' nrOW be vary c~r,efu.l, f~r and tne'C1 repe,at ff rrl,lte.c.:e.srsliillry, as it almost

at this steg~ the spdng wUI, be ver:y brit~11B CCr'~ii'i1IV w'llilbe ,tor' tH!I'a,vy gaug,e 'wire., I~ is

hildel~d ,_ ~ havs' Iknown nne e\ile i"1I a I'm ~!5t l~ssellt~aJl te rn ii)ke a trial $,P ri n~ I

break urtder tru?dr own we~y~t. thl~ 'J.:rrncediJre ~f) to ,b e adoprted.

Th ~ rem f]f! ni ng d,c,as lfJJi'eSBFf~ d,ufffeu I'He;~. The ,sail I be ~1h is [he ith:u~d method. ot

It ts, 8~ most ij m'Poslslbl~ to use tm.;;., ! ·c01lou r" course, Til Is 9 iv-as: abs_olut,e eon I1ml ,i9'nd II a indication. as a iny ~ t ie-mp~ to po Ilis-rn til e!' I ~~l~ e wT re '·'spr,~y'· ~ U r<"!0 iiMI umbr€lll~

sprl n gl mav resl!j J't lin b r,ea ka'g:e. Tn e. 1II p6idle, down which has 10S,I, its c;over - IS

re~ !Uhie d 1:em,p f:lrra1:Uili'e is qu ire high - 300- ma de, a n u mbew- o'f :springs C iii;!i:'.il Ibe'

a ~ O""C - W,~n(lb0'!!'18 th 8 il imit eith ~r m.r th,e t'8m p W:fi~d ,at o,nce_ Ther,e is no ne~d ~ D

d-orneSctic ov,elll or fOIf" bQ~ ~11n.g !iIl ~ n" ~ uali1ch '(rom the S~II'I baJ'~'h. bH~ ~ il'i~e 'rn9

""B!B',l'ing off". IFllf~P'l;:d 'to gillFl~ Ijf r is frIB,- :sprino hlJ!9i C('Hlll ~d scm CW!hI~l' i1" e~ti be

qUlliintiv Il13ooJ1J!d '~O. Wid~ l~xper~6nce (or immeFSi~d 1n ha't 'water to IremO'~~ "I'he sali

pll'iilo'r e(MpE!'rim,Bll'"lt'~ it ~Sl le.ffec!ivlEi, bU'~ ~et me ~dh'arLn,g ~!O '~'t.

roe l]e~M, lhattihe 'fla:sh -p ohn '11Or 18V,r:n ~-hs A lie An ,all lew liIt'i 'ii,S: t:s ~l1e sa nd-biJrth" a

po~ I'ld ~ii ~he 0,1 ~UI:S fII01:n ling '~,o dID· wbth ~ ne I'J ~oC! which can be lJe ry. El!'f1eet:'t\l'e fQf

~em,pedll11'g temperat'Jre: (hj~ d@jJl!!lFlds' ~p,riings~ 'The· bed $hou~d !be fa'ir~v deep

~ n rh~ I II on how m uen Oi I' ~,5 reta~ ned '0 n [~1 e 'lllif'i!.d kept l:!lJlfTfJ td ~'b(u.tJ,~: ,~,;, U: 'u $, h e;:ll1'ed. A

s~FinQI. If' tlherre Is not ~'mu:Ujgt1 to Ib'fi,ngi 'the te'St pi~ce O'r s,~m i~'ii!I!r DrU'gh~. sae:e1 i~ set G! rJ

W'~lie. up t,C) ,30a-~ C '~hen tho, proce:ss :rml!.!! s l 'i£Jhe !i8nd (a piece. o,f the S9lm,e sprin-g

be' I'1gpa~'[8d1.. ,8lnd repeated ~m,m-9driate'lrv. ma,itr!!jr~all' 'iJs: best) ,B rid ,aJ~, soon ;!ir:1S t h~'

a n I, i1t. 'Hi a ~ ICaiin t;~'I!11 wh ei'( h ~r ]'1~:$1 ~ampe r 00 h~!JJr ,iiiir".p~'iiI rs ,Olfl 'thi~ !he ~p,rTn~.;rS

neCe$sary,. HowE!JvelF, lil dei-as 'Wo~~ and the c~n ba ~F'l!aLI1g;ed in ~'he' bedElflid hot Siili'ild

procedu m ~5 '~-O 8iditact [he ~lJrln9i from -thEi' Ihea:~e:d avef~ ~he hea'l']liIg lamp Or ~~roh

ijuelfmliih'iiQ oU a 1iI~ ,'he'n h'c,I'd rrt Irn th e 'flame bei'rfig rerllu)'v·ed' i!~' '~he t~Hn e Nm~, Sa nd ~s

!Of fJon e $l;pi rii:( II !liIlmp, :until the lrJ!jil 'j!Q11I ~tQs',; a s not :a'w ry good condlJl c:u:n. SO that ,inn ple

:sa-Qn ,IS n' do 9'.& ,S!l'mOve I'~: "F,~n:he r fr~m Ihe' '1i me' m 1.II1ii~ be a lIowad.

IOJ, Aus:t!e ~pt1r~~g, 911d M a rtEHWtIIPDr~rng. l,h,se' -a rei y,a,irly ad van ~Ie'd' rmath ods; of hie:~n traar! ment, ,much II.!I sed I 11 lfndu~ [rv,. M:.3r-' ~amip Bfrnll 9 iis of I,in~e 1lJg.~ to the mode II 9n~f~fN,eBr, but Au~a~mp~ring ,cllJ!j nlE!lp,~ eSP~ ~elU '1 wttth Ul€1 (:; 8iSB we- h ir'iJle .~ u !i~, beenl dtMIJ5Sjf'lij - 'the he'a~ rraatrnem of sm~1I sj!)ril'il,gs.. lln e pro cess een bes,t be !lJ!r1dersttlmd bv r,e:f'et8nce 't:0 B 'fiejw d li;8l9r,a m s, Fi'g. :4:3 sh ow~ '1; h e no r m rei"~ (jilro,c G S:S 10 f' Quefl,c:hh19 and t-e'mlPfJWilf"lQ. d ~SphjV'ii:l d O'!l'.i31i1 "6"' ·cUrve', The 'h:~mperiInQ, period, is not, of

~u ~I ~ n ~ny way conne cl0.d with tne diTl'li. sea~ ~ td 'f.h e3 "51 "" bscausa tne '[ran ~~ ftirrmi3ittiof'l51, whi(::M1 DC(:;lJr' awe. not 'l:hs! sam Eli

... ,. - h' • b ''',it'''' • "1"\1.., -~.

is, b~la:sa wn_Ul hit!!: ~. 111'~e UlI,aglraffl

i5ha'W,5: a high 'temlperatlJn2' rernpar, as r1'dgn~ be u ~ed ~,er 8 :sprin 9, and th e materia I wU I en ~ u p ~s; te ill ~eted Ma rtans;1'~~~' ~:ttfO"g'r '~:,ough" ,btJ't not ilS hard as, ls need~d f.or eu u'i'nQ [.00 ks ...

~n Fig. 44 '~he s;t:ee~' i5, QLI erlch€ld hurn a !iiimUa, high t~miPenny r:e, bu l '~n a hot SM~ bat;". somewhere· b£iftweeo .2 SJQo C 81ild] 3] 3.0 e Ie', rIHJ~' col d w,j!'te'li. The qIol9!1llchhi'l'Q' t,emper:fM:ure is higner than thet at whir~h 'the M artens rt iii form~, and ~hiB 1rsfi! donfl'a{~ior'l Ooculrs; al (lIng ,al nne of

eonsta n '[ te'm,plennu re, as ~'( P'8 :S'5i0.8, ''[i1ro!IJgh thl 9 'two bordem 01f Uh@ll "'S·!, ,Attie Ii a time whlon depeW'! ds On 'tho p ~ri©d A~B. and 'Ule s~:z-e of ~he wl~rk i t i~ re'm oived 'from '~he hOI [.e mp~ ring lba rh ;a! nd IiIII r~m:I to ~ool natu ra U\I In a iF. Iflolf' s~ ~v,er steel 'Ill e t~ ml~ 'fOlr '''s,p-rl ng rem !l,~r"' wall ~d b lit 1 Ii·at aroundi 3i20~C and 25, minutes ,~,~ :3,OO!lli C. 1l"Jre H m~' inera ases mark~dlIv ~'l I ow~:~' tam per,~~ur,es - ,4;5 minutes ti' a;[

,") 7-=".0 i"'" ..,jJ 2' iii - q ClI'"ioil!j:f'" i\,'1 II.

,~' ;j '!!.:or ,~nlJ.' to u rs: ,!i.l:[ "' OJ ~ v. 1';..0 II :tilrm

w~ II be caused bv :sU,g;11tly IICil nger ee ri'ods. The end' res'l.)l r ls 110t UU111P er'1!l'd iM ~rtensite. but a iil€iW ,strulC'une tCall1 ed Sa inheF but don'" h!n [h:cr! \-'!iOrrv yOU' - i t ch.)fJsr(~ m ~IU~ r ,~U all'U Whf,c't~ has 'VIi!!! rv ~inli ~ar pre part les .. The s Mijl1 adea II1tag e to,f [hi'S rneth cd is t hat ~hel',e is ,n 0 tl1 erm 1911 is h6C~ dill r~n 9 tra rudLJ'r-, m,sti' (;I FI to M 8n~f'I\She ler B<JI if! iU; ~n [h1is CBoS18) ';a,s, 'l n e~,~ is, wit 11 G:O III ve rrUoli a f quenchh1g. AJ'mos't' !DIll COlm ffltB'rcli3111 'if m Bd e s~'ri IIlg's - a fu1 SUI ~~ tning:s as roU=A:l,h,s 8'liid th,E'; ~ ik.'e - ;Hilf,f1i1 Aust1em:prer:ed ~ilI '~h1-s 'w"&V.

Til 6' M'a(l,empfiring process ls :dlOrwn '~Il Fig. 4,5, ,]u s~: 'fur e,~p'I:~n ;arHon; as its rnatn U$6' IS wh en h eat tfi~arttirtQ 'ljJ~ry 't1!1iGk or rnasslve compcnenrs. lll,e ph~:ce isQ Ute ~ched 'ff\Q fill ~Me high [~m pe:raltl r~ VfII a

S Iii I,k,m - -






'_ --'... BATH


_ 1!i~,'~'I-N-:' i'T'E"i'j'

. 1f:}~... l~ ,.



D ••


salt bEir'tn as befere., b!Jj'[ ~'mlte,~d !il~ remaln'~nSI "for franskrrmatiofil it ~ 51 'MII'*ern Qu1 as SOOI'!! as t~ has, ed the t~m~l~f' !bath t,emlper,~u!UJre and ,rBllbC¥WElid to CQ'~~ in alr, h ~5 S tlbsequ en t~y tempered. 'The advi:ints !le!' owr itne conve'o'li(u"I'i!li 'lirHi~it'hoo' ts ,~, redll!;c~ tlon 'ilfl the' rl sk ef diSf~Qn~C;Iil. 'Th era a l'Ie no ,ad\fa'nlt:rlg:e,~, to be Ig,aIne d for rn lUI de II ,~nglli"n;ee'iiS. ~5; 'B'Ii,en the h~a~ie51 of' eur wa rk~·h~;ce.s; wouh! be roelg,fI mad! alS, ··tiddly ,bh:s;'" 'in lndustrv, ig! nd 'wou~ d be AU'Sl,efi!1ip e~red.

'11110' Ipro~ !Jre ~sav as '~P'P~ ~ed to S1i)rin gi5) fQf A ~uunpjri'ng to hea [ lu iii, somewhal! h&g,h~;r 'figuM' 'inid.aUV. SillY 90CI(! IC. Tn e ~~M: ba lh -is 'ptepioHud and brought: up t,~ 1(n~ saJm e' \'sm pe r:i;U ura as ¥IIOU ~d btl: i"j,eeded for norrnal ternee Dli V1g ~ 3JCOQC for 'i !SJ~jlri'F1gJ. As· 'soo n as th~' wor,kpi'~lOia' h 2i;S be,enll ".g~'~e[r· for th Ii;!: ne!;e5'~9111f 1~;n!3i~'h 'Clilf 1lme :U't. ik:i, very Quic~Iy' - with ~lhe .abso iii.! h~ rn'jli"!Jllli!'ll! WI of de I a/Y'[r~'nS'h!l'f,edl 'u), the hOit' Siii!11'l ba tho I ~ fS I'eft ltune m r a ~eltg Ih O'f It]me Whi!t:'h depend-iS both o,n thla I:yp-a ,af cst,8el and i is th h~kJTlrelSs: 20 m'ln utes wI! ~ stiffi~e, r\~lr even mhe ht6!e~~est' :sp~i rig. ,i!ll'll ~ ,30 mlinu ~eS ij~Si aill l1h,ii!Jt. W'@ uld b~' rM~eded of heat br,eatingl eVe1f~ a

~~rlgEiI Cf,811'k:p~'n 'in ~iN:B. In thi$ lan:,er ca.!!;!

- - - - I-

howeverl d@, ,rems mbell:' '~!nat. the' 'm'i!)c~ mu rn

w(u"ldrltg tempii;rratu m ",Qf B '~em pfillrrng >s:a1 l loath us; 'B'C~O ~C. and IJ vrf'O,r1;u nan~~~' '''I o~ eanaet iQ,u~:nch the piece by ~ttii!1g It 'in ,a 'm'iUlff~e 'ftalf[l1,a(N~11 HOWEIver, rnest steels 'will ,goed It:.U~,!l.U: ~1i~)i:!It~d CO,!1ditioI'MS ,11!1 tm his te·mpBf:".

A i1iW pra'cth:a~ tlot'!iHj;. I~nrst'. (hi's' rt a Heat Trearl'~ng p'~1ITIICl~:S~~ not e, ~OOlh.a.wd~·ni'!lg !O ne, A'l Aust:em,p,e d nq {'em,~@ fiB ru res, helow abbul ,2'B.Q'~ C th ~ '~h~ e fleq ld'md for the r1f'aAs;fo:rm,a'~ ion i fl'UJrleDsr~'!!l q~ ite, qui~klV I and m igh r be (J S long, as an heu 11" ®t2 50°<C~'~ For ALl stemp IEring~ pieces f,egui~hlg a h~ghe,r,: t!F3ml~H~ra'ture '~h~ n C III n be achieved with ~he sa ~1: ,a, 'I a ad btlJdm mt'alY be II; sed ~ ~e,ild m !aU~, a t abo lJl ,3,3Q(ilC~. Th e hI'~9 h te.mper~tlJ ra sSih b'n.1Il h can be 1J:5ecl fo.1' fnill1:1ll; h e~ting' if de siren ,a nd !hOI h :i!;rm 'wi! i rssu h f~O'm tli Eo. ea ~ lover crf t~ilis sa:h 1;1'!I (0 '(~1 e [em p:e l'iing b~ I h H ow',ever. It ~'$j m'O$t' lmportt~'n~ th iii t no lOW ~lamp!!3"'lUur~ ~a j't ever gallS in~lo th ~ hig'h ~lemper~:~ure bath; ',IS detSble:d 11'1 •. Sa1'trtv Pr,et'ii1IlliI [10 illS"'" a 1",~1h€u' seri 0 U S rei:llc~km C~1i1 occur . .N~MUta~~y, the· higln .~~ m pe'r,a itu re Sill t 'W i III soillijd~ 'If'! a,'[ .. nlJ

FijI" 415 '~~fir:i'y" r~ tJfHJf~~i,' ~J~t:f l.or '3'.WI!!' (Jf ~_t~Jt,ljl'I!'i" ~ ~'YJ (~m ~ffl rJhi.fQ!tWIJJ i~ i'I"I,Il.I",{!r~n:. ,hit ~);I'" "~,,,,,b$tI~tJI.l!.tlti' ~Slil't!~~

~UENCH rEM: lIP: ...._.,=--;

fEMIPER'ED ...,#====...... ... MA R'TENSI IE


u~mpGZrh~g 'l8,mperat'Ulire and wtll oo'lleCl ~n the; IbQtt:om af ,tihu· bath. This shou td b'El' ra:tn@wd from titm~ In time. btu fO'ii ~tU3' \ljT'Le unt WG' LI as· it is" perhaps" b~s:~ t'n

ensw the ~ejllpe f,I]IilQ b~'[h a h'[.lgelh SF whe III :sQi rnueh If-tT.5all:[ has sat in [nlE! bath b~U'Om 3'S to In re rf~ re 'with Ihe,a [lng.

A~ ~ ,~··m',81Jll!:ed ail ~ ne b eg,inrnirl g, Iii EH:le: are :spaci E! IiI's>! prOc~s.seSl. a nd ee ne Ii~, ~ nQ~ qliJ>9'nchiti9 baIh, Mod'ftl @'!i1!9line~ra, h,a,ve!: rn 8ll:i ;a,g,edJ with@u'~ d~,em 'fo]" a:1 most: ~ CQ ~ea,~, iS~1 I~ h~ r you n ~0d h(l!~:WC'ffV' af)oul d6;oJ:tj,ilng tn ign ®'re them j :~ oweve r, n \t9li HAVE go~ the .~Q,ulpmelit and the b~ad 'or sa'liv. t he n it Es, worih ,1tIj 'few ~l'l:pefi~ nl{lliltS" ,elspeoiall'jy if 'V'~~I Il'l'ake s~J'ing$ (II e~~ er ooH) in alflry' qU'3n~ i'tv~ 'The precess ~s, Idmta I for 5:1I'fI,ia'jI. CDm pi1 ex !p'a r[!ii, rna die. 'fi'iQ"m nn1d~ iJJlm carob on s'~e,ej I whi(h 'm I:g ht dlsrOr1l if del3ll'l wi'~h 'iii ~h e' CD.II1\i'e ntion illl m';n'l nen., I') 'Cos l11let[c. H fi!llat Treat'mi'E!',nt. N,o,t 3111 hea't 1:fiB:61:rl'l! en~ i':s d'ill! ne fe r :s,(n;!ngth. ha~il'ness~ !O f o'l:h'E;! r m e-cha ii1 i ce:1 Iprr,Oi pe{lIGls. ~~' GaJ'i be: aJppl ied b ~ [hi '(0 h ~'Ip fl)jJshl,1 tormGiG!'''', and ~ eSiPec~,iilillly in i",'E'f'![s arid tAlIic:ks - for s~,eelr cleCIOIi\",:1lIt'ion. lin mOIi ~;I wo~k 'w,e IlTI8.V need le s~mlJll9te the: .,,~ s

O(l':tled" Q~ I!ldit~();n. eS,~e c:ia IIV w,ner. the

prOlltwtyp~ :i s' ~In e.a rll V one', 8tUBionl of 81 il!!;f}1 to f •• B mwni111Q:" i3 s, 'he guns m ~t'hs CIlII ~ l"1 is; r,e:la ~.t;v>elv e,t3sy - g:t 15 iD f,'I~y r; eC~Malrv to tl iSS l ,the com pOI1!n l li) just ,O¥fH" 300°C. lH'OWE!VE'f! ~frlre' re'5U~1J:.,

n b~' IB:SS, nil an satlsf3C'~O ry u i!l~ ass [I, e pr'!e,p2 1f",;Hory w·orik '['S, waU d one~ 11!1 1'h18' case Wf,leJ\e [I! e part l~s '~O' ~i m iJl ~ tf!: • 'fin·e jorl~woil:'k'~ 00 '[h,e: pro:totype ills' "~ 'rdert'.i'kJe- to wor~, '~or ~ polished ·Firnisn. Th Eli S!!Jrf'3~e 'shou r.d be fi lila m att~ as prod tlcecl

V ;1 ,r,ot'~rv IrmotT~ n of. a rI ,~b ~.a'$Jve, til 9 grildEi' delpe nding' 'O!'l the siz)Et o.,f' '~lhe pan, J'he:' ~ m~orta i!1t poi ni ~s, 'l'0' en S!l!lr~ dl~t tli ~ 5Iilrlau:;eJ. 0111 cre:~ pni! P,ilirl® d. ~ 5 'Free Irom o~ ~ and1 Dr'&,ase and es;peo i aUy fif'! @,erpwII!i1~. Th ii:! !mer" wi II st;.~w 'Up d IStnlSsi ngly clea1rlv :EI:i"I'er 'tliidB h e-,;n ~:re i!1 m 8 n t. en,elm Ie: a:11

d,,&s~e i;!':ii:,ng shou Id be f;~,nowed by w',e:s;111ng wi'th hot dete'Fgenrt -and well'·er. and toon alr dr~ ed', afteJi wh:h~h' ~ ~ shoo I'd ne· h ~Ind~ ~d OI[1lj,,( w~th c'jlean t1i~iU~: paper; th e 4. >iii c;fd ftree ". '9rratie IliiSE!:d bV jewe'Ue'ffi t~ be st. A ,~pi ~i t :~8mp is b est for small pal1Si; lar.g rtf may 'be' tiliecrted In is :san d bedi or ~f'I om! td' the' ~'m IP rGV1"5e. d mu:M es gll,ready referrred to. (N're,c ~ h e.a'ting 'wi I,h " torch iffi aJrlri"e Is; u owii S0. Ie S. h i~ difflcy I~ ~o ,g~ t '~\J.en helEning'~

1M C,te deeD r:8'fd\i''fia parrt s, ~S' fo.~ SCr'l@'WS ~flI clotkt and parts OT rn8~mmef!,1tSr or B'iiefll eloek hands, rnust be Ihigh Iy DID ~i$h,~d 'first, fij'n(3: G mil! ry foUowf,I d by po Iishin g Pill IP err " lJlfi'~~1 'ttl e ,,; niSh ts sa ~i-!li;fa,c't.,o~v. In thi s ,ea:se Uhifj\f€! or@ di'ffun!li!lof1~ of' op ln h.JfII: so rn~' held tn.cfr 'the flina~ SHakes IOf [he poU-sher' shall I d b:e: ., in 1,1 n e" (or. 'for' sCj\e:wh e~ds', dCrlf"!.B in ~he la,~i~e i oth e 11"6, held ~lIial a ran dorn effe cr i,s. !more ph~\~lSn·ng. You m ust tI'V' beth all'~d 'sl:;'e wh~,c-h 'Su~t:S you b~stl lit IS a m a ner ,of ~ a·s teo

ln ai I 1C~'ses: ;aJter he;e:n[ng ~o bill! 'l '~hiE parts: ,9!r;e QU af'loned ~t'I, oi~: I"!,(H f.or Bn'lf met:8lll!u rglica~ re-ason r bu It bec BU9:9 U'!lis p!a'ovides 'Q uhll! en Erffec'tiv~ I"us.t-proo'ring. The' oombinalJorn of til B oxide ,aye'lf and the ,aU 'See ms 'tlO J,~p·e'~ (;:~wrosht€i fum es" ,As wO' ca~o~ for th'~s; h:as '[g I)~, W8tctua,d r~iJrly oi3lref.iUI Ill'. ali lhe' '''d nt5," oJ b'l u~' 'foUow very el(lis~ ~V, H OWeVfU"1 I 'Imd '~11 ~ t {-rnr wor'l<s:hop '[~ck~G (w hk:h II "bl~8" 'fOf pr~~!luv~tion raJ'1 her 1h,E!j n a,pll ear,sn ce:l a shade of de ep brown iI S n~l IIJ npl~~ $1 og. whi I'S!l m3n~ C'~ my 'VfH'V ea rlv '~'9'1:h (;en1'lJ ry [00 r,S ilIre sl raw CO'~cHJl!'ed. "'~ey an!! ['tot c,El'!rbo n '!i.l'Cle~ 'tDm p e'r'e d. bJ!J'!~ ~ock 8S U they h ffJV\G be~ r1 SiO 'Urle"aliteirlL

8IfJcbm,i~h:$ o.)!~rJe is \I~rv di ffioul'l 10 's:1m 1iJ'I~te. Thi s harrd. corrosTo r'l rH~~·tanT ,suriace' is th,et. resul~ (hi'! flLJll' sh;:~) of S;OrJHl lim e ai- 'r~lrQi ng Ii e!3'1 (11 COO me) coup I ei'lll whh forge workhllit)" I f a ph!l~Je of Imli ~tI st.eH~1 is held a'i 1hi's te'mperature f'or ~nv h~JlIg~:h ot ti ma ,sGm e gr~l~ n growU'! is i n12vlt.a bJ~. It


·doesm •.. t iW 'thB! p[sce /3 ;1Di!in~ for'ged, ,is· - this wiU co,rrec·t m,attf1!lfS.. b-LJI it is; diliffi¢ 1,Ji1'~ "10 d rJ' thi:s wli ~ h mod 01 pfnts. I r"l'l: IS' IPlrao~lcable~ th~ foHeJW~n~g ~rooBdure win Ight~ ~ol~rlllbil ~ resuhs, ,Arra ngl~ the: ma rlYlfaetu ~rng pr:oglm m m ~ sO ~ htfl ,e ray 'parts wltl~'ch m,~t.ter h::ig~ ~ne j~!Jlmals and 1Cr',a nlkp,I'n~ G'f ~' cr,2i'nikshal"U) ean be machi ned fillst the h~:at :b~,~ ck:LnQ ls done, S tI]ng 'U'~t: "fo'Fg,ed·· pan '[:0 siz',e' r:l:i,j'~.d hea t t!!l bri!~lh'l red. giv~'ng ~ foB'W Ugh t tap'Sr w'uth ~ na'l halmmei to ,i' dlstress" ~ niB su rf,~ce. Di~ '~11I ,oil (dor{t QI!llUFICh f~ght" a,ut) and ~Ql~ilil ~elhea t. 'iq,Ji~1 "fur a 'flew rnornents, R'epea1 U'1 eli p,roO~SlSj goin g .. up to brig h't fled Ii.! ae h

. 0 ~ ~' ... ..iI 'r I:-.. b. "'fo - . -.t- •• ....

t.lme'~ n i;;;~ sansn ~ 'IN hi u I'i!' nl~s¥l. n .... 1'&

mail lse 1'he s~:,ee'l as ID;e scribed on page 7,2. '3!r1d the n ta rrv '0 r1 with In €I; fin sd~ iJ'lJ'ing. takllng 'C8'M net to da,mage m;ha' firli'sh. .Na'[ !Jrililly n 'Y'O~ C2!! n ~ff'!9ct ~'nv ~C1,ua l ', so m ueh dB'~ better,

~s ~I f Orlmlng., I t is; p~rhalD$. ~ PPO$~tl! to d eai with this now f h8!v1rr1 9 ,j ust remarked on the difllcu ltv ~ furghlQ Imode,~ tc:mpCl~' r'Jo8:nt:d M~\5] b,ooks on J'TIi3'mp~rTll1g ,1St H~rdenil1lg"' '~'llJbIijSih8d in th~ gJEIlS[ ,I,av grept S,'[r9SS on 'lh a fOl-r.gin~' of tath e and, 5hap~r liOOls. l"his :1'$, \!'ery :lie'doml done ~ or flI eecl eel: - nowadays. CarbDn ,Steell t,oli;lils are !U! 000 Ci !'l~'V ow hen High Speed 'lllDols ~:r~ not ,Bv,aU I1fJbte., Ir; uM'nll!~'. the' size 'Df il'aol we now u se ~5 mu g::h ~,lil1a n,e;r 'Eh in, obta if! ed ,Bllen ,50 yea rS ago. whlEl'!l hal t~i nch .:!iiit'rua re' SllaJfIl k.:!; Were com me n.. Even i3J t- ~ n. i:1;qtla~, pJetCf:i of :stock w in baln:~hf hQ~d tltt ~ he'act ~Dng I8fL@ugh (0 '9 iv,~ m i1J re' th!:J11l ~ C'OI!.!! p':~e cf haunme:r btOW5. and with 5/Hj in.,. t!u~ mOi"iB ~I 5~'l' "th et.~' dayi. prop~r f'O,l'gling is a~ mosl ~ mjDossjbl@;r H ow~ver. lhe n3 'is 'Ii'lil~ odell OClCiii $;'on wll1u [;l a tool m Ul~t b~ sU cran kti d. Qr ~ 'Hv-cu ner In eeds bendl~n.g.

H;~~ h ea ~bo n' 'bDOi' tS~iF3,el mIJ~.t b~' held '~O' ·r:a'irlv - C~051E! U!iimpe!!',iBtu re I'hm! t8 wh 1rI:s~ to~g:tf'i g. At 0,.1% c;i:u'boni ,a'S mi'gh~. Ibe~ IU sed wr ,8, ~p ~cia~ s~rlewrjJ n,v'l@"r. th~' m ~;)(~ rn lLJn1 Is,

~I [Hi Ora'IC'i ~ nd f;~'rginQI mu s:t s~oP when 1'! .f,a U,S' to ebo lJt '9,00 0 ~., l'h e.Sfj' tem pa'~al U fil?S aan b~ l~s'EI'd rigid 1lI1l1 ~!O, ,abol!,J'[ 1,.0%.,[:. For ~ . 1 % (i:i3) mQIi! ~a nd abov,ej i mcl !JJdling: s:U\la I' steal, -r1ll!B' (e mpe~auJ re shou Id b~ S1:U"lIe !SO 0 C lOWE! U ~ ,b t.n 'the high ar '1'111 e CcB ~boi'l eCHlt01nt th~ ffH.iH'Bi (:;au'e ~l'UJ:s"it, b"~ 't;ak(!n ~fJ avoid O\!'ler~f:Halt~n-g" My 9'Xperi6,I'lOe is t h,a I wHIhl t i 1"11. 'sq,ui!'m tGoi~ II ca n lust ,get tw~ blew!!], ~f]I widll 'lhe ha nil m er b ~fOl'e rBhe~ t. h19: ~s Il~.eded. I .1;lI "'",!J.;BlIS Qlive·:a fu n Bf'I n~ I b ~fon~; hardt;trtl,ing ~rf'ter a nv bu'[ the V'e rv ng ntHst: f,orgi ng Gifl'~ ratl an. Ord ~n airy rn I rd stee I C~1Il be: forged inti eh hotte f' - liP ~CI 12:50 Q C i1IiCC~ rdling to some' alU '~'hoti"leii ,end ig ies.s Sill bjec1 ~Ol darn ~9~' 1 f fovge,ci ,(:'rool. though i wOllJld ~refer to rnormanse i' much "bla c~ f'Orgl-ng," !has be~'n don e. I n ~'II eases O\llli:: rhea Ul1g ca n ru in ttl ~ m~lai • a ncl ~ roon 'tool :!;[ee'~ ~!S, espee<i'i3I!I!if a'l, Iri.$~ T1hlere is ~ 0 way in wh:i;ch a piece of' ove f~H~a~,'e'd steel can b~ redeemed e~cept l'~ meoitil1ll911 t ,down_

F'Of dEna~ led i [1! ~)'~rucHon sin ~:h~ uS'e of Ib~iIIlekt~m~'~ihs· tools t ne' reader 1-ilj rltFfened [0 one' of the _m,~ "Y' bOoks on 'Wn:m gh I IrorrworJ,;(' hhcHjgh .,1 ~ron" ~s' ~:H~ fdom used til u~~ dav~) - i't ~~, a ~p~(;i.a I~ S1 Ci"grft i ~ • s owo r'igh t., Abo l1.n: t nG 'oll1ly Y s:e' ~ m aJke of 'ro r'g ing" 'bJ,iJ ~ Si'I,ee ~ is '~'b red lL.IidE!l' S'dUEi! re set'~~'on da,wn [0 recl'angul'ar - Is~s W,ttl'ste'f,1JI thalli' mllchi'n~nQ Tl' ~ lind '~hls doe'S I!'lOil eel II :For i3:f!!V thing' rna Fe ,t hiEi'!'l ~a ~pl n9 a f"ll ev@ Of} the' U~'mIP9j:.atY ~e:. forg,ilFlrg down t h.e If! ndl of' a pvckax.e Of <=!rowOaJr I abo U'~ 0.8% carho ii'i) is ee~ij'~f,. iJS ~n 9 ~ 51 I b" h(iil'"lIime-r 'lhclIJ,gh rny a n\i'~ i. at 5~6, lb.. is It adll er UglIlT for such wc.'rk..

1~'9~ Hlihgh -Spl9'ed SteeL Tr.~, halrdenin.g. l.-rf high-·speed t©'oJ, .. .s,'[e~ II hi rea nV beyond til ~ C:i31pa,iCil>tv iIl.'~ the m:al.iorhv of model engnn ~errs. 1',0 begiin w~h" '[h ~r,a iBn! GOris Fd,e~m'~l~e v;ari,tuians i iii a,llk~y COli! te I"~ f.illfiighllg froml O~5% to '11.0~ ClJlrbo'lil. 10.5(1.' tu 4 JJ% Ch rmm-itll m ~ 0 (0 '1 ,8%· Tung::: len an d !1omle wi'Un 5% C-!Oba h - ~ nd Uli8V m a ~

iJl~~u;de \f.·a ryu ng propo rliOO~ ef MD~}r~ ~ da rita m aJJ"'id 'V'fJ flad~ IlIIFI'l as wr!l1. Each dGFIi'Iand's, its propeli' heat UiE!~lment and an ~~~ra~~ml~Ui'lln IS not 9flJ 0 dI, enough -I~'ilh~r lh~ t(10~ will[ era cf.t or it 'wH l 001 be hard e"Oough.

s;e,c:on d, '~hB: 'h!l'm,pe-ra'UJj,f1e'$: a'~' high. with 5~OW 'inithal heati n'gl ~o th e ua ~gJe 1:90- B80PC. 'fo~llC!w~d by· a ·r-airly. tqllJ1icik. h~(~t'if!-g, up to 1,,20.0- or ~ 300'cC drepl~nding en the a naiys·is. :M OS\' iL!'6! J"i th€! 11 be ceoled iti: i ir. but 80m e rrEiQUI irs a ~ ~ rtlal 01 l-qu en ~)n d~lln to 500 Q C m'llowed by ,;:I ilf coo I j'rJ9- ia.m,pa'lI'1'og Imust 'folJ~w immllcHlfue1y. and agai n thelre a ~'e' wid e '11.::9 ria ~~'C!lns in til' e ni~~ire'mrtrrl,'ts; - 10 some, cas;~'~ temlllif!'ri:ng

~s' dOllle' bafori!! ~he' t:aQI '~'Uil~, cooled r,j:gh"l d~wli ~ from pe,F.Ii:BlpS .~ 50~C. Th'e -tvfljca~ fe'mlpeti'l1g' ta mpe rature ~·s, a'bQ'U t 5050'-0 ,e:. b~lt in sern e cases.. especJalLvor m!bhs, reqlJllr,n.g [;on:;~!"idiBJr~blF3 ~,,, ~gtrme('5s I fDr r-oughung work on O-a~stifigS aIel a i1iNa~of'!d lemperhi 9 i;!j ,~a rrled out at ~ l'ypicaJ Iv)

3 '"!i-i:' ,I)~

,.;;£.,~I I~I'

fhoet o(m~sJQns WhBflI tEl high~~p~ed looll n:qluire'5 ~~harderd!ilg are rsre, a;JJnd unless th~ ex~ct: 81F1IJ.I!ysi:s ~8 .kll'lOW'fl! and 'th e. 'workshop has pre~',~ lim.p~r~llu~·"e Qontrol O'f th e tUIF" ~ ce.. in! s, "Work ~ s ibes! ~eh [,0 d'u~' sp.ed,[lIi'51~" Eva n he 'W in p~obijbly decHn e Itha wo,m unless t nli! sou rca, 'Wp:e, ~n d ~Tade o:f m'etall is e'xac I'll' 'k nOWi1,

C'H AP'TiIE R' 8

I: " .. "I I'

h .... IM,e,asu ernent ,of Hardn .. ",8:8

I [ is u nL~ikeJ~V that rna ny modei englinee!?S w'~11 be, tCon,cer'iF.l~d Wilh th!le: aetust :mee!~lIJf.i!m.9r'1!i[ of' tH~'rdll!1egs~ btu: il't ls h e.lp~UiI '[0 knew HIOW ~t is d!~).ne· wh en 'facad wilth Of'i! ~ or ether of 'the :~;a2·l,jI'jer.ii!I'l "herdnass n u mba rs" 1lI sed, The Ima~:iII dtiji'cu I ~v i~ ~ iii decidingl '~%iI(;:'IIy' WMi¥J'[ '[01 mleasum:, 'for "Half~ness'" ls net leasy' 'to pu~: on a ~c~le, .1: r ts 'fa! r anoug h to :Sl3y(hsl ste I!!I I whic'~ bore-a Its und'ar 50 'l·ml/!Sq..i n, ls, .• twice a's S:lf\ongi"· as 'l'h:U wh ~ch falils 8'( 2 5 to n!:SQJn" b'U ~ we ea rmet be SCI def~ n~ te wi d'i ilardi'll ass n u mbeti's"

Ml:n,~ralogfs.ts d·.;sfine tU.lrcineti as "the abiUty to serateh" .and use' .!tIl Slc,de IC>aU'e;;!C ,. M eh's sea lei. om whli cit. IlDhii mend, !the

haFd~$.t~ IS No:" 0 ~fild Tete r"Fii'ench Ch8~ k' 'I is S'o:fiest at N'o,~ 1. On tbls eca Ie M ~'~d Ste e,1 WDj Ulld ·ep~ ~~r tn No .16; ~Ind 1il81f";'d ened too l-stee ~ at No.7 - n 0,1 181 'v1I3 ry big dfffe re nee I A OC mpa ra bh~' 'te::i,[ h~Ji matais U·~~S a standl!iird ··scr81!cher·' made O;(L doi irtU::Hld c.a'rrrying' j1I' d.dtil'll,ite load: whk:h is dnarWfl! across ttl e !5<urt;tH~lel '0'1' 'C he' m e=1'€ilI" Load is 8d~ua~J~ d. to m ~ke ,ii;I ··sta nda rd width" ,of 'ser~te:h, and tt1iis j1o:ad is; ~~'k~., al a Im9 !llllllrn of 'rh,~ h~rd n€'Ss. Tn! s· 'l@s,[ is now ol).sole't'e,~ but si1mple pOf1;able SlC ra'tch t:e:~1t r.HJ'l11'ts .a1l'9 sdU 1L18:'€1d 'for lea Sill! ~I "·011. :site" h.-:ndtNtltss, ':ID'ltS tlnSIi.

'Tne .majaruty bf hafdfH;!'!iS '~est,lng dOI1~ toda V de~ie'nds on 1 h~ r~i$i$~'tJnctl· t'o :fjefJ~I.t:r:~ti(j,n .of the, m,otaL I., l'h ~ ~dne III t e5.~ 'F·ig. '4€!i~' a hard :stele~ baU,. 110'mm dl em eter, ~ s impve'ss,ed On d'le speci mt6'n IJf m@1ttil under a lo~d ,Q" 30Q(] lk]logr:ams ~ albO'urt 3 '~on.s), The dT srnete r of tile 1 rn pres$lon sa fOmiled is me~s;ur.ed using a 'tTl~ C WS:COP'i;t with a 11 irU:~m,i:[ij I scele, f'ro m Un ~~ l'ne su rfa'o~: :a m',a !Q,f 't:b!a' ilmpre~sioli is calcu II1!I:ted" and rhe surface' stress otnafn ed 'by divkUn'g 3'("00kg b 'f/ '~h et a r,a a" The I"l!Is~:lt i-s the "'Bid rurll Mu rnber", wni at'!

. f ...~ .. d~' ,+ ... ,,.,j j-

~S, o· COU rse, a str-ess nil' '! car'~"~ In

ki~ i1)gf~m,sts;q_ mro- TIl,is '1~st is Ii rnl u~fJ to abCHJ'I 500 IEl,rinell liIulmber. ,j3'5, 8Ibo\1'~' l~is i~J gtillr,9 1:'h·e hal! it:Siel ~ d Isrortl$_ For h·s:rder m a't~ri:a'l's. B tun gswn ea ~~[diE!, ba II i~, used, willie f,~ if :sah materia ~s 't he IIi! ndfnd b~ II ls used but the IO.fJd Is, fodu(;.sd ~ l!SU8i'Uy 1"0 !50C kg. - and a correspondlii1Q ad]~$U"U!lit rna dlB '~O fh'e: form u I a, The 1~'lI'i ne~ I IIlIU mb e rs ,otn~lined a.g·rce whhin th e stan d,il rei n rnits,

The He c!i!tWiI!'U ha rdn ess le.S.~'ef ,( Fi,g. 47 ~ ~II~ ~5es i lIP herica'l i m pre~or, by ( m. ~t1e 'f~tmn ilJ1du:St~hllll dmliiond. Howe,vEl r. 'l'ht:1. m~!thlD d ian.d: p,rt!i1Ci.~'1 ~ of 0Pi!i!'Ii'8.t11c:n are qL!!it,e dif"e,~l1t 'The ~nde-n~er, with tfl n:.dius of O.,2mm. is 'firSt ·impr·~~edl into the' S~:H~,c:1lmftfij und~'r ~ It),a,d lOr: , Oj~g.

Fig, 4SA Bi'fmm h"~~J {Iii\'o'r.J'!P(;l tIlI'4][;'.iI!m!l' '''''rr~Fi:'NrA lIIerr~ ()u~,ttdJ

1"h'~s ensu re S tha t it i's 'fi ~m~v ~';a t~d i III mil sp ~:clme f1 rfjlr"!d th,a t die :s.pecirl1e n ~'S, se,~ute om ·the .s.u,ppon~'ng anv;ll. The di,~'i lnellicati'ng '~hi' de;pth of 'Ills· hlllPnJSS~OI'l1 is Ihl8.n !Z@roed. The' "rn 9jor'~ 11!l ad, of 1 5lJ kg ~r the! m o.s~ aJSO iii! I t8~t~. 16 Ihe'i1 appl led at a steady rare CJlInnaU'ed Iby ,BI m'!m~1;alni:5ml w~:thjn Ilhe· mach-in~. A~r ill S/l3:t [imC'J - lIme,U'l '5 Slii! ~:onos - Un.'!!! mlano Ii to ad is 'whhdrawn. The: cUil)!Iil then f'9Ioo-rds ~hE! 'Ii)'E.PTH of "thiS!: impr'e!s~jon caused lOy the m aJjOf load iii II1d by ·this alone: there is. ne error due'. to i~'spring~!i in the m·!:lJchine: 'fl'l'HUe' or due 10 "S'BU~ in fJ d&Wft1" of ttH3 ·specime'fI. Wlf1lU ltal th a B'r:1oa'III, t'he R,C)c~kwe'U ha rdn.~~8 is ,a · 'n ilJlmb9rr~··. n O·l a su mac Ell: istieS'S. 1,tu;)ugh the m 8g:0 itud.e tCrf til is num b:~rCi! III b:e c~ rIre~,MfJ'~ with :such a stress,

The Rliljckwe'll iI'fi,Bch,ine cain be: rJs~d with :S!BJ'!.!IeraII types or Indanter alru~1 wUh

I 'j'A f" . "U,;j'F

s.eVf! ral m j3 g 11111 U..J'!.Gll ss e maJf;U"!·, Of

11'~ m :~rl:~eL and [lJ1t"! h~:rdeil1~d hig'h Ci3lrbOIil or atlblJV :5ltee~ s, "he: ~. Roek weI ~ Ch :stare is; us;ad.. bu t uRockwe n 18;"". whlh $ 1/1 6 In. 1'~1I1 be-n. Is used f"Or '··mHd·· ~16:81:s H:llId J~m19 IU11n;"flB'ffOIJJS ,1JUOY£i. The ·'/f' sca~!e. is, U~OO fJor e,,.trle'm,~ly hard :S,pe e im ~1n5 and f!O~' [~in~ hard s!'b'eel materia~.

'Th e Cld~.airtt a ge' o~ the R ock.w~1I te!irt lIVer the e·ri-ru;; U .r:~ , t;;art t'n~ h'3 is n 0' fa,e\ed t,o me [iIStil'rS the '~m p ressiof!l - th e hard ness: >til iii be read dire'cthl':' his. U'iI€H"elf0 roe. pre.fenl!.d 'wr .. Pr-cdu,[;Horf' lest'~n g. Fu rt:h,e.r, as.

[1m Ell ~ IIld:ent,er can p e ne'I'~te ~,V,eli! h (;J rden~d !!;'ts~i N'~ c'~ fI b€!' 1J~e.d fCM" m·8ft ~r~a~t; b0¥O od

1~:r.IJ. 41 tlafllmt-lM j~l'liIgilllffrJll'III·R~~R:ty?" ~M~. n'ffl t/f}!U_1i,o' '1M 'im}f~sgl(m ~1 ~WII ~ Ifhi!! ltIlQr1. dltiJ ~dJ~MI'. tf'~ulfr~.AI~..,!i)m;~ LW'.

'tt.e fa nge ot t~e lE!!,ri'neH. T.he d~ ~:fach{a[[1'~age is that rt is n('H '·'-At;,~~,~!J'-''@''; - it ls, f1&:aHv. a ha r.d ne S:S. co m p'a ra ~,o r a rid m u ~t bs t'!3Jcalfb r'8"~!ElId from dm t! to time.

Both t he :a b:ove make: a: vJsibla ~ m DieS:--Siron ]rn 1 ~le rrll~b:~rii;ll. The Vi c'ke 1"$, 10. aim ~ r1d IPY.rl}mij'd (V D P) inti fig m,i chi n~ Fig. ,48 uses ill Square c'i!iI;sed ,diamond py r8'mid as ~!he ! nden1:e.r. witl-i a n Include d a ngliii!!' of 1 3:6 ~. Tl'i e app lj'e d ~ aad is Usus Uy !50k.ii~, b ul can be B1 te re_d to !jui t s<ped',Ed cOr.lcli,tlons ieg. (thin :stJe~im6ln5. Or extra, rwCiIFd m ~lElriillllt I~f this ~ 5i done the' magnitude t:l r ~he ,load ml.if$;n be ,sta<ted. The ",i:nJrl1~S 'L:orrU~t~'·' elf m i}1il,$ions of th~ 'f.m-~;res;s~ ern ra I'~ m~cal~ur,ed a nd '~8bu Ilatedi '\I!all U~'S' of "VD P' H arrd ness'" ~i~ kg/,J ch~'ri\led ffiOIin tlhe fiTI€I ~ln O'f the moO. ~ n ~ h.~ Vick fU5 mlachine '11118 m ~cros~~pe; Is ! 'b ull'l in" and ttl e ~pe ~I m EHil a,uta m a Uca~'1 y regj:st ia{S f'or ob$8rvili'~Jon of the irm prossion. ThCl' n;s~ i's, I~~ gl8 rd ad a s vii! ry ,aJccu ra te Hnd, fc,!!'-,

Fl!J. ,a: A V~"M ~YJ,lu M_',~~ F lt~~" l'.m:. M~~#n~ I~l'-l!: \I~~fiW ro~hff:~q 'WIo1{'Jf&lr r~m .!In r;frl~fTPM. ;d~..v gf r~w ~~ttll (in oil' .:f(JV~, ('(iI~,r-~'i;'SY~Ih'i!'-ry',OIMlIfIll\r.!' Mdi,

tu nate I'y. t he VD ~ IrIJU mbe rs II ie very <:.1 015 8 1!~' the, 8 rine1 ~ ihar~ ness ~uJlmbe'r; 'so tba t ; rV~$ !.J1811 r:s,atiorn'" is' f:aS!h:,;,r tr.n.ti n w~th ! I'Irg Il1ocl!twell seal ~5'., 'The m a~'1iI d ~sadva'ntil1ige 10,1 tine! Vickets m !3!Ch]1'!! e ts 111 a t ,t he' 1 rn pn~~~ siolJl hi veiny Slm ~II" ~o It! at S\pe r:i a I su rfa'Cf! p ~ep:af"ati'an is' r,~q u'i:red fl(H [real Iy aceu rate 'wo rk; The: ,Rockwel r m a,ch rn e U~lN:I'Uliw-e-s on I V a • 'O,ood m~8chline fJ-iJrn nsh·'. 'On the eth ~'r h'alnd. tile VT:c'k~r$, do ~s 1Il0t dis'l''igu i'1e t.he '~U ITllU;;fj so m ue h - th ~ i ndenra ~ [o'n:s; a r~ Ina oolly n Cl,th: Et~bh~L, Alii duree '[8'~;ts re quire t h,t!! sP e!:c'i men to be: Ib ro uglh 'I tc lh e m'ac'h~ ne,. H ard ness figu~e~, quoted in s,p 1:::1 cm1ciJdons ar! d t8)ftb ooka willi ~II havg

, ,

bee n ;made! en fa ~rl!y ro~us~ speci m,ens. n'o

(!voad any error d U13' Ul' :s<pe:cirnen di$~'Or[ 1'0 FI un{je ~ load~ and 'ilIli Ii,ne :SYlbjeC:::1 't@, a small t.ollerance - ge ne rl IIV a ran ge of ~ Or 2 digits on U,e RilJekwel~ ~c'~ Ie',

Th e 'Shor.e Sle~ ems'cope (F ig. 4£1'1 r,fll! l.ies om a dmff,ef~n'iJt pitH ne~ f}i"e-. II i[ is found t hal H ~;P@!CN m'en s of raasenabla !liiiz\e' ill f'<EI: used a b~I.I-~il"td'ed ihflmlrner w-tl'li bou nee 10 a

dJeg meEt wh i,C'h beam !till']. illli mos,t ~ in e:a r

n~ I a U on s hip 1O(J thr:r 1'1'1~11 rd n le,s's. 1'h e Sde'rrosDlilp e ISl a pi)rtabh~' he ran elsa h::l,ster i!i'i wh~(h 3 \S,m f.ii II dia'ni ~nd-faced s1.~al piLi! nge r is drawn up 10 a ne ~g n'I' of 1 0 i Il1ch,S's whlhi ['11 ,al glass, (~bo. I t 'is h aid '~'hl!:l re by 8 eatch and. when rele~sed, fa'1115 on rne speci mil 111 ,and. reba un cis 1lI p the lu be, The amotJWlIl: of 'the reooy l1,d C'an be, r.ead flam j[J scal,!!,. The' SlI!CC-eSSltDll rOf opat'''O!;IOOS. Is au tom atica'lly COn troll ed by 8IR r"pl'lMSu Fe g~ ne ~an3d f'tO m a Fu,b'be r lOs II, 'lh~s, is a 'V~r,y uSlEi!lfu~ ~ns~',r\Ulment'. and ~5ped.any when tes~~ must be m~d;g: Tn th~ wo~k\S - h' IS €INtensively ilJs@d in sl9'slw.orks for me;aSUfI iilS rh e h i3lrdness, ,of roUs 'in 'me In 1111. If la'SJv\~,s, e Imos'[ no impre ssiol1l a I ~~~. b!.J f

~a~e d CH\lS h aive-a b~ 'la1<e!!1 to avoid Iboun~in,g the hamms r ~n lbe! same p I ace mCliN' tha n QnCi~. 'r,'or 'th ~ :p I''evi'o ~s '[est wi'U have w(D.,rk-h~Ni~nad' t w.e s.urf'8ce,

Th,e ee-relatlen be'lwee'n Scleflo:scfJpe nu robe rs aJf'I d VD 'j?' Or' Roc ~.w\l9'U ,;9 nd BiI'i'l'1e.l1 f8 'mi rr~y good, prmlirted the S cl ereseepe ,~~e-d rn en W31S, rfja;so,o8Ib~V m ~f~~V.e: th Q

" ....I -"..I •• ld d 'b, "h .

!lit:cm "-iI'~1Jj;J5' pro\l'~' e." will II ,[ . .:. I nstru ment

".a1t .e bQ~;t 0 ne TFu:h !iC!IY,e! n!i' X 2-;- 'nth ~Oing,. [;jn VlBry small i piecr8$ ['h_a sp eclrnen .:l'seU' tDl8Y' boum;:e ,3 nUle ~n 'IIio ~I!JIJPor'l alnvll "a nd ~ h~5, wi~ I cause :81 fa~ se Iread~ ng. ~ h8ve Qn~ of' tl, e!1H~' ~ ~5, sean in flg. 4SH pj c ked up 'a'i an ,BU'cri,o,jI"i s,ale {,Of 8 Iroany sillv price, and nnd tlrn:!'1 it ,9 ~ves 'e'xr;e ~I en I: e:~'m'fJa'rflrlve. 'figl~r\F!lS 'wl->ler'i sp-e(c~ii!"Lens, ~Ire 191 ~ [Ii e sa rn e ~ilB. bu l untU the tool lis, over yin, SQj us r:te' the! res'u Il~ tend 'to b ~ low wh~f'I compared With t~.5f.s dOfU±!' 0111 the ,s.g,mfli' pilec~ with ,a Vk:kars: instrument, C:!llm p'a rlsen of Ha rdDB·S;S, N ulm bEfJ'\~L The cl'lI'oi'ce err' which il'fast. t.o US,iEl is onen made,

nun eensldera '~Dm~ eth e r than

" lb' 'I' ., T'L.. 8' 'II 1-.," ~

oClmpa~a .1,1'1,'1. ,,!te ,fine, rnaenme 1$

~o.$t €rho n used for the so:fte r fllr..a~ 63'5 of S[BJ3 t lEI nd has l;ne, 8d~i3Jn;~,a 9,9 that ~he~-e is, UiGr use on :neell ~ ~ cll~~e f1alado:l1~ hip wit'lll Ih'l! !',Bn sij [j1!l strengl~'h,: a B fin ~II 'te st maY' rmer; ~ave the tro LJb'~e O'f: rna rdn,g 61, 'I !erl5! ~e losl' spra'cimen; As ,all ready rtlma rked the R~ckwe II te',~'~ is q lIJ~rskl' "a n.d m uchl ll'sed in luod~.H:=tiOIl! wcwks'hops', 'ifh€' Vi-c!k,srS! 'mach ine' I e!'IlVe.S \II 8'I'V Ii tUe elvi'(h~rH:,e1 0.[ its y~Q'" ,t!!,nld b e~glU ~~ i'l l ~ \ffeI'",¥ i!I c.c ILIraf~e at ~i~lh htirod 1l1~:sses, '~~ ijt na tur~llly i&hosen 'f,o r n:);jJ~ :dee~-s; e,tc. 'Both t!he Vi'~k18r.5 and the ,S:ri ii'iill'I'1 '9w,e th t. ,ans:we-r inl k:g!s~'~mm, of impn;r.s.sion. and iilgl'ie.e ck~s@ly. at low ha rell n.;:'s'~ - b a~ ow :2 20. Whh Ifu;a.rd mla1:el'ia,~~ 'the fac'[ thal'u -[he Iri'n~n balll mBlV

F!g, 49 TJjj> .tiir.rljjW~ $J;_~ Sl:.--Iw:wC-oplI. r~ j~ a ~£lll'V U/,,., tr1,adt!}. ~~;-J;J~~'1.r.! (/~~'lJiJ'i,;gm,I~ ",~nfo/wti!d,

ctis [Or1 a nd '~he V~C'k~'rs IbHamoncl will nCi~ resliI'i't,s, 'tn al cU~erg,Ei~1"l! ce of t hf] rssu I 1',3. ThIS • ".shore" h:awC"l1'!e ss reading,s, ;are Ii!:OI'll"l'P liB rable 'j~lt.n mher rests only when the ~es~ :s,pecimre III hs s a mass, o.f al I~,as:t On(l p~tH)d (OJ) kg). bllil t h'S indioations rule reUab11e WhifHl mBking C:1ilmpBrtsons - Etg, an llIliCfe8SltiJ from ShorB 56, re SOw III i'mpiy a wiSiel O'f app~o'Xli.m m!8Jhr 1 00 poh"J [S on the Vickier:s sca,la'.

The t'ablrB' of pomp~risons 9 ~ven oil t the ~r:ld Df 'Hi iiI book. is drawn rro m a set prep~lI"edi jointly bV '~he Ameri,Cli!m S,o-cJel,y r!O,~ T'e's;ting Mate~iahii, The Amerh:;sn Mo[~l~ 'Society. aFld the .sHdel'~V of Automotive EiI1(fi nae I'"S,. but ,"l

S:titmdardl N ().:8 60 - a'b'la'i na'i:g:l e fre m most U'br,arie',$, - ;allso, givErs CO m I!larati,ve t a'b.lles. ,~I\d 'Ihes~ 9,0 dOwn to som,~w~,~~" iowelr ha iirln ess. IGma t: 1.'::am rn us';! be' ~a i!t:i;!'n in Icolmpar~ng rhe h~Khl,eSi9 ,of ,d:iff'er'EHH JC I ~SS@'$ o~ Irma uj'f,'taJls: '~lh~ '1.21 ot that (eg.1 a' slt:itsl a net iii heat trsau~d al:IiJmi 1fI~ urn all ~oV hav~~ 'ttnl6 same halrd'lfless, n umber will' IreAec~ thEil' di ffetell1~' char!aJct',e~Ts.tics of 'ne' two liit1ela~ 5., ana Oi'le ma¥ w,el~ be much har,rjer fthan (he eth er,.

The h !i!lrdflle'S;S;'BS wi'll i c:h m,~ly be ';fKp'El'Cl'ed from varlou 5 classes of' ste el depend very rnueh on the, fH''elCi~Jfln of '1:em1p ~r~~1JJJr~ eon t rol. 'I hI@! (;'ffe&tiveness of fne quent};h and, ij,n 00 me cases" the mass of the test spec~mefil. The 'fiO'Ufti!S Qliv'ell1 in m ~fiI ufaCliJrers! specifiGatlan~ ,111!1l ,r;!llways I~btalillfled 'ifrrom stalnda m 'l1j3 Sf spac'imeins;,

'Illiil'li~ 'w .... r!r..l il'ii :c- Ilat'" a 1- ls ~I --: ," \i!' -, ,.b.,

.. """ ~ _ ""'~ i!'t.' ~g !I:I! Ii! I!;II Ol:.t 5., . I)owe " iElli" 11.1 ~ i3'

hlliowingi miRy give a' gu~:d,e t,o, '[Ii e '~:EiS qlil an Il';:'lhedj, sra te,

'{'Q 43 'Rockw~~ ~ ,~o IIJld hi ~ Imaohi'Jned a l ab-OlLlr~ 80 'ftlmh'l. ~nd ij ~nc kel-Chro neMolybC'il:!il'lll!.i'm ,~Uoy steel, haruetnled i3Jl"ld 'te!miPen~d 'U} ahou l ,4.8, IR'ockw,elll' 'Wo uld need tha ,:5:lpeed re ~h.llC8d '(0 alfolLilnd ,55-6'0 'Wm'il"l {'Or Ir:e~sonalble 1;OO~ li{a~

Thifi F'i Ie li~s~t. ~ h8~e' lerft [inis ons 'tm .ra!~rl I It, is. D~ eeurse, the "t f}s,t of tne Ii rs ~ reoorrf': a.f't,er CMJ~'nch ingl' the pi'e~~ is "g~OW.rrl re' a 'me~ an d iT 'I:h=e liii!.llef' :sl ~DS off W][l10U [ tUning we, kn ow 't'htlt U' has Ih8tdl@Hl~d sucee~~rS'f'uUV'~ rw" t'I ow,e~er. d"l e fi! 9 oli:e'rs 'to eu t. the ma'tjeri8~. btl [ doe~n' L qJuhlG' ms na $I ~ ut. d:10 i1 saRlBth ing has gr.m'r! wr,ol'lg:' the hafd ness, I's net S$; h,i girl as ~ t ~.'houll d btl -for a hi~h 'C.e! r'eor1i steel, 1'na't is Fin Ell m es wi U eut '011 ue, or even pluple ~eMn'per1e d C'rFJ room s'h~,~t blL! t SI'H) uld not make an i'mlfJress~Qn on 5~ raw-cutoilJH::l~d 'tQIilI Ipoi nts, If th e W'Orkp Uli:}CS t:8';;'81S! thl.:' ,edge off U'a'e' n~iE!Ull of '[h e 'fUe you !have don every WlB'1I inde=ed.

'1. ~-1.2c,. Ct~SMln" O.,g,:5Cr {:S~lver SU~~~)

Ie: hrorne M angie nese . 'noni-shriwdC· dliiS" stee r N on-tern p;srin 9 ch~'set s~eel

:2 2 % T'1iJ1'iI gsten " 2 % ,ooba~ r hlg h '$pe~d ~ie~1 1 ,B~ llYfiI gSUl.n ~ igh :speed st\li)el

IFni! S1iee:I, 1. 2'5~ C~,mQn

'The ,aibD'IIe '~r,g a.iil"BS 'will l, of eil::l'~rS;e~ 'b e 'COn"'" i~lde[ably mod~rated1 ,by tam pB:rin 9'; fall" ,~a mCl'n steel I,athe' to-o'15~, 'te mpe'iiil n9 to 1 !SO g wU I dJro,p 1:h,e' hall!lJ'f"~SS by n e m0l'18 tbaif'! ,ciflJel poh1't 01'11 ttna- ~~'Ie', and J2iOO~C bV twice as; m llJot1'. Clu'bon ste,e' I Ull,m p erred '~o ·'blu e" (31 0° C,~ is jU!:lt ftllci':fifil e:abl"B, ,at a Roekwe.~ I "'C'" fig!Jr-e; ilfll me ,re;g~ @in elf 5,6- 58. .At. ttTI e ,other end o~ the ,s~l,e;, f(\uocuttingl lmii~d Sit~,eL lI11a~~'ne,ilI,bT,e all :200~ mi n" wm have';aI Iha'mne~s eq tJiv,iiI:le n:t to ]' 1 00 '~lTle' '-~IC·· 5(;fJlle h~vh ictn ilS, not IalPpropr'iate' 1"0 'm:ei~.1iI i as soft a's 1:hls;;' lh e B,~u i'lE!,n ng,~lre 'W""'UIII.d' 'il..r.I '" ,c,n, ~I ~~,' ,1ilI. 'il g.1!Ii.JI' I;;i"-I...'-I 1 'I nt

,- 'i.,I" ~1iJ IYI "",: ,I!l;lI''V'''''! Q,',"""",~ ~. u m ~~ U:;:!!!i,~" ,. ~ lie

Chlnm e $,t,ee II, On qlli onche da:nd '[e IiTIlP~ red

€nS~6 7 R ookwe iii • ~C" 64-65



,15~-. 85


Con ~I u'!!,i1on.. The rnHiaultv Wi'lli h ardn BlS'S I)umbeii',s ls that th 0 ~glh ~: kfi!OW'd ,subj~ ~Iive'lv. wI"! at h iillrdl!'lleS~ ; s, an d wha't ~l does. it i$ very drr~i ~IJ.d ~ '[,0 devi~e ~ me,ans or' m i&afSun og thi'j$; qu,a ~nv. By convent'1:o fJl irN!' !S'urf'ace stress needed re O:aHJISi!£!' ~., i'.nd-en'18tion un del"' ,!1!, kn own I~o:a d lSl, u sed b l!Jll 1 hi:~ de~rly h es lim'itstion5; a m,tU~:If~a1 wh~ch w;as· very britt'le would n et '8c:cep~' ~n in denter w['rtilllou t. :spHnrteml fig. 'Hl1owe1oi!e-r. by' GUlStOn;, 'th,e B rill 8111,. IRockwel~. aWl d Vicker,$ 't,e-sUi, a nidI. 'whhl n Ic~'~ ~peGi~1 ~pp~ iC8ticu"!l; t'fU! Shore. are' 8eCepth~td, Bfl d €li!InI be used for comparin.g' difl:e[lB'~t 51:eel:3 'c'~' even diffunH11~' ITHl!i~eria ~s i'f' drUl~' lGi~UnCon

is used, Th e' mod el Irang1.n~er shou Id net, h 0weVeJf, be' to 0 eeneerned ~bout ,~11I od!d d~gTi!H:~ d~ff'eifl9nce, on the Roolhrj~,alll Of I:ri'ifle II sC'ale S., IQ:r me e CI ilJIV,E1i'lemt I(:H1! ~'I;'ie 'Vicker5~ 'f'~'r lt is qu i'~@' J'lI t] rmalli t'O 'find! a difiE'lien,c'e ,of '~,li1a p:Oi~TI {tin IR'D~kwl~11 "C", Of 30 ,dii'lisiofilS O~ ~ til!~ Vickers !be twe~'1'!1 dHfenuiI-t t:eSts OV'!U' the tutti FIg surface' of' the same 'loci. These. dU1eil'"e nee'li are· P ai'rdV' due' ~.o ",e>l:pell"imen,'t,.,~ error" i'r.l f@ladingl the ,rnicf,asaojJei' O,U eli'el, p,Ii111¥ t,o di'ffer:e:nci1."s in S!!lJrh;u:e fini~h ~!"I! '~jhe I[:)oinl: of m ~8SY(@mflintr and pa rtlv tn actual han1 ne 5S dm'el'efrOlFi~. So. if YOIU are !D'ile red at ~It\ee~ wJflich h,a mens; to 6'7, a nd '~ihe sort' you '111 t'I'f1m a ny, use .. Qn~v·· glivE!$ ,113,6 J' d O'iift W1C.Fi''!{ 10-0 m uch ~

~'n IOI~


urna 'c' "S

J • ,. i· .. .-. _

- - I ". ',~. ~.' ~I

G,as rr::j,ring,. I h lViii' ,f!'iruadv rere!rred b.r-h:!i'fly '~(J, ~he difil,cliJl'[1 es wn1ch ,a risa wi'th ga s fir vn~. The d e:~;'9In O'~ a cern bustlen ellllu'n tH!:r" d!~u~'s !!"~'~ U i'!!,I~ spa ci,~~ i~,·r know~ ed,ge. and 0'[ a. DUrn"i!'v" eva n fill e~16! tJ'fld ra lot of- e,xp$'riment. Th e om; n~ ry "toreh" -,;iair or !!n:d~-bl~orWn - is inle.ndf!d 'to p r.OdU11;0 a Hs'mE! which can be dbected a~' th~' work, wi'J erE!'~S l'Or h e~1"ing :~I ml:l:ff~e yo u need 0111 i3: wll teh d'istr lb~tes the haa [ sl d,eways rath ~r '£11 D n vefrtic8~ tv or "at a pcOi~ nt", Th Ell •• C"' -sha,ped rn lUKie' ii"afenad ~o on page !57 is: norm ~I ~V used 0,11 ~ he U [i I e brs"ring hea rth, wll1ich has a fi~;&G s~d 8- bu rn er ,85, iN en as ~he '~W!2i' b~O'W[OI'iClhes. The 'rf\] v@·bncke rsuppl i ed with 'th e he<8fft hare ,s,ltz,ed 00 tha:t th ~v ~3n. hra' a rra nQJ!ld ,eI rOlil nd lhe ImlU fHe itse l!f M djfe~t the flI'aJm,e pmperly. 11 ,i~; rif':t0<S'[ e'ffectiv>e', a rid whe'" I wa~ "en T Qwn 9 a s" I m\~I,b~1 ~onsTidfl! r,at~ I,e U sa 01; h. If ya u are co nsidering ~ m uffie of 'ttl I S sort, b ulilt i nte a hOI me -rn ade he,a Mh. 'lna n a ~et1:9r 10 Wim.alm AUda V' " Ctj,.j ,A,liCOs ~ Wo,r!lts,_ 5'~,c)iu rpc n, on'S eve m, Wares; 100'V ~ .3 gAP. shou I,d' bring V,O u de1al1s c,f 'tl1 a aria IiIg.::! rnent used. '~Qgeth of with a qIU otl t,i C 0 'fC if' ~lhe, m IJ Hie'.

A f!m:alt ~j fiI!1lUiHWeml~~ i I men tlonecl en page 58 and in IF'ig. 31 ,8 sm aU tu'be 'fu rln:ace which I IFig up '~'fom Urn,s to time'. 'fh31. Ei 0


gives 'the deta~ ~s" 'The tu be' its, a pi',e C·S' ,c,t 1 , ~·n. b!LIre g;tEH~1 'el<nau5t p,ipe. abau[ 1 6,9a~lge ,For hB'~ting: wUh.a 5kLgh~ propfiH'r!e bumer It s:nDutd nO'I' be mora than ti tn, I e 1119. ()r~ he(llN~se the h~,~ t ling wn ~ not b,e I!Jni'fGrm The t6 nd-suppo,!1:S ~re p~eeQ ~ ,of j' hl- ~lilij,ck 'F'ossa!1 ell bricks, whh a hoh~' bored threu g h wi'[h 8 uarli'k-Clnter U~ sl:Jli't [he [\,:ibe. Vo.lJ wiH notice 'Cna1t' this liol'~ ij,s' neanu the- top ~)f the bif1idk than the bcttcrn, ThCi'gl'Ve space 'for the ~ ~ rn e' to dev:9:iop p rep 8'r~ bel(~tW' the tu b ~ One of' 1'h'9' [;;Q res from the holes is u sad as a p~nlU:lrM~~'[ plu:g ,~t'lhe r'tl,r'e<l1!d ,iflid ,IJ homem a:die thre U rnooouple tor ev,em a cern mlE! rei 9 ~ ,0 fie ~ elf! be j'fiIsertJ3ld It hrr'ough a Ii o~,a In [~Ie '~Bnn,e OT ~t. 'The ctl'1,e;f eere i's '!all ~ghflV t~ p~'red a Iild lH~ed .~!O ,~1~ se the '11",0'111 i!:!'lid holding itwuth hll1lgS. o'f~our,ge_

The: 'bl!rrn~,r llS"~d' irs. ~ Si1:evelrt No.;2,<951. wl1'icl'll 'Is t~1h{l1r toe ~i1:Ilrg~ .. but cam be tt;u'ott;!,ie:d !back Ofl(:e: the '~'lJb'81 is, ~p '[0 'tern ~ r,al'~lUnl). it is, of: 'the tYPe! which used to be known ~S' ,ij '~N eek-mbe" b urnsr with 'th I ,:ali r e Iltri ~r1I m ~IT~ holes. ,~t t!he ga:s'fee,d end lot '~tl9 tube,.. C:urren ~ 'lfP€! 5, an~ known as . ;Cycionill;f' bum en;. The f'fIamlo is d ~~e~IEld t,~ h B!ilil U~' t!he firebricks (or ··Ho.!(f;~oo" br~Gk'$) and [NOT dliil'elCt,ed' et tha iUlbe jtsQI~~ wh:ieh ts h'e~1ed bV n~d.ia'~io'n

'from me hot ibrickwQ Iik.

__ .J


ALlL.. BRICJ($ 'FOLSA'l N' O'R HOT' FACE' r'f j;il'f_

A 9" x >4 1'/21 ],~

B 9--.l(~, '!I i 2,'· x ~. ~ '&:tE DE (.0. ~l

C 'Q.:...q -'~ 12" ~ 'I" CUT I N' HALF

D '1· orr 3,. 'ifH tc ~ ~ F r-I E EDE'D

I n the j;J ho't'Qglril'p h, F i'g; 151, yC)U can s~,~ Fl;Q. 511'hjj tf./llfllE#!i ill flu. SDin 1tI:!,~I"I'

th ~ t U~ ~ bu ma,r I,S rj; flS C~e d betVllE!:af'! tWOI

brioke n h :al'r--bn-lcks ,on Ul€ 1 eft-ham d side I b~ t -as ~ ruD,8: II use i9 'full br;ok with ~ "mouse' 5 I, D,le" cy t in '~he bottom. Hot gaJs'e$ "cape fro'r1I1 a 9 ~p be'~wee n '~,he top brtek.a nd tn~s, 1 rom one - a sp 81 €9 o'f a'bO'ln ! in. h;: suffichnu. This Itule J;Ur.'t~ace' heats UD In abou t .5 Imi nu tes, ,EI nd is n at i:1MS ~~pe nsive in gas as t he bl:l me If SI'ite m ~gll1'l sUl~'ge st. 0 nee '111 i3J b ri,ck~ ~fe: ~ d h ol '(~9 e ga,s calil be: turned down considBrao'ly. The re is nO ra,a son Wi', s !.I,Ch Ii 'fu rn~lte ~Jiauld riOt be madffJ !p~rmaI1EHTL witn .he brkks, roil! men ted ~og e ~ h,!!r wi'r.l, '~I'rocom ern r but I arn a bit short ~,f' S'~a,c{l' 111 'this dapart- 1ill'E'fU:1 so sll1l1ply k'eep the 'tWO e'ndplate'S iltnd rh e lu'b 9! and lIlu ill d up the rf)~~ wh ~fI, (1


1$, rJ~eded. ~ IUIV~' used ill! 1 ~p'TI1I'l: ,lJellaillil1 bhJiw~,~m1P ~ ill the' sa m Ie 'wav. ~ LIlt "I hi 5 needed lV!.i'IC8 as, Iiong ~Q ~ge:1 up '0 ~elmpemturre. h WiQuld fn2rve bean nerrer. IOC~ h~d tllU the b,ri~ks !lee" of he IF'cS1sa1 tn 'typ e!. ,B;,!..I'~ i~ d1d ~ he wo,rk n:q~ i,ted ; t. around 780gC.

l\hnuII'B~ h;. ,iJ smla~ ~eji' dl amete-f b.lbe' can b~: l(J§ad, bu r ~w I~ is at all II IOllga'll" tth,~ n 'I:I'iI e 6 ln~, ~:abOitJ ~ ,4i irL, "hot ienglt n" ') you ma,v need tWo srn,aUer bll! n'hn~,; O'r keep rn ov]n'9 the la rger one {t'Om side to 'side. I hays beG'" meen in 9 'f'~'F a long 't~ m,e to devil SiB a 'ran-'5hap-~iI haad fOf t:h~ bu rne r, rranh er I i!ke ~t11~iSB used 0111 pill int~51r1fi~ing torches, bu~, ha~s' not had th e Ii met' 'I Such a he~ d 'WCI'lI I d dis1:r] b ruI'l'8 t he I, eat s;dew~y~ m ueh be'~,te,r. Furnace' 'vo,lfI1;ro~ wou r.d be EI'S!l~fhlr. too. In [his 00 iillil eCiC:~on! If(\) IIJ must ncn b a ;temp~'ed 10 1inJi fry '[hi n~s up bV hea In n9 the.' '~ube d~ rE!<::dY!I mI h 'wil I only 9f'ow oo\~d, .a~;ii!ill1. Once' tliL~ 'fjtebrick ~s ~·u,[ ~~, 'is, only ,a, case of m~now ;;uljULstrr'h ef'litlS 'itO 'the! bt! rner te ke~, ;9 ~t~aidiV iIlrflim fHlI'f,artur,ej, and Ofllce' ~hiE! bricks a M' hot fJ~ ~ (J'V8:r '~!he m ~me' OJb ~ k;eep~ pr,eny :~u.e,adll.

E'I!e.~t'l'lc 1I-..II'at;iml'g., Th ~s is JiI~,he r easJe'F ror th e he me CILl nstructor, but lh~ fum ~ce wi n b~ m,aifkedh'~ 5!£lfwEn ·rn ~',eachbng the ope r~tin,g ,UUll PltlJUI t u ra, Yo IjJ wlill a,ppmda le'thin a bun"! e:r :BY c'h as: tilt t lust fI!1I'f! nlion ad hi;! s a m;ax,jlmu M' DUl.p;U I ID,f SOlfflfa:~1hi ng II ike 'liB k:W. alf)cl (in e~,~u:lm1 e ,e'leme n1: lof 'Ihal ca p'~ GU1y w.'Ould !ll'tr13lin VDlII r POW9f Sl!Jpp~i,~s :SOim ewh ~1: Om t!he 01:h'~r han'd. e1ec1 r1lJ helJ~in 9 :ts, de~in, sHell"lrt aJJ'id "[!!l,V to con'tro~' - iIlllltoma1i',r:a'lly lilf need bl>e,. llUn~ is 1 ~l:t~'e J"li:sk 'fro,mffili,re. Tna' on e th un'g, 'th~ti must be bannie ~ n mhld. nowBv8,r.'. 'is, th art vo~ ~f,e d eal ~n g' W'~I! h ~ I':flha ~ 'IIID ~r~'.ag;es, ~ nd m'us:E pay' f@ a Uy s-trict ~rttenlion to Selre IV' if1J ~e:s as 'we~ i la:;;, t,o 1.t~!B I. E.E. regu,~a~ 'lions. Alii m~tel 'pe,ns m~ S,'[ be e'l nhed. propeir '~n:5u iatil!Jr1 m~rm rials appnedl a ~d - ru ~e No. '1- the[ 'S!IJ,pp'~y S!hou Idl ALWAYS be ~il~ch(!>d liJff 'Vii nat~ cih~lr9 il'll:g !DIn' d~sch'.l~ifrf1lg

tn ell 'WQrl~~ The' mill !lEl:rhsJI fr-om wh wij rEI:wotli'Jild 'm~ffles, or heating: tubes arre made 15 not a ~ e!d;ect i [f'lsldm W r.

WOUlnld M'UlHillei_!il:~ f urnaea rn U!ffles re:adv WOy nd aria ,~vaiI3ble hom Mles:srs ~i'a n enllll:iia mJJ-s., Grifffn & GI~o.rge Lld. and O'~ ner !;a b:or:~l1o,ry eq[uip ment 'SlI! ppHell"s, lil'1:8Y ~~'. ~nl ~8r01 • 'spares'" f'Ot fu macer9: 'simHar to 'that sasn in IFiQ. 32. SpL9.\ch~.1 lnsula [in,g mlal:tria ~ wll~ be: ne'la,detr ,~d[aJcen~ '~o 'tn~: fnuffil!a' i''[S2CJIf. and this, too. '(;;8 III b~ h~d '(Tom [he sam ~ SCH.I rca. O'UI'~et 'h~su Ilatiofl< can be' '~he' 9 I ass- C! If !ii:II~ -wcc I ]fiI$i.J,I!~tion, '1LIi~!3 d in (e.,g.) ,AlGA ooekers a rou nd ~ he fi r,ebo~. Amini mlUim of :3 in. IOf!}orJd he'a ~ in~U1~ ait+on i~ f'~ g IJJt~~d. Qthe'fW'~$1;:! th e heat liiJSS to the ca'se' wil ~ pr',lS'Ven'[ '~'t.le fu rn aoe 'from re a oh[n g Irs plr'QPe;r (emp8r,~tu re' ~ til ~ elern ~fi!'~ 'r~ ti~g ;~$' CHili V' about .2 KW., 'The IOU ter ease itseU ;j s - or W\~:S, - usuaUy Sv~m:l\a:fliV~ sll1e er, ebo ~t 'I' hit th iek, joi!l1ed 'wUii ~,ttf-'talppit~gl ~C,i'ews. ibut as: th is, Ii::orlrtiaiins, asbestos ~t ~5' in,Q,W repb.lC~ d by sitn 11sJJ m8'[elria i else d on Ctl'~cilll m s:mCeiJJte. 'fhrs may be ri1I,V'aR'~abl!B' hom bu~!d er's su pply Im~,rch'~r1!~ s ibu't i'f ]111 difficu ltv M'e-8Sft;: C~pe IIlISUI ~ati'on L~;d. Was'tdngton .. T¥lr'IIE!I &J WIB:iiilif NE3'-S BJL, (or Ii ~ ~he ~r I ~ ca ~ offictl s) C,1i n g'iiVt:l 'th'e ad~r~ ss of itlne nrel~r,esa ne:tBile r,

'the alc~ua'~ 8 Fringe mem of 'th!!: fu Mice'S :i s, a. m,a1:~rE!ll" 'Ie r VCiU I" own ~aJ&'re and 'hllgenuity~ DOii!"u torget thl~l the· ,door nseds i IfI!SU 11:!:U:inG' (a' pl'fic:e c,f ho,t-fe d,e' br'~~* wlll ,steN.e'l and. n it has a rm3~tal haJn d lie., thIs li'i!e~cls ~an:hnn9., 'Vou ClIrIl fJdrl ~ PVrOrfi'l8ter - ~'ndBiBd~ II would mo~t svofllg~V .advise this, as the virtues ofm uffle he at! IIlg 8 rCl' c:ons~ d e f'Clib Iy d ~ fiIl'l nish e d o'tlh!Bf'W'i'se. Th Bi!!!iiEl' C!3in~ of CQun;'E:;, be' obla~i!1~ d tom th~ ,s~:m ~ ~Oillr,C~ os the rnurM~. cc mp'l e'~:e with '~ang:e flOf S~ ~ewln~' to' 'the case lEI nd a brsck;e" 'till' hold ,the h-fdlh:;;rtc r. ComlmB~cia~ 'fu ma~'s, Q re' fvutEl d WI th'3 "'t heumna ~ 'fuse"'; daj!~ is. n @' m~ rE!' ttU!I n ;ttl p8~r lort r,ods Ip~01eGt'ing if!! 00 'tb~' Icihambe:r.

f1;~. i2 . rhi!l' A:\1J~thll1 ~~i.m h~';. w#r ('cfJ~~r iii kir. ~C"t:lti'.fj!l!'~L" nilnil fJ«ff'~hUJ. ttdl.

In'Y~!il!,t'ed (!r~ OOlJrse., united vfiut~ ,~ ~iife of' 5Ur~~"a'b~e~ me'ldng 'polnit ~51i~\Jer for 1000oC. ft.lf e,x!;! rn pie 1 ,all"! d wr.r,~d nn S~ ~i'~s wh'h the wlndingl. I" thle '(um91ce O'ile'f~r!lJns ~fii,d gei'S too h®r{ the fuss malts ilnd curs ,off the,


A R,a d i ant EI~eme Itt fIJlrmace Kiit. 'Fig. 52

is ~I phcto O'f a 'FIJ mace destgln~ d bY' lilJnth,Si ~ IEI:e.OYDhiaillt Ltd. I nrl,!llera I Ml'u]Pld! P@ nth PH 1 ,3:IE'E S(pecifica~ ~y fOil!' nom e eonstruetlen, ~The 'phO'~o wa:s ~_a ken. by '~he way', oofote! th'B eSSen tial ,e:aJn1iled >9 us m

- p91d !been ~j'ued lover- ~h8 '~ermina~s). '1'1 can be bun~ Bi'~ heir as altl~ 8; If.(W 1II n1 t !fa ted at ~ ::3 $,0 I) C Oii wft Ii ,a ,4, KW ~ oadTng fo ii'

lOO(;! C. The j,art1e:rr is p rob a b'~y :adaq Uiot!j hlr all model eng~ fII.@ra:r.~ng p iUlrpo~e:!i.. The

ea Ung 131 elli ent;s in ~,hi:s, ca !ie' are Si~ !C!O,!1 ea !'bide fi~ds. Ilhre ~'nd$, Qr which .can be iSi:een 10 ~he ph 010, an d' ttl ~,e' a r,a 'set in 't Iile' laP of' lhe' ICh~mber. H eati ng i8 <!! ntinlirhf ra,d.raJn~, b un I: WIi) uld advise iLI!:se irs to ~rilfilQ the' fy mace up 1'0 nlmp~HiI ~<lIJn~ b efOfie pl.u1'in g il[l ~ Illy 'wOlrk h odu~ rwlsE!' t:n ~ UlPper i.6llJliace' ~s ~:iable' UJ !be hi e'fne.d '('3.!lUEW IJhan

thrlH~ '1Ioweu', The furnaoe i.ladv ~Sl maJd~ ntirelv mf' H D~ FaOi' ~'nstJh!,m:lrig ,8 ru~ks ~1~i'Gh are Si~WIiI and (h~nild te 'the' detali

drawl !flO :~uppll:ad bv K,e rnhral. Ibu~ tlhe ,ehamber b~s~ is a $i'e:c1:a1 m,tracw:ry plate whk:,h wiH stand 'mrSll'8 w,~~,r aln dI' U!'ar t~ Ia iii wi~ ~ Uile SU ri:~ee of 'the br'icks. flg'. 5,3 shoVlfS :sBelioo!i1li views 01' the fu rrmce, - the slliEl: r s, of eeuese, detenii"i:ined by ~h~ number Df" e ~eFrll"ie i'1'ts. '1!JSf;! d. '11113 rmo~tal' O(iIil'lfO! is, 8vHUabl~. bur~ trilltl':lBf e~pensiv-e'. and ,Ell si~ple e fJ1etgy COnlf1g1.le r is rea' qu he 'ilN:h~Q'IiJ:~ne. A t lIlermoc:o!J Il:~ el ~pylioMetflr is, a III IS S~(:! Filla ~ i"f' tne be:S'~ is to

. ,

be' 'QCJ1 DU t rO'f the eQu ipm el"lt. this., once

bl.l i~ m up. i's iii IpratfeJs$ionell Furnace w,~lhcut '~he n cH1na~. (::i! 5~!fIg ~ r:Jd hing ed !i,}i' .sJ idingl door. ~I'l d ~ h~ ch eJmb er ~.rz;e 'is[ mor·~ t lanl ~d:~(:J !ll.l:l'tJe l:br m~t mo d'el e IiIgn ne emp 'E"iettrh~ Tlibe fUFliU1;ce .. Over the years !:ill nlilim b er D~ ho m e-m;~de e I,ectri It; tu b e furne! C€I S ha~e been d ~~oribed. IU;S filg or(Jh'Hny t'!'lec:uic fare 'elem ems Bnd home 'fin~d ce ~am~:o tu b it) s. ''Jh ijre a ~e' sevatal hidClon p'rob~e'ms. Th e 'fn ts~ is 'd18 [ such ,elrElmeli11:~, are rri:n,ed ~Q 'wrnk, i'n jRnsiB: a~r - i.e~ 'los; n!dl 'lhes't ~s f~s·t I~!'S they can. Ones 'lh i'V ~f\B ~noa.sedJ, h1 'till':iUl ~ati Flgi m i!f~eiri!a I 'l'hQ 'wU I 'j;ap~d~y bu t'fil au [~, Tiley mus:~ be ,denil tlad 'fIe," 'r!UlfirllaCe wo(k~ 'Sec,c}'!1dl, i ( irs m:n easy to mlak,e, iii 'nfa-Oe'fn~fIi't 'Ui be 'wittu;;;rut

!!-I ,EATr.ti.IG_ UtE:MENTS.

~~~~~Sd' &c~\f'~'ll!O~C, .:Iiof~ -12Ci!O'II'C

S~ !!.LIMAW'I TlE 1F1 .. OOR


( n:trf.ii£,'UIl rc ~JEC 'n€!N)

1F,f,IJ~ 138 OtJiltfTfI dD1JJi!3, of'I1n!rIiu_I!i!l..ll!G'~ I5'Ff!wtIIll1i F;g &2 NtfJ IN.~ Mf\'ti!i"b~d/~,li if ~r wlrJJUi!!I! ~hi f,i:l,r4j..

bll sters ,auld sipa~ li IfUdl. Third, such a lu be is !J~'!Jai IV ve'ry fragi le. ~fI d h can not be stllen~thf.i ned by rno ul d ~ng it· reund a' is [eei tube ,iiill~ sorne fin aik.ers hi;flve ~,~g~IEH~l:,€d; the ~x:pilinsioFi of 'rhe 'U.ilb~wm blurr~l die Idifl'l(,

Ho-we\, far those wiUfng 't0i sxpefL- mern. ,and mC6 one or 'twa 'Fa'~lure:5 wi'th ~C1 ua n~ m ltV. F j'g. 54\ sh ows '-h Eli ~.ta9,es·' n m ill king' ttl! ~ (IU be r The • 'rn ~'!Jlld" ,15 a plec ,00f' ~t~)BI ~ ube of tl1 e desrr,ed inte rn a I d1am ster, f'!..H''rl~S hf!ld with ~ WC!l 1'1'1 h::k nf'.s~, we!lher~, Waxed paper is wound nJUlflrJ d',9! tube - ltiIF-a'e layeni, - an(j On1' 0lnd1[C1 I'a [liii$! Or soac.e:rs are g'~e ssed, The ·t~I'Ie.~um9nt lthar s~en is .• ; I(,Qs··) is ma'd€' Int-o • 'worms" of iii ~ckrm e ss j Wist over h ;~H the desired tblckness oi the tu b:e, rTh 1:=

Fig.. S:i\'I, TlI~ ""hPj' f{lfflteff. whirl) ~Mr,rfti ,,~ ~~Vl}l-mJ "'~ iWSNml;Jj_ji)It/, wm~m¥ II' worm" tihil ~ Is i'I;:,J~ .i/r~r.."'" N'1 [ ~hflu~,) {Jnd ltrli' rYb. ~~t#· firing. 'rhr: ~ MJdul'g IU'l.f l!J,1

(;fdr~t'f.('jf M~ "tf.'fJI4ffi/ 11" ~ ~W, ..

IF {;g. 'Ei,5· Witldtl.1~ i'hti! ~!'4t1JU'I'I~ ht rhi . hdiJ!!... N~ fifo!! ~1'I;tli:b In !iMo . ~'li:elJ~

sho,uidJ filG'I be more than ! in. and 3/16 is ti$t~'I~'d r 'The'se 'Wcrrrn:3 are then wou nd to lUI"! d o!Veer I'h 9' p.:a'p@ r I ineir and weil' ~JJe~d ed to 9 e thulf' • fhe H n'i I: I ~¥ ~\t 'Is

~~ lowed! 'to air dry. and lh en a second ~ a id D!1 ~"ClIl, th i;~; 0 F.J€I be·ing smoc thed iii nd me'a,9'€'d down IJ.IlS~1i 9 the· tWlO e 110' wasl1l9'fS as guIdes. lhis roo, ~'S ,a'ilr,-dried for se\l'a'ra~' dlitlfS 00 n i hot ~adj'ilit 0 F., fJlfte r VII hi c h [he tube ~s· withdmw n, I'f: ~t· sticks, a b I OiW~arJF!tp ean be cll racted down the ~ Inside 1n 'rur~' th,e p.i'Jlp af" but en '1[10 aceeuen rnu st th ~ fJ'rec,emeJ~:t tub a be maid i;J' rEI ~llrv lot in tihis Sl agleL Wi ~Jhl t hlll'l' stee I '~u't;N:!: ~;d rncu~d 1'1l!'~ cement: m u~t be flll rl~' er ~ ir-olrfe:cl. an d 'I he ~Oii! ge r til is I es [S 'the b~ ner - up to a Well; k! ~'[ m liSt' 'then be · 11 ~ed~'. ~n d ~h ~:s: proce5s m'Us1 8!'~O be very ~~Qw. fThe p roblern IS tlnn rnoh.mH~' ~ III ~ he int erier m~y 'form

;stea rn noekesa whi en II ih th e su rir'H:'e~. F i 1"£1' MCI m thefl'ilside· Vli~t'~ a br'I!III'i 1'19 [OfC''h, L,l'ery

~ -1' "'~·llil'" r - 'f-" ;i.... '~h ,'I - -. - 'r - it' II" ~ .... """"d i.-. a'iI"'

.p ~"'. :r ,if)!I;:,I,I'lg i,_ @ ~emD~- ~hUJ_ e. IL.-V !In _ IIIeGn.

f 'any :sp,eilill S f(j i'lm, ~hese c:a:n be' :10 lel'l~~ed Olff arld · 'patched" with flr~C~m@lint.

F1;l. 156 rftc. ~il1 ~~i.m;fjfl't, !iW~h 0J'ii" cd ,t~ ~r-j~rl' (#1jg~ on. -~ 1BfNJ'lJ~rJ ,1!!l!I'lt .I!'I'q Ji'-hili ,f;'~l m.t~ f!MJJdfltJ fo$-lIJ ~I' ~o I,!'ts<itJ ,tJJB' 1r:lJJ(J, - 1!11tf~ ~~

You will n eed lWO el,alf'! eo ts, ("(,o,m ,t he lo~a'i e~Qletn4e stHlP'. Qf 1 KW' ra~Lng. Care'f.l!Illy unwin d 0 f1te by 1 h rENi!I dung. a I'i!! Filgrth O'f 3/1 e ~'F1+ 'Fod ~hro'IJgh an d puliling offlhe 'wire. Av.oid kif! ks:. M@i:3,s Ulre. ttu~~ Ie ngth, Oint! then w~ nd 0 ill to a bob b;i n, Unwi1rld Ipart of 'the 's:~cond 1~liI3>mlera, :a nell eu t ofF one 'f~r1:1'1 of i ts ~e.l'I g'th. Double thig 8i1l d twi 51:. t'O ma~e' a lW un w~ r~~ Th~$, ow Iiii' the n !be cut in two 10 form the GDIl~UHi[i ng wires. ~n d ,iii! 180 ·;Se F'ilIfiSi 10 red!l..ilc~ the appl ired volla~e to the' aetu 181 h 8atith~, elern eo t, You will, fie E3 d two srn 131 i con- 11 iC't-ors rn ~ d,~~ by crrm ~n'9 t i'i:,. ,stee ~ red t in. and t~pp1ng 'feu ~wo aJ,),a~! SElfl"S'CIfle:ViIS:

t.t.U!. 'stenda rd brass connec'OI~S 'wi iii net 40. ,as ~ he' ~ emrp e'f,!i:UtJre ~~ too high.

Ma'k'tl h'llo woeden plu;~ '0 flit ins rd~ U'Ui!' cement '1ulbe~ en e W~th a C€l ntre-h ol,e in 'rrt W~nd, Iron w,Gr1E' reund eaeh eodi of t'h~: tu ~H!!, ,taIbOlJ'~ i in. fro m 'ttl ~ E! Fldi; and 'lwi'S1 tigh~ trv: ,t hese ,~tl&! the anchor ,pobns, 'mr the ends, of; th',e el~lm ern t, Thij's' wi]1 be wo und, en llI:sinGl d~ e ~ ialthei.

From th Ii '~IilOWfTl h:m,gm e'U th e ,slem en t, iiind thi8 di',[i,m ij!ter of '!he: tu b a 'Y'O U can GidJh::~uhne: 'fha' filumb:er of turn s, S~d!Llcl an :aasy 9c~l.n!nt-~u'rtting; pitt:,;1"11 wniCi~1l wlilll, perm i'f '~his number '(j!,f turn S, On tne bobbin - 5QI!'n e1:h ing bI1~ee:n 1 2' ~EI!n d ~ ,4 'l,p1- wil ~ IPfO'ba bJ i!f .se liVe. Se'l ,iii! of wond in th e tcu:t,lh o~ del' wi'tll ill n o,u:h 'to g~iide die, w ~rl~ ~ Fh)~ ,5 S,l a nd artaeh one en d ,o't ~he, ~ ~eme lilt to ~'h e ~al1$tlO(:k Itl1d a rich or~ ~E!!aving abou t 'It! fe~ ]ineh~'S Ifme. lite~,p a '!fitl ir ;tE!n5iJ0(f1 0" ~'he wire' a nd with rhe I,!a,~ ne rulnnin,!lJ ar~: ':aJbm.n 50 rpm ~ ~i!nd ion the 'Wilif€!'. AI Uhl~ other I~nd. ancholll' 'a'he Wllre aS81 ifI .. No'h~'~ if valli! !levI&. mOI',e ~han i fim:t: h3'f~: 'O'\!'flr burt le!is '~'h8n 8 ~alf1(1", do n"'t wo r:wv. :but rtf dlere is more 'tha n thaI vou st; ould

.J1e,..'~ind wiH~ a finer' pitch, If: t h:e wind r 119 d'C) as not :rea ch 't !!l'E!: ~ nd j use yo Ij r judgm:enrt a,S! tio Wh81h~'r '[0 '~olerate, ~ she n unhlF]'a tte-cH p!8ln: 101 1'h!S' Uj[be iO ~ '[0 coarse.n th e'!: h, llhi~ PI·n of 1 he: jab 'ta!~e S ve rv Un,l e: I:i rne'. Fi,g., .5,6 'sh OW,~ the waun<l t LJb ~

The. winrHn:9 mu,SJ !flOW bl! (:QVerec wi Hl a 'v.'ery thin I!aver of ee m~ nt - !he wire shou~,d jV5,l show~ This. once set w~'lil 'WO~ m a !b i nd i n g t:D ~rE!'VI~I"I 'I, adj ale en ( (:'011 s ~ou~hing wl'!1en '~hle wij'[@ ~~pands W"th hea:t, e ef'Oi're gain Q @II'Y 'WulnheIF. ts~'t, t Fti:t ~,r.r8'!i)9 emBfi't:. AU:.a:-en :~,hG two tw,r'l'~ fOi!E!def'; voltage d'ropp er 1~:!!1gths. 'onljE!' a leach E!! nn

. ,

~nd a piec;!' of mains ea.l:ihe: 1,01 t.r.Iil'lSe with the norma I twin po rce~,lfJji n Join t'4;! r, M ia k,~ SUr'€!: 'Wuat lh1e;rle is. IIlO risk ll1f airIiV Dar!' ot the b~l'i~ wire tnu chn ng a nyth ur!.g~ and se1 a lion a pie1C{;' 01 'ffreibrick. Use a 'pJu_9 wi1'h 13' amp fuse ,a II'ld :s,wltlOh (i1i1. IDO N T' '1"0 UC I~ ANVTH ~ 'N~G,. A.'ftJa~ a she rt whUe' th e tu be ,sh ould Sf~a rt 'I @I get hot, andl ¥O~ m U:$t note '~he f,h, ~ I temper:arl;~.IiI'1~., If 'lhFS, 15 IriJQ. ben ar thaI!! b~ack., ~'~i ~ our 1be pl 1,1,9. tUI'~ abou ~ IOfl~ fifth off each o:~ ~ he ~twigted ,end 'I ength..s and uy ag!=l~ fI" If it ~~ets to ~uJ I rHd tEl odl :~ tays th ere. an shcn.Jlld 'bi9' we'U: ,(O,n'lce ~ rasull ~tad U should reach th~: di9's~ r~d, tem'p er'~I~,~res. If. hioweiVer, It. bu MS CI U t a'ftf.iiir ha ~f an hour. 'f'O~ 11 ~ed rnere em 'lh ~ tw.'!sted and ieng1tJft1i511

Or; oe s.~tisfied it is worth dC)'nng 'fh ~ ~B 5 T Qf the wOr k, IIl5U I ate 'the f,eede( w~res wi'l h ,DB r1UT.rc be'.fI:ds, and tta an m,ake up ,e c:a~.i.iIi 91 IO:F- iniS< uh;:!1 'ling' !bricks, carved our, fe~d;h;g fne W'h'iBS, outwa ms between two blr'i'ckrs. rliJha~ e ,~ term ilrmJ, blo~k from i i n, SYr! d iilIIij'VO and AM '1'81 F~' ['0 one of !tiI e brick.:l;, (If y'au use bolts, th:ellil U'U3$'@ ImUIS1 be' ea rth ed" as m.u s t -i..,. !Ii.. ~ I ·r 't!le protective 'COlVer '!l1,V8 If wrm in~,:~ I

pf m et~ll. ~·Wow VO'1i.i ;9 Fr":S nQ'e thrs ~;s. up I g YiO'Y,. b~t 'Y~-Ul 11J~.m at ilij!i€}Sf-threa linehes of

- r 'll1'6,~ CLNC E.



III BE 85mm, B()RE x. 5i!'lim. r HICK. - LE~GTH TO SUIT ~ r~IA!N'GLE' 'g'OE. H GH ,AlJJ M ~NA,.

'2.1/2.~w. ·2,iilO v'ol t W'ND'~NG.


OR 501 M ~ 1l...A:R _

TO sun. SAY '14~

'I ~ x:6. 5.1tEE L, SE LF 'liAIPPE'R S AT ,2~ PIlCH



~ L .. Iii . ,r... A·'LL 00- ·'UJI.1 D .... , ... ~ mr.n.f"!;:-- - .. ·,1'" .•

lnsula tlng DlifG;:k s'U IrQulJ"tfj. ,Anv g,aDoS ~a n b ~ 'mn~d w~~h g~O!Jnd~lll'p, 'Jrca(llmlB'll1ts. C~ose the barc'k IO:W lh ~ t1!lJlb~ wilh a .10 ri'ck pflug. 31['1 ctt (fer 'wha'!: it is WOrt!l) Just 1'~~1fi 1131 f1i r19llml'ick .Qa~I1~M' dIe' othe r ,~nd to set ~~, s ·'do.of",

I ghle tli ~~s ins.'truCil;i'ons ~'wl t hout wa UirtiWuy'! ~ Iha,\i',e m,ade: '!l,yol'ri :a f'u rn~ce ,3 nd had S~f~'umactgrv fi@l'5ult~ .. b L!J'I ha'ij"a ,a Iso h~d thr,~e bum out Ion m~ ,!:i'Men -some

months of service, 1EI1flI!l], ~even:;111 'Ufrve w~v at enee, Ot_hE! m I'1'Bve bHi 111 Ihe,m and nad ~~"liem 'in .s;~rvi~C'e 'for vears. A !g re.a r dea I d~'Pendls 10 Iii ~,I) t.he homogefi eijl'y of 'ile 0801 en r: 'it must b@ weI ~ kneaded ibai'or@ and dU'r1 ng 8'ppl;~(;!;II~ion. a rld (b) '[hu Quallity of the e~ement, You oaln, of OOUr'$t~ buy th~ prope-r 1l~-Sl;st~r:u::;ao wife ,fmm Ka'l!1fh;at S'fledfied 1'0'1" th"ls, s;eN~'c'B'. eJfi!d this; 'win not

need dera tllng a nd be tes~, :llke I V to "b,llo,w·· art' the opeta Ii n9 tempem:tulra. ITh e w~ re' ITHlr glllH lilt) to 1.2,QO,GlC with ~h@ tuha st 90Q B C) You ean, tOf course. bu V !3 t,lJJIbe" tbO. from MOil'g,~f'II, 'R efmlcu!I ri&-s. Ltd: :burt i'[ you ats going to 0'0' 'that you 'might a'~ wen buy a if',eady=w"Ou nd t U1be. eh.he F fr'il m K;:Ulth~~ E,I e-ctroile8t a r from M of;gans. .a n d h ave done whh it ~

.H ~;gh l!"e~·pe,r,at.DJ f'e, ·S8111: Furna {:9., f~D. S '7 ShOW3 mv .2.!- hi1. ~ 1 a ~n, nla.~,nral .sal'l Wu 1"i1'1l8iCe: f'cil'" ~,em pe rat ur,ss, up '~CI abo m 9 5 0 Q C,' ra·t~d ·19 t ~ list u ndal~ 2 J:t KW. This is, perh a i# ~I rather ~a:f\ge r than m!igi1 ~ be ne~d,&d.. a nd a 27 in. x 8, in. would do fur mOS,1 ,~pp~ iClllLiofl's\I bu [ it wars· (l rj·g ~11I a Uv made ~'n(r~ b~ m e) ~~ a ~ma~ ~ ~~bto\r-a lOry rlllm~oe·_ ~1!lJ'. 58 it3i 'd115l' dti3lw;'nQ_ The 't'ube is

J:j- Ih,. bot,~ Mor'!l·eu'll 90E lilign A:lun-.lilii wQlU n d with ell Kan'tha'r eJe:me n'~ rot ::2.t1 a 'Volts. J:f 'buying ;8 weund 'Iu;b~ it ts [mpo-, tant to Sp£I·Cillfy lnillll. power inpu t = ,:2.1 to .2 ~ KW in '~his. Cia:~' - U"~e' ~P'P~,h3ld vOlt1.lg'~. ~lInt1 the !l:lp\8'fatlng t~l!Hi'l1lp'ell'alUr~' erf the cer~mlC tuba, "nl~, wi~ I bs' hi'g~1 er than th illIlt' [n '~"e s~lt pot' H~"I't. sc that ,a. skateh 0-1 the fa rn'illill'gs'm ent ,. er ,a ~py of F ig~ 5·8. st, ou Id be SieH'lI'~ with the eOQulr¥1 'The OUU~1i m~$!n~ JS IOf ~ ~n. Syndanyc;l. though 'tod a'v. Of11e eif the CE!I'lciulm :smca'te: :substitutes ·rrom Cape ~ns UlI;adon lnJI wou Id [be' used. The iilllimedi ~ te insu I'artiort! m J;JJ1:8riaJ fCH.Uid· I'he

~ . - ._

ellern eli t: ts. "Trtten" 'Ka'~wool cera rn j c fibre~ suppllsd 'by 'Mo,rg8n Ceramic Fibres Ltd. '9 rome IJrougl1, Wi i'ira t L62 3 PH., The standa m gr~d!El' is ,gQed fll r 1.2 ~50,g G. but I suggest: tihel' • 'HI!gh D,~tv·· r~ted. at lil,'OO 0 C 'This is J;la.cka'ged intc the s:paee b !W~.ween 'tJi e e lerne nt its;€'lf and '1h Q h eat i nlslJll;l'lin 9 br'ic~'!ii - wh j eh ,ij ~ ~ ICUlt roug nly '1'0 Ileave 'DLbout .~ ~ii1 c,h 9 alp 'be ,we ~n thel Ii S urface iI'Uld that of. 'he el em ern. 11, e bot torn of the

- - -

lube ~ s p ~,ok,ed w ~t h ttl ~ wo 011, slsc, bu 1 'f his

must !'lot 1 iEl' abovliI (he· ~l'mt c'Oll aT rh P.' eiemJ~r:n,

Fig:. .f3:9 s !!lows, 'f.he aIC'~ ua ~ p'Ot Thls il: m gd ~ fr,~,.m d' ra~ Iil ~m~e'~, with I~' ~ b attorn welded on whh 1~'tli'~ t h" C k nf.:~ ~ I!;H1eU .insQrt, 'The: O.ID _, of dil e p 0'1 mlU 8;1. h:a ,Bhoy t 1- i n. I~ 5S 1 ha n the, b ~H:e. ,o'f the h ea'[ 9'r ~.ube', $0 that It may' b~ neC4!'ssary 10 lfi,iilI'Q'ih i n,a '( hie ste e ~ 't u b e .(.c~ ii, s'm iii' II ei

thickness. Th~5 is nli:l[ drlfl,cu~t iUid f.i n::H,Jlg.h. 'An ~s'h willi do. Tn'a: SUppCl n 'fl ;3lng~ Is. rece$~ed ,a 5 :sh ow n. fh It~ P re~e !ilts i!I'HY sJP~a5he:s 01" sallt f'fom 'ge'lt:~n.g Ibstwe·en the pol' sind 'ths h~'a1e1'rm 'The h~nd~!~ i!;hown IS n~t 'i rn ~ra nded fur Ie a ~ntilng the· pOt ,~rOLi rae.! wh ~Iil h ~t but simply to m·ake it eas.r,e:r lei Ilt[1.. A 'Ud IOf SiD m~ :50,rl ts' ni;;l€!ded. ben-tit rei

Fig. 6'1:) r~ i.u!m,itC'Iii' til '!g_ sr M/Jih ,.1\10 JY.rl c!'l!jn1J1.!'!Itd rJt~~ {n, N 181r!i:.i fflQ'lI!! t.tllld filn~wrr fflM;,rlitm,

Itaep O'lilt d in. when 'IIlO~ i n US0. and '10 Ci~jJefl" the pOI wI; 811' il'e~ea t~ ng. There is IltlIclt a slligkt rIsk ttl [1'1: th,~ lows r la:va·r;s o,f

;tI'~1t rnay rn el't and ~xp~nd Ibe'flo,re d'H~ c rust on top m;el't~. ana if' the ~ ~I:tt~r $pli'ts tOjpell1 !:meier the press ure tne re COl! I~, be ~ !S~iUln9 au! of ho,t 1 iqu ie. f fg.. ,60 shGW S [hi' fu rnaee w'hh tlila 'bOp oo'V,er- 'r@.rnovedTh ~s, fu mace h a'S· rod:' er 1 ass insul;a ~i'cHl til, n is desinl!ble.

NOrile of t hi!! di·mensiOiU'$l is Il:l r~'t I ~;a·1 - "1,0 !a c::;an rna ka thile s~ze of th'i! h e~ter ~,Ulbe. O~ ma'i tang PO! 'W ~lUlt you r needs and adj ust sin t® -:$uit. Howlefv,~r, i'[ Is: ~mporHHlt 1:'0 a'IIQw 'wr p~e'liity cf ~n:5iU Ilation - ·t he m ~ r~ the b eUe'li' as ~ his 'wil ~ ~P80d liP 'me'~ting t~,m GJ an d rEI d IJce !rl ulrr'EIlrl't censu mpliolii once U:P 'to ~\Qm:p~·!Jr,e. Reduch1l9 'tne eUs m etar O'f the POI will Hen ~!ad'!Jce 'the J,vi;u'a:11 :sh~)F: D~ the esse v~ IfV m uc~. As 10 de,p.'ltI. y'O'iJ ha,ve to' all.~w' S\.!rft.i:cire!'Cl'[ '[-01' '!'hle l~~e te rr~, as you ~mmer5e the wmkp'iece, and the top ~ ev,el oJ moU:'EH1 s,a'fi't rnu $.1. Ilw'~'y$ be· bel'ow th e tCl'P fjf' t he winding, Fh e 10:0 dlh'i!g 1]1 th e he at 1'111'9 e ~eml~ nr d'e,~ ends lEI lrnost di ra-c:Uy on tl't! e- vol urn e of 1'ne pot, but II d:on'l advise g'olnlg b~low 1000 w,aUs (, KW~ a,s, t:h'Ei' healt 100S:$'!:!5i are by Ii! 0 m,aans n Erg 1 igible.

Note 'th a!~, Ui e 'st Ba I po I' aln d rha· tlmm ~n a·1 pnx ~ iF 'Qf me'fa I) MUST both be ealr[~l ed. as th e in S1.II la't~ fl!!l re sis t a,nee' of th ~ ceramic, tu be is n !J,t [p!l1!! ,fie ct. ·~The Ct!i rr'e'lI'rl' ,fih~ uld. of oou ~e, be 5W~'1 ched. off Wl"l9rJ1 'F"n~ n~ pul,!;U~ng '1:11 ~ W Ilrk.)~ T ne[['e is ftlO res~ nee,(1 to ~Ji!;SU nate the I eads to ·a ifllcl hom tl, e heal'ling re:~s'met'u"~r but the lin'~ ceralmi'rc: bead~ used en l~oCJlic~r c~ rCll.llil:!'i ~ n d e I,emric f~ 1"1&5. anal' ;qu:i [e; adeq lEa leo Tha ~ ell.! 81 1119 ~ud'5 8n~ a COf'! tirHJiI'ti O!1 d: ~ he tie.ate r windirl g. C'UJt: dQu b~ ~d eI nd t'Wis~ladj SQ '[hat 'Ih ey 'wi U hO't' !giU v~ry Ii Il't. Th e ~ erm in a~ .ell 0 ck fs ".'

S;Yl1dany® Olr C:a~cillm 'smll::~'[e1'~ though p~'rc~I,~in '1€l'nmir.J.I511 blocks are somietlmas lilJa'i labilE!' On dil e "S~ rpl~ s" m,aI rk:e t, Th e r8g:u~ a:tian of 'I iii e fu mace is b a~'~ daniEl' wW'1 an' ·.Er! er-gv Coo troU,er;· - iii! ~herrm,o~ [~1 ic contfiQ I wo !Jld be Vrel n-y rlfxpen'S!\le. Th a se en e'~ec~'rl e eoolke rs 'wi II Il~l'1Idle 3; KW. I do "01 advi'se buUdingl h l:n'(o U11~' fu mace c.a'sing. as U,eSi~ eont,rol·1 ers' i nee rp 0 ra te a '~'h erma ~ swilc'h '1'0' '17ff""0c:t the til m ~~il[;"r~.e.rve'I$. ·:t!j·nd t~, e heat Fl0lm ~he. lu rnaee Would urps e; l hi6'm~

~,' j..h&ate:f 1B:liinkSl;~·. A relatively I"N!'W

deva I apm:e 111: is i n the f'c'rlm 0': a neat ~nsu ~ati'l1Q" bri,ek: w"'~h a h eater el~ m en ~ lL3mb~dde([ ill die 'face'. At first sight these WO !Wild sa em to· btl:: thG' ldl\!l ~ i rncdy Ie for the (;OI!"l1S:I.ri..H::'~ion Dr a sma11 ~tJ r~ [lC,e. Th ~r@ is ,E3lhm ,Ell vari.a [~c n \Ild'[h [he . '0 n"1 e'k·· in 't ne' 'fo fm of a h IJ~ law t.ube, m ~ k·jng :h ~ ~.a sts of ,a t !Jba fu.r.nac0, Th e Fe ~re lW!J P roh ~e'ms - the 'firs'I' i's lil:81 !:h€ uolts. :a~a w,oiJn~ fur il"lJO m Q:i'E rha:., 60 "'0115" 50 'lh~ f' € Tthe r a I, ehy tr3I'1s:Fo",mew fs n,e;erled. or olile rn.lI,Jst 'I"I$'S h}ur unhs. The sttCOlild is lhilt the hot fllce' of the bnkrk.s wU I not c~rrv ,all' "I ~aad: yo~ woul'd need ~, supporting ~nd "heat '~raln~ S'Pillfflnt" ·floor. or ·it iil"iE:tal tUlbo if using U,e lubu lar type',. e at III 'FI O~r .e nd ~ube would ha'Ve to be: at hte:a~ ftasisting stee' or o,f cOJ1J:siden.~b~e· th sck~ e 5$ ij'f :liI'flI 'Y 'reascn ~ ole

~ ire' 'was 1/0· ,b,e' .~:qJB.cted.. Howeverj '[he&e~ ere nO'~ di'fficlWh' problem s to gEH ~f~f and! rs,Eildsrs w'ho airel ilil~errtt~,[El'd in 1;hr~ 'Siha)~ld Write t'C M!e.sSif,s W.J. FiIj~1] &. Co.~ L{d. WiUom IR'oad, N 0[" Ungh 131m N G2 1 Ei8k The bfiCks, a!f'S knewn a,s, ··W3 tlow Ce.r.a m'it fibre H!!i3J'~er~' '.

pt elSf,s-t'SJ1Ce Wi [e~ ilil is is, ,olbti:il;inable from ·t~Uil ~:a nth,9 ~ f~rm Illrj!J(~dy reftel'll'ed 'UJj Ifrom ~,a,~'@olilJ E[ec-UiiG W~'re, 81: SmHhs, Co. (LEw-COS 1 C hu rc h RCi9d. l.enden E 1 0. ,3~ w~1r as ,oth er manu raclu mrs, an d ln SWHl II qUcUllt hies from K. fit Wh i$~ol"'!, New M ~ u s,



S,tcckp 011: eta e-.shtre. S uch ~IG'm ~nl, W1're' i~ OWl labla e;ilne II as th,~ l'i'orm'aJ round wi r~ ill ~s ~t l"ilP~ '[11 ~ I ~ tie! f'o if the' hiJg he f;" IK W -r,a!'U!l1Q1S~ The m aJter~a~ mus[ b,~, s9,lecled fa r 11"1 e Olpe IiQ [J ng tell"! p. Br;2IliUJ!f'l! of r'hf1 wire which wTII bet 11 igh,e r tha n th al of 'the 'WO rt by qUI he, a bit .. a no Ihis doe s m ~anl t'ha t d1 e advice of me manu lactu re rs, wl ~h 'I hair ,""iI'Sl e.xpe riel'llc:e, ~ s o~eded. T,C! ··'pl:;!! "(' sa r-e j ~nd 5<e'lec!, [Met 11 ighila!iS1. ra red te Ie ment WirE Ie's n b-l!! r~thl~!H' eX!pens~ve.

'The, ~noble m i:s. to ~d:f@ et B 5@,mlPa'omis.t=· lbetw--e0~ duee va ria'b las. 'ihe< owe r a i I

r~il5tanQe ne E! (h~d to n liTI'mt· t'ne CUfnnlt "ti@o the desirnd poW1e .... - '~~. for 1 Ii<W ~n ,240r\l thel res'Ls.tance at [he wor:kll1,g If.imper,B'l:u!I'e mu S"'~ be s ueh as 'tc I ~m i t 1:he;· ~t~rrel1l to ~lrOOO/240 =, 4,1'1 ,elmp<! say 68 ohms, :Nte~t. -rhe su ri.iiiI:~e ~r,ea of dlE!: w,ill's m ust be sl1Jch thc~~' it can d i~ip~1'9 this pm1V'eT,. A not ~ntypicalli rflltilf'li!jJ (is 6,5 W,i'tWsq., inch of sUliface· 'iiH\El'iJl. So long as 'the ~ Bng'~ 'lI of wi re need~d f'or " r. i,s ,~~itre rhllnl 'tis tess III a 111 '~~ai needad ~iJ provide ~ he rle~ ul,r~ d ohrnlc res.1s,tance thee e I,amant willi be sa fie • but if th e 'O;PPO'SitE IGom:HUon I., 0 ~ds., then It win probablv 'b urn out Final ~Y. dilfirf!. rrtu st be ISflo1.ll'gh mom [0 wilfil tI lh is, c:a~ CIJ~,fJ t',ed len g [11 of w1 ii~! on i~he eel ii'~ rn Ie ~ ube, 11. is no!. salre to ~iind a [ clp5t3 r ~ rtch ~ han ~'b()u~, ~ 4 '1'. P .1., 1ai5 rhera is rh en r~ sk o,f ,[!dl'i)C~" t turns rouch:i,ng ~~ch o.ttie F_

'l11,e fonC}w'~ng t~~cui:a'tio" tablF! shows InOW tau t'" gaug es of' wire have been ;a,S5e.3S(E! d ,to mee [ Iii ti:. r,e~u ired cri't:e rls for EI 1 IK.W 1,4.:0 volt h'a'gl'[er elern en t! W\k'lte 'thaI' '~hes8 'figu f1l3iSj tnough it'VPica ~j l5! l1o'u I d' ~"Ol ~la' us;e-d :~n an aetua I ~uilrn iiI.Ce.~ ~he 'table' :ES [u s~ 3 n exerelse 'bC show how to' ga" ~ beu ~ ~~he ,job.

A eqii~red eurren t = , 000/2,40 = 4. i '7 ,~'mp. !R·EiQi;Jli"r'cd r'§is-s'nce ~~ 'the Ol'~r~t'ing 'te mpennu re: 101' t 2,100 CI C~ 2: 4,l0/4. 11 7 = iEr7.6 ohm, Powet Cia ~ ei;C:'ity 'C'-IF th e wi r.e 6.67 'wfJJttslsqJn, :Sluh9,ce Clteoa. ~~eIilG8 A = 15iO :!i(1l:J'J:lS. nlJt:slde, (H~me'ler D'f heClter ~!lJJbe is :4 in •. ~ '] .05 '11. cirrou mfere,n (Ce.

Wli J@' Le!fi 9 t~ R BiQd., Ft

G'i3ll1!\g~! 'For Power For R e-s~ S'[ijln ce

116 62.2 ;2'591

U3 82.91 '114,6

19 99.3 '1104

20 11 0.31 8~2~4-

Th lis: tabllB! show~ 1:h a~ '[h e ,20 Ig~u~le w~'r@' reqlilr,": 9 gre8 'er ~ ~('!I.~th t~) eli s$ipi81te ther power '~:hiill n ns ne~1dJ®-d' 'to o-ffa~' 'the r;e,q,lI~ ~ d ~~$19Itance,: it i~J t:he r1E)'fo;r'e" U fil8u it.8ble.. A'n 'It; 8 otne rrs wHi ih8J1ldl16 1:h!!!l1 ,pO'W8IF

,~~1;put' ~~ WOlD rat! liD a f\Efsist.~ m::'!l3 or' 51,.6 ,(j nrn. 11, e '1 9 gauge ,e-Ie rnent w~ II IIlteM a will1rj'~!l1lJ ~el!l1grU1 of about "'1 hl c:n. 8'nd in~j is r~aJ~on Bble- fbf " i nehss diarneter - or ~tt. to:liJld b ~ woun d ,8'[ 12 1 PI, lo~er iIln 8~ neh ~Je.ngt:h if d~sJi red"

The r~-si,snance ~~r f,~ en an d' su rf:a~~ area :P ~'r toot (Of' ij n mS'~ic uni'tiS) i's (II; oled by Ih~ $1JI.ppHarSI ss hi 'the 'safe disslp:at~on in w,a~s ;p,e!'r U!il~'~ alfe~ o-f w~n'ie·,. 11Ft 'some ca~StS it may ,be 11 ~C8SS~rv' 1\0 en !::!!,t1g~ to 'nat strip hea te ~S~ l n order toO' rna teh th e msis13 nee :per fC1O'1 'to the ruquiir-ed s w rr'ece a rea. 'Th e wire manu fa cturers, w!:n be ,13 b re to supply ~ablel s' which h~11l coniSicteraJb~y j hu i cl,o net ~,x'pe[:t ,.Ituml ee ~Iet. as. "Ce n- 5Y ~1;BfrnS" for tn.!!!, fl ru~e: ~'f a If:'~e'w ~Ou nes wo rt In of wire. l'1'h e '1 '91 gau~ ~ e tern e:n t t:abl,e d W~ u rd Jl e-ed about ,['9 wonh)., ICDnelu5ion~ This, chap[li3r '!has rt~Cg~'illl'il¥ hi een b.rlrfil'f'. ftlr fUlJ"nace.~m'ald fig ls net a 'lie ry cern 'mo n OC'i;,U p ;;Irtio n fio ~ rnodel e'lligirl;eer:s~ and rhere j',s, not much publ~ ~h ~d inform ar'~~ora. -I oweverr. I l'lop-ls' th,a ~ wh a ~ 'I h a iIIB' W~'1Trtten w'il ~ he I D va U '(0 avoid scm e of' the more' di'fficuh ~rrDbl em s, II woukJj tHlwlili#ur. S!'LI'Q ga it '[hat bl9'rora e mbarkpl! 9 011 the mil! 1iI'llJ!fs'ctu re cf; anv b Ul ttH~' :5~m p,I'Eil-&"\ Iff! ldfle, 'I'O'1iJ1 e}(plore the seoond,~ha,C1cl m~ rkel. ··'E~!!:h;aJl1gc &!. M,ri1 nO" may br:llng fort n so m e:~ h~ ~g, ilIIf'i d eVe!11 "rf' rhe h.lll"n.a.,oe Ii'8qlLl ires il!I I'll ew muJ1~ lEi.. 0 Ii' ,ped1i:Hlip,S the 'itH~!rmo~:mup!,Ij' of thL:J< pyrolTKetew, the coS'~ at ffl'p,a II' m ~'V wal:l be! le~s d1 ~n ~ha

Turns or. -4 11[1. Idia 246 1,3,9



Windin~ l~]figlh iiru;he;s.





cost of m.~u)Ei'd~j·$ f;or ,al l"Iomi~m~ade .;:rita]r. fhte; nrU8~ 9!QI£.-filred '[ube WU HII~ C~ 1'$,; orr GGI!JrSie .. a v~ sTmpJ'e ImatI,el!',es: you: musl haiV~ 'fiIieD:ricks ~1F,o'l1JlI1d ern-v' heat~tll"e a [men] hearth ,~n\!'wa 'i'"

IC····HA' P--'T-'cR' ,'- 10'-:'

. / _ ,_ ' _ _ Ie;, I .'

S,a'M1Y in '[he W'ID ~ksTr1op f s, m~\S~ [Jif' dl e· Ume" no mOre than •• a:ppl~,ed oro m mon sense", and ~ ear diGH :m~ny @l the P~rU,~~ merna rv En ICtments Olll 'the su bjecl se,aml to sssu me: 1Jh8t mos~ p.eopie· wor~hiLg in industrv ar€i: h,aif-wit-s.. However. common $.iilfll ~e' is the m(Iif1S:ea~iily ilIlpplie d if some'thinG' l ~ k~own l[l·f 'thB ihaza rds,,. and my obje ct in 1h'us, ch;ep le·r is re p F.QSI€!i1I t the~e tc 'VJO\!!I. nn mare. Tc U~ose r'ej3,ej ers wh~ lira:v·e b-B'an sucking tn ls se n1 of Q:g 9 8111 ~h'E!!·ir' 1~\f!eS II C~If'! emily ,say th in m;[l!FI!Y m.he rs h:a.v~ not: ilifld if VIOU rrled to '-Ii se' their to-o I s, vtJ,u; Im~,gh'E W~~lU do YOLI r,5e~f ~ 1[1 in jury ,strlil,igln sway.

F~Ir~,. Thi,s i~. per-iUl! piS. 'I h,e. mQSl QbvV[)iY~ ,~l21in'9lErl". At 7 810°,(; the 'wo~kpiEN;3'e w'ill. ijlt left bill I'll Eli 1101>1:11' in th e 'FlOOf - or U'~ roy,!)'" VOU r b OO~. WtulS;e. 11 can ~ Ulrn 1 h nIl ugh your ~a~-hosa. in ,sec~Ul d:5.. 'and ~hough the hose fa il uru V~ ~!i;fe ~da ra; I ~~ti m e t~a [ yOy FJ aquipm 8n~ has '0 ne fl' wU ~ slhlil t eff' the !Supp~y j ~ he iOi'[i,~ I burst[ af 'flam' ca n set fin~' [0 ot hell" r.h Irngs. 11:u1 s~cond 'h ~ zard '~s from ~ he h(nrtij ng name it~@·~f. The fH [I,e lice lOT movlirrl g 1 he ' aside to I!J;bserv,e U~e m. eta lis nl" r ml;a , 1 'I) y t, ~ 0 w m ,a iii V pral1titiOners, "kh~n'k: on 8S to \"ine'~1e the 111 a;m!B :1 s, now poi II1ti ngl? I harvfJj mysBU 'set im to a era 1t01'essly IPla.c; ~d I~i !Bee 01 coU,en Was.tlB 'th~'s, W·~I'.

The .cU·lJ:SW~ r 'It) '[Il ese is lwntf(jj,~~,. first the hea t-traatmant spot '~houid be jiJ S fIrr:epmov a'~ '~OlSosibl'e. If WDtkin 9 on a btl inch. than the tlOP $110 uid b:e IOOVBn10 with twO II ave rs O'f bricka, wlt h su~ggeij'[>d JOI nts, so th at namIB! cann,ot pili SS, thro !JH~l, 618t1:8 r, use a p urp~sB~bu U[ ,Sl€fe:1 fra'm e whh 'I. he 'bri<:~s· S!el1t in, I~ know ~:~a"l :~pi3~8 efton 00 !ilIlpels tha use of w,ood.el'!l U)P bench, bu I if 2J1J'V g£e'a I. a rn @un t ,of hea; tr~atftt'"l!{;nt is, donE!' the n lhe ba neh sh 0 utd be ~da a!C:c:a,rding,~y, The bra2ing spot $h ClIJ.Jlld be so BqU ippe,d, a od this' is: .. SJlJr~lv d18' ,righT; !Jl~aca to ,do ollil el'" ,. hot wQr~" ~I~ well'.

Second. haw f~r~Eextiln:gtr:i:s.'t~ i:l1Ig 9 ~'a,r a\f8~ ~abh~;, F; re' Ic,a n g,e.t cut of han d very ~iuil!;klV indeed~ ,~nd pf\o.mp1 ,DCt.'~O" may Si:ii,V~ yaUB 10 l of' muse. rv ~ a net m Q ney . 'The qu en eh b yckert ~ s [Ihe fi rSl f'F2'SOU rca.. oJ cou rse ~ b lJ't nOle lat~.[" fhe rem8:r.ks ~\O &all ~ bt'tliJ.~) SeE! I!1d :~s '~he. ~€lcond, a ndl a p r,o~e r 'fire ',elXtirwgu ~SJiII;!1' the' '~hi ret 'r u se ~'Iile "11]1) Powd,elr~' tt¥pe. ,~nd h,a~ve .:a COt ~)fl:i,ngui:~ nell' as ~ back-u pI. [We a Fa 't 2 m nl~.s tro,m 'the 'f\1:re stCl'tio'!l"d. These: types ar'i9J 'bol,h :sa~e: fa r ~lS,e· on e:~ectric~1 1 h''-fl ~ ;l!:IJnd my w\o:r;ksh~p~ Uk'fl yo ~IF~ .. l1a>s iii I Q f 0 F wiwingl in ~1' .• A vtJryser!i~;b,te ~'l1ianQtemont iiiIfur th ~ w~'u:iI,e' of th e be liIet; U:lra~i [j1~ or 1'1 eat 't;m;a,~mlefil [~ t'OI sta rid in a ,sh ~'III(;J,w t~av ,t,:)(Ul-

'trJa'in'in~1 iI!FI! illl,cln Oili' s~ of! D RY sa,rgd~ Th il!l wil ~ eateh ainv d roppi1'!lIgs' :sa'ral, r ,~no from 'It, a qta ick -5 n0'!f8lfu:1 of sand e~ n C~ !fIud!li a :S n'li:.8IIIfi'f!l! 'w h ~I h;,~ n!'ti' chi ng f\o If'" the le;x.tirFIQul:she,r ~

Tillie' oth If 'h:a~'alr'd '~rom hOI md ['tH i,s burBling "{().ua;,elf'~ Tlhelfli'~st point to note lis ~lha I CQld wa t€,~ won·,( hurt a bun1., and 'to 1~,l~Jl't ,a ily sa rt '0'1 d ressi 1119 OVB1r a dill1y pi9rW Is ,~slki ng if"or trowb~e., So, sJ !lj~.'oe Of'! CQ;~dl w;~u~ r ,~,nd get ,!;;Ofii1 elone c:~r,*ful ~V '[,~, welsh ~he ,!a,r~a around the bwlfl'iI. Th~H' 'i't il ts EIJ bad I~ no ~ red .... hot m eit:i!i,1 on ~ he baJok of 'the h.a nd. fc r el(am,p ~B - lOr of ~1f'1;'!f :siZ'@l, do !NOT '~JlPh( any~h~f'I:g, $'~ickV. A djry bum d~'a5S1f'1'9 wi~ ~ dio IHtie harm, b~t ti3i\l"~n ~ clsen psd rn a.d a h"C!'fI1 a dean ha no ker~hta'i {N OT Ii nt) ,ra r;d 100s'S!: btU ndig e will k,t)tJIP 'lh til ~ es'i CHi1 C'rBa:n 01"1 tJii~ way re ·'CaIS1Ja,I,Iti~' ,at the ~oc:a'i hospi'tat. Dc:nt[ Ineglect rhls -",el burn la, U;s nd1ed to promp~~v by 1~l(I"tUfts vliU I, III ~ve ,~hlle treubl E!l. iblU~. le'tI,va lit: IHI nex.t d itlJy and ,au maV We! U b'a' in '~my b,h~, f'a~ m if:! C r bliJlfI11S" til en 1111 f! ac.:rmaV!f!III ~ basad bu rn ,dIJ'8$$ir'ig!S OQln be u$;~d', bUlt even he~e, s~e~ 'l~e ,adv:i'~ of' your deere Ir ~l in IdOIUl br, Keep ~ h e:SH~ d re s:s,I'lI"ig $,. i nil the wo d,~ s h 01) 0 ~ nl!!J~ rib V • blf~ dClIl1" t for'98it - it is, ~'h@l, d i;r( W"l)J u~d U-le' bU[ffl, whichl wm 'C;flill se [nf;~c:t iotil~ :so S:e e 'Ihat you r IP,pj_IW~, i3lre cil,ijan.

CI O'tlh~Fig ,. Wil,Cl ti:s up, m u'S1 COI!11C' do'iNr'!. ,~nd you II' f~e'~ :a M' 'VU in erable. C,B rpst $n~\pEN"S ~ M nci'~ th e best ~nh'igs, t'!lll wea r wid~ mEns I ,aI ~ BODO C ~ 'CC\llp!g· of 'feel n 19her !Up. Wea f II eath er 51h~es" ec:l'n~,n ~1111 'cvEr~ns, ani!' r~ndfl - 'at ,as $a;h~ ,a;~ rea,1ii b~ ~ bu I thOS<B o·~ irIfU~llrI!-iFrUl~de f~bre ca III ~i'le ra11v m llli t i"t QvelFh i1!'!.ned. SpI8Sh~s, from ql!J,ehch~[8 nks ,Cailil: 00: hot. ~ ri!d ~ hO:SJ~! from :s;a~'t barril,s AA E not. Protect: your thma'l ,ill!,nd neck. lQ,n 'tl1l1s !S't~elw·od.(:~; "",e y~ed ~o haw' 'sweat rags will iGh COIll~ d b t"a; h !!tId in iO[~r I e-etlii. '~ll~tHJglli, rilowadaV'S I hal'Vie no Idou'tH' th,ill~' ~l@j:ci 181 hOl-m ~~ ~I clod~ in._g is de !ill gu~ur ,~), e lII.r. a'n oh:1 SG~rf is IJJse~1J1 - n01rh[ng '~s' WCl ~~ th iil!ln ~ ho~ plece c;r' :sea I e

,j umping Oiff a too I 'in '~he qu eneh 8 nd nodl~n!B down ~'h~' open rn~ r;:k 'Df' Iil[j sihi r~ II The USiIJ of gloves is d ebfjli~bI8~ I f ~heH tend 'liD ma'k:a ~I0!J1' ctu nlSi( and iHCf'B'aS1! th III lrtsk: of dropping WOl1kple(le~ 'I iii en pad, ~J)~ bErllNlf u) de wilthou'[ the m .. Bi!!' U t"OiJ ~'~ve a pa~ Ii e,t r.eas~ nabIY"S'ulpiPl Et mrr;m . leatlJw Of1!ie:S" 'the5~ ~h~'[j~d be wGm when wor:killB VIiI int1i1 hen: n~'9h-temper.§'E I!JlrS -ssh kH' Irno~te rI ,I.ead U you I!!.i.~ tl'fitM'~" lller~ are sorn e soea I'led "'heat. pr>oof" g~ Ciive~ 0 I'l the m(l'rk,et bu t ~.hlt"Y are not s!.:"'~ta bh~ fa II" this ~laSS5, of work ~ ,may;ille 8 [ 't,emp er]n g 1:empie!f'.~UJ res, b!IJI'~' tn!!,y wo n't '~ti1nd red-hot m Bta!... The ,obje,cv !Of tIna' gllov~ is, Oir eourse, '[0 ,P~QtJ~'c~, 'you r hililfH.1 HOlm ,81 ~~l.dIl3'nt. 'Oct tel an Bb~e \!fOU to 'pJck up wolI'kple~es, ~ 0 IiI'B: 'impoftan1t ,~oirn - ,the' g!loves ~h QHld be GUlCh tha'~' you can wl,ip them ,eif" sml~u1Iy; rhH'Y wiU keap' the, hei!l!'~ 'h~m, !'he ho't m eta,l 'ffOH'"n YCllI if :~aw.. bu t the .g'1 DY@' ts U, en hot, iiilrld th ts he at w1 U tfflve'~ t1ilr,o ugh :500 n aneMIa res, f i na Uy., we',~r ~ c~p. awen~h .a p'i@cEi O'~ ,!nee~ 'whl'l a h~le in it, 1!! nd HII ~ odds a r:e ItlhWi: ,~ lum p or sUlPe~1i earte(f, we,1:er wi n I ~~,D up. '10 ts nd on vou II' Iballd p e,t ch, ~ So you have hair.., Good. DlUt i~' WOy Id 'go through '1lu:l't. ~Oll Il- llnef'~ i~ e!,~slOi'utely no ~i1ee,d t,t) d re:S5 iUlp, as 'if yau WeIrD: m slt1 ng '1 ael 10 P1:i ~f' S1'C€i l when 'you ,~f'lr ,a.b at[ t ~o h,aI rde n a i in. f01im Hl 0'1, 1b'U t th,a l '[00'] ~S hot. i! fild yo.u 5h~ ul~, as I s~id aJ~ dUll Iii eg hfill!1 i'ng., USB YlO Ulf OOjmmon Se:OS6.

SIP Issh&S:, You may w,~11 have' du rnped a 'few ,job!!) in~lO t he: piclde~ba th lin '~t~ e Ipa:it, ~o you know wJna'[ Ihapp i!:!'fi$; C'Ci rf"t II ean ,ov~·r the ,~UiBnch 'lank, :~ nd H 'the wor~ ij~ olr aitlV $i:z~ a t. alit wear p r.'Opte r' Igogg ~es. The~~ ,lOfe d ~n c hea p. but M US! be '~o 8'n'Ri ~h S,1'e'lilda r:d 2'092.12. The-!~ ,~r8 h BB1-proo'f alFlidJ will ~ r'lO't :shauer 'rr~m he~l ~as ~i8SS w~ u. 1'], e~ h~v.e I,i'l f~e ,5 rt;i·~~1'- [iece's that :SHlP '~h'liil8~ fMm comi ngl 'th at wav. a nd !ria rn be wor!!l over spe ~tad @:3. Thf!3V ah~o 11 aJ~e 211 ~ i1l~ e ··'top sh ~If' w:rd'c'h ~,!n~\le n'l~, $~~;rK' 'Fmlm '(;81 IHI"I!'9 'in~)~ 1 ne' 5;pace ~a twe ~n ~,jJ8t-'-"S e!ld

'the· ey~sL U" you do ,get anyt hing In ~our eve, ;'1\M}.sh Wl~U wlrtlh eeol wa MI r :til!r1Id g®1 'to '~:ru~ doctor: i'l ~',s [ust not wol1ih '~~'k]n 9 tliny ri~k hll!l:r.€!~

S;pb:u~;nes frem Hille oi Ih.-a ~e tank ne,ed be no mors' serlou S tha 111 'fnD rn wal!!f' ~ they should nOl be' teo hiD ~ - b:LIl~ if ,~1 all f)'iiI bF!Tfu I '(rati" as f,(iJ~ ,8 bu rn: W~rshi reu rl!d tlUjl spot I3Jnd aD]]1" a dry hurn dm:a.sing unti~ 'V'QU' ciii,n ga,t Irnodica I ailtl'e ntlon, The b~ [lIe bath cUrrers .only 'lf1fo'lITI the wi) ter Iq ue!,r;'u:=h '~n llharr th e saU ts .:I'n irrilBlt1t S,ut don't r1lB0911'Qct ~I"!V loj Ulfl fro rn hOrt Sp:lt! 8:'1:@5. from water'~ brine, 0 r o~ II. lIhe poin1 is ''101 'S©I rn uen I:h,~rt '~i1I~V' a;r@ hat as that ;~ tilev ~'M DI~ FtTY. and 'j~, Is 'from 1 h Ts, that s ubsequent: infec[ioll c~n a rise,

:son m ~,tf.i;so; IG ene ra I., Al.l h ini(t I'iquid bath s a,re dalrlge'tolll s' if th ey G.ElI1 over-t urn. The' Ilffl,t ro Ile'~ the refure, 1'5 t:h a t tth~' :~~rn B Cia, or if Yised. I'I'~ e ho,tphne: for '\~,m DlEI ring 8~hl sh 0 !Jlcl be secu re lin ~ n~ 5: reSlPe,c I. A fle a.vy ~Ol. ,On 'tOil Df iii 'n ~nisy SIo!le is< l u 31' nat ~(}c-ep!ud:~d'e. and If you are U fiI,a bl e '!"Ol ,a,rra 111~8 "~f r~~aV solid. '$!U PJJortl ,don·'t usa' 'the svsu~'m :EU ,~u" S eC,[l nut t ne sa it'S - ,~lDd~ um ,n [.e' an d p©irass'[u m ni Irate< tor te,mrpErnlngl, 9 nid SlOdlu m a I'1d pora,s~ iy m chloride fOJ A"u stenising. ar'8._ ltK~lIJ[Jlh $tric rly 1ll'(J n -t O)l;[C. h'rha't i ng ; i U$I[ ~ i &te kru::hB'I1 ·s~h. T;~e cold s·~,h shou~d not ibel' handled whh ~(Bre h,ands" and iiUIIY [powdar '~p ill! ~cl :shl!) b!lld b ~ d~:8 ~1 w]th tJ~in.g: ~ bfU~h ,and '~h{}vel.

Alii 's.alUs earl a~5~m iii I~ttre W,liUer, ,~nd ill! (:O'fna~ III • 'W8t~r of c rys,HIII USi'tioo i· Yn~'iI II"Uilln'~.a. At' flrs!'~ mel ~;t. 'I'I'~ efi~rore. '1'11 !U1e" w~ III btl! q uh~· ill bi'l: o~f 'fr,~d',ing as til t~ wa [err ~s, ~:(p!l!!1 ~~dI. Stal!1 t he ml~'lt with t he pet ,0 rdry nail f-Iml~. and itllp,plry h a.;!Il ~e r¥ slow IV • Le;1t 'the h'~l~~1 'froth die d~RI - don .'~ llil c rea,se the 'lempeffi~u re' - a il'id [ne,lfi add 9 I i nh~ '1!110r'9 s~ tt Use' :i.JI' mat,ttI f, soo o:p 10 pU'~ i~, if!!: don "1: "flp' it out 01: ,th e balg;·. le~ the mois~:!lJl'e evaporate :[!'flld £ligl~i III ijlC d more salltjln §m ~,n 'ca,ua if1titi~'~ ,art a tl m~;, U iIlt' II '~he

fle"qui mdJ am 0 IJnt is i III ~ihe :p crt. A~ low pl~ !IllV ,of '5lpelce for the ridle, '~n r~oo w he n work; is. f)(JJf'l ln. I Ii [he ea SG' ~f' 'tile e leC1:r~c:all ry he'iliI:~l8:d tftglh-~emlPifi! ra W fie 'fLJn1 ~Ioe t nEIl sa tt I~ve I :shouid be be~ Ow 'the' u ppe,f;'" 'end 'of 'l:he 'Glalml~n1:.

Ilher'i3 wj'll hila: no flro,[,hi ngl Oil'll n;;:me'itin 9 so long ~ s, yOU! have hJad a I;d On so 'th a'~, it C!alll1no,t Bbs(D rb iii my moiS![UlFe~ a il'id e \i'!\! n then it will be rei II tlV~~v s,lighl. '1HIIowevell". i" hi' wonh agi21 in repealingl '~h'2!I It ~he 'Sa:1 t rlilay 'form a crust ~ an d. w he'jFi r'e'~m,~it,d '~he ~:l(p ~',n5ioJ1l. of t hlB' Hq u~d b ~Iow IT:I:ary iCE usa th Is to alrtd. send eut ,13 ,SPIU rt or h~,i sa h. 'So. keep ~ substa fl'~i8 ~ ~!d 0 n i~ he p~H' III ati ~ d~ e w hole is m~lted.

N'ever slick 'vour hEt~d over Ulta' top of a ,s~~t pot: 1'rn service. a IWG!ys ob.seN~ ,~1' ~n angi e" ~~liIw,avs, we:ta Ii BS209:2 gn;1!,d Ie :2 ., ~ rnpact" ,g:o ggle~ ;C)!llcl :0 esp. a nd ~'IIQl/l&s j-f YOlil can possibh{ manage wh~, them'.

Ai I wOfk pu t int10 'Iii! e ba'[h m O:13t be W;~l't'e r- B n cl ilj,i I,~fre e F ill nd shou lei be' rm Oil ersed s;~owIV, P;articllI!a r e~ rei mu sa oe taken whe n o~ ~=[;I u'B'nchad work is 'IDo !be tempered aJ'~ albov.,· :a botll t: 2.200' C, a s a n\l ,r:,esidu~~ oil may ~'fla'$:h ,ofl""- rlfliO'pj8~'H~~8· 'I fIIg l s' :roeCO!TI men d ed if' d~ e t,ell'!! perrl'ii9 bal'[i'!!

~, ,b. ,-'.'II '" -=::,goi"'> li!"'j·, 'b." ..... ", "I' ",

lSi (I,ILiIOVe ;if. "'~I L. ,.::IIi ~glill t :SU II • .aaoe en c:on-

'lamio:a'[i~n 'sha:H.dd C~Ul5.9 no' lroub'l'e i'rN ~ne Ausmnllsi ng ba'th. bu t if (he..rte 'B re' ,e I'll\, holes in '~Il~ WOr.k.ilJrflll::;~ th~lS!e 8houl:d be ~11~i31red of' Q il 'b~ fora i'm rnamiof'l, No ftx tu res .or i;)riher devi C,fl\S f,c r ~Se: ~ n :sulli' b~'!:h~, '~11 Quid be m ede flr()m' '[ub~, Gre!i ~ caire should be 'Ia:k!f!il n fH eniiun:~ tha I flI 0 'J~~el,gn rna uef' fa U.s [rno th'fl bI~li'I'h. wtuuh er cold ,~r hOlt Il n s: imperstiv.c 'UlSi it nO, Wa l~ r shOll td fa n ~ rd,n a sah ~ath, ,iwd wa.r~ r s'h.ouJ d 1"1,01 be IJJSf:!H1 to e~tl.rn,g Iji~h alny l'irre ad is coa'nt to Olire,

,Avoid c!iJ!e'"u~4ni'ng ,:ttl ny sa·1 t b:alth., They shoohj, "CIt be, Ileft "·Of!! 11l9'a'1·· whelfl le-a\!'tn 9 the worksnol) f'or m OW€i' thslI"Il tne odd

mil iilllJl te or 'h,!vO" ~V~1!1 if ,the rfflos;iutic

c~~rntrc~ ~~ fiUT91o. OV'~lrhll;;'~,tln~ ~iflln be

sadous '!IIi i b'h te~m~[~ri i'lq) satt ~,f' t,~rnpetirtu ire s go abOV'e: obou [ ~'5 0 Ci'C.

ON N.O ACCOUNT MUST TEMIPIEtIR:H~G' -SALT G lET ~ NTO TH IE AU STE Nil SIN (3, POi. "tJm~pUfll'1iil!1:g ,Sa'lt. lh'iSi is a m i~(Uril' ~'f SOdium Nii'Uite' and PO~,i~1'5SilJlm Nltr,ate'. 1l1"itG' C,~lr'I ilrrltaUl1 t'h~· \Slidn. b ut Ire cla~.s.~d iHil • '1'1 0 n '(oxic .. ', SOi;il p and wEJler ean be u~i~d to wash off '[Ii ~ skin~ a nd an eY'e~ 'W,DCSI'1I so! !lflion rf any p~w{hJJr !;[I,e1rs Tin (hE!

eves. The. salt Io.oks: like o(}~(H.ued :5ugBi!' .. 50 nhlt it SH(JJiULD 9E ,KEPT AW'AY FM:OM eM I U) R E'N. but if ;Bln'f is take rl by mouth gf\fel ple,ntr ot' 'Waml9r to dr~n k ,i'l1"I d ea n the doctor. I n '{,~e IB\!"j!irl[ of a bu in ~irorrt molten 'salt - (a,l, 'F loed th,e ~ffee,ted a rea wit.h w,~,t'a'r Of Sodiu m Bij:Ci~ rben ~ tlB solu t~O!l1 (b) R.amDV"~ so·Udifiecl salt and wash a'gallf'1 {c} ,Eif"tlHEU as a therm ~:III bu m; !! medlcared j !tby) 'b urn dress'ir; ~ :and 'see the~ doctor or, if e,>!: l,eil14s1v-e. ,t~ ~Ie 'U'~e paU e n [ [0 t~ e ilospita~.

Iii e ~ ~1tS. nDt i'MI':l:Ilm,m'able' in rtself. bUI

''iii! sire 111'91 s;uPpc'"~Qr of ~ombu;Ml (Hl: wood ~iI" cl01'h c.cmta ml na'u~d w~ ttl the' sail wi II b;u'flll vigor-~usi\j'. SomB' oil"Q::i1IJoic (:Offi~ou nt!r;;, C(Ul n1!!C!ct vigJorous~y wilh 'Ihe salt

iWhe n rle~ t,e,d. Cate ~sh,oul d be taken 't.'hat S~:'i~a8~e:s Of :5P m ti g'~8, 'O'~ powd',~ a' Ii) flJ wo~d 011' ru bbe',. ~rlS' cl ea n.e d !U P p,romp'[ Iv. Ctothing ;should b'e washl~dt NOT d~v-' iJ:: I ~~fl ~d. ~,s, 'there 'b~ ,,j3, rea ctJ ~!'1 w1'~h d'ny-

cl,e:ani"1 S{J~ iI.llion's.

I f h~,a:te d abO:VB' .550.0 e" ale [rh;:'$ of

rnlltrO;D~ n may 'Fl;lrm. and '[Ii elSa: bel iillbsmbed b,V '~h £it 5ki!l1~ and i"f ~'lihah~d1 can !be da n~!,er,o 1Js,~ Sym p,tom s, an~' blilJ ~ness, ,0,'[ the li'Ps, n!ilU:l lace. ilind pe rhaps sh orU, Ia'SS, o~ Dr-'erath, The COndition r,e<q!JJi.r,as medical h;atment.

The s'alt is stl1p,plGed in p'as:f~c"S·adk:s. iBnd ,sh o'ulld be ladl ed 'f'!"OIi:!i1 'UhriH~ie·,·i Il"HO th ~ pm wilh fa me-ta~ sp oon or lad I ~. ,Stor1l:l,g,e co n~a'in shou Id be moi':st.ulre-pfoof; ~ ke ~ p m'in~ I'll! pla'stic bags, i'JUjid€i h~Jr'g',e' N ~sa~'@' uuns. U$ed s,a'I;t c:a n be' d! spc5edi of by

washij'ng down tlne 5'1 nk wi til 9 go(]d floOd of w.ine~,

W~1:h:i n 'the te'rnperav.ure rang a end q'ua ntitles y sed br~ mod el €log-an ears thUs, sa III can b ~ 'f'llg~,rd~d as n On:-h~8rd mrs, providf~cI' reaS'o nabls care 'I s ta'k.e n,

'H'i ~lh-t~lmrpe rota,nOI (AUSle n i!!tiilng t S·ailt. Tni$ is i rn iXtJiJf~ of' SO~ h.llfn c.1'l~ otitis (ccm'mDflI, sah'~ ;El'Jid IPD'tass Ri.J m C.hlcJi'ide, It is :vh11.H!I,Uy nCH'iB'1t13'mn.rfu I a ~~ can be' 'treatsd as if 'i~ were househo!1 d sa I ~ if ~tget:,s '~n the ,eve~, in a cut, ,Oil' is, l'~kel1 by mouth. lin the '~!ii!'€!:r,.t of ~urns horn molten salt t hese ~hCliUI'd be tre,.ated as f<DW t!he tem'peri'ng sail, DlJl th~ !burn may ba' SJg~ere and immediate rescrt to the easua ltV de,pa rtmenr of the hospital i5, reecrnrnendsd.

S 1)1 n ra,ge' a~ the cold sa I [ ~s DJ ni mpa rtant, tho IiJgh It wi'l'! ;i:i'b,s(I'ro water aiI'llld 'may da1mage' hiL!lsd mSMJt $pi~lage ar hot sa ~t C;En1' be ~:on ta irhed wi 1:1"1 d rry SJ nd da rns, en d 'ih€' fi NJ'. rf ;m.JlI¥! '[.aIC~ h:!id w~t n eo,~ 1!i!'>:1ing llJisl, ern; water 'sh ould not be' use d in the presrence of molten fS;a ~ I.

M,EUetta ~ ~ m ITU~1r!ied ifl th~ ibelh must be thy. and [ihe work sho~lcl be ~et in slorw~y tD ,rilillow any i3li'F 'tif(!lpped 'in h()le~ 1:0 B:$lCalJ~ s!owly ~ ~I r.apjd Irnm ersloll1 m ~,y CB:US E! spurting. Ca re must b e ~ ~k,e n 'i.i¥h~en r:eme I ~,irrlg; VI! i~ h !ill s:u bSi;1i3lllti·a,1 Ii d, ij n c-,a::ile a cnJsl forms on th e [Or; of the biEllth. and fnaJ~1 m e.lti;nl9 nn us;t be 'slow; this ~.a 11' me'ltt.; ~t accnn B7'O°C. so [hal fr'O~l~'irlJ9 Iln thj S s'ta:g.e' s,h Oil:! j cl be red u ce·d' to Ii3 min~ m um with' t he' deip~lh 'Oil '1'11 e bath bm I')g iricre.a~ d, i:;:I nly :si'l o,w 1'1.

'Ttl"LS, :sah I's; I!rlher,en [hi saffe. by t '~he h!a-~ard ff'il'llfll v~rv IiI,O'1 n~DJid is prllIserH. ~'J' tNJii3J~:ed as, i8i m 0 l'~,eli [me ra~. w'Uh the sca me prfl,c,a utions~ dang·~rous $H'u:~n~Ofl!i; a rrl!i un Ilike~y ,u~, ,111 rlslf!'. ~thO'ugh ~' r~ peiBl m,y pr~vltli'uS warning: on no acco u nt .31 roVlo!' a;ny t'(3 rnperl1ng ~al'[., Olr me'! a,1 c:oliiititi.m ingi't~d lh e':r'liI'wiI'th I to get Tn U;)I '[ he h igh-, 1'amrper~ UJlf,a; ,~a I,;~'. oo~'d Or he\, ~ ICa refu~ a'l18J'i1'thln 1:,0 pr,otective 'el cHhing' a'~ ,!j! II t.'DWI B.~

ts '~ha Qlrdew ©rf the d1ay. St@rage a nol dls~oss II CII)nditi'oll'lis, SU'19: '~he' ss ml~ ,~S, 'for f'Qrr!fpe!lrjfll~ salt,

E~e-ctricak E~ec~'flj'c:all hszards in the' h~attfi$e~m,'nt shop' a,fi'@' ~actly '~he' same i1S 1:hol5l!! 1~lmwtuu<e~ hut rath er mor'f!! Gr1l1i1l3 must !bE) '18k'en eve r tr,a i~gfli,g ~Iea;d's~ M'~'la I, af! q;ue'fleh iii!'!] fiem pf!r,ai~TiJJll'\e wi! ~ bu m ~ nr1Ci ugh in<S;\Jfl(I'I:J1~!n ,and' caus.e :11 sh orH::lrCU[f~ ljjI1lry 'Q,ui~kIV'~ ,end wi11 itSti1lf :set '[h,e: lnsulaflon .on fire; Wi'res, 'wi'rhilnl 'ftama0~ ~m;ing'5 ,sh~ ulld be' ~n:$u lia1!ed whh ,cen~,m'ic bee ds.. lobtlan,· 21bh3 '''rom 'tne ~ocal IEh'Cl1~iiCJ:rv' Servioe dep(!!!ls. ij'''a$s='fj:bre lnsu hni',og sle p¥ving' res l2Iv'a'U;a b'll8, b I!J!~ th is is no Uy rated only fer '~ihe ~,mpe iioill t!l!i'r~, 'ro!) I1d 'iT"!1 dc'm1E!stic cookew-s. A II m'ut~ I pons of a -rllJma:ce mLil'st ,b,er 'pro~u!'rr~v E1:all1 ned. th e' ea'l"lh 'IN vr~ bsilng M'ot less: in d~aifQ" eJ't9r thalli!' '~hle ~ll,iJ'ln le:ads ;a nid IPr;efla'rab~, m'~H8., These c.onnEN~n~ns. eS,pe.c [tall I r wf"lI;!I.n ea iilh in,!lJ 113 he t POilrtl (e.g., the IW [ ~ ~ a :sah fUffl a ce) mUJ 5:! bEl in:spected' and ele\aI'H~;~ re,guarly, as o:tl:~de t~ mnJlll r~~n m~'y" ~.g: t u III en !J fla(;Cept~bl!E!' i!,9_l't h '~e~k~ge r\esh:;':,imfI Q1~-

C'ij''D I'e~ ~D th,e ~lijpp!y socket must be IFOu'ted ,aw~v from dsk of CUI nl~c'l w'j,tt'n 'tI!amel hQ'~ meta], (b:r' :Sah: ,~nd. H' permanent. c~'ood by ffi€l18JI ~hilBld 1011" cQndu'i t, ~


wi:1iictru must be l~iin·thedJ. Fl!I $U og i$ b eS.a dome at' the' 3,~pif'll p,1 ug=-top" -b ut rf' fUsed eh;eWinem l'l@r if: elrsu itt b 1l"~:~I;'n8, alr-e fltt!3 ti 1/0 the '00 ntrol bOlld 'these' must [be' IBln,~ ng'!3i:~ 110 bi",ea~, the .. Line·" circu'i~ 'IiJn~¥; QI1I NO ~a~CCl un~ rn IIIst anv 'fuse lD.e, ,se'~ in Ule . 'N"ellu:f;3 r IOO~d.liC1.ti~. !F,iS!liUil!wB of a 'fuse' hie re le'i)'!jJlE!'S line ,i31pp~ ratus Uve '~O ea-rth.

1F'~r'lIUy, bec8u S;€l, no ~fna;oo my,m'e' is 5 rJlI~ nr~ et Ins tJhi.llOr'. tt ts CCIrI'n rn 01111 'Prrll:J~ enc.e to :sw]t~h off th,e ,cJrc-uli:r wh ern' harn~ iilrug t 11~ work. n"lis ;fllp,p~ie'$ e~pe(i~III'V to munle lu m~aCeS; B sa I it pot ¥ii:t:h ,alfll ea nil ad POl :should be, qli!lit~. $~f1e so IQn 9 SI s 'th~' ~:f_!Ilrth

.• ~ ..,jj

con 1l1~:C-1~o:n ms, sou nlJJ.

ICDn~I'U:&iIOnl~ Ths €!ttlretuj Pf,iilc1Jt~~fleF will rn e-et 'few dJan8'~r.s ill! heat rreatrnent, bu I' no amcunr o~ "preeauttcms" w'ill S3\'e 't'n@ ea r-e ~e~ 'frQm 1 nl.u iiY. Has t (r8;:nm en I 'pW:alc~'ice 'is; prl)b~lb~y II!3:ss dan'd'!a:"ous, ttl 61 n Di!ai!:i'ngl, alB 'though ~:emp-era;t;!lJlres m,e'v be higher ~ne almount o'f Iheat pf8~e;n~, ts; ~ess I'f, in lhi~ ,cv.urptef'. ,II halve be e~ "teaeh ~nfl my betters how r,o ,$U'~t. eggs'· .I con:so le myse It with . ;h~ tho ught th~'~ a hot egg ,j 5 haoo"':ooiTed, and SRU::t11 eannot be Ib~owr'll .1)[ all, Any m8teri~1 much f,tibov,s: 10~C n9teds' to bs! tfi~ated wif~ h re:spect: ~


The rrnocoupl S'·--··-·S-··· a nd

..~..'. -' ..... - 11--1 .. - I .. -

Py' rom . eters

. __ .' ••. _I ' ..... '~ ..... _-:: .'

it Te, po~ibl~ :~o ,obt a ill1 m areu r;y~i n~QI !HiS, therm'o.mei~lHs which will s~fel.y r'l3JgiiSltl~w up tc 360 !;!i,e qld'te 'rilhea,p~y. ,B nd niiuog en fill'eeL mercury ~e:rm,~m'~t'ers in $peJl::;:i'iI1!' glil ss ca n be had wink n rJe:i1iG '1'0 BOO~C. 'they '~Iri! feU 1ii:e'1!' fTagi~'e., bu t Ciiliil be' 'used 'for te,mpe1ringl ~ ttl 0 ugh I rneke ~ s~~~1 Ipfg,tactin91 :s;he'a:t:n 'ku' mi iii e. Th e W'I3;U'known .'. R orctne rrn " tempe r~tl;.iire' ind~ esters. based Q n a bii-meta lin c toU r C~1l be: ~Ol!l g nt' to r6iSrd up to 3:00 ~ it: '!th i!V a'f\~ uee:d as Oll'en [harm 0 me'tEl rs) ,aflld l~lr'B more r-obu:s~. 'The. m erIC,UJry""n =5tee~ di iii I -r.h erm orneters "IN rill OJ) e:r~a,'[e' S 8lfil!'l V up ~:o B5CI~e. b!J[ 'th~y ~Ire b~dl expe'ns~ve 19l11ldi :b IJlkv., N oru~! of 'Ul~-S~.. how~v'e!r, wi IJ $ent,~' for tempeffi'tu m j ndk;,e tJi on vuf't:en he~ni'ingl (A!lJste-nhSD'ng) fo"r qlil en.C'h ha rdening. Th,e! dle rmo-e~'ec{f'li,c !Pvrcmet.8'rr 1$ d1 i&. On ~y p'rarClicabhr~ 3:i1'SWer.

IFig:. 6 '1; th,~ p:rtillo;p~e. 'I'f rh ~

~ "b Ib. • '!A- ...

J Wifii'c,tllon erl:we,I!:Hi1 h-'18 lW(\l1 WI res ~t - . ~fii

he ate,di. ~ nd tli1s.'t ,~t ., B'" i',S kep~ coo~. ~l1an th~' me:tEi'rr • 'M ,. wl n sh ow ~IrMi t ,illli vo~tag ~ ~~ d'li! ve!'~ o'p e d w'h i c h die P'ilUl Clis 0 n ~:h~ p Bral,i!jil'B dij~fferel!1.cQ Ilin Ilhe lWO i unc~Ion$. INlat:,e '~ha't ~ t ~5 t he t~m'I~Htm t IJre ,[)'i F FEifl E N CE w~ich m @UJers; ~f' 'the mete r s:hOW5 i!1 vOII'laige cornu;pollnd ing, to '7'00 III C. Ii:Ind' "·,ef' t'5i ~t ,SO, the-rt ~Irie ~~mfl~ratUF\9 at "A" wm be' about 7a.coC~ furtru::fr tf'la

EM 'F gene~f~~d: does; not. vary 1~J(He tlv w['th t~ e '~e'mpa rau, f,B; ~1!Clttirli9 EM F ag!8ii nst ternpeFarture d ifferem ce shows: a s~ iglh l ell! NIB ~'o the '9 ia ~h. Tini~ means IJilcalt the true, 'ta rnpa ra tu re marV n 01 b@ ~)ltu:nly th:en riQ un d by eddi'il"i91 th e hilt. a ndl CQ~d junetto n temperaturas, We wi~ I dea'l· wi'~Jh th I ~ Ipr'Cibll~m lare'ft' ~ b.u I it is nO't serlou S 'fur heat treatm oot, pUlrpooes.

Th,1l;!: norm all a rran ~,~m an ( is 1.11 iii ~ shown -In Fig. 6,2. H,A'" is the hot jUlfIlction .and B,B 'the wlrres within the imme rs'~ d IBn 9 rh - d'l eo m ai,eria ts be~ li'ig 'th e "'the rrneeteetrl e" ~In D·V'. cc ,~1'i8 00 nnecti~ 9 W jires, I:ead~ ng ~o 'the Imeter '"1M''' and '''R'~ ~s ,ia :s'l:JIri,~S rrB:SL&tS! nc~'-, ~'r ,CC are pial n 't:iOpp er cOi'ildLllctoi"S. tm(Z_;'n the ~'HectTv~ c.olle! JuncTion 'will ~ be ~11, 110 D, This may b ill close, '[0 '[ h~' fu rinc.ce" an-d D D' [lould b~ quite hot. The e:rf,e'crhl'fi' eoJd junC[\lOIil CBn be' 'moved 'tr!j.1 t'hfJ' IT'! D'ter ~R ihar by using spe,cia ~ a~ ~ey !l:il0nn ~C~ i:liIg c~b I~ ~ clllied a .J com p l;;l'flJsating lea d "'1 'or more simpiv by Ci:;m Ii riLl ing 'rh e' 1.rliliH·mOcoL!!ple eh'jIT!!,ent win~ f'rom A r,i'gnt '1:hrrough In M a wad R. This, 'is ttl e Il'l!,euhod I u S@l'~ ttl e me ter !Ilre ad !I10t be a~ I (hal fall" awa.y from 'the fu m'C8. iii nd ~ ne has 10 b~V ,i] yard (!I,r so of [henrwcouple \iliif,e ,anyWay. The fiLllncfLon O'f the r,es·i stalloo "·R'· it t~ n~du~e the effects o~ e~an9Bs Df re.!l~S;lB_n C)8' ~fiI '~Jhe' dfeui t which Iit'lI'lV O~~UIr.


as una COy pie e ~elme!lll goet:s h Qt. H "th e Ir~s!~l'ance of B lB· a nd C'c. 'were. SCl'rif 0.5 ohm and 'til fill of lh·~: m ~tre'r ~. 5 ohm, the tJl a r.l¥ iQhan~e :1 n tht!!, fOrmr!!l'f wu!U Id be appi'e.e~abllB.. By 1 r1I'58nfililg ~ hhi! • 'bal!I'als1 Ir8~:istano~·· s;ay 100 ohm. t,hen 't~e ,change in reslstanoe clf AA and Ice with 'lempera1u!I'e wn t h av,~ ",e'g Ugibl,e efl·ect. ~t '~erue~ a fu rther I:J urpess, tee, I ~ C'8n, be 'LJrsed to an,a:ien the i nd~'c,a tor to, ~ he partieular therm®cQljrp~e ussd. We; sh;l!JH rr'I;S'k.@ IIJ~' at ttilil$i whrerl ·'·,adaJj)'l'iTng'· Tn5Uumen'~s, "rllr tmm,e~m'a'de ind~C'f.non; ...

.A n Ylmber of Idiff'll! r eiil1' llI:nov~ an~ used fortne' [he,mlOrG'Dl!..:!lp II@ ,~Ie ml~ nts .. Th e cohert!! pa_5t is! COiJiP.elf ;; ~la in!i't "ICon suuntca n" ~ BOOS C.opper 40% N~ c;kre'~) bu t 'this !Can op era t ~ $Erfely ~ Iiliy U~' to aboul: '5 CO ~ C:. Chrome lIEu re k~ (90% N i 1 O~fi Cr vs 4,0% N i 60% eU~1 Ican b:8' wo(klldl i nte:rmi'U:en tl \I up' [D :S:50o'C. or 7 OOCii C. 00 n1·inw:;n..!ls~ V. ~:nd '~he' m errt '~'h a t i'tt delivers tli e highes t. ,EM 'Ff or;- of any. lron-Con~ta,nt~n i',$ t'he i''hi3'Xt best in rhl:s res;p@cl. and C1:JlfII work_ iCOn'l'jnuolJ sihl!' at 1 ~50 0 C a nd in,tl~ rm~:Ue ntly "'!f) to ~ 000 Il:i C. It i s ~h88pj" iEBr:td 'well ~,U~! Eid to OUF 'wo,~k, provid.ed you rreca'i ibr~ h~ rf' il is, li:~~d f~)r lono 'p ilU-l'IJds ~dap.} ~bov.,e abCl'u t SOO~ c. The CQ:mm~ nasI '['lor hE:Q h'~em p IlUiilr~Ufe WCI rk i,s, CI"! r'Ome~ -All umle'~ ~9,O%, Ni ~O% C~, vs, 94'R, Ni; 2% AI -+ S. and! M nl) 'win ich ca n wro rk III d3V at 120'0 U C'. II t does not 'hev,~~op 'q uh.e ~uch a h'igh ,IE M F a:s the 'p r-e\!'~cruls, type'S. b!J:~, :slu'f-

"fl: .......... ~~ ,1'1i"iI'" 0 iLJI'" l!"iii ;'rir'i ...... "'" TII., ... ·~·n .... 'f' .. ' o~ 1:... .... ; .. 111"",I'fi!1J"I'!!, ~:Ii.!!~; __ . ~ F"'.....!E'. ~ I'I:O.J 'I:i' ,~_ G, . U lIE! V


wloys,. no'~a b'I,V tho*,e ba sed QI1 PI'a t.i'filli.i'rTl. but !ilona !ik8~V to be of im eresit 1:0 us .. An ~he5iw. the r mocc!ll.lll~ allo,ys arre now rna de [Q ·iill B r~tis,h 'S ta ndar~ 'S p Bciftc~~·lo". 9!'i d ~he 'foIlGwhl'9 ~a bh~, taken from "The Milo-dol E'ngineer":s ,Handbook" shows thrr.= EM F developed in mill'ivohs wh en ·the to rl:! jy netlen staTId!:i ;a:t 10 ~ C. This a saumes t.h~ t t~~ wht!, ~s 1:0 the r'~I'l!v,a lilt B - S". .1:3 ~t th Et; Il:lI FRia rG'Plce· bet-wee n ttl is Bind !l:).iN~ers (e~. to OilN Sl~ll :I~ fill~gligible',

The EM F in Mlllivalts de\fie!,lopi! d brv ~01J,p I ~$ 'is;'9illli9:n in thiS ra b ~a.

A_= COpp'll'.! f-C'O'!'1$tan~ ill.., to' SS, 8:2 B 8:;: I ron-CC:Hl&'[,a rua n to B S 1 :9,29' . C=NijCIn'f()me~N~A'l-umhT1i'um SS "827



50 100 ~'50 200 2:50

C .2.,·S,S 15..:27 8·01

"'Ii'"\ 7'iiJI



to 2·02 4· H) 6-13 8··~ 3;

UJ··' G

l,2,,'2.'1 ~ 4-·,~9 ~ 6·40 2.0-G,:5

2.4~:9 '1 29·,114- 33.3,0 37·4- 4~ ·3 49',91 5:5,,~1

30:0 'S"" ~ 1 ~. ;61 3.500 '1~ '17'· 59 400 72' 2,O~59 600 I'!" 2EkUl

600 ,tOpt;

1'00 t'" .:'

.aOO ~'dq...,

900 lCloG

'1000 l,c~ ~200


'110··33' ~9,·09' 2'~ ·8,5 ,21.,3'91

3,3"1 '11 ,j,9,15


Fi,O., i;l11;le aillat'M.!1'!Sl ~it'F~i:!'l.i:ifl ~W\i')rmrh't:






~eachin'g. th0 'ua'mip~'r81ur0 and 'rtuu '~ndicated. The' ,end:.s. can easi~¥ be wo~ded tog et h ~r il y@ ~ have {!J I itUe' M~lSm~1'~lmle fIK.Y,-bu[;;I1I'i'U~ '1)0 mh or, in dJi ~d. ,alllliV "I/Ite'l d ~{i!~ €lq!4!lipll!!tli:iItt The galtll,gle of wllfll;!; is unimp~:ji"-· tam '8KJC't!~'t as reg)iiJJrd's ~OS,(. and 2,6 'g'a,ugs l!!i~ QlIl u~, satisfactory', '~I, Q~gh I w,C!uld pweier [0 see- lhi's i n ,~ protBcth,ru shr~aUn~ l'ha~, see n I ill Fig. 63, is '1 8 '!:.HI uge~ rt!i flid tn:I':Jj, ea n be' ussd ina f:iLlrna ~e' or @!\!'i!!,O a salt pot w.~th nOI sh eath, tnQugh 01'11 e hii plI'T9rf,erable ~n dle I'·~:tt~:r ease. T'win lnSn!110Qo LJpl~ :paffirs. abeut 30 '9 auge, ins'!Jla!1B'd with 11 fie hea,t:~M~i5t'Sn't' s~elflivilil gj' a r,e! ~1'iI!Hlli ~abll8. F'or '~1'18 knnckabout we rk Icd' h'lln teea tment I 'W"O UJld tJ!nd fO favou r 'the 1 S '9!BUg,j91 wire, D ut it I:S only ,8 que s,tion of' ff~f':IlU ~tv; ·the reo is III 0 dil;ffe~ II1c~'i" the I!:fliective,ne ss,

The co upl!~ wires must, Of iYOLd ma~, b;8: insu'la'loo beh'indi t,ne iiu;aual l!iJncdciFI. and ei;'th eor 1i:ngle or twin bo ire, ICrEHl",a m ie orr sill[c:~' iWlSlll!'h~,tors can bo h~d far thi s p,i1irpoS!e f'il"Q,m :5c'~e,n'llkfi,E ill1~ [,f ~ III Eli n~ su pp~ I e n":S •. ((;~i'"in i., Georg,a.. Galle.nkaJmp en~) er !'[f"O m M Of'g a.'!fI Fhl,h,a, ct O,;ri e'iS, ,~I fe·tIDe ¥ menUoned in con nee tion w~ ~_n m !J.!T1Tf~BS.




INow. let us $Y PIPnse: th i!ft: W~ a~' ~ffMng ~Hil I mJilr",CC}nsta!i19riJ CO uplle with th,e- hi et ~u~cthj,n ·9I~ 700!!ilC and th·9 cold at 100i!i'C, The ~rild r(;,~iibad V(;llft~ QI(j: w:~1'I1 be' 3!9~ 1 5 ~ 5·21 =' 33 -s a mV. 'Thi$ lCowr~spo"d~ tfiJ a t&mp~ir.,u'lu m' of II]: 13 ~ C'. Add om it he' 00 ~d' illl nedon t:,amp·~r,~tiLllr'Q :a i!'Id we 'ijl1ld 1 he' sum te be! 7 '-13; O! C - '~ a'c C highaf ~'ha n Tft ,~u:~:!Jailly ~~. 'So. ~Ihl cold .h .. ,nc~,!on miUs:t~ firsr, be: kept as Goo:ll ,a ~ pc:ssTblre (in 1'ie-~llV aO~Yfate '!NOr!!';; it is S0~: 'i Jl lee '~ni a therrn 0$

,1IiJj. 11:..\ -..ii' , . ...Ii. ...., ~d I!. - - r.!i< "he c

nZl'Sr,;,1 anll,Jl, Sie~CI,n[JI~ we SinO!.J~" r:"li!EH~~·p g ! ... "_ r~

mom@'~e'r nea tby to en eclk. Unt '~~m;p-era~lLIlre. I'f' ~he ~O"ld ]l!!,nrC'(i:~lnl ts :k,,e;pt witlhlln +1- ,2~C O'~ l:5!1;;1'IC, It.ha error willi not axeeed two or ul1 ue~ degwees ~f. 'rh I cold ],ufi,c:;'Ho'tl ~;i~u'nper.~,tlJre is ~imp!ly added tlO tha~ li'nd~c·~'t)FJ\d on dn~' fiflIEif.ei. I~f ~:h'e rTI18'le'w a_ nd '~~':lffmo~o uple ,a,flE!1 CAU 16 PI ATIED! w'Ft;h the oQrd .iLlfl;~t'fo'i!'i ,~.l ; !i<OC, ~he E;!'FJ1f'Oil" wijU be nggl[~lb~e' ..

The 00 iilS-ttr.U CUOIF'll of [he' the i'irTIOeO Ulple' 'is simplifd'liy 'ilsel f. It ean, i'ndeHed. work 'quite .5;8 t~:sf~:et'Oflly 'if ~h~ wiwes are tigh'U, tW~led IUQ'et'net. Thls wi~ I rea'd cQ(!i'e c [IV!, b,UI'[ t.he~e wl n be til lime-'~a9 b~tw~ en

IFI!)I. 63 Fifi.ff1!j'{Q.rI'!HI. -I h~~~ fflfJU th~(m~~~~ 1M ~~~,f .. d' ilt).'fI t;-mJ!(! fj~ 4lj{~ttBt' fWljJJ :'l!~-' ntfci!'. ~,n~~. wl"ll'l!t-.ll.!' ~~U'iI' mtliil ~~ rfN'itr/WJ! ifM''11ilflla, RrffT; srtrg~ ,_dlMlJl~llW.s,ror ~(r'lt.()I-m t:;lfwi,. fn}~"iii~i!!!'I'r~,

Som~ of thes·~ arE; se ern j·n ·FifJ. 63,. Til e se 1ill8V" Ir:II '[urn.. bE!! prOleC1:e;dI1 b"V 'settl:f'I;g ~li1B w,rwole n ~~id\€!l .~I $it'ece!' sheath. Tt1Ha: end [i·a n be. elesa d e'u~,h€lr bV folding 1l)V~ r and hammerl"ii!g" or by 'well dhl!Q 'in a ]:li ug. The stltlljath :sho'I;.!lId be a fai ~~y cles ~ fit 0111 t'he if! $liIla"tors.· 'This wi~ ~ p~o~eotlhe couple f~om krn(u;k.r;~ and a~ so (ij n d~B cS$e of ~ he 5,a'~'t ~D~:~I 'h>o rn a ·g!~·yachjial e r:lOC in,g aw8¥ ,of thill! 'Nfl fe~. On ttl e ,~,tt~ er hand" '(hre' she,Euh ~i11 esusa ,31 tfm e-ta g i In the. incHCfnioi'i! S - VOi!Jf" 'indi'ic3tO!II" wni ~en d to read the tem pera UJre. .~ S lt W8'5 3 I~F " m inu [~S ea vi ~sr', der:n~n;t'nn ~ 0 n1 how heavv the tYtb~ ~~ -e 'Tlheifei i~ IDlO Ineed. for 01,;) f r;:Ujl~pOSi!~ •. to liI se s:ra in less $l:e,et 0 nCE!: elsa r Df ~:h lEI aetua ~ rlJl,rnacolU th~: wi're~ may be i~'!it:lla:U:9d wu:th O;[idlin~rv $JI,eevi nQ. OJ" you can use the glasSt-tfibre 'type ]f~ ~hE!iY ili r~ ~ ike~y' to get hOi. Sue h s.l,ee,~I,ng C iiilrn ba o.b·~ ~1'rnE! d j or orde red) thrQuglll tald10 ~,eni~tErshops,.

'TlhEi 'fI!:dli'c-atof" The' m.a:!(;~m,u rn ~'~dtin'g using hOr'!l-CO i!1S1~~ ntan w~ n b-s· ,albou'~ 50, m]U ~vo,~~s. 31r.ldl 'ferr e S 1 ,821' N~Cr·-N iA~. abO!J 1: :3 5, m V. 'I:'f you h~ve a "rn u I t;i;rru:~teif'" with a m ill i~oit sea ~B., we~ ~ a nd !a:Dodl~ VOlil Ci3ln U\S~ th~·s. Od~erw~SJa, you m.y~n eid,er buy ena or me,ke one. lhere \!!',bBS ,,a Hm ~

... ,. I I, .

W'l ~n su ~ IJS rruc:rIOi"":tIli·!f1'Ilme'~er.s· wEl!riB

J"le.adUy 8fJJ8 ila1D~,e.. ~n d d;'es!li .~r8 Qlf' ell.:.(:e ~ lent qlJl ~HitY'. lhQse r~;a:(ti'illg up to 501 'lOr " 00 pA wou ~d be 'the most Slid ltable, B ut such m et81!'.5, a re' i!)O~ 'empen!l!TV,B n~W ~ ncl. ~'~la~i1, can b9 QroOiF@J(jl thrO'1Jl9 h r,adJ 0 :seniice s:hopS. A, 10-.501 m e~er wll1 Chl ril1i~e'ly. b:LlJU y~ ~ must know as 'OQ~'~ l'\e.s1'st.aln Ol!, ;!IF! d if; th'u:;, is npr st.IiII'['ed in Ihe ci1iit~logue, obtain 'the 'rrrrrofima Ho n 'from 'ttn e Irflak@1fS be to~' DUJying h.

Now. lret u;s sup.pose! ltH.U Wl~ h tnG' m a~er. O-!50.pA~. ,~nd its msisitantt:l' ·is el(a,cUv ']1 COO robll'lli. We ·Gre hon'H~ a nd drv~ wr OIi'B! 'rnm'~'vC'J'"I'l 'wi! ~ 'giIVJf!: ,8 ~fh3€dof'll Qf .~ micfO"'_'ilI:m p~ and '~;he scale carli be. used t:l!ir;ec~l:y.. I(The' ~{l(~arna ~ 1"8S~s:tiJrrce of: th B1 Qouple won~'t m~ttl{fft. S;lJrn;)osa~ hOW®fI!.ili3in'"

thal 'ir~ IS, loth e~is~. and raslstances O'~ anlund 750 eh rn a ~·e cern mo,n. let' I!JS S\::! PPO:5e' ltls ~hown as '7'S 5 ohm. This 1:5> cwiuu"!e' 'tthifJ r'8s~5,U' nee: ,~; R'· ·of F~ig. 16,2 lcomes in. If W,aJ make 'this 1000 - '135 = :265 otn'il:li 1 hen we nav~ a 1:011[1 I, resi.s:lance '0'[ '1 OOO~ Hnd '~ne m ater Wtl n read ·eli rec t, S uch a !lIB'S! S~1;8111"1l Ole wo wid be' "'bu ill"l" IIJ~'" with on 12' a'~ ,2,OQ, Qne at 5,C.. arlid one art 1 5, ILl nm: iilGl~i,n, rro,m 'Ihe' radio .s!E!'Ivl~~ shop,. . ·I~,~ ghr S:~,abm:ty 1~, Tel eraifi! ce" tYH:u~.,

IH ow~~el!". suppQ:5e the metelr' hg s a re~1g~,~II'iI~' '~~GH·E.R than 1000 ohim., what 1.,hen"l I tr!;tIJve ClflB rH~m~. 0- HlO !$A,. "1.250 onlm .. Apply Ohm's law. C ~ ElFt", or, !!'!!lOriB cm'venie,~n:lv .. E = It x ft 100 pA x '1.2 ·50

[l = ;1 ,25 .. 000 i1TI lcrevo 11"l3~ 0 ~ 125 miil'lh"'O~ts. 50, 'for a m eter W1 th ~ resistance • "IPr h e~.El·ad hi! [I ] 000' ·ohim~ fhB: Q(H1ViI2llrsTo 11 is, • '.t\c:ru.a,1 M'i.i -= Sc~la M iii :If. R/1 000" , wR'ilere 'A. Is, 'the meter l'i\iE:sijstfJri es, I [ is ~S a.1iII sy as t ~un I Fig. 64 shQiW~ three rnsters, on e C4 reula-r • 'El( ,GO\i'(ilirn n'l~ru:' h e n~',. which is ~tij n a s good as naw: a rIllJne~' :sma~ r J,B,pti! IIG~e m!f3~Qr, rEi'SiIiV [00 sm al ~ a :SiC,f:!"1 e I .. ength; a~d a IH~ge 0:·100 meter which is, In fact the one 1 wou r d UIS~ de,spite its rasista nee: elf ~ 2501 i[lhm.

C',a l~bf,~tJiollil. Tnt$! 1 s ~dm phI a ciu~~Jk CJ1l [he table, and 0 !lJgh~ to be: done Ju s't in C'ClS!8 fha rnetar resi'st~rnc~ is nq~ :[15 .st:aled (they a n a fTfj' m adle ro a; rc ~eli'an CiaJ ,pf'ld ,;;!Ifuer a pre mOd. '~n case ·the m bas bee n. 8 ell (l1f"!ge hl '[he eh i9 n",SI i!:;te ri~tics of 'I he CQuJJ~~ e ~8'menUt The lower IBnd 'is denle .a'~ '1 Q,QIJ C. Thre 'I:hler-· m~u,oupl~ is set !1'rI ~h 1:1' :fne~t!fli C!!bo~e boil ~ng wa'~~r - NOT in the wa tfH' 'H;e'lf. ~S~lH! Fig. 165 .• though ~~: t~ln b8 done :~n ~.l!l eJectr~t ke.[ tire .~ld $1, a 5· reas~lv ,. [VI·ale' su r¢ that i~h(!' 001d ,i UlrtC.t i on (r .~'. th e mre!l'te r ~ if' uled a,s ~n ,F;i'g., 82) ,is ;8 [ l i5 Q'e. Let tli e lu nc~loru .soak lor ~!b~iU t t:el:'l m inu't\ffi!:; .~n;d ab:se liVe th'~: '!fie ~,d in r~l l,t3I~ it. coo'! ~ ~ ~H:h:=~ and repe'a~~ D (j ·tlnis three ti ml~.5 a rid tilke 'the mi:~fil. p'or ~f1ir i!lterm,edialta ten1p.if;:watl.!rrre you cain, [f you h a ~e a teml(:ui!l{i"ng' ~3~ t b~lh

F:r,!]J. .. 64 Mkv,r;.,~m,t!',t~ ....... _.·t!"n.. r,t· in_ jq~If,"~ D-50)JA. ~,Mi!"IIi'. ··SJif"IJ1u~ w to- f~, 'l!i~( 41 fit o~ 10~. MJt:m-Wr 'l,tj,~€j 1J!jI' Ms' .IJ!.ith!.':lV:

and a m ercu ry. th ~rmome,te L", u'ss this, Str.::J1P thl ~ ~ nd ~'f the co LIP~ B ])IJ th e ~.he'rmernater bulb with ca~e and a bil, of t~ln w~r~ .~n:d Ira ISIB the rem pe~ ~ ura to 5,0 m~' ,ftgu ~ a bou [ th,~ ll m it or tI'8 therm·ome EEl r M,e ke ·5Hbllf,e ~ hl8· h'l!'art18 r' 15 s.[8blel and ·til q f\B~d'in'gs, duee'j ~,{~th ~ha' tern pera t u re fa;U~ ng ,ab CtU ·30 ~ e ,a nd 1:1'11 en raised ·ag's in b~tw~l;n each, a nd nOlo 'Ihra; mea n erF '11''1 e thr~e.

Fo r h [9 he ~ 'U!llTIlP@lrJto figS th E:: f'olkwl.!'J'ng can be! us·edt, le'"2I d, m ehing tn ':3,21' Q C. 2:1 nco lilt 41 9~C Irbu~ bJ3. c:;;!!,f,efq.;lll af the. fumes] ~ nd pure a lu mlnl U'fiI"! (from an oM sayeep.~nl IS~ie,Dc'. ln the ca:SI!3. l;1f: the le6ld ylou wIlli need a ,I !liiY'ef lU'f r,a~s;rn on th'i3' SlY rf~ce ~IO I~re~ent IOxid:a'U.o'~; and m Ia,V need to skim off il)x.fde as we·n. fh!2; d n1i II in thh;, case ~;s differen~. YOiJ bring du~ me·ta~ u 1'1 8bG-~e 'me'hing poj n't ;~n:d i !:llme'r$e-· the eouple. f l:I!ke aw,~y th e he al, a rid SUU1 nO'thlg the 'lempefS'Wfe' indlic~ .. torr ,ev,el'l' ,30 seconds Or $iOr~ A",/J it cool~ you WI~ II 'fIif'id :21'1'11 '·"arm·s'l poinf' de\ile'l:oJ)lng· ~fIg. 6'ffi] ~.rncl ~.nerll1 ,;3JS: the metal hii' snlht "ttl @ '[Gim:p~r09nJ r~ fans ,aig;~i 1i1~ I~ oW rerlnJij:~,t arild .ana ~1iI r10,!le' the tie m pi 9'ratur,es, - OJ" thl@l' m Uilivotts. AIQ 1iifin

Fi:g. 65 rOOD m-aj.l\!oo fJJ li:~/Ifl'Itln~ u ri'retmtH,fHj"p'~ 1ft .~.

An lim W'~gntttfu~1' 'niff~.

111 1i

~jnell'l2l wi U be 311:1 ;j_UI1!1:Sl in ~~'1(! ~ N CR IEAS,E, 1m '~J€'mpe ratu I'ii. R,epeait thi~ [a ooup[1 a of' UrrHls" ,a11W8Ys fem 1D1!J~'ng a'li'lY SlC~ rn 'wh ich f,crrlfl s on ~ he su rf'8i~e of 'the' m[ete I. The ,m,e,an of, the' is trllst p'O~ rus ~~ th~ -actu II ffle~Un9 po~'nt of tt1 e Im~t!a,~. You ca n dlo a not he r at 801 g Gt wt~h pure :sral t No~le'. NOT' '(he hOiu!Seho1 d 'VC!! ri etY,. A,sk at the chernlsrs fur ".sodium Ch loride B PC"" - thi~ i~ CQm'mon ~al'l'; but: chemi~~~h!" JDUr~i

OIJ;1lCO 6~ ~ ~ fils III !11I,S, besn dena you can erl~rlier' rnake UIP '61 t-a b~eolf Ima~k.e' ,aJ n IeIW s~a I e eu ( Cif paper m~' stJc:'k, Or!i t he d~ ~II. I IJ 5:e' a 'table" iis ! iii ~ve o1be'r uses 'for m~,c m~ ammete'rg snd dOI1'·t waW1J'[ :['0 [Tc :a il'iV 'o:f 'thf!'lill YIp en on e Jeb.,

Thiel fin'al a ~~it!1rn[a t~Wi ~s, e~ en ~d\1e. ~ ut rdefln!tellV ;,jin Ulli meed", You ean buy (or :sam e' D'f you m;sy be ,a b'~e 'to maJI:Je',., ~r all II blow) .'3l SQn~1 !ita ~,e dl fffiiUil I i iildi~8'(O'. wtn~ch wn I re~dl '!H.fl 'I he '[em~;J!~r8tlJ r~' on .I igh t~m nU]ng drodes. I'W v,e u ha'iJ8 :se\fe ual i~l!lre~~m()oo!lJph1!l$~, :hn'gh l,emp·~r®~~lre5 and ~ow. vou csn b Ulliid i fl ee 'lh ~s: a eerreetl n9 elre uH wni'oln wun a~ ~i}W for the use o'~ coppa rcQn'S~i1 nt811'1 ~t onB end 'Of th~' tern pera;~,ure WiU'Ig'9 alnd P!;2iIUnum 1~.hodrQ ... ~~ai1:ihum at th,~ c!ihew: a uni\lJI~'vs,al PYHlITIle:'[lL"!U indiaa'ror~ Th~'s is; no1 a bO®lk en 8'1 ect mnic!j., SO thert I mu Sit ~ EN3J'!,l'e t1h~ Id~t;elli~' [for you tOI sert out. S • .rffidi e'1'iI1 "~~ r Al'nJsl Or ~he ell e~t'ron ~eitlilll~' rn ind ~d to '~now th~1' h ca in be do n '!3: r


Cs rbon ,S_'eel Cutfnlg Tools

Many reade rs m'li1Ii~' I'll ~~,~r h iiJ.V'e m 2!j,d e :a ctluUng '~ool 'I iii Ui]ll9Jilf 11V'~j, '~P.1Birt lrcm thl8' o~d D-bi;~. .fIlfl~ 'WOL!J~d re!J~~rd ,alfilything e:_xcep~' h &{II n-'sJJH;~'~d. steil!l'~ Iro F' ,e<Vo8!n t i!JftgrS1:~n carbide) as beiih!;ll a \I'~'~Y' irrferriorr t'001 ~rndeed.

Tbls ls ~ mis:(ak~'. 'The ON,l!{ 1I'iEI',ason for US$11I g H SS j'5, ,t hat 'it ea n operate at a higlher temperaturre,. arId C;~IiI, 'Iher~for@j CUI e FASTE'~.. HS S is much m G re, 8~~~ nSV.irI'~; 1 ~ ~'S not, ~s !hard as p rops:rl y t F:e\~ [~d eerbon 'tClol~$l'~e~. i~ the PlOp' !ilI:r' eutt ~ng !3~eil!!!d €'!~ubHn :S~l~el ha'!;, a lon,gl&n" t,ool '~iflej and 'fQ r fm':sh ~n,g ~,~'ts below ,8Oft/m in. la S I'S much lan'geil!'. And (:again. whe'n proDer~y 'treSlI',~tU carbon 5te~'~ wi II grv~' a beU€i'~ If] niSh. INial" '~:s i'l try i! ,- nfirt . "~lOU iCalrf'[ '~ajk,e HI9'';rVy euts", This, ls !fUlnSJ~ nss. I ~13V~' by 'mIS, ,iliI t$b'h~ of ··$peeds, and ~&~d'8'; hJf c9lrbof'!' s'tee~ IlfjU~I~ teels Vi} hIeh I~s'ts cuts up tJO one [niG h dee p ~1: feeds olf one eight!l O'f arl h~th per!' f'!e~. IFlil"'!~UYI carbon ~'teel wUi Ul ckje "the re\aI II" ham s:tulff" m Urn]1 QlY ite re~~rii'lly i~ 'was 'Used 'Jo Ii' maehini ng 'Ih e chHI,e:d eest in) r:l rOU.s .uS&ii1 ij n s.~If!,alwor,ks hils SlJI rf-aC8' deliberatelv rn ~~ e as ha rdl' a 51 nli~ halffl s~ots. VOIUI lee! n '1; machine on V-Clur ea stin,u:s,II,iilI nd w,atciUTIfi,k,ars h'albi1.u.a 11'1 ,C,IJj'1 h a mened :a n d t.e'm ~ered s ~e.e I Di'vnq wid'i tll c~'~bO:iil s.te~'1. g~ve:r,

The' ,only cnsadvantage whrch affllcts IJhe ,m,~;()!! riall ~~; tha I ll' ""'[I)mpers:'" a'~ 'Ill t;Ei'tel' a ~ow figl.ll.l·{~,~ H SS is, initia Uv. :softie'!'" 1,I1,a-n ea rho n s lee II. (Fig. 6'6;) [bliit wh e'rel!1S th~ ~ ~t['8'r wou~d '~t8Ji':t' to lose S~ mi€ 'o,f hs CUI ningl haH~f!I ass ;a t. abe u't :2 ']'0" C at thi e teel IJ o~ nt the forme'r cain be' oper,art'~d so het Ut-a r, 'the c'Ultting on 'iN m ,smo'k~ ,a nd, lndeed, I nave' :seen :!ip~cja,r grade.s, ru,n 'f.or dl~'miIJns Ira tlie fi pu rpOS-2S 'G'utt in 9 at iii d1u II red thea r, The' sarna is tn.u~: o-f 'lunQs'~I!31f1 ,C'I rlblde; its; vir.tu e is '!iiO[ hs hardness . .::.... it J s inta nded as a fAST cum N G TOO L. perhaP'S at ~:hr~e ti m es 'the :speed of H SS.

This: ~:s 'the crulC or (he ma:ue'li". You can buy a COLlpll~ lot feiErt !J'f C(lIi'OO,i1 [001 !iir~ee~ for 'h~ Ipfice' of one' short HS:S bm.l bi'c ~ you :C~:ra 'me, ~~,. be'rld it. lorge' it, ,a:nd h,a'rde,n it te cut tough .aitD'r sreet even hard cast lron: ;aI rid '!I 0 U C8'111 g8r '!iSU pew laol fi n ish 'on the, 'work. But YOU MU.ST ik,e;~p the ,c~tUng Sipe)~d dClwn and ~e;®!p 'th,~' 'too ~ poi Fit CQO~. F,o'li mugh~ng' ClJIl~ '[he speed sheu I d b-~ .about IQ ne tli! ir-d th~l uood tor H 55 hlIDu:gt1 i'F tnu, mala III t $upply is go.qd VOU can try fa&tJEi'Ii) ,a nd for norm ill I 'flfli,shlng eli ts th~ m a c'llin@ shQ'i.J!ld b!iJ run oEI't ,abott!~' ~wo lhij'rds, 'N~a1 U,$ed fer H s'S~ Iii'} fa!C'(. for brass' Or f'fle;e-.~u ["fing: mi'td ,steet nlJ kln~ mad[el engi'1fl8i13rs-r 'nn~shin9 C!Ui~s.r ther,e- 'ma:!( 'be flIO



- -



'ii:!Ii"'IrIo '~II:

rEM, PiER AT'lJ RE -.. '0.(;".

rfg~ &'iThI'J!' ~ffe.cfol WQfklng ~~ilW~,!WI! ibi\' J~ffJ~S$'lJr flfpkni ~"rli:!tlli'1I11Rd Mgh~ t~M$ OnC'lIl'ill 'tQc;l~~IHJ.\r, ... ~{ij{J'I_ ~'(:'A'II~~'" ~1t-G'~TlJ~; Mitm~$~ wfU !'IOfc' t!i!;" 1~~tt;1r;ad un ~fipftn'J, Nl)te fhuii t.:libon ,$f~~' ~~ lh~ ~~Ja'l~~ 1I1i:i~ :r.rlJo

il'iIPm~!'irt.t lit tI,~ ~~~ ~.Il.I!J~~'2,501·!!:" -

n.e:ed 'r'OI red !Joe ~pe Etd It ,ilil'i., ~ I am, of cou.rse, 8s:suming, that you uS~' the "p rope r' H ISS; cuU:~ i)g &CH~'ad s: mliBfIIY mQde'1 EH,g;'n~ers ru rn at IC.a rbon titee-I, spaads an th ~ tlrn e n ,C~ rhon S:le~ I w~ U 1e;!JJ1' afi~'hl ng 'th,a t can be: CaJJ'1 by HSS; a iIld manY' tna,t we' 'ofte III IJ,Ise O;1inbidB' WeI" f,a nd d\ll. Elsn ·'t 'C'h~]l at t'he ,edge,s; Ie ith'j1l rl 'B u t, i I does t~k.e ~lo:n9:er, EhH w~ar:n is the, ~u~ry, :fJl'nyway7

10 n 'fh e Qu~stT'~,1ii 'Oif' •• 'q u,8Ilitv of 'finish·' ~ ~ ls not .~!,W,dIy5; ,B,p~feoi,~t:~d t~ha:t the surface of the w~~i"kp,i&Ce i$;, wne n tskl ngl \f·ery fi fie ICI!J,'~$~ 8 'PiErflet::,don ~f the surlace: of the '0001. 11f- 'the '[(lie i plO,ir.!1~, nos g moves from '1 he grinder it must le,ei''II'~ grooves or riDS on '~he w!Olvk~ Carbon s~~,el h ~s' ,(J: fin er grain ~h~rn most H:S S ~ and i'f gr~i'!i1 ref ned" Bven more SQ. P ro'p,ellr"l'v ha'rd'f!l,f1ad , ,~'ii1d ~8m p-e,retl orl1ly .so, ra r a$ 1's e'Ssentia~ .i't ItakelS; ,iIJ]P ai bettsif' ~iii~sh 'from 1,he Dilis'~olile'.<S, giv'ln'g i I'i! even bette r' finish 'to, 'th e 'WCirk. I n ·~O rn:iJ'ml9'nta~' Tu mi ng'" we h;anJe tQ Igo ftH1h ar stm,; we rely e'rrrilFfJ'j,y< on U'le

'''1!OO~ f n~ shi• for til 81, decora,t~vl8) ~'e'f~e,c rive su ria c!~ wI! ich sra ~o m ueh ~dmh'i~d, 8W'to ~'V,fJn ~D 'tQ 'Itl ie '~en@ th of lapping' dn~ '[)I!]tt'ling E! dg~ 'wit!n rouge' on ,Sir!' u ron I,e! g' l

Whh 'he ever-incr~:a51n ij' ecst '~T all alll~'V' t;;~l@el'S ~'a,f'il d H SS in pl;;!lntcular) it dOles m~'f.te sam e, 'ss'li1si~ to !f'E! c'O'nsT der 'th IB' 'f.lh~ ee af 'lhfl ;'0 ret 'Fi shiOr:! sd" ~·~Ir'~O" ~te-e<l. W.e alr,~ flo,t all '~h-art, oonca rned whh op,tl mum 'floor-'to .. 'f;11 eer times, an d few at us VIN1!U,ld eveif'" eOll"¥sndle,r w\QI!"k.ln~' OiU r tools as h;tiI rd as t1l1ey do! 'in: irndu'5'~.IT"¥. iTh~' ··I~ conom'~c tODI Ufe·" m airy be no more than 412 m in ures 0 n cen tre.., larth~ WID'~'k!). ~ wou ~d not. of ccnJ~$€I'" suggest: tl1 ~ft we: alband an ~ '5S wh cu,IB~il:i Ie;" that wo,j'~d be 'f(J;o ~ish. e ut 'ro r

. .

'W., at h' Is WiQ nh ~ 'wi~ I conc'hJde, 't,t'li!: iii 0 ~e bV cb~e.N"ti"i!g that ,A lL ~he crank5h af[s; I have mad~. a rid tiUi'" is, Quh,e a ~ at have be~n fln~~hadl, ei.,d mos;t I(]f them rougtn~~dj 1bfl51:ng' t: a rboii, $~88l tool s, on 'the, c~a fI1kprn 5., and m,Mi' h,Bv,e: l~HH~fll {!lIrned .o.n the, f,D Uif!,Hills dMJirt Wt(jc'f ,a,s, 'we~~. Why not give r'i' a '!:rr]BJI7

British Stand Speclfication

The Old 'B'titi'sh St~H'Bda'rd 910/1915i$. Gh~mC'~efi!Setd bV 'Uil9 "'EN''' l"'I!JmiJeM:s which m;;:mv of us sti'll u S~~ W.£Hs, rep Is c ed bV 111 e ~ew ~S.9j"O in 191'12. It l"'i3'i'I,II'¥ is time then w,e :s.:tBJrt!IE d to u ~e 1'1 I I t h~18 one gre;iU .a,dv'~ rn:.age. in ~'l-'hl't the ~S n !lJ1mbe}{ ~tsE!'~f ,gives. I!..)lSi the cBwbo:n cente ri't (01' rna ny' S:i~e'15.

The rH.nrnbef comp,lfIises 1:hme di,g:itsj

'f.olil owed by a letter, 10 Ilowed by !\I\fO m a::J re dlgi'I~. 1"h e 'r;rrs~ Ihl'lee, digi'{s serve twc IPliI ~ose s, 'Th~y g,~ve a '0 fflad i ncliclI1niQIn c,l [n t TVP E lOt su;;: el: 'th us -

1000 te ~ 9'9' ar~ ,i;1J1-i ~·p1a!n·" carbon ~s.'~'eel: w~ih sorn e. m~lliI,ga'li1eSB 'O'OILll'[ p.J1I:~

200 10 240 are '·IP~\EI~e.-cuUing'·' v~'rsi-on'5 cd t h~ t:I:bol\re'

300 ttO 4:9,9~re an JFS'u~i FiI08S."· Or .. Haar Res'lst ~n,gj, ,Slee~~

r.=O:-' 0- II"ii ii'!iI,l!"iI II "AID .. - nA

il ." No ' ~'~;:J, ;a roft :ill. ,11'"-'1, lOy :s[e~ liS: ,a,rlu

within ttU3 num.b-elr the maln "I ~OVi'fi g ~~'lBIiII1 8lfl1iS, ca n b~ ~die! nti"i'ed.

'We are concerned ~'for hecU l'tlEH:i\l,tm,8;rl!'t) em'l V 'with ~jhe pl~ in Garbon st~el;~ iii 1lI'd, pelrllalp<s~ tlil airr" irrejBF~lrn:ihgl e.qlii;~"iaJ~'en't. Thlf! 'first d ~gU: 'c~n be' ~g'non~d~ 0 and , ml6'~rl "·pla'in·" Sind :2 met. ns ~ ~'fmeFCIjj ltin.g'·. The

s~cof1'ld ~'W;O' ,digl.t~'1 (preceded Ib~ 0 '(i!r II 'glv,e ,h,E!! m8!11g,~n ese 00 ii'itellilt m urfJ~ipliie G by 1 00,: thll!i~ L145 mleBlfHi, 031 5% m:ang,~,rll!rttSiej:, l'~ pme:ed',ed' bV '2., 'th~'Sie digits ilRd iG~te the

sulphur eentsnt, 199ain. x '100. 224, w'illl b~ ,fJ 0.:2.4,% ~!J iph!;.lil' S'~~"eL

'1 h e seeo n d 9 fOUl' Ill" 1\"10 di.g,i t~in d tc ~ {'€! S ttl Ell ca rbon co nnmt rn l),I'I'~i:1J ~ied by 10Cl Thus 45 Indlca!t'E!s a O-,~ 5%" carbon . stee I,. The ,I'etu!,r' 'Sh~'Ws the' basis of 11, e ,specmcadan. • 'M" m sa ns 'tha't 't h e s'[ee I ml!lS'~ m'EUi( ~FMII! Inneel";tmicall prr;;.'lJ)e!1'ie:s Oii '[he rtHroo'rta~; "·A" me-aills (hat it must be to '[1', e sps Ciufii'B-d chem'icall aAa~ vsis. other prcpiB F"tles bej fM91 secenda rv: ".'!HI;' m,ea~s [hat h must' m'ee'[ 'the reQlJill'elrn~lIns of tl,a·~= d!B.nabi~,i'lv. Miost of' 'tt; ~ l!Il,U~el WI~ use j s to [he ,,1 M'" tilpe~inr.iMiofll,

The re is, [I,f course, al to~ er~'rll~'i3' 0 rI th,e % 'fiQIJ r.e:s f~N· earben ~nd ~1'1'1 er m'~'~~riahH thus 0.2:% C~lrbon may I~·e batwee Iil O. 1 6 and 0.2-4% - 'though rhe user can ~,~n:ov1de d liI,t p-ays~ S,~ii) t:Hy clOSJBr nm its.

As ~ g,e:f'I'fH,i;!! I ru Ie', 'till e 1f!€'fiQ fie', appro~lm8re ne,~t 'lr;~~Um en1' plrnc~d~!Jr-8S ea n ib@ dcduca-d 'from th e $peci1~cal'iQn number. Thus, CS,O'M30 ~s a 0.3% CiiJrbon 0, S'% Oil ~ng:eu'l! E!'se ~S1JJB~. which may 'be hea r '~lIe'al'[ed by 'el Lu~nchi(i g 'from abDU'l '815 og'e 8fliQ Ie MIPs,ring tlO :slY i1: 'the a,ppll,C2IflilOf:I~ W'e CCI n a'hio d,e du-ce from, th!B: I ro(lea,rb;of1 dlif.iJgl'f),m on p.:31g'e!: ~ 8 ~hat it sh Q,uld be norm 0 nSJ~d ~ t: ~r'O unrl 8 eo~' C'.,

The Spiel'l~ InClnh~Hl dc-e s nO;1 .oo'iJe'r ; "Teo I S'U'3,e'hi:' t w1'1!;h ~rH)re 'thar; ~ % ca,rbon.


A ···ox·mae Conversion of H aroness ,-~ .••.•.•• C,81 III es

(AS'· 'M Co __ version To


U~or S~eI5~ UT:S

,.O·1i"!I FiI L ~,f1'C: ,i \.iI1;.,I! _~_iI";o;;tq._I'l.



!9'5!1 9:8 9'7'

95 1513:


90 sa as 94 82,

,60 JB 16 7',4,


'710 ISS fU;;

1&4· 16,2:

1103(,1 '910 940 900 aso 84Q1

8,2'0 aoo 1,60

14'0 j'UJ

EU~~,) 6501 63iO 600 :5:80

550 5;310 500

,4. ,lI:u"\ ·}g'U


330 314 J04 299 280

264· :2,54- 240 230

,;>'j,!':!JO' L;..J£ .

10 59 6:8 6'1 66.4 fH5.3

64.,.'7 64 62.5 st.s 60.5

5~L2 6'7.,e 616.0 5:5.2 64.l

52.9 5'1,1 49.1 41.7 ,~J6·1
























V~CkEA8 vo,p

'~l416 ~,30 410 3,9:6


360 :]·54 3.3:0 3,14 300

2JJO 2:7'0 ;2'50

2'40 2:2'0 ,2Hl

"90 l,B'~

1S0 150 '1:10 '12,2













,2.7 .1



,20.3 15.'1{95!Bj ~13~-4~93,.4.IB~

8J5U39.6B) IEUJ ~,8'7 . ~ e,) ()i ~,B L 7B'~

11:a:.le~ (7' ~ .. 2IB' (erl.'llBi

These [,®n~arrsl,eJ:'l~ must be us:~d wHih d i screticn, fH:!'plibl~',;i'i,a,1 ~'V 8'5; 'r'9gstd~ the U I ti m:Ei!ItiB "fen:!'il Lie S1,r1ength column. TheV M:late oruly tOI ,e ~!~bon ~Ifld low a~ ~o~ ~~~,~t &1'1 d' 'e.X( I ude '~Sta'jlrn ~eM"" rs~~e~13.

(For 5100 elsl lJTS;

'~! C:OO Lbf/SqJn.












~ 216


11 1 ftockwell' ""IC'· i s OOl

1 a 1 Hpp'neabl'~ ~:u~~,@w thts

el7 m.ngeffi AoakweU "8,'"

aa in br~ ~k'e!s






Glossary 0_ Terms

,,", I'~' I

tM •• ~~~

A,S.M .. E. A,S\oT.M. AcTt.::u~ar

Am e-i'icali"ll I rl:)n and 'S;1e'~1 I nstltute .. Am'erican Socia:tY IO'~ M'~en~!!1ir;;::!,1 Engine,lFii!ffi Am eriean 8odi~tv '(0 r Te'5~ in~' 1M ~ lj~f~~i~

C r,yst;a ~s, form ~liIg ,ii!ir I!'eedl ~:-II'k~' s.tru c;tllJfIe. ij n p;llace of '~'h e m@ra U:SU a I '9'ra i ns,

:lt~EI COil ua'~ning' eteme 1"Il1 s Cl'the'f fha n i ron a nd earbon, theu gh up 'to 0.3,5% M,a n gal~ese 1 s "Fe t!nd i n ~III ste els,

A hea t t!Fe~t:ma nt wh ich soh-en s an ,al ~·dV h ia<rd~!1~ Sleet

'P',atruiS ,a~ w'h~'!l,::h thre, telmperarU,j,r.e ceases [0 rise 'for 1i!1, ShOF~ period when the ~:tt~~~ is 1\'~'iRterl s:~O'wIV. a nd ~l mula r1''Y whe n eeoll ng.

A eonsren [ ~lE!'IT1I pe,ra UJ fe: Ire nsforfff18.11 aJ FI ,proc~S$. mai nht us ad f'Qr Sm,!;! I'I parts. sprii ngs, etc. F1g'. 44.

A 50~~d solu t ton crt carbon ~n ira n,

B:ri1:i sn Sta ndsrds ~ i1'St.~uytion.

A structu rl!3 ob~·.aI lned wheitl Alii S·f,en ile is; tralfil Slurm ed is r a ccnsra nt !ow tsrn p B rature, I,a 55 hard, b iJ~: eou sl1a'~ than 'M :artellisi'l~+ TVpical'l V th~ [,esu 1'( of • i AU;5llem perln g".

A squarE!: !Or reciafllguh;ww' har, IJslJaliy the ralW mat,er~a'l far later h or 'Folr!1ti ng 'llfcCeS&-eI.

'The na m e g.ivelli tll'Jl' 111 @i ~te~~ a fU:! r lh~ com ~1 e1.iolil of" ~ he ICB"n'l~rn(ltiQn process, T~e :s;utfac:~ o:f "the· rn,e~all 'is, at this coi at cuveutd i.1Il seals bHsl,e:U'S ..

Appii it;!.d tn crvstels. one w 7~h an 8 tom ",:f ,e;aCh eo mer and i!;me in U1B 'g~metric centre of the ~anice.

tCo rice rrtra ted solution a:r· common salt ~lNa'DI]' in waler.


C'arburise Caseh arrde,o

Anv prooes5, 'wtn lch causes abserptlen of 1i::.9 rhen.

A sUlr'f,a,c,e ha n'dening prl0CEJ~S which 're ta1:rHj" the normtrl struetu r'e of the steel in [~]e core IOF Lh e p~:rt_ N ormall\i lIoihile\1' ad, by suri'ac:e' 'C'B rhu ~j.S1 og. h f~tln g" and quem cirli,og. 'The r)qajlll1~,· 9 1v~n ,!~ l1igh-C6ifoon Sitea II w nich has be f:l n m~ i'led ,~fftCw" tine celme nt~! ion pr>oce3s is ~.t:I mph!'tl!!. At o.oe tij'm,e 'SV"Il1Ii,:m'lmclU $, with '1ool.-J$t'j9 01 it ns ~IilOW ~iahl e to be £on~,sed with cast~ I'!i~!i iT! ads fr,om • 'm'uld'· ~liIi:l:Q~, The '~ie rms • 'CrloJclib!,9' :St9~ II'· lOr •• C~rbQn S t e',el"' :are '[0 be pref~rIf1IiH~t

The proce:ss by will ~ch Wire !l.Ilgh ~ I ron ~;s' 'calli G\ad to ~~orll camon, 'th r'lJughl title 'fulill Ihicklll ess ~ r tl1 eo 'iim~; ra II. to ,pr,OO"uce ," ~ ~k~~I~r'" 0 r' ". ~ ~9'h Ci!lritum ". sl[,e'e~_

.M.e:[3'lhJfr~~'c~] rlilJm8 for ~ron C:;nbichi1!!, ,F;i3'3C. 9'0 o~m@rl beea i:.iiiilEi' h W~'~ 'firs,'t Td@ rrnif:~9d ~n '~teel m':B de bV ¢~m8nl iii lion.

Ttl ~ '~a'mlpe r,tnU!l1' ,a:it whi'~h SU·IJCl~1)J ra I e ha og as c ee I;,!ll' in th B: metal. u's !!Ja'lly'" bu t. r:I o't ,aJlwa:ys.. coiocitJOl1 [ with tha ., Aff\es:t P~ifii ts·· ~

An amla rly arra fiI~ge,miEl nt of [ii toml~, ,a~ most a I'ways, In i'J raci sa geome trh::= fl'hapes<. I rol!"!1 C rysaars ,~H! fIIlways lo'F c;ubiG, fo n11.

fine 'I:emlp- era tun;: abo'\!'l€' Vliillile Ii1 5 (8G ~ loses hs mag ne [! C:' ~J'opB:lfti:es,

A 11 i renwerks i f'Ij Sw,ede'rb. whi't::h was ~QPY t~d to prod IIJC!!l!i an ~ ron n;:mf~k~ btv f'retGl !fll'fJm lmpu riI'ili6':s.

The reduction, Q'f c3rbO:11 con Ee !ill. usua ny 0 n the SU FftJJc~ ,~f the metal. Caused as a rul e bv dil ~ a ctton il!J;f CJi.~v,g B,n or h'O n ox ~d'{i;I'~ ,ta l h igh tem ~e ratu res~,

EN No.

The ., E.i1lgh"liee F1i 1'19 N Ulrrl bar'· the id er,.~l fica lion fHJ mbe F of '~[eels: us~dJ ~ n e .. .5 ,:3 "'I 0/195,5. now supe rs,M'E: d,

A chart pJ oittin~, th e Cri1'ica~ t~m Ji'aJ.atUfSS; ~f s ree r aga in.~rt Itlhe carbon 00 n'h~lI'iJt. Fig. 1 J.

The- CI~ rnpo sitien tO~ steel a,t wh [Ch 'I he' upp er crl t'~ea~ 'lamp era ru r,s' coiru::ide$, whh ~., e I O'wer, "E LJU!iet~~ d' steel

. ..' I I· .

~s ~n;~'~riR Y iPe,allF inc,

.API~rI ited to Cfy!5tii!!'ls .. ene with a11 ;a tom at eaeh corn er i31r! d 'one in the' eentre Off el1J en ,of the faces of ~he lattice.

The act of we'ld ~f,i'g ~()~ e ~l~,e r ban; of Wrc~ug ht 11"0111 to make blU'BctS.

MI~.tra Uurg'i ca I na ma' fo,' th Et. al tn OS~ fjUf.e i rQ fl obsa Ned ~ ill d·u~ mi~ro~Hlucture ~f 5U'H~i. ~Not t<o be oonf!.li!;ed with ~lne ··sinr11er",ed 'fer;ritel' us~d 'rigr' Coil oorces etc in ~·liEiic'lnjni'C ~qlL!ipmBn1J

An eil-ha ~de ni'I1GI easbe n-cli r:om'i ~Jm all DY stee II oom~ou nded 10. reduce dlstortlon ,on ,~tU~·Ii'u:hing to ii, m ~ni,nJ'lil.i rn, :S()me'~'imes known as ·'gj',cUIf'!d f~a~ steek".

AggreQc~ne's C"~ crysta lls. The~e' form whe'n Hli!' miata I :!i;~'lidHies. O{IJ,t may cl'n:a,Age the:ir- ~h;:a~e' and tHSP05HI~1ll a~ it '~lOol$.

Any pll'oness wh;i;~h e Tdler !l'edu cas, 0 r m a ~e 5 jffhll",e uniJ,() rrn , 'i'n e Si~9' of the, 9'l"a in>5-.

High C:alrbon 's.tee I!

5,!tlj!.ei, with! t±I 'Daf;l!:u:nn' il!::lln'll,t~'n1 ,~oove IC.85,~. 1~lk~rrB accu I"i;!'mely. s~Je,.el which ,liitliOWS free· Ce'met ~the' in (iMe m i'Cro.s' ·mcturr'e~

U SU8~IV a high ~C nro mhJ m h igh- Tu\ltgS~8fi1. a Iloy w~r~:f.1 enh alliiloaid h:ot.~halr.dne SIS, [but m:Eij,Y n~t: be a stee I at a Ill. "St@lH1ie·~ is an a~lov oW- Co'tl~'~ir, Chrom'~i,)jlm. a,nd lj"ung}S1:~n, whh nil ~Irnn eaWl!1!errlt,

120D Q1'U mba r

The en erg-v in foot-pounds re~u jii"E!'d ~Q bl'iel\ak ~ Sl21 rnd:B_m speilimen u nden ~ proscdbed: ilmpQlc~ ~oad. A. te~u 'IDor sll ~ck :r'esi$~ rg~e'"

A rll'8mewo'rk af lm'~9 frn ialll' ~ iF! es i.oJ"l ng aU! loc'al'~ ion at i!1fh~ ms ~ n il1Il 'CJ1ffl'l a~ .

The tij m'p'Ell'r.a't)i!J1n~r. a b01!fe wlhlc'h 'the mii;! B I ls entir~lv liqu id.

H eat 'U'lEt,ar~mli!rn P!rOOOSS desiQlne,d bJ reduc:e' distcut~iO'li1 en 1:B'rge or compiex (£0 mpon~f!its. Fig~ ,45.

'Th~· rsnuchl'pe f'Orm~d wnen a domb~nath:nil of Allsrtanit-e and' Cem'Hltj~~ is cCH'lIJe;d M:H] il1.U~~k~V' to allow '~h,e normal tr;el!lsfbrm,a,~ton W Pearllih~I'.

The ,ra n~~le of 'f.e!lmpilU',eiI1Ure b e~we'~flI fh ~ 50~ ud!us a nd 'the Uq uidu!5" w1u~ f@ '~he. mleta~' is 'in a pasty s;~·rfl1le; •. W'il!l berllh ~nd Ii) noll ~ iQu ~d prle!!sen~;.

A 'kirr1n;:g,OE;l1 in wlhil ~h tAl! war'ilt is:'IP~CI;~€1 cred fro m tine d'lir\~ct I'm ~~'ngem~ lilt ,~,f the he;a'(jin,gfh!!.m e,. ~ t: is i1 Ow app,lie d also 'to, m 05t e Ilectrrc I'i$istance 'fum,

A, sail t. whi~h is u:~ed a g, iii h ea'li:ng rn &CUlIHTI' III u11, WhT'!ti:n f!I either QBlt'burfi;ses n O:li deearburises thtE!' metal.

A eQndifi!Ol"I' 'Whefi131 tlh~ Ilron C'arbide grains are Till U'fI,e form of no~ 1lJ~ es r,B:1ine r (i"l!lfII '~h'8 nerrnat f11@J~dh3:-nk'l8- ~h,i.p e.

H'etil~ ~'re\at ment inomefiLded ~o f'estorn' d~:s.t,O;iited g rn ~f:j;s. '~O tn@'ir lI"I.fJ1Jiiffla'l snapLa'- A (QItrrI o~ grain r~'finemt~l'irn.

C.H. &, T..


The normal tr!l1!'nsrorms'r'1 Q n ,P rod uct Whel'fl AustlF;ll!i1~ tlf3 is. $~owIV coo ~ed Tllw,ough 'me II QWiia:f crftlcal te!'m:~~ rature, h· COfil,silSts OIf ,S!t!I;b-m icrO::!I~opic, . '10 I alles" Qrf lam inae 'o,f Ferrflte ,~nd Cementite.

The !pro C'L9'SS of ICQfi!V'e'~'i'ifi91 east if 0 iii ~n to Wf'OlII,g Ih t ~rl!Dn.

P\lldd~ing RNh:;~1

~ockwe~ I H ~lrd'nBfi '[Qst iii ulrnber. 10\1'1 'llle "c' sc~I~, the' one iii o',rma~ Iy iJ.J!sedl far h~rd m ~~eriiahi:.

Th@! f1! almu :~Q;m etimes used 'fbln" die ,o~ijdctl rem p,e'a'alur,es.


'iI:" A E

~IIA ....

Societ"f 1o~' All! ttUiJilCilU",e Englirn eers UJSA~'.

C'1lI rVB $ho~n ling !tlran:so'fo:rm atiolil' rafle$ ag;~dn.s~ ~Jem'p~ra t Ute ,ofLd T'~me+ (Fi'g. ~ 1St

~ ren O:>tide ~rm ~liI 9 (~;n dl e sUlr:ra(:;e< of hQ~, :i:ME!].

Th e can dU~~1lI wh thi!!' atoms of ,0 ne :~'Oli'd .s!IJIJ1s~n.r: ~ a Fe dfs.~QSi!t!d with in ~h6 Gry~~~,1 IBtlice ~f ~,raathe.t,,, Arlals DOU:S h) ~ he m ~ Fe u:sy,all Uquid ~J~ Ilu r~lsln.

T e'mlP~ rature b@~rlw wh I,ch the m e'tiiilil is enfil',ely ;soli d. hOI'il""cSlrb9n aHCiV wWth ,it t:8lroon contem be-t'i!!/!ee'fi1 0.0'1 % 8ndi 1, i'" B af:or,e a'boLl t '1 ,13:55 [he '~~ mlifi was un uversa Uy ,aJllp'llietJ owdy' to .. H ~Q,h Ci!:ubon St,eetll" as we I( flOW 1ft.

High. Carbon S.t:e~11 '~>o' as. ~ 407'. ,s'fl>-ca'lled because h is uS'IJI:al,~y gtound ~rtld so pr~ge n'lg. a r's,nvenr'~ ~'p'Pea ra nee, i!1 ccntrast te Ule norma:1 "blaek' t01D1 Sl:f!;8~ o,t ea ~l ier IIJ,a''f5. fy;p~<c~Wy 1.'1-'; .,2% C-iluiboi'1l. 0-3~-OA% M:anaga.nese, ().,4- CUs.% Chroma urn, 10. W -(t2 5,'%. SiticC! 1I1~ and' maxim~ of (''L~ 5% Su Iph!lJf' &. :Phn,sp horus,


$eUd! Sallul~iofl!

,SoJ'idu~ :S'(QiI:1

,A fe-til ~ating' PWD'CII±Hii5, wfliich m rldi'ijes the structure of' a hear~~'[reated steel, (No~iE!: th &t in ea·rl'1 be oks II,he' '"T s mp~'F'" of ~ .s~JE!'EIII,"!fit.,ell f8ferr.ed 'to, its ,c~rbon QCI [fi'tell"l1~·~. ''-llme.='remp~nnun;!' irtilnsifonl1 atiQrrI C!iJ rve - 'Ihe '"S" CUNe ,of f.i'G'. ~'ft iJ" ohan which '~Jhow$. 'the tlme tak'Birrl for c:onstfl!flfl t:l!;mnlplr,~ tUII'e 'tratl'i! sform~'[ion of stEH1Il~

Any change D'rhl! mibfOSCO'P 1'1::' structu re or Icne m im~1 earn posiiiHo,n ,C)(f" s'tlHi!!1 br'CJuglu ,a'b QlIr'~' by he~1' '!n~aUn em.



U hi mst e T:anrsi,I'B St.I!'\~Hlgth- 'lihle ,S'~TI~SS in [he bn~akg rig :~!Oinl. mea~i!,H'lB'd under prT(9scribed 'oon-dl:Uons on a sta ndard tesr ,p ieee.

VTc:;Ik~JS Di.amcnd Pyra m tdl• Tnc:' VD P' nu m b~:1i IS a rn easy re' Q't I~e na ~cln ess of ttl ~ rna tt1lfh~ll.

'The; predeGes_$or to ,Sleet M~(h! by decalrb urisnng CIS( ~rc n in d1U iPuddi ~n;g 'hJlffl'lace'.

The ~~!I'"~ ss beyond w nlch meta;l wi.!1 no1 ~e!wr" tal rt:5 Qrigi f1a~ ~,erngth when the load lis rem o~ed.


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