contents

A
A. contents B. general - installed power
1. methodology 2. rules and statutory regulations
2.1 definition of voltage ranges
table B1 standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983) table B2 standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983) B1 B3 B3 B3 B3 B4 B4 B5 B6 B6 B6 B7 B8 B8 B9 B10 B10 B10 A1

2.2 regulations 2.3 standards 2.4 quality and safety of an electrical installation 2.5 initial testing of an installation 2.6 periodic check-testing of an installation
table B3 frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation

2.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation

3. motor, heating and lighting loads
3.1 induction motors
table B4 power and current values for typical induction motors

3.2 direct-current motors
table B6 progressive starters with voltage ramp table B7 progressive starters with current limitation

3.3 resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen)

B11 table B8 current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances B11 B11 B12 B12 B13 B13 B14 B14 B15 B15 B16 B16 B17 B17 B17 B17 table B10 current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz) table B11 current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz)

3.4 fluorescent lamps and related equipment

3.5 discharge lamps
table B12 current demands of discharge lamps

4. power loading of an installation
4.1 installed power (kW) 4.2 installed apparent power (kVA)
table B13 estimation of installed apparent power

4.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand
table B14 simultaneity factors in an apartment block table B16 factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439) table B17 factor of simultaneity according to circuit function

4.4 example of application of factors ku and ks
table B18 an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only)

contents - A1

contents (continued)

A
B. general - installed power (continued)
4. power loading of an installation (continued)
4.5 diversity factor 4.6 choice of transformer rating
table B19 IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and corresponding nominal full-load current values B18 B18 B18 B19

4.7 choice of power-supply sources

C. HV/LV distribution substations
1. supply of power at high voltage
1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks
table C1 relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages (r.m.s. values) table C2 switchgear rated insulation levels table C3A transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than in the United States of America and some other countries) table C3B transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United States of America and some other countries) table C4 standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56 C1 C1 C2 C3 C3 C4 C4 C11 C13 C15 C15 C17 C17 C22 C25 C26 C27 C31 C31 C34 C34 C36 C37 C38 C38 C41 C42 C44 C44 C46 C48 C49 C49 C49 C52

1.2 different HV service connections 1.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks

2. consumers HV substations
2.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation

3. substation protection schemes
3.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages 3.2 electrical protection
table C18 power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A table C19 rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1 table C20 3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers

3.3 protection against thermal effects 3.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres

4. the consumer substation with LV metering
4.1 general 4.2 choice of panels
table C27 standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage

4.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit 4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer
table C31 categories of dielectric fluids table C32 safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids of classes 01, K1, K2 or K3

5. a consumer substation with HV metering
5.1 general 5.2 choice of panels 5.3 parallel operation of transformers

6. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations
6.1 different types of substation 6.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear 6.3 outdoor substations
A2 - contents

A
7. appendix 1 : example in coordination of the characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination protecting an HV/LV transformer
7.1 transfert current and take-over current 7.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region
App C1-1 App C1-2 App C1-3

8. appendix 2 : ground-surface potential gradients due to earth-fault currents 9. appendix 3 : vector diagram of ferro-resonance at 50Hz (or 60 Hz)

App C2-1

App C3-1

D. low-voltage service connections
1. low-voltage public distribution networks
1.1 low-voltage consumers
table D1 survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. table D2 D1 D1 D1 D6 D7 D10 D13 D14

1.2 LV distribution networks 1.3 the consumer-service connection 1.4 quality of supply voltage

2. tariffs and metering

E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering
1. power factor improvement
1.1 the nature of reactive energy 1.2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current 1.3 the power factor 1.4 tan ϕ 1.5 practical measurement of power factor 1.6 practical values of power factor
table E5 example in the calculation of active and reactive power table E7 values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment E1 E1 E2 E2 E3 E4 E4 E4 E4 E5 E5 E5 E5 E6 E6 E7 E8 E9 E9 E9 E10

2. why improve the power factor?
2.1 reduction in the cost of electricity 2.2 technical/economic optimization
table E8 multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ

3. how to improve the power factor
3.1 theoretical principles 3.2 by using what equipment? 3.3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank of capacitors

4. where to install correction capacitors
4.1 global compensation 4.2 compensation by sector 4.3 individual compensation

contents - A3

contents (continued)

A
E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering (continued)
5. how to decide the optimum level of compensation
5.1 general method 5.2 simplified method
table E17 kvar to be installed per kW of load, to improve the power factor of an installation E11 E11 E11 E12 E13 E13 E14 E14 E14 E15 E16

5.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties 5.4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent power (kVA)

6. compensation at the terminals of a transformer
6.1 compensation to increase the available active power output
table E20 active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers, when supplying loads at different values of power factor

6.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer
table E24 reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings

7. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E17
7.1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings
table E26 reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation E17 E17 E18 E19

7.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided
table E28 maximum kvar of P.F. correction applicable to motor terminals without risk of self-excitation

8. example of an installation before and after power-factor correction 9. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank
9.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics 9.2 possible solutions 9.3 choosing the optimum solution
table E30 choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank

E20

E21 E21 E21 E22 E22 E23 E24 E24 E25

9.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors on the power-supply system

10. implementation of capacitor banks
10.1 capacitor elements 10.2 choice of protection, control devices, and connecting cables

11. appendix 1 : elementary harmonic filters 12. appendix 2 : harmonic suppression reactor for a single (power factor correction) capacitor bank

App E3-1

App E4-1

F. distribution within a low-voltage installation
1. general
1.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution 1.2 the main LV distribution board 1.3 transition from IT to TN
F1 F1 F4 F4

A4 - contents

A
2. essential services standby supplies
2.1 continuity of electric-power supply 2.2 quality of electric-power supply
table F10 assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical installation table F12 typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled Uimp = 8 kV table F18 compatibility levels for installation materials F5 F5 F6 F8 F8 F13

3. safety and emergency-services installations, and standby power supplies
3.1 safety installations 3.2 standby reserve-power supplies 3.3 choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies
table F21 table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times

F15 F15 F15 F16 F16 F17 F17 F18 F19 F19 F20 F21 F23 F29 F30 F31 F32 F33 F33 F36 F36 F37 F38 F38 F39 F39 F41 F41 F41 F43 F44 F45 F46

3.4 choice and characteristics of different sources
table F22 table of characteristics of different sources

3.5 local generating sets

4. earthing schemes
4.1 earthing connections
table F25 list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts

4.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes 4.3 earthing schemes characteristics 4.4.1 choice criteria 4.4.2 comparison for each criterion 4.5 choice of earthing method - implementation 4.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes
table F47 resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain table F48 mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earth-electrode resistance with respect to zero-potential earth

5. distribution boards
5.1 types of distribution board 5.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards 5.3 standards 5.4 centralized control

6. distributors
6.1 description and choice 6.2 conduits, conductors and cables
table F60 selection of wiring systems table F61 erection of wiring systems table F62 some examples of installation methods table F63 designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications table F64 designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized cables table F66 commonly used conductors and cables

contents - A5

contents (continued)

A
F. distribution within a low-voltage installation (continued)
7. external influences
7.1 classification
table F67 concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3) F47 F47 F48 F49

7.2 protection by enclosures: IP code

G. protection against electric shocks
1. general
1.1 electric shock 1.2 direct and indirect contact
G1 G1 G1 G2 G2 G3 G4 G4 G4 G4 G5 G6 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G13 G13

2. protection against direct contact
2.1 measures of protection against direct contact 2.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact

3. protection against indirect contact
3.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply
table G8 maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 50 V table G9 maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 25 V

3.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation
table G11 maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008)

3.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation
table G13 maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41)

3.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system
table G18 maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41)

3.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection

4. implementation of the TT system
4.1 protective measures
table G26 the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be exceeded, for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V

G13 G14 G15 G18 G18 G18 G20 G20 G20 G21 G21 G22 G22 G23

4.2 types of RCD 4.3 coordination of differential protective devices

5. implementation of the TN system
5.1 preliminary conditions 5.2 protection against indirect contact
table G42 correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems table G43 maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers table G44 maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B circuit breakers table G45 maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type C table G46 maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin

5.3 high-sensitivity RCDs 5.4 protection in high fire-risk locations 5.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high
A6 - contents

A7 . derived from the code letter.4 location of protective devices table H1-7 general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices 1.) 7.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits table H1-12 code-letter reference.1 general table H1-11 logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-11 H1-11 H1-12 H1-13 2.4 in areas of high fire-risk 6. general 1.6 worked example of cable calculations table H1-9 calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (Merlin Gerin) table H1-10 example of short-circuit current evaluation 2.s. the protection of circuits 1.).2 protection against indirect contact table G59 correction factors.A 6. depending on type of conductor and method of installation table H1-13 factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H) table H1-14 correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer table H1-15 correction factor K3 for ambient temperature other than 30 °C table H1-17 case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c. circuit breakers.1 methodology and definitions table H1-1 logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit H1-1 H1-1 H1-1 H1-3 H1-4 H1-5 H1-5 H1-5 H1-6 H1-8 H1-9 1.2 overcurrent protection principles 1. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors 2.1 description 7.2 application of RCDs table G70 electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs table G72 means of reducing the ratio I∆n/lph (max.3 practical values for a protection scheme 1. to apply to the circuit lengths given in tables G43 to G46 6. the protection of circuits and the switchgear H1. insulation material and the fictitious current I'z contents . implementation of the IT system 6. conductor material.3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB .3 high-sensitivity RCDs 6.IEC 1008) table G74 typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs.5 cables in parallel 1. and fuses H.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high 7.a.1 preliminary conditions table G53 essential functions in IT schemes G24 G24 G24 G25 G28 G29 G29 G30 G31 G31 G31 G32 G33 G34 G34 6. residual current differential devices (RCDs) 7. for IT-earthed systems.

4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter 5. determination of voltage drop 3. in a 230/400 V 3-phase system H1-24 H1-25 H1-26 H1-26 4.000 kVA HV/LV transformer 4.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end table H1-40 Isc at a point downstream.contents H1-28 H1-29 H1-29 H1-29 H1-30 .3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits table H1-19 correction factor K4 related to the method of installation table H1-20 correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer table H1-21 correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil table H1-22 correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C table H1-24 case of a buried circuit: minimum c. in volts per ampere per km 4. reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers with HV windings i 20 kV table H1-38 recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system table H1-39 example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1. the protection of circuits and the switchgear (continued) H1. and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz) K H1-14 H1-14 H1-14 H1-15 H1-15 H1-15 3.a.62) table H1-50 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers table H1-51 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers table H1-52 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers table H1-53 correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52 A8 .2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation table H1-36 the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer table H1-37 resistance.a. short-circuit current calculations 4. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) 2.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions table H1-28 voltage-drop formulae table H1-29 phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit.1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV distribution transformer table H1-32 typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV table H1-33 Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA. in terms of type of conductor. the protection of circuits (continued) 2.1 maximum voltage-drop limit table H1-26 maximum voltage-drop limits H1-17 H1-17 H1-17 H1-18 H1-18 H1-18 H1-20 H1-20 H1-20 H1-20 H1-21 H1-21 H1-22 H1-23 H1-23 H1-23 3.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current table H1-49 maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium.s. of the intervening conductors. in terms of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c. or 250 MVA 4. particular cases of short-circuit current 5. the lengths must be multiplied by 0.s.contents (continued) A H. type of insulation.

2 isolation table H2-2 peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen 1. the basic functions of LV switchgear table H2-1 basic functions of LV switchgear H2-1 H2-1 H2-1 H2-1 H2-2 H2-2 H2-4 H2-4 H2-5 H2-5 H2-7 H2-9 H2-11 H2-11 H2-11 H2-11 1.3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) 6.a.1 connection and choice table H1-59 choice of protective conductors (PE) 6. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB. the neutral conductor 7. in terms of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times used in France H1-35 6. choice of switchgear 3. commonly used in national standards and complying with IEC 724 H1-34 H1-34 H1-35 table H1-63 c.c.a.4 equipotential conductor 7.2 conductor dimensioning table H1-60 minimum c. the switchgear 1.2 protection of the neutral conductor table H1-65 table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems H1-35 H1-36 H1-36 H1-36 H1-37 H2.A 5.s.2 switchgear selection contents .1 dimensioning the neutral conductor 7.'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors (to the installation earth electrode) table H1-61 k factor values for LV PE conductors.2 combined switchgear elements 3.A9 .s.1 electrical protection 1.1 tabulated functional capabilities table H2-19 functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear 3.2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit conditions table H1-54 value of the constant k2 table H1-55 maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106) H1-31 H1-31 H1-31 H1-32 H1-32 H1-33 H1-33 6. protective earthing conductors (PE) 6. switches according to IEC 947-3 table H2-8 factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part 1) table H2-13 zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1) 2.1 elementary switching devices table H2-7 utilization categories of LV a. the switchgear and fusegear 2.3 switchgear control 2.

in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes J11 J11 J12 J14 J15 J17 2.1 what is an inverter? 2. for several transformers in parallel H2-20 H2-21 H2-23 H2-25 H2-27 H2-28 H2-29 H2-32 4.5 the protection of standby and mobile a. the switchgear (continued) 4. circuit breakers table H2-20 functions performed by a circuit breaker/disconnector H2-12 H2-12 H2-12 H2-15 H2-16 H2-17 4.5 UPS systems and their environment 2.4 methods of approximate calculation table J1-7 procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current table J1-8 procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current J1 J1 J4 J5 J6 J6 J7 J9 1.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker table H2-28 tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers table H2-31 Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit (IEC 947-2) 4. instantaneous or short-time delayed table H2-43 maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively).3 standards 2. particular supply sources and loads 1.1 standards and descriptions 4.c.contents (continued) A H2.7 earthing schemes A10 .4 choice of a UPS system 2.3 choice of tripping units 1.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator 1.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems 2.1 an alternator on short-circuit 1. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) 2.4 selection of a circuit breaker table H2-38 examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units. according to temperature table H2-40 different tripping units.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation J.5 coordination between circuit breakers table H2-45 example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation table H2-49 summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping 4.2 types of UPS system J10 J10 J10 table J2-4 examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator 1. generating sets 2. as standardized in IEC 947-2 H2-19 4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker H2-18 table H2-34 relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different power-factor values of short-circuit current.contents .

s.1 service continuity 4.a. and cables for the battery connection table J2-21 voltage drop in % of 324 V d.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers table J3-5 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers 3.s.A11 .2 standards 5.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current 3.4 preventive or limitative protection contents .5 choice of control-switching devices table J4-5 types of remote control 4.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables.7 supply sources for emergency lighting 5. output and battery currents for UPS system EPS 5000 (Merlin Gerin) J20 J21 J21 J21 J22 J23 J24 J25 J25 J25 J26 J26 J26 J26 J27 J27 J28 J29 J29 J30 J30 J31 J31 2. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier.10 complementary equipments 3.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) table J4-1 analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits 4.c.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay table J5-4 utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4) 5. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier. and supplying the load for UPS system Maxipac (cable lengths < 100 m) table J2-23 currents and c.a. lighting circuits 4. for a copper-cored cable table J2-22 currents and c. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers table J3-6 protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings table J3-7 protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings table J3-8 protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings table J3-9 protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings 4.1 protective and control functions required table J5-2 commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits 5.9 choice of protection schemes 2. Battery cable data are also included table J2-24 input. and supplying the load for UPS system EPS 2000 (cable lengths < 100 m).3 the circuit and its protection 4. protection of LV/LV transformers 3. for high-pressure discharge lamps table J4-4 current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be protected J31 J32 J32 J33 J33 J34 J35 J36 J36 J37 J38 J38 J39 J41 4. asynchronous motors 5.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer 3.A 2.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits 4.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker table J4-2 protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating circuits table J4-3 maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit.

5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV table J5-12 maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V) table J5-13 maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors J43 J43 J43 J43 J44 J44 J45 J45 J45 J46 J46 J47 5.s.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) 6.a.5 protection of persons 7. asynchronous motors (continued) 5.3 protection of persons 1. domestic and similar premises 1. particular supply sources and loads (continued) 5.2 distribution-board components 1. bathrooms and showers 2.c.s.c. of aluminium conductors are shown in brackets) L1 L1 L2 L4 L6 L6 L7 L8 L8 L10 L10 2. Appendix : Short-circuit characteristics of an alternator App J1-1 L.1 classification of zones 2. domestic and similar premises and special locations 1. of conductors and current rating of the protective devices in domestic installations (the c.1 short-circuit currents 6. and of protective switchgear table J6-4 characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d.4 circuits table L1-9 recommended minimum number of lighting and power points in domestic premises table L1-11 c.4 examples 6.contents . system earthing 6.2 equipotential bonding 2. recommendations applicable to special installations and locations L11 A12 . protection of direct-current installations 6.contents (continued) A J.3 requirements prescribed for each zone 3.1 general 1.3 choice of protective device table J6-5 choice of d.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure.a. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin 6.

low-voltage service connections reactive energy The compensation of reactive energy within electrical installations normally concerns only power factor improvement. are determined from building plans and from the location and grouping of loads. Earth-bonding connections and neutralearthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations. to choose an appropriate scheme of protection. and activities practised in them. Local information regarding tariff structures is also required to permit the best choice of connection arrangement to the power-supply network. The kinds of location.installed power service connection This connection can be made at: c High Voltage: a consumer-type substation will then have to be studied. starting conditions. This substation may be an outdoor or indoor installation conforming to relevant standards and regulations (the low-voltage section may be studied separately if necessary). built and equipped.e. IT or TN) having been previously determined. globally or as a combination of both methods.power factor improvement LV distribution The whole of the installation distribution network is studied as a complete system. corresponding chapter B . "loads" (steady-state demand. From these data the power required from the supply source and (where appropriate) the number of sources necessary for an adequate supply to the installation.) together with the location and magnitude of each load shown on a building plan. constraints related to the power-supply. listing of power demands The study of a proposed electrical installation necessitates an adequate understanding of all governing rules and regulations. E . i.installed power . methodology B the study of an electrical installation by means of this guide requires the reading of the entire text in the order in which the chapters are presented.HV/LV distribution substations D .1.B1 . The number and characteristics of standby emergency-supply sources are defined. e. together with distribution boards and cableways. can affect their level of resistance to external influences. are readily obtained. as deduced from the operating modes.g.general . in order to achieve protection of persons against the hazards of direct and indirect contact. and to the nature of the installation loads. etc.protection against electric shock general . C . The list will include the total power of the loads installed as well as an estimation of the actual loads to be supplied. G . it remains.distribution within a low-voltage installation protection against electric shock The system of earthing (TT. A knowledge of the operating modes of power-consuming appliances. Metering at high-voltage or low-voltage is possible in this case c Low Voltage: the installation will be connected to the local power network and will (necessarily) be metered according to LV tariffs. allow a listing of power demands to be compiled. and is carried out locally. non-simultaneous operation. at high voltage or low voltage. F . The hardware components of distribution.

2 software Ecodial 2. The performance required by the switchgear will determine its type and characteristics. in accordance with IEC standards and recommendations. c specific loads with special characteristics. the cross-sectional area of circuit conductors can be determined. taking into account the nature of the cableways and their influence on the current rating of conductors. the level of short-circuit current. c comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data. The short-circuit current Isc is then determined. such as direct-current networks. or c specific systems. c optimization of cable sizes. c discrimination of protective devices.particular supply sources and loads domestic and similar premises and special locations Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the most common example being domestic dwellings.the switchgear particular supply sources and loads Particular items of plant and equipment are studied: c specific sources such as alternators or inverters.2 is a Merlin Gerin product and is available in French and English versions. L .domestic and similar premises and special locations Ecodial 2. methodology (continued) B circuits and switchgear Each circuit is then studied in detail.the protection of circuits H2 . and the type of protective device. The following features are included: c construction of one-line diagrams.2 software* provides a complete conception and design package for LV installations. c motor starting is satisfactory. such as induction motors.installed power . These calculations may indicate that a different conductor size than that originally chosen is necessary. c calculation of voltage drops. c recommendations for cascading schemes.1. J . the following requirements must be satisfied: c the voltage drop complies with the relevant standard. c required ratings of switchgear and fusegear. The use of cascading techniques and the discriminative operation of fuses and tripping of circuit breakers are examined. H1 .general . c calculation of short-circuit currents. c verification of the protection of persons. lighting circuits or LV/LV transformers. From the rated currents of the loads. Before adopting the conductor size indicated above. and the Isc thermal and electrodynamic withstand capability of the circuit is checked. * Ecodial 2. c protection against electric shock is assured. B2 .

after this the reduction of this range will be considered. 1) The nominal voltage of existing 220/380 V and 240/415 V systems shall evolve towards the recommended value of 230/400 V.4(2) 24.B3 . The values indicated are voltages between phases.6(1) 3.5(2) 34.5(3) 35(3) 60 Hz systems series II (North American practice) highest voltage nominal system for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) 4.5(2) - table B2: standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983). which may be classified as follows: c statutory regulations (decrees.5) (15) 24 22 20 36(3) 33(3) 40. and should not exceed 20 years after the issue of this IEC publication. * These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated. c national and international standards for products.97(2) 13. c codes of practice. The transition period should be as short as possible. 2. regulations issued by professional institutions.1 definition of voltage ranges IEC voltage standards and recommendations three phase. All the above considerations apply also to the present 380/660 V value with respect to the recommended value 400/690 V. as a first step. At the end of this transition period the tolerance of 230/400 V ±10% should have been achieved. rules and statutory regulations B Low-voltage installations are governed by a number of regulatory and advisory texts. four wire or three wire systems nominal voltage (V) 230/400(1) 277/480(2) 400/690(1) 1000 single phase.installed power . job specifications.94(2) 36. the electricity supply authorities of countries having 220/380 V systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +6% -10% and those of countries having 240/415 V systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +10% -6%.52(1) 13. etc.3(1) 3((1) 7. factory acts.2(1) 6. 2) These systems are generally four-wire systems.6(1) 6(1) 12 11 10 (17. During this period.2(2) 12. three wire systems nominal voltage (V) 120/240 - table B1: standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983).16(1) 13.2(2) 14. 3) The unification of these values is under consideration. 2) Not to be utilized together with 230/400 V or 400/690 V. 50 Hz and 60 Hz systems series I highest voltage nominal system for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) 3.47(2) 13.2.8(1) 26. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future.40(1) 4. c national and international standards for installations. general . The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values.). 1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems.

269-1 Low-voltage fuses .installed power .Part 1: General requirements IEC .287 Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) IEC .364-5-51 Electrical installations of buildings .2.3 standards This Guide is based on relevant IEC standards.Part 1: Current limiting fuses IEC .146 IEC .282-1 High-voltage fuses . in particular IEC 364.420 High-voltage alternating current switch-fuse combinations IEC .general . IEC .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .364-5-53 Electrical installations of buildings .Section 706: Restrictive conductive locations IEC . electrical installations shall comply with more than one set of regulations.364-4-42 Electrical installations of buildings .146-4 Standard voltages High-voltage alternating-current circuit breakers Power transformer . issued by National Authorities or by recognised private bodies.Part 4: Protection of safety .Part 1: General aspects IEC . IEC 364 has been established by medical and engineering experts of all countries in the world comparing their experience at an international level.Section 47: Measures of protection against electrical shock IEC .Section 41: Protection against electrical shock IEC .Part 2: Temperature rise Power transformer .364-7-701 Electrical installations of buildings .76-3 IEC . shows.Part 1: Types-tested and partially type-tested assemblies IEC .Part 4: Protection of safety .364-7-706 Electrical installations of buildings . the safety principles of IEC 364 and 479-1 are the fundamentals of most electrical standards in the world.Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment . rules and statutory regulations (continued) B 2.364-4-47 Electrical installations of buildings .265-1 High-voltage switches .Part 1: High-voltage switches for rated voltages above 1 kV and less than 52 kV IEC .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards IEC .Section 52: Wiring systems IEC .38 IEC .364-6 Electrical installations of buildings .56 IEC .Part 3: Assessment of general characteristics IEC .364 Electrical installations of buildings IEC .479-2 Effects of current on human beings and livestock .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment . stands and funfairs IEC .298 AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1kV and up to and including 52 kV IEC .364-5-52 Electrical installations of buildings .129 IEC .Part 4: Application of protective measures for safety .269-3 Low-voltage fuses .Section 43: Protection against overcurrent IEC . 2.Part 2: Special aspects IEC . It is essential to take into account these local constraints before starting the design.76-2 IEC .364-3 Electrical installations of buildings .364-4-41 Electrical installations of buildings .Section 701: Electrical installations in bathrooms IEC .2 regulations In most countries.Part 4: Protection of safety .Section 51: Common rules IEC .Part 3: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications) IEC .Part 6: Verification IEC .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .364-7-710 Electrical installations of buildings .529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) IEC .479-1 Effects of current on human beings and livestock .Section 42: Protection against thermal effects IEC .364-4-43 Electrical installations of buildings .439-3 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Section 710: Installation in exhibitions.Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways) IEC .644 Specification for high-voltage fuse-links for motor circuit applications B4 .446 Identification of conductors by colours or numerals IEC .Part 4: Method of specifying the performance and test requirements of uninterruptible power systems IEC .439-2 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .439-1 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 3: Insulation levels and dielectric tests Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches General requirements and line commutated converters General requirements and line commutated converters .Section 53: Switchgear and controlgear IEC . Currently.Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .

testing and rating .Part 1: General . systems having a rated voltage up to and including 660 V. c and periodic checking can the permanent safety of persons and security of supply to equipment be achieved.c.664 IEC .B5 .0 kV Isolation transformer and safety isolation transformer.694 IEC .installed power . c the verification of the conformity of electrical equipment. Requirements General requirements for residual current operated protective devices Application guide for selection for fuse-links of high-voltage fuses for transformer circuit application Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.787 IEC .Guide for installation and operation 2.755 IEC .Safety requirements .4 quality and safety of an electrical installation Only by c the initial checking of the conformity of the electrical installation.831-1 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems Common clauses for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards Guide to the short-circuit temperature limits of electrical cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 0. .B IEC .724 IEC .6/1.Performance.742 IEC . general .

5 initial testing of an installation Before a power-supply authority will connect an installation to its supply network. TT. must be re-tested periodically by authorized agents. modified if necessary to comply with any possible variation imposed by a local supply authority. for example: TN-. conduit. c continuity and conductivity tests of protective. IEC 364 and related standards included in this guide are based on an international consensus for such tests. 2. equipotential and earth-bonding conductors. c verification that all exposed.2. The principles of all such regulations however. Such additional requirements are beyond the scope of this guide. coal.and extraneous metallic parts are properly earthed (where appropriate). installations based on class 2 insulation. materials and installation conditions (in air. intended to cover all the safety measures and approved installation practices normally required for domestic. These tests and checks are basic (but not exhaustive) to the majority of installations. c resistance tests of earthing electrodes with respect to remote earth. the re-testing period will vary from one to three years according to local regulations installations in buildings used for public gatherings. and special locations. and to indicate the essential rules to be observed in order to achieve a satisfactory level of quality. or by its appointed agent. and are based on the observance of rigorous safety rules in the design and realization of the installation. which may differ slightly from one country to another. where protection against the risks of fire and panic are required residential table B3: frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation. SELV circuits. must be satisfied. which will ensure safe and trouble-free performance.). etc. all industrial and commercial-building installations. typically. c allowable number of socket-outlets per circuit check. together with installations in buildings used for public gatherings. etc. Many industries however have additional regulations related to a particular product (petroleum. B6 . between phases and between phases and earth. The aim of this guide is to draw attention to the particular features of different types of installation. are common.general . The pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual-inspection checks for installations in buildings include. Table B3 shows the frequency of testing commonly prescribed according to the kind of installation concerned. c check of clearance distances in bathrooms. etc.installed power . etc. are intended to satisfy all precommissioning test and inspection requirements. c cross-sectional-area check of all conductors for adequacy at the short-circuit levels prevailing.). These tests are made according to local (governmental and/or institutional) regulations.or IT-earthed installations. rules and statutory regulations (continued) B 2. taking account of the associated protective devices. commercial and (the majority of) industrial buildings. natural gas. all of the following: c insulation tests of all cable and wiring conductors of the fixed installation. The methods recommended in this guide. strict pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual inspections by the authority. while numerous other tests and rules are included in the regulations to cover particular cases.6 periodic check-testing of an installation In many countries. annually fire or explosion exists c temporary installations at worksites c locations at which HV installations exist c restrictive conducting locations where mobile equipment is used other cases every 3 years according to the type of establishment and its capacity for receiving the public. installations which require the protection of employees c locations at which a risk of degradation.

Quality assurance certification is intended to complete the initial declaration or certification of conformity. verification of the manufacturing process. Only the manufacturer can certify that the fabricated products have. In some tests for conformity to standards.B7 . the samples are destroyed (tests on fuses. As proof that all the necessary measures have been taken for assuring the quality of production. the declaration of conformity provided by the manufacturer (included in the technical documentation) together with a conformity mark on the equipment concerned. These certificates are issued by organizations specializing in quality control.B 2. domestic appliances) and for whom the standards have been established which permit the attribution. This method applies. in addition to checking of the final product.installed power . the characteristics stated. the equivalent European standard being EN 29000.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested in several ways. where it is not intended to fabricate and test a prototype (case of a custom-built product made to specification). and are based on the international standard ISO 9000. are generally recognized as a valid attestation. by the standardization authority. These standards define three model systems of quality assurance control corresponding to different situations rather than to different levels of quality: c model 3 defines assurance of quality by inspection and checking of final products. attestation of conformity The conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested: c by an official conformity mark granted by the standards organization concerned. mark of conformity Conformity marks are inscribed on appliances and equipment which are generally used by technically inexperienced persons (for example. the standards define several methods of quality assurance which correspond to different situations rather than to different levels of quality. a certificate of conformity can be obtained from an independent accredited laboratory. general . or c by a declaration of conformity from the manufacturer. of a mark of conformity (commonly referred to as a conformity mark). c model 2 includes. for example. c model 1 corresponds to model 2. for example). certification of Quality Assurance A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify the conformity of an entire production run: these tests are called type tests. Where the competence of the manufacturer is in doubt. or c by a certificate of conformity issued by a laboratory. to the manufacture of fuses where performance characteristics cannot be checked without destroying the fuse. for example. in fact. the manufacturer obtains certification of the quality control system which monitors the fabrication of the product concerned. but with the additional requirement that the quality of the design process must be rigorously scrutinized. declaration of conformity In cases where the equipment in question is to be used by qualified or experienced persons.

table of typical values Table B4 shows.5 to 3 In (mean value = 2. c for induction motors controlled by speedchanging variable-frequency devices (for example: Altivar Telemecanique). compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors The application of this principle to the operation of induction motors is generally referred to as "power-factor improvement" or "power-factor correction". c levels of load current at each distribution board. is given by: Ia x cos ϕ cos ϕ' where cos ϕ is the power factor before compensation and cos ϕ' is the power factor after compensation. the motor efficiency and the power factor. c the rating of the HV/LV transformer.5 In). it is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the current supplied to induction motors. the current supplied to them at different voltage levels under normal uncompensated conditions.e. heating and lighting loads B an examination of the actual apparent-power demands of different loads: a necessary preliminary step in the design of a LV installation. η: per-unit efficiency.2 to 9 In for 2-pole motors v Id = 4. kW input kVA input motor-starting current Starting current (Id) for 3-phase induction motors. where applicable (allowing for expected increases in load). motor. As noted above cos ϕ = kW input so that a kVA input reduction in kVA input will increase (i.e. multiply by a factor of 0. output kW input kW cos ϕ: power factor. The apparent power in kVA (Pa) supplied to the motor is a function of the output. As discussed in chapter E. the apparentpower (kVA) supplied to an induction motor can be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors.e. Ia being the original current. To convert the current values indicated for a given motor rating in the 220 V and 380 V columns to the currents taken by 230 V and 400 V motors of the same rating.93 (tan ϕ = 0.000 3-phase motor: Ia = ex U x η x cos ϕ 1-phase motor: Ia = Pn x 1. The examination of actual values of apparent-power required by each load enables the establishment of: c a declared power demand which determines the contract for the supply of energy.95. motors: Id depends on the value of starting resistances in the rotor circuits: Id = 1. assume that the control device has the effect of increasing the power (kW) supplied to the circuit motor (i. as a function of the rated nominal power of motors. This can be achieved by using capacitors without affecting the power output of the motors. 3.C. and the same motors under the same conditions. c for wound-rotor motors (with slip-rings).general . . improve) the value of cos ϕ.1 induction motors the nominal power in kW (Pn) of a motor indicates its rated equivalent mechanical power output. Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate for long periods at reduced power. and for D. Reduction of input kVA means a corresponding reduction of input current (since the voltage remains constant).4).000 U x η x cos ϕ where Ia: current demand (in amps) Pn: nominal power (in kW of active power) U: voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals for single-phase motors (in volts).installed power Note: the rated voltages of certain loads listed in table B4 are still based on 220/380 V. The international standard is now (since 1983) 230/400 V. These values are averages and will differ to some extent according to the type of motor and the manufacturer concerned.3. after power-factor correction. Pa = Pn η cos ϕ current demand The full-load current Ia supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae: Pn x 1. will be: c for direct-on-line starting of squirrel-cage motors: v Id = 4. B8 . where In = nominal full-load current of the motor. i. but compensated to operate at a power factor of 0. i. device plus) by 10%. according to motor type. The current supplied to the motor.2 to 7 In for motors with more than 2 poles (mean value = 6 In). A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase.e.

93 7.88 568 1490 850 730 0.8 52 30 26.8 10.89 88 0.98 69 0.71 1 1.7 39 22 20.3 32 18.75 0.3 0.76 206 0.5 0.9 1.7 7.2 3.10 60 0.75 1.85 12.35 1245 current at different voltages 1-PH 3-PH 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V A A A A 2.64 600 0.21 1.93 39.57 30 0.7 13.9 7.86 70 182 105 90 0.5 7.93 0.6 1.73 0.88 449 1180 670 575 0.6 6.88 538 1410 800 690 0.93 9.7 5 4 5.6 3.75 168 0.8 4.92 93 0.87 100 260 147 131 0.88 718 1880 1090 920 0.77 3.3 5.5 7.80 6.5 1.06 0.4 0.2 2 10.86 57 150 85 76 0.5 2 1.4 30.81 713 0.86 28.62 0.98 356 0.8 5 5.80 2.3 34.93 6.7 2.5 10 9 12 10 13.3 1.75 1 1.86 19.93 54 402 0.03 0.1 22 12.72 0.80 3.1 0.7 2.93 4.86 14.93 0.45 294 0.8 4.93 67.1 0.6 47 27 15.2 1.9 0.3 3.86 33 85 52 45.4 12 6.8 18 9.5 5.9 0.5 3.68 905 0.4 11.89 26.5 6.4 4.47 0.12 22.87 136 356 205 178 0.B9 .87 159 420 242 209 0.5 0.93 16.1 5.44 286 0.3 0.9 15 18.6 25 13.87 161 425 245 215 0.63 504 0.7 0.4 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 85 89 105 112 129 143 156 184 187 200 207 210 220 254 263 281 310 360 365 400 416 420 445 472 500 527 540 574 595 608 645 680 720 760 830 850 910 960 1020 1100 1220 1500 660 V A 0.93 29.1 0.25 39 0.3 6.8 1.33 679 0.93 18.8 1.77 0.1 1. as noted on the previous page.93 68.93 1.88 266 700 408 353 0.6 1.6 8 10.88 311 826 475 412 0.88 401 1100 620 518 0.87 183 483 280 246 0.72 47 0.80 7 0.7 5 4.5 4.88 801 2100 1200 1020 0.95 804 0.37 0.4 0.88 335 900 510 450 0.93 60.9 9.5 0.93 27.93 11.79 1.7 5 22 11.1 26 14.87 94 240 138 125 0.99 0.15 183 0.B 3.1 1.3 21.9 15.93 42.66 74 0.93 0.40 538 0.59 4.93 30.4 32 18 16.6 5.86 48 126 72 64 0.93 47.93 20.87 112 295 170 146 0.9 10.87 74 195 112 97 0.88 478 1250 710 611 0.7 17 21 26 31 36 42 46 51 55 60 69 74 80 83 98 105 121 134 146 172 175 187 194 196 206 238 246 266 293 341 345 378 394 397 421 447 473 499 511 543 563 575 610 643 681 719 785 804 861 908 965 1041 1154 1419 660 V A 0.5 0.7 2.93 11.89 64 0.7 35 20 17.75 1.74 5.93 101.93 1.93 95.9 6.9 6.93 1.7 75 44 39 0.80 4.1 induction motors (continued) nominal power Pn kW HP 0.6 21 11.93 11.1 424 0.48 1.9 8.9 35 20 11.53 1.3 7.84 453 0.80 334 0.93 13.88 359 980 565 481 0.3 42 24 13.6 2.88 508 1330 760 650 0.2 3 2.8 31 17.86 43 113 68 58 0.88 957 1450 1250 0.78 229 0.39 0.5 9 12 13.81 252 0.88 598 1570 900 780 0.88 242 626 370 321 0.93 32.93 80.8 12.93 38.93 85.6 13.88 1316 1980 1700 with compensation cos ϕ capa.5 4.5 16 8.91 1.1 3.93 0.6 6.75 1.93 107.50 509 0.6 12.6 8.93 64.7 12.88 754 1980 1100 965 0.7 10.4 3.12 634 0.26 172 0.93 44.7 2.5 13.87 79 203 117 109 0.5 33 39.26 566 0.87 220 578 333 289 0.88 302 800 460 401 0.5 8.4 23 28.2 5.9 0.95.88 353 948 546 473 0.2 64 37 32.93 25.8 0.66 339 0.67 2.83 10.93 8.5 2 2.55 0.93 167.2 29 16.68 0.3 5.8 0.12 44 0.6 11.88 425 1150 636 549 0.93 33.Pa at Pn citor rating kvar kVA 0.5 16.5 13 16 20 23 28 32 36 39 41 45 53 56 62 65 77 80 92 100 110 126 131 136 142 149 159 178 187 203 222 259 265 289 303 306 319 336 350 374 388 420 431 435 459 487 516 544 596 610 653 686 729 785 875 1079 table B4: power and current values for typical induction motors.93 91.55 160 0.8 0.1 4.2 1.24 127 0.88 670 1760 1000 870 0.93 114 849 0.99 3 0.6 39 42 44 49 57 61 66 69 82 86 98 107 118 135 140 145 152 159 170 190 200 215 235 274 280 305 320 325 337 365 370 395 410 445 455 460 485 515 545 575 630 645 690 725 770 830 925 1140 500 V A 0.installed power .93 23.4 2.60 481 0.5 2 2.3 3.6 0.5 7.2 3 3 4 3. Reminder: some columns refer to 220 and 380 V motors.88 532 1400 790 680 0.5 10.93 0.87 125 325 188 162 0.93 10.85 13.93 8.87 180 472 273 236 0.6 1.93 121.3 25.93 26.1 0.5 14 17.87 196 520 300 256 0.37 0.93 45.9 5.84 149 0.88 758 0.8 3.93 1.93 57.8 1.6 0.87 171 450 260 227 0.5 0.63 317 0.88 1076 1610 1390 0.6 0.4 36 20 19 48 28 25 59 34 30 69 41 36 79 48 42 95 55 48 104 63 54 117 67 59 124 73 62 139 79 70 157 91 77 168 97 83 182 105 91 190 109 102 225 129 117 243 138 123 276 159 137 304 176 152 333 192 167 393 226 196 398 229 201 421 243 212 442 255 221 452 262 230 486 281 239 541 312 270 557 320 276 592 350 304 662 386 334 757 435 379 782 449 390 852 483 426 897 517 448 927 535 455 937 553 478 1041 587 490 1088 602 519 1117 634 544 1183 672 578 1258 719 615 1325 748 643 1334 757 653 1410 804 691 1486 852 738 1571 899 781 1665 946 823 1779 1031 871 1874 1041 913 1987 1135 965 1192 1017 1277 1098 1372 1183 1523 1315 1874 1609 % 64 68 72 75 78 79 81 82 82 84 85 86 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 500 V A 0.80 105 0.3 0.93 2.86 65 170 98 83 0.4 6 3.31 4 0.44 9.88 849 1260 1075 0.8 2.93 2.79 212 0.69 117 0.93 14.4 0.5 25 22 30 25 35 30 40 33 45 37 50 40 54 45 60 51 70 55 75 59 80 63 85 75 100 80 110 90 125 100 136 110 150 129 175 132 180 140 190 147 200 150 205 160 220 180 245 185 250 200 270 220 300 250 340 257 350 280 380 295 400 300 410 315 430 335 450 355 480 375 500 400 545 425 580 445 600 450 610 475 645 500 680 530 720 560 760 600 810 630 855 670 910 710 965 750 1020 800 1090 900 1220 1100 1500 η without compensation cos ϕ Pa current at different voltages at Pn 1-PH 3-PH 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V kVA A A A A 0.71 53 0.93 0.93 72.31 0.79 3.93 51 379 0.93 33.7 7.8 2.86 39 103 60 51.68 36 0.5 7.86 51 134 79 67 0.2 3.87 0.80 5.88 634 1660 950 825 0.88 897 1350 1160 0.86 24.3 9.93 3.5 11 15 15 20 18.93 4.93 2.42 0.5 7.88 377 990 584 505 0.36 0.88 1.93 136. The conversion factor for current values for 230 V and 400 V motors is 0.3 4.87 226 595 342 295 0.1 4.86 1019 0. general . The international (IEC 38) standard of 230/400 V has been in force since 1983.2 0.93 5.37 18.93 70.93 24 151 0.3 1.83 7.93 2.50 13.6 0.5 2 2.

motor maximum power 220 V 380 V 415 V kW kW kW 1.c.30 5.general . fed from 230/400 V 3-phase a. motors are mainly used for specific applications which require very high torques and/or variable speed control (for example machine tools and crushers.30 5. sources.00 45.90 5.00 45.30 5. direct-current motors D.40 5. for example.00 11.5 7.95 3. The operating principle of the converter does not allow heavy overloading.30 5.C.3 4 5.5 8 11 18.00 table B7: progressive starters with current limitation.10 5. heating and lighting loads (continued) B 3. Power to these motors is provided via speedcontrol converters.5 30 33 22 37 40 55 60 440 V (60 Hz) kW 3. the supply line and the protection are therefore based on the duty cycle of the motor (e.50 5.50 5.5 6.5 8.00 45.00 table B6: progressive starters with voltage ramp. motor.2.00 10.3.10 5.10 4. For powers i 40 kW.5 21.30 5.g.5 21.10 3. B10 .60 11.30 3.50 5.90 4.5 35 42 63 90 147 motor In A 12 12 16 16 37 37 60 60 72 72 105 105 140 140 245 245 GRADIVAR Ith A 20 20 30 30 60 60 100 100 130 130 200 200 350 350 530 530 catalogue number weight kg VR2-SA3171 VR2-SA3173 VR2-SA3211 VR2-SA3213 VR2-SA3281 VR2-SA3283 VR2-SA3361 VR2-SA3363 VR2-SA3401 VR2-SA3403 VR2-SA3441 VR2-SA3443 VR2-SA3481 VR2-SA3483 VR2-SA3521 VR2-SA3523 3.).5 3 3.installed power .5 8 11 18. etc. B5: diagram of a low-power speed controller.5 20 18. Rectivar 4 (Telemecanique).5 35 42 63 motor In A 7 7 12 12 16 16 37 37 60 60 72 72 105 105 GRADIVAR Ith A 10 10 20 20 30 30 60 60 100 100 130 130 200 200 catalogue number weight kg VR2-SA2121 VR2-SA2123 VR2-SA2171 VR2-SA2173 VR2-SA2211 VR2-SA2213 VR2-SA2281 VR2-SA2283 VR2-SA2361 VR2-SA2363 VR2-SA2401 VR2-SA2403 VR2-SA2441 VR2-SA2443 1.5 20 18. The speed controller.5 30 33 22 37 40 55 60 75 80 132 140 440 V (60 Hz) kW 6.95 1. this solution is progressively replaced with a speedchanging variable-frequency device and an asynchronous motor.40 10. frequent starting-current peaks) rather than on the steady-state full-load current. Im M V power-supply network In fig.5 8.5 6 5.50 5.00 45.60 5. It is still used for gradual starters and/or retarders.5 7. motor maximum power 220 V 380 V 415 V kW kW kW 4 5.5 6 5.

5 2 2. Table B8 gives these values for different arrangements of ballast.4 63 34. cos ø = 1).52 15.1 0.5 17. then multiply the equation by 1.3.9 23.6 with no power factor (PF) correction* capacitor.e.02 6.72 10 11.66 10. The currents are given by: c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* ex U c 1-phase case: Ia = Pn* U where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment. The power consumed by a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is equal to the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.2 0.50 1. the current is given by: Pballast + Pn Ia = U x cos ø If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast.6 15.5 7. If Pn is in kW. The current taken by the complete circuit is given by: Ia = Pballast + Pn U x cos ø where U = the voltage applied to the lamp.51 3.8 6.58 0. 3. a figure of 25% of Pn may be used.5 3 3.5 3-phase 230 V 0.28 7.4 21.2 31.89 3.1 55. the currents are given by: c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* ex U c 1-phase case: Ia = Pn* U where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment.4 35.7 47. U in volts. complete with its related equipment.5 1 1.8 8.4 19.6 13 27.1 30.87 3.e.79 0.29 0. standard tubular fluorescent lamps The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. fluorescent lamps and related equipment the power in watts indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. * Ia in amps.9 4.44 2.B 3.53 8.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 For an incandescent lamp.7 10.8 71 39.000.96 for electronic ballast.61 4.6 25.26 2.1 17.3 12.5 13 14. The light output is superior and the life of the lamp is doubled.86 with PF correction* (single or twin tubes). current demand 1-phase 1-phase 127 V 230 V 0.6 39.22 8.77 5.1 3-phase 400 V 0.05 5. general . with (unless otherwise indicated): c cos ø = 0. nominal power kW 0.6 20. If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast.77 6.2 26.4.94 2.4 table B8: current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances.17 2.43 1.25 0.72 1. * "Power-factor correction" is often referred to as "compensation" in discharge-lighting-tube terminology. a figure of 25% of Pn may be used. cos ø = 1). resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen) the power consumed by a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is equal to the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.1 11.6 15.1 22.17 7.70 19.B11 . Note: at the instant of switching on. c cos ø = 0. the cold filament gives rise to a very brief but intense peak of current. the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated light source.installed power .5 4 4.33 5. c cos ø = 0.14 0.1 79 43. Pn is in watts.35 11.

160 0.5 due to the impulsive form of the current. the peak of which occurs "late" in each half cycle. table B10: current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V .155 0.315 globe lamps with integral ballast cos ø = 0.3.26 0.27 0.) and can be mounted in situations otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps.135 0.4.45 0.5 (1) electronic lamps cos ø = 0. motor.80 0. type of lamp lamp power 9 13 18 25 9 11 15 20 5 7 9 11 10 13 18 26 power consumed (W) 9 13 18 25 9 11 15 20 10 11 13 15 15 18 23 31 current at 220/240 V (A) 0. heating and lighting loads (continued) B 3. They are commonly used in public places which are permanently illuminated (for example: corridors.24 0.165 0.37 0.090 0.50 Hz).41 0.43 0.67 0.96 power consumed (W) 27 45 69 33 54 81 55 90 138 108 36 56 72 112 current (A) at 220V/240 V PF not PF electronic corrected corrected ballast 0.50 tube length (cm) 60 120 150 60 120 150 60 120 150 120 120 150 120 150 (1) Power in watts marked on tube.72 0. table B11: current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 220 V/240 V .25 0. hallways.installed power .220 0.46 0.95 (the zero values of V and I are almost in phase) but the power factor is 0.35 type double "U" form cos ø ≈ 0. bars. etc.070 0.115 0.49 0.170 0.21 0.95 (1) lamps with starter only incorporated (no ballast) type single "U" form cos ø ≈ 0.190 0.37 0. B12 .175 0. starters and ballasts single tube with starter tube power (W) (1) 18 36 58 single tube without 20 starter (2) with 40 external starting strip 65 twin tubes with starter 2 x 18 2 x 36 2 x 58 twin tubes without starter 2 x 40 single tube with 32 high frequency ballast 50 cos ø = 0.155 0.185 0.16 0.45 (1) Cos ø is approximately 0. compact fluorescent tubes Compact fluorescent tubes have the same characteristics of economy and long life as classical tubes.50 Hz).general . (2) Used exclusively during maintenance operations.41 0.090 0.19 0.33 0. fluorescent lamps and related equipment (continued) arrangement of lamps.205 0.96 twin tubes with high2 x 32 frequency ballast 2 x 50 cos ø = 0.

25 5.4 2.60 10.2 0. Power and current demands are given for different types of lamp in table B12 (typical average values which may differ slightly from one manufacturer to another).88 250 276 2.5 0.15 700 731 5.4 3.B13 . general . 100 to 200 8000 to .outdoor lighting .3 1.62 0. station platform. which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at a pre-determined pressure.5 0.3 36 46. and will not re-ignite before cooling for approximately 4 minutes.10 1.1 7 to 15 to 1.1 luminous efficiency lumens (per watt) 80 to 120 average utilization life of lamp (h) 9000 .85 1000 1046 8.6 0.45 to 2 125 141 1. etc) 40 to 60 8000 to .security lighting.45 100 115 1.35 400 425 3.15 0.34 90 112 0.9 low-pressure sodium vapour lamps standard lamp 18 26.14 1.22 66 80.5 0. The power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. discharge lamps the power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.84 0.85 250 274 3 1.8 0.17 1.40 2.B 3.lighting of very large areas by projectors (for example:sports stadiums.70 250 268 2. stockage areas 100 to 200 8000 to .30 1.76 0. use of these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible.lighting of large halls . during which the current Ia is greater than the nominal current In.24 55 72 0.outdoor spaces .low light output (1) (1) replaced by sodium vapour lamps.workshops 12000 with very high ceilings (halls. These lamps have a long start-up time.4 4 to 6 to 1.49 131 154 0.65 150 168 1. Note: Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is superior to that of all other sources. including all associated ancillary equipment.45 0. Note: these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips.15 1. These lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour of a metallic compound.30 2000 2140 2080 15 11 6.2 1000 1055 10.public lighting table B12 gives the current taken by a complete unit. table B12: current demands of discharge lamps.50 135 159 0.45 4.98 economy lamps 26 34.5 0.4 400 431 4.5. They extinguish if the voltage falls to less than 50% of their nominal voltage.73 180 216 0.new types 12000 more efficient same utilization 70 to 90 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 2000 .80 0.7 3 to 6 80 90 0.50 8. type of power current In(A) starting lamp demand PF not PF Ia/In period (W) at corrected corrected (W) 230V 400V 230V 400V 230V 400V (mins) high-pressure sodium vapour lamps 50 60 0. hangars) . However.30 2000 2092 2052 16.15 1000 1046 8.5 1 0.installed power .50 6 mercury vapour + fluorescent substance (fluorescent bulb) 50 57 0.5 0.6 70 80 1 0.1 7 to 15 to 1.8 0.lighting of 12000 autoroutes .39 91 105.5 0.7 3 to 5 150 172 1.35 400 421 3.25 2.3 35 43.40 1.25 5.69 mercury vapour + metal halide (also called metaliodide) 70 80.

the results will provide a global value for the installation. B14 .1).g. are other cases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the lamp and its ballast (See 3. covering active power (kW) apparent power (kVA) and reactive power (kvar). and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. Where the word power is used without further qualification in the rest of the text. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal power rating (Pn).). Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts. the significant quantity is the apparent power in kVA. In addition to providing basic installation-design data on individual circuits. or through a HV/LV transformer. an electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability. The aim of this chapter is to show how all existing and projected loads can be assigned various factors to account for diversity (nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.4).installed power . the actual maximum load demand likely to be imposed on the power-supply system must be assessed. The values given are based on experience and on records taken from actual installations. it means active power (kW). or generating set) can be specified. The input power consumption will evidently be greater (See 3. For a power supply from a LV public-supply network. c apparent power. where the power rating refers to the output power at its driving shaft. power* loading of an installation B In order to design an installation. etc. To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in the installation would be extravagantly uneconomical.general . from which the requirements of a supply system (distribution network. This is the case for electric motors. power The ratio = power factor apparent power 4. The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consuming devices in the installation. The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating set or battery. *power: the word "power" in the title has been used in a general sense. The magnitude of the load is adequately specified by two quantities. and bad engineering practice.1 installed power (kW) the installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all powerconsuming devices in the installation.4. Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lighting appliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter. viz: c power. HV/LV transformer.

etc. the total kVA of apparent power is not the arithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loads are at the same power factor).B15 .B 4. * For greater precision.) and the application of the following coefficients: output kW η = the per-unit efficiency = input kW kW cos ø = the power factor = kVA The apparent-power kVA demand of the load Pn Pa = η x cos ø From this value. table B13: estimation of installed apparent power. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA. The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of 500 sq-metres. general . intermittent work heavy-duty works: fabrication and 14 assembly of very large work pieces day-to-day work: 24 office work fine work: 41 drawing offices high-precision assembly workshops power circuits type of application estimated (VA/m2) pumping station compressed air 3 to 6 ventilation of premises 23 electrical convection heaters: private houses 115 to 146 flats and apartments 90 offices 25 dispatching workshop 50 assembly workshop 70 machine shop 300 painting workshop 350 heat-treatment plant 700 average lighting level (lux = Im/m2) 150 300 500 800 (1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included). The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) is obtained from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary. strictly speaking. luminous efficiency of the tube = 78. fluorescent lighting (corrected to cos ø = 0. the values shown in table B13 may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands (individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW). flux 5. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA.86) type of application estimated (VA/m2) fluorescent tube with industrial reflector (1) roads and highways 7 stockage areas. as noted above for motors.100 lumens (lm). When some or all of the load characteristics are not known. the full-load current Ia (amps)* taken by the load will be: Pa 103 for single phase-to-neutral c Ia = V connected load Pa 103 c Ia = for three-phase balanced load ex U where: V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts) U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts) It may be noted that. the result of which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable "design margin". The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads.2 installed apparent power (kVA) the installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. It is common practice however.installed power . to make a simple arithmetical summation.5 lm/W. account must be taken of the factor of maximum utilization as explained below in 4-3.

63 x 103 = 55 A 400 x e number of downstream consumers 2 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 49 50 and more factor of simultaneity (ks) 1 0.75 for motors. This factor must be applied to each individual load. factor of simultaneity (ks) It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed loads of a given installation never occurs in practice. In the example. it is not possible to give precise values for general application.e. Factor of simultaneity for an apartment block Some typical values for this case are given in table B14.46 fig. a factor of 0. For this reason.63 2nd floor 5 consumers 30 kVA 0.46 x 103 = 100 A 400 x e The current entering the third floor is: (36+24) x 0. The total installed load for the building = 36 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 24 = 150 kVA The apparent-power supply required for the building = 150 x 0. Example: 5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers. there is always some degree of diversity and this fact is taken into account for estimating purposes by the use of a simultaneity factor (ks). each having 6 kVA of installed load. i.53 1st floor 6 consumers 36 kVA 0.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand all individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor necessarily at the same time.installed power .49 0. The factor ks is applied to each group of loads (e.53 0. it is possible to determine the magnitude of currents in different sections of the common main feeder supplying all floors. The determination of these factors is the responsibility of the designer. In the case of consumers using electrical heat-storage units for space heating. For socket-outlet circuits. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation.78 3rd floor 4 consumers 24 kVA 0.general . which are very rarely operated at full load.44 0.41 0.78 0. the cross-sectional area of the conductors can evidently be progressively reduced from the lower floors towards the upper floors.g.4. since it requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in which the individual circuits are to be exploited. These changes of conductor size are conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor intervals. All individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor necessarily at the same time. B16 .46 0.46 = 69 kVA From table B 14.63 0. In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0. the factor always equals 1. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation. with particular attention to electric motors. factor of maximum utilization (ku) In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating.42 0. the current entering the rising main at ground level is 150 x 0. power* loading of an installation (continued) B 4. the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being supplied from the sockets concerned. For vertical rising mains fed at ground level. regardless of the number of consumers. 4th floor 6 consumers 36 kVA 0.8 is recommended.49 ground floor 4 consumers 24 kVA 0.40 table B14: simultaneity factors in an apartment block. For incandescent-lighting loads. being supplied from a distribution or sub-distribution board). B15: application of the factor of simultaneity (ks) to an apartment block of 5 storeys. a fairly common occurrence that justifies the application of an utilization factor (ku) in the estimation of realistic values. and are applicable to domestic consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires).

for all other motors factor of simultaneity (ks) 1 1 0.B17 . (2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current of the motor. (1) In certain cases.75 14.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 1.for the second most powerful motor . the current I (in amps) through a circuit is determined from the equation level 1 utilization apparentpower (Pa) kVA utilization factor max. from each load position to the point of supply.4 pedestaldrill n°1 workshop A distribution board n°2 5 socket10/16 A outlets 30 fluorescent lamps workshop B 0.B Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards Table B16 shows hypothetical values of ks for a distribution board supplying a number of circuits for which there is no indication of the manner in which the total load divides between them.9 0. Note: in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an installation.9 65 1 0.8 0. notably in industrial installations. increased by a third of its starting current.3 lighting circuit workshop B distribution board LV/HV 15.8 0. table B17: factor of simultaneity according to circuit function.9 main general distribution board MGDB compressor 15 3 socket.5 15 15 12 socketoutlets 4. and U is the phaseto-phase voltage (in volts). If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads. the total installed apparent power is 126.6 kVA.8 1 1 0.6 outlets 1 10 fluorescent lamps ventilation n°1 fan n°2 oven n°1 n°2 2.6 1 2.6 0.9 workshop C 1 35 power circuit workshop C distribution board 0.5 2.6 lighting 3 circuit power circuit socketoutlets 0.2 1 1 0. general .0 Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function ks factors which may be used for circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads.5 2. apparentsimultaneity power demand factor max. circuit function lighting heating and air conditioning socket-outlets lifts and catering hoists (2) .8 0.8 5 socket10/16 A 18 outlets 20 fluorescent 2 lamps table B18: an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only). number of circuits assemblies entirely tested 2 and 3 4 and 5 6 to 9 10 and more assemblies partially tested in every case choose factor of simultaneity (ks) 0.4 example of application of factors ku and ks an example in the estimation of actual maximum kVA demands at all levels of an installation. In this example.75 0.installed power . are shown in table B17.for the most powerful motor . which corresponds to an actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals of the HV/LV transformer of 65 kVA only.2 (1) 1 0. this factor can be higher.6 1.6 1.10/16 A 10.1 to 0.28 1 5 2 socketoutlets lighting circuit 37.6 18 3 12 10. 4. I= level 2 apparentsimultaneity power demand factor kVA level 3 apparentpower demand kVA workshop A lathe n°1 n°2 n°3 n°4 5 5 5 5 2 2 18 3 0.60 table B16: factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439).8 0.5 15 15 18 2 distribution box power circuit 0.9 18. kVA apparentsimultaneity power demand factor kVA kVA x 103 Ue where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on the diagram for the circuit concerned. it is prudent to adopt ks values close to unity.8 0.9 0.7 0.4 1 distribution box 3.8 0.

In some English-speaking countries however (at the time of writing) DIVERSITY FACTOR is the inverse of ks i. 420 V 69 137 220 344 433 550 687 866 1100 1375 1718 2199 2749 3437 433 V 67 133 213 333 420 533 667 840 1067 1333 1667 2133 2667 3333 480 V 60 120 192 301 379 481 601 758 962 1203 1504 1925 2406 3007 table B19: IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and corresponding nominal full-load current values. c anticipated extensions to the installation. B18 . as defined in IEC standards. For table B19 the no-load voltage used is 420 V for the nominal 400 V winding. For a single-phase transformer: 3 In = Pa 10 where V V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load* (in volts).e.3. c installation constraints (temperature. a suitable rating for the transformer can be decided.5 diversity factor The term DIVERSITY FACTOR. taking due account of the following considerations: voltage (at no load) rated power (kVA) 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 In (A) 400 V 72 144 231 361 455 577 722 909 1155 1443 1804 2309 2887 3608 c the possibility of improving the power factor of the installation (see chapter E). The nominal full-load current In on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: Pa 103 In = where Ue Pa = kVA rating of the transformer U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load* (in volts) In is in amperes. 4. is identical to the factor of simultaneity (ks) used in this guide. as described in 4.4 The IEC standard for power transformers is IEC 76.installed power .) standard transformer ratings.6 choice of transformer rating When an installation is to be supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer and the maximum apparent-power loading of the installation has been determined. it is always u 1.4. * as given on the transformer-rating nameplate. power loading of an installation (continued) B 4. Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load) In = kVA x 1...general .

c can accept very large increases in load. The power authority can.B19 .7 choice of power-supply sources The study developed in F2 on the importance of maintaining a continuous supply raises the question of the use of standby-power plant. However. at the level of the HV line for example. a HV consumer: c is not disturbed by other consumers. which could be the case at LV. c the consumer has access only to the LV part of the installation. participate in the investment. general . For the main source of supply the choice is generally between a connection to the HV or the LV network of the public power-supply authority. c has a wider choice of economic tariffs. that: c the consumer is the proprietor of the HV/LV substation and. when connected to a LV network. c a part of the connection costs can. operational manœuvres. in some countries. however. Moreover.generally of the order of 250 kVA. if the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouring consumers. etc.B 4.installed power . In practice. connection to a HV source may be necessary where the load exceeds (or is planned eventually to exceed) a certain level .). for instance. in certain circumstances. or if the quality of service required is greater than that normally available from a LV network. in certain countries. the HV protective circuit breaker (or fused load-break switch) can be operated by the consumer. the supply authorities may propose a HV service. Supplies at HV can have certain advantages: in fact. he must build and equip it at his own expense. c the type and location of the substation are agreed between the consumer and the supply authority. c is free to choose any type of LV earthing system. often be recovered if a second consumer is connected to the HV line within a certain time following the original consumer's own connection. The choice and characteristics of these alternative sources are described in F3-3. It should be noted. access to the HV part being reserved to the supply-authority personnel (meter reading.

such HV LV as certain equipment. from which the essential services are fed (figure J1-1). One of the current means of maintaining a supply to the so-called “essential” loads. Almost all modern generator sets have automatic voltage regulators. alarms and signalization. decrement”. J1-2) Apart from the limited magnitude of fault current from a standby alternator. 3 In alternator with automatic voltage regulator In 0. the stoppage of which would entail a loss of production.m. The overall phenomenon is referred to as the “a.1 an alternator on short-circuit the establishment of short-circuit current (fig.. to an emergency-power standby switchboard. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator J a major difficulty encountered when an installation may be supplied from alternative sources (e.c. size. For example. Most industrial and large commercial electrical installations include certain important loads for which a power supply must be maintained. subtransient period transient period 0. in which the current decreases rapidly from its initial value. but is often close to In*. a further difficulty (from the electrical-protection point of view) is that during the period in which LV circuit breakers are normally intended to operate.. The crux of the problem is the great difference in the source impedances. compounded to maintain the terminal voltage sensibly constant. The current continues to decrease during the ensuing “transient” interval which may last for 80 ms to 280 ms depending on the machine type. at a value which depends mainly on the type of excitation system.s. that of the generator being much higher than that of the transformer.3 In instant of fault 10 to 20 ms 0.1 to 0. c automatic (see figure J1-2).s.) or: c because it concerns priority circuits. via a changeover switch. and so on. in the event that the public electricity supply fails: c either. G standby supply change-over switch non essential loads essential loads fig. on the occurrence of a shortcircuit at the three phase terminals of an alternator. The current will finally stabilize in about r. by overcoming the synchronous impedance of the machine as reactive current demand changes.J1 . J1-1: example of circuits supplied from a transformer or from an alternator. etc. J1-2: establishment of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit at the terminals of an alternator. resulting in a corresponding difference in the magnitudes of fault currents. in the event that other sources fail. or more. the r. is to install a diesel-generator set connected.3 In. automatic fire-protection equipment. In the (rare) case of manual control of the excitation. viz: c manual. etc. 1. value of current will immediately rise to a value of 3 In to 5 In*. because safety systems are involved (emergency lighting. smoke dispersal fans.5 In to 4 In* (figure J1-2).m. particular supply sources and loads . * depending on the characteristics of the particular machine. the synchronous impedance of the machine will reduce the short-circuit current to a value which can be as low as 0.g. An interval of 10 ms to 20 ms following the instant of short-circuit is referred to as the “sub-transient” period. the value of short-circuit current changes drastically. or the destruction of a machine tool. a HV/LV transformer or a LV generator) is the provision of electrical protection which operates satisfactorily on either source.3 s alternator with manual excitation control t fig.1. This results in an increase in the level of fault current during the transient period to give a steady fault current in the order of 2.5 seconds.

in fact. These calculations for the circuit breaker short-circuit breaking capacity are based on the symmetrical a. the following representative values may be used: x”d = 20% . components.e. being maximum when the short-circuit occurs at the alternator terminals. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1. there is an inherent safety factor incorporated in the current-level calculation. the rated 3-phase power (kVA) and the rated phase/phase voltage of the alternator (volts). i. current that the effective reactance* changes constantly from a low value (sub-transient reactance) to a high value (synchronous reactance) in a smooth progression. x’o = 6% Pn and Un being. values of current. The ohmic value X”d is therefore calculated as follows: x”d Un2 10-5 X”d (ohms) = Pn where: x”d is in % Un is in volts (phase/phase) Pn is in kVA c the % transient reactance x’d is given in ohms by: x'd Un2 10-5 X'd (ohms) = Pn c the % zero-phase-sequence reactance x’o is given in ohms by: x'o Un2 10-5 X'o (ohms) = Pn In the absence of more precise information. components of current are always present to some degree in at least two phases. will be conservative.s.e. and also for the electrodynamic stresses to be withstood by CBs and other components (such as busbars.c.m. the d. so that calculations and trippingcurrent settings for protective devices based only on the a. unidirectional components.c. as discussed in Chapter C. etc. Remark: from the instant at which the shortcircuit is established. The further the point of short-circuit from the generator the lower the fault current. respectively. but. d. components of current only. In practice. the alternator reactance will rapidly increase.1 an alternator on short-circuit (continued) Figure J1-2 shows the r. no account is taken of the d. J2 . It can be seen from the constantly-changing value of r. on the assumption that no d. the a.c. The values discussed below are derived from test curves and correspond with current values measured at the instant of shortcircuit.c. For the circuit breaker short-circuit making capacity.c. components disappear.s. and also for the thermal withstand capabilities of switchgear and other system components. This means that the currents calculated from the defined fixed values x"d and x'd (for breaking capacity) will always exceed those that will actually occur at the instant of circuit breaker contact separation.particular supply sources and loads . decrement also becomes negligible when the network impedance to the fault position attains ohmic values which are high compared with the reactance values of the alternator (since the overall change in impedance is then relatively small).c. This feature would appear to complicate still further the matter of electrical protection. as indicated below. alternator impedance data Manufacturers furnish values of the several impedances mentioned below.c.c.m. the actual currents will always be either equal to or higher than those calculated. i.1. * An explanation of the significance of the fixed reactance values and how they relate to a smooth variation of current is briefly described in Appendix J1. and the more rapidly the transient d. i. The sub-transient reactance is used when calculating the short-circuit current-breaking rating for LV circuit breakers which have opening times of 20 ms or less. the d.m.). cleated single-core cables.s. component in each phase simply increases the r.c. The transient reactance is used when considering the breaking capacity of LV circuit breakers with an opening time that exceeds 20 ms. components are crucial. values already mentioned. Furthermore. x’d = 30 % .e. transient components exist. Resistances are negligibly small compared to the reactances. c the sub-transient reactance x”d is expressed in % by the manufacturer (analogous to the short-circuit impedance voltage of a transformer).1 (figure C-5). Sub-clause 1.

The difference will be even greater where (as is generally the case) the alternator rating is lower than that of the transformer. c transformer supply 3-phase Isc = 21.2 kA ex 400 x 30 particular supply sources and loads .5 kA (see table C20 in Chapter C) c alternator supply 3-phase Isc = Ig x 100 = Pn x 100 x'd x'd eUn where: Pn is expressed in kVA Un is expressed in volts x’d is expressed in % Isc is expressed in kA 3-phase Isc = 250 x 100 = 1. the current from the alternator will be found to be of the order of 5 or 6 times less than that from the transformer. Example (figure J1 .3) What is the value of 3-phase short-circuit current at point A according to the origin of supply? Circuit impedances are negligible compared with those of the sources. 250 kVA 400 V X'd = 30% A non essential loads essential loads fig. * for CBs with opening time exceeding 20 ms. J1-3: example of an essential services switchboard supplied (in an emergency) from a standby alternator.J3 .J short-circuit current magnitude at the terminals of an alternator c the transient 3-phase short-circuit current at the terminals of an alternator is given by: Ig Isc = 100* where: x’d Ig: rated full-load current of the alternator x’d = transient reactance per phase of the alternator in %. c when these values are compared with those for a short-circuit at the LV terminals of 630 kVA 20 kV/400 V Usc = 4% a transformer of equal kVA rating.

2 1. J1-4. as indicated in Chapter G Sub-clause 6. to trip CBs on overcurrent. except in unusual cases. however. breaking capacity This parameter must always be calculated for the condition of supply from the transformer.1 1. however. the only circuit breakers concerned are those protecting the essential services circuits at the main general distribution board. whether the supply is from the alternator or from the transformer (see Note 2). the relay is automatically switched to operate much faster and at lower current levels than those shown in fig.c. the curve shown in figure J1-4 is representative (see Note 1). often provide a simpler solution as noted in 1. time (s) 1000 100 12 10 7 3 2 1 1. The operation of these relays must be assured. or other “normal” source. Note 1. An inverse-time/current overload relay is used having two operating curves.5 Suggestion 2 (for IT circuits) and Sub-clause 5. Two difficulties have to be overcome: c the first is the need for discrimination of circuit protection with the protection scheme for the alternator. one of which corresponds to that of fig. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1.e. J4 . breaking capacity and range of adjustable magnetic tripping unit) of the CBs protecting the circuits of essential loads must be defined as described below: Choice of s. in IT* and TN systems.1. and is effective when system voltage levels are normal. A widely-used solution to this problem is provided by a voltage-controlled overcurrent relay. If the system voltage falls below a pre-set value. upstream of its CB) is always possible by using a pilot-wire and current-transformers differential scheme of protection. so that. For the basic protection requirements of an alternator. Where the level of earth-fault current is not sufficient.c. which depends on the following principle: short-circuit currents cause much lower system voltages than overload currents. when the protection depends on the operation of overcurrent relays (for example. are necessary on IT systems. with the advantage that discrimination with circuit protection schemes is absolute. Instantaneous or short-time delay magneticrelay trip settings of the circuit breakers concerned must therefore be set to operate at minimum fault levels occurring at the extremity of the circuits they protect. Note 2. adequate fault currents are available from an alternator to ensure satisfactory protective-gear operation at these lower levels.particular supply sources and loads . J1-4. * Two concurrent earth faults on different phases or on one phase and on a neutral conductor.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator the difficulty is due to the small margin between the rated current and the short-circuit current of the alternator. The characteristics (s. Adjustment of magnetic tripping units In practice. when being supplied from the alternator. the protection against indirect-contact hazards can be provided by an appropriate use of RCDs. The protection of circuits from local distribution or sub-distribution boards is always calibrated at a much lower level than those at the main general distribution board.3 below.5 2 3 4 5 I/IG overload fig. The problem of discriminative overload protection (as noted above) remains. Modern low-setting magnetic tripping units. to create an indirect-contact hazard.5. in IT* or TN systems). Suggestion 2 (for TN circuits). viz: overload protection. Sensitive high-speed protection of an alternator against internal faults (i. J1-4: overload protection of an alternator. c the second concerns protection of persons against electric shock from indirect contact.

When conductor routes are known in sufficient detail.4. impedances can then be determined by the use of software. from the calculation of the fault-loop impedance Zs (by the sum of impedances method) is difficult.3 choice of tripping units the calculation of the minimum fault current (in IT or TN schemes) is complex.2) B suband final circuits FBR > Isc with supply from transformer check the protection of persons against indirect-contact hazards. * Merlin Gerin products. Approximate methods for 3-phase and 1-phase short circuits are presented in Sub-clause 1. Software packages for this purpose are available. types of suitable tripping units The choice of low-setting magnetic tripping units will generally be necessary. Switchgear manufacturers often furnish tables showing recommended combinations of circuit breakers for commonly-used standby-generator schemes. obviate the need for voltage-controlled overload relays. particularly on IT and TN systems (see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1.J 1. mainly because of the uncertainly. characteristics of protection for essential-services circuits type of circuit fault-breaking rating (FBR) dieselgenerator protection cabinet power-source changeover switch tripping unit adjustment main circuits FBR > Isc with supply from transformer Im or short-delay trip setting level < the minimum fault current at the far end of the circuit when supplied from the alternator (see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1. calculation of the fault-current loop impedance (Zs) for IT and TN systems The determination of the minimum level of short-circuit current. J1-5: the protection of essential services circuits. In practice. these CBs (or their equivalents) will always be necessary when the current rating of the CB is greater than one third of the alternator current rating and will.J5 .5 to 10 Ir) or circuit breakers Multi 9* curve B (tripping between 3 and 5 In).2) Isc: 3-ph short-circuit current Im: magnetic-tripping-relay current setting loads fig. in a practical installation. such as Compact NS* with STR (magnetic-trip short time delay is adjustable from 1. of the accuracy of the zerophase-sequence impedances. particular supply sources and loads . currently available commercially. in most cases.

S = c.s. in mm2 L = length in metres For the calculation of cable impedance. J6 .05xVn R2 + X 2 table J1-7: procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1.2. refer to Chapter H1.a. item of plant alternator circuit total R mΩ Ra 22.4 methods of approximate calculation An installation on (normal) 630 kVA transformer supply (figure J1-6) includes an essential-services distribution board which can also be supplied from a standby 400 kVA diesel-alternator set.08 x L X Z mΩ Isc kA R2 + X 2 1. transformer 630 kVA 20 kV/400 V What circuit breakers should be installed on the out-going ways from the essentialservices board: c if the installation is TN-earthed? c if the installation is IT-earthed? alternator 400 kVA 400 V alternator and diesel protection equipment cabinet PE essential circuits main distribution board NS250N STR22SE 250 A IB = 220 A 100 m 120 mm2 PE : 70 mm2 non essential circuits NS160N TM400D IB = 92 A 70 m 35 mm2 PE : 35 mm2 sub-distribution board fig. Sub-clause 4. calculation of the minimum level of 3-phase short-circuit current Table J1-7 shows the procedure for an alternator together with one or several circuits.1.5 L S R X mΩ X'd 0. J1-6: example.particular supply sources and loads .

115. Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6 c alternator Ra = 0 2 Xa = (2 x 120 + 400 x 0. transient current in at least two phases.8 mΩ and Isc1 (phase/neutral) = 1.05 Vn = 1.2.75 mΩ 120 Xc = 0.4 mΩ Isc = 1.s.75 mΩ X = X’d + Xc = 120 + 8 = 128 mΩ total impedance per phase: Z = R2 + X 2 = (18.J Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6 c alternator Ra = 0 2 2 X’d = Un x 0.) Z 0.05 x 230 = 2.08 x 100 x 2 = 16 mΩ c application of the method of impedances.30 = 400 x 0.c.129 Note: In practice there will always be some measure of d.06) x 1 = 88 mΩ 400 3 c circuit Rc = 22. For the calculation of cable impedance.5 x 100 x (1 + 120 / 70) = 50. item of plant alternator circuit total R mΩ Ra 22.75 = 18.8 particular supply sources and loads . R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 18.05 x 230 = 1.08 x 100 = 8 mΩ c application of the method of impedances as indicated in table J1-7. calculation of the minimum level of 1-phase to earth short-circuit fault current Table J1-8 shows the procedure for an alternator together with one or several circuits.75)2 + (128)2 = 129. so that the above value will normally be exceeded during the period required to trip the CB.5 x 100 = 18.09 kA.89 mΩ 120 Xc = 0.89 mΩ X = Xa + Xc = 88 + 16 = 104 mΩ The total impedance: Z = R2 + X 2 = 50.05xVn R2 + X 2 table J1-8: procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current. as for the previous example: R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 50.J7 . refer to Chapter H1.87 kA (r.30 = 120 mΩ Pn 400 c circuit Rc = 22.89 = 50. Sub-clause 4.m.08 x L x 2 X Z mΩ Isc kA R2 + X 2 1.5 L (1 + m) Sph R X mΩ 2 X'd + Xo 3 0.892 + 1042 = 115.

is conventionally used to ensure positive relay operation. current).e.e. If the neutral is distributed.866 Vph or 0.5 kA) would be appropriate. For the 220 A outgoing circuit the trip unit would be rated at 250 A and adjusted (in principle) to Isc/250. A TM250D or a STR22SE tripping unit set at 2.040 x 1 250 1. concurrent earth faults on two different phases) which is equal to 0. J8 . half the value of a phase-to-neutral short-circuit current. Owing to a ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance however. the maximum permissible setting would be 7. current = 0.2 A tripping unit type TM250D* set at 6 In on a NS250N* circuit breaker (breaking capacity = 36 kA i.e.870/250 = 7.0 In would be satisfactory. the minimum s. current occurs when a phase-to-earth fault and a neutral-to-earth fault occur concurrently.c. current relay setting = 0.81 kA The tripping unit rated at 250 A will be set at 810 x 1 = 2. the minimum s. This condition (only) produces indirect-contact hazards on an IT system. If the neutral conductor is not distributed.2 accounting for the ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance for tripping units). so that in formula z the total reactance = (X1 + X2 + X0) 1/3 = (3 X1) 1/3 = X1 * Merlin Gerin product. c IT scheme In this case the protection must operate for a second earth fault occurring before the first earth fault is cleared.08 = 1. and a protective relay setting equal to 0.4 methods of approximate calculation (continued) maximum permissible setting of instantaneous or short-time delay tripping units c TN scheme Of the two fault conditions considered (3-phase and 1-phase/neutral) the 3-phase fault was found to give the lower short-circuit current. as before) A STR22SE tripping unit.7 In 250 1.particular supply sources and loads .87 = 0.5 x 0.2 factor covering manufacturing tolerance. The setting of the protective relay must therefore be selected to a current level below that calculated.e. Note: The foregoing method is based on a simplified application of the following formulae: Œ Isc (3-phase) = V ph Z1  Isc (phase/phase) = eVph Z1+Z2 Ž Isc (phase/earth) = 3 Vph Z1+Z2+Z0 Where Z1 = positive phase-sequence impedance Z2 = negative phase-sequence impedance Z0 = zero phase-sequence impedance Simplifications: c Z1 is assumed to be equal to Z2 so that formula  becomes eVph = 0.4 In.4 = 6.866 x 1.1.5 Isc (phase to neutral) i. then the minimum short-circuit current for the system will be the phase-to-phase value (i.5 x 2.866 Isc (Isc = the 3-phase s.04 kA The 250 A tripping unit will be set at 1.c.5 In would be appropriate.5 In (the 1. v for the case of a non-distributed neutral. 1. > 21.2 (the factor 1. set at 3.c. v when the neutral is distributed.2 In 1. the minimum s. i.c.866 Isc (3-phase) 2 Z1 Z1 c In table J1-8 the calculated cable reactance assumes that X1 = X2 = X0 for the cable.2 = 3. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1.

J9 . portable power packs The use of hand-carried power packs by the general public is becoming more and more popular.5 the protection of standby and mobile a. When the pack and associated appliances are not of Class II (i. viz: c permanent installations (as discussed in Sub-clauses 1. J1-9: mobile generating set. c mobile sets (figure J1-9).c.e. particular supply sources and loads .4).1 to 1.J 1. 30 mA RCDs are required by most national standards. non-metallic conduit prividing supplementary insulation PE C32N 30 mA T Vigicompact NS100 TM63G 30 mA PE load circuits fig. c portable power packs (figure J1-10). double insulation). J1-10: portable power pack with RCD protection. C60N 30 mA T fig. generating sets Practical guides in certain national standards classify generator sets according to three categories. mobile sets These are used mainly to provide temporary supplies (on construction sites for example) where protection of persons against electric shock must be ensured by the use of RCDs with an operating threshold not exceeding 30 mA.

a. its function is the inverse of that of a rectifier (figure J2-1). These units are normally of low rating (i 3 kVA) but are capable of passing large An on-line type of UPS system (figure J2-3) is connected directly between the public a. as shown in figure J2-2. the period of which depends on the battery capacity and load magnitude. An off-line type of UPS system (figure J2-2) is connected in parallel with a supply direct from the public distribution network. supply of high quality (i. and without interruption. the battery automatically. a. the contactor changes back to its original condition. d.1 what is an inverter? An inverter produces an a. including a total loss of supply.c. the rectifier supplies the load through the inverter.c. source load sinusoidal a. J2-2: off-line UPS system. regardless of the state of the a.c. The two most commonlyused types are described below. fluorescent lighting) are among the many causes of poor quality of supplies. industrial parasites. output inverter fig. at the same time. an elementary UPS system is formed. the disturbances take the form of more-or-less severe voltage dips. J2-3: on-line UPS system. to computer systems).particular supply sources and loads . on loss of the a.2. while. changes over rapidly to the UPS unit (in less than 10 ms) the power then being supplied from the battery. and whether supply autonomy (automatic standby-supply on the loss of normal power supply) is specified. J2-1: inverter function. high. When the tolerance limits are exceeded. the battery then recharges to its full capacity. Apart from occasional loss of supply. transient currents such as those for motorstarting and switching on of (cold) resistive loads. Its main purpose (when associated with a rectifier which provides its input) is to afford a high-quality power supply to equipment for which the interference and disturbances of a normal power-supply system cannot be tolerated (e. or not. By the addition of a storage battery at the input terminals of the inverter (and therefore across the output terminals of the associated rectifier).g.c. continuous “noise” from fluorescent-lamp circuits and (normally undetectable. J10 . A loss of a. power supply network F sensitive load rectifier/ charger battery inverter filter fig. The most common use for such units is the supply to multi-workstation ITE (information technology equipment) installations.and low-frequency parasites. In normal circumstances. On loss of the latter. which affords a supply of electrical energy within strict tolerance limits. power supply network.c. a trickle charge from the rectifier maintains the battery fully charged. and is autonomous. freezing).c. and has an autonomous capability. 2. such as cash registers. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) J 2.c. This system is equally suitable for small loads (i 3 kVA) or large loads (up to several MVA). which carries the normal load. Several types of UPS system exist according to the degree of protection against powernetwork “pollution” required. supply to the load.c. within the capacity of its battery. The total load passes through the system.c.c. On the return of normal power supply. In normal operation the filter improves the quality of the current while the voltage is maintained sensibly constant at its declared value by appropriate and automatic regulation within the filter unit. supply network and the load. the switching of large electric motors (lifts. but totally unacceptable to sensitive electronic systems) of miniinterruptions of several milli-seconds. c. an undistorted sine-wave. power supply. free from interference) from a d. source. power supply network rectifier charger battery inverter sensitive load fig. a contactor. accidental faults (shortcircuits). c on-line. Power systems are subjected to many kinds of perturbation which adversely affect the quality of supply: atmospheric phenomena (lightning. maintains the pollution-free a. power supply from the distribution network would simply result in the battery automatically maintaining the output from the inverter with no discernable interruption.e.2 types of UPS system there are two main types of UPS system: c off-line.

g. which are filtered.J11 . the printer). power supply. v maintain a sensibly-constant voltage level.000 . distribution network. supply other less-sensitive units (e. conditioners and filters diagrams of principle filter plug mains-supply conditioner slim-line UPS off-line UPS F on-line UPS F disturbances considered type of network corrective disturbance measures HF parasites c variations of voltage regulation autonomy 10 to 30 mn (according to battery capacity) rated power i 250 VA c 300 . Two further outputs.c.000 VA 1. supply the central processor and screen. each with back-up from the UPS unit.000 VA. but which protect sensitive loads from certain disturbances commonly occurring on power distribution network. which has built-in HF (high-frequency) filters.500 VA > 2. power systems and/or heavy loads c c c c all sensitive loads c c microinformatic stand-alone PC micro-informatic terminals table J2-4: examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters.3 standards The international standard presently covering semi-conductor converters is IEC 146-4. power network. types of UPS units. Its principal use is on micro-informatic stand-alone PCs rated at 250 to 1. c the network (or mains) -supply conditioner is a complete system for providing an uncontaminated a.500 VA applications minimal protection c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c highly disturbed a. but without autonomy. and is installed immediately under the microprocessor. no provision against loss of supply from the a. for general office purposes.000 VA. It is equally applicable to office or industrial systems which do not require a no-break standby supply. not assuring a no-break performance.c. in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes. i. include the following: c the filter-plug which is simply an a. c the slim-line UPS has integral protection with autonomy for each micro-informatic stand-alone PC and its peripherals. The slim-line UPS belongs to the class of off-line UPS schemes.c.c.e. Two outputs. in order to reduce HF parasitic interference to acceptable levels. 2. plug for connecting or interconnecting loads. up to ratings of 5.J Other apparatus. particular supply sources and loads .1.c. Its principal functions are to: v filter out HF parasites.2. v isolate (galvanically) the load from the a.

2 to 2) to allow for future extensions. For an instantaneous change of load up to 100 % of the nominal rating of the UPS unit. the circuit arrangement in figure J2-5 closely resembles that of the off-line UPS system (of figure J2-2)..).25 In for 10 minutes. inverter 2. batteries (usual periods of autonomy 10 . within close tolerance limits of magnitude and phase difference) thereby minimizing the disturbance in the event of “instantaneous” changeover from circuit 1 to circuit 2 operation. The demand will be the sum of the apparent (VA) loads of individual items. based on: v maximum value of actual estimated kVA demand. inverters manufactured by Merlin Gerin can safely withstand the following overloaded condition: c 1. the output voltage generally remains between + 10 % and .5 In for 1 minute..particular supply sources and loads . static contactor (see “availability” below) 5. of the possibility of future extensions to the installation. c 1. in which the load is normally passing through circuit 1. c frequencies upstream (input) and downstream (output) of the UPS unit. Instantaneous variations of load: these variations occur at times of energizing and de-energizing of one or more items of load. generally corrected by a factor (1. This action is the converse of that of the off-line scheme. v transitory current peaks (motor starting. Note: At first sight. J2-5: classical arrangement of a UPS on-line installation. it is an on-line system.e. account should be taken of the overload capacity of the UPS components.4 choice of a UPS system The choice of a UPS system is determined mainly by the following parameters: c rated power. 6. it may be necessary to adjust the power rating of the UPS system. c voltage levels upstream (input) and downstream (output) of the UPS unit. in order to avoid oversizing of the installation. transformer for specific downstream-circuits voltage 8.8 % of its rated value. supply from the battery). UPS 1. but closes automatically if the UPS system becomes overloaded. etc. isolating transformer. transformer to match the upstream voltage to that of the consumer. the CPU (central processing unit) and will amount to Pa. c duration of autonomy required (i.several hours) 4. outgoing ways 7. (9) (8) mains 2 (5) UPS (4) C/S distribution board (6) mains 1 (2) (1) (3) (7) fig. J12 . power (VA) The rated power of the UPS unit must be sufficient to satisfy the steady load demand as well as loads of a transitory nature. In this arrangement. The static contactor is open in this situation. However. energization of resistive loads.e. rectifier/charger 3. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. for example. Note: in order to obtain satisfactory discrimination of protective devices for all types of load.15 . is corrected. or fails for any reason. Conditions will automatically return to normal if the overload. transformers. and of the overload capability of the inverter and other UPS-unit components.30 mn . the voltage output of the inverter is always maintained in synchronism with the voltage of the powersupply network (i. In fact.2. c level of availability required. the power rating of a UPS unit must take account of the peak motorstarting currents. using an inverter. For example. In such a case. changeover switch 9. however. the load will then be supplied from the (reserve) circuit 2. if galvanic isolation from upstream circuits is necessary.

therefore. so that the rating of a suitable UPS unit would be 252 x 1/1. By way of example. and the manufacturers are able to quote availability levels. 200 kVA. relative to their own products and recommended layouts. 4 will take a transitory current equal to 4 In for a period of 200 ms when initially energized. three UPS units each rated at P/2 to supply a load of P (figure J2-8) are also sometimes installed. particular supply sources and loads . where the supply is doubled as noted above (mains 1 and mains 2 in figure J2-5) the MTBF obtained is in the range 70. With an additional 200 ms peak of (3 x 20) kVA the total amounts to 192 + 60 = 252 kVA.000 hours. represents a supplement (over the steady-state 20 kVA demand) of 3 x 20 kVA = 60 kVA. load circuits no.G) UPS system. The peak kVA demand. The calculation of their level of availability can be carried out by specialists.g. a situation which affords a relatively high level of availability.g. J2-6: example. The maximum steady-state power demand presently considered is therefore: P = 80 + 10 + 20 + 20 + 30 = 160 kVA. e.000 hours. The remaining circuits require no such transitory peak currents. With allowance for extensions (of 20%) = 160 x 1. In the usual case. see Sub-clause 2. Switching from one source to the other is achieved automatically by a static (solid state) contactor.: 1 : 80 kVA 2 : 10 kVA 3 : 20 kVA 4 : 20 kVA 5 : 30 kVA fig. For the choice of suitable protective devices. Possible future extensions to the installation are estimated to amount to 20% of the existing load.J Example of a power calculation Choice of a UPS unit suitable for the loads shown in figure J2-6. includes the 60 kVA peak current which is easily absorbed by the 1. In all cases the kVA values cited have taken the load power factors into account. e.5 In overload capability of (a M.2 = 192 kVA.000 to 200. C/S 200 kVA fig. a UPS alone has a MTBF (mean time between failures) of 50. depending on the availability of the second source. J2-8: 3 UPS P/2 units providing a high level of availability of a power rated P. availability A UPS system is generally provided with an alternative (unconditioned) emergency source.5 = 168 kVA for the nearest standard rating available above the calculated value. This operation will be carried out at least once a day. Assumed operating constraints: circuit no. J2-7: solution to the example.J13 . Configurations having a higher redundancy. C/S P/2 P/2 P P/2 fig. The total of 252 kVA however.9.

Interconnection facilities according to the standards RS 232.particular supply sources and loads . fig. together with measured quantities. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. they can make use of specialized software for automatic checking and fault diagnosis (e. These functions can be designed to ensure mechanical and electrical compatibility with other equipments: standard versions are now provided with dry contacts and current loops. for example. J2-10: software (e. Soft-Monitor) allows remote checking and automatic fault diagnosis of the UPS system. UPS units can communicate with other equipments.. in order to: c optimize the protection scheme: the UPS. and indicates accordingly. J14 . Furthermore. The computer deduces the appropriate corrective action. and the state of the UPS is presented on a mimic board or displayed on a screen. In fact. and finally to exercise remote control of UPS functions (figures J2-9 to J2-11). RS 422 or RS 485 can be incorporated on request. passing data concerning the state of the UPS components (static contactor open or closed. transmits data (such as: condition normal. notably with IT (information technology) systems. J2-11: UPS units are readily integrated into centralized management systems. supply being maintained by the battery.2.g. J2-9: UPS units can communicate with centralized system management terminals. with anomalies indicated. c supervise (manage) the installation: the consumer (i.) and receiving orders controlling its function. the “user”) has a centralized management technique facility which allows him to acquire data from the UPS unit(s) which are then stored and analysed. fig. certain advanced modules include modern cards with integral protocole (JBus for example). c permit remote control: the UPS transmits data concerning the state of UPS components. and so on.5 UPS systems and their environment UPS system components include the means to communicate with other equipments. fig. who is then able to carry out operational manœuvres through remote-control channels..g. alarm for period of autonomy almost reached) to the computer it is supplying. Soft-Monitor on PC) which may be integrated into other systems of overall supervision (figure J2-10). This evolution towards a general compatibility between diverse systems and related hardware requires the incorporation of new functions in the UPS systems. to the console of an operator.e.

c prevents third harmonic currents (and multiples of them) which may be present on the secondary side from passing into the power-system network. These indesirable components are filtered at the input of the rectifier and for most cases this reduces the harmonic current level sufficiently for all practical purposes. For example.e. (i. anti-harmonic filter The UPS system includes a battery charger which is controlled by commutated thyristors or transistors. or added to existing systems on request.5) may entail the need for suitable facilities within the UPS systems. communications equipment Communication with equipment associated with informatic systems (see Sub-clause 2.2. the manufacturers of the UPS system should be consulted. Such facilities may be incorporated in an original design. when: c the power rating of the UPS system is large relative to the HV/LV transformer supplying it. from that of the power network. notably in very large installations. J2-27: a UPS installation with incorporated communication systems. Moreover. etc. such a transformer: c reduces the short-circuit current level on the secondary. load) side compared with that on the power network side. In certain specific cases however. an additional filter circuit may be necessary. The resulting regularlychopped current cycles “generate” harmonic components in the power-supply network. c a diesel (or gas-turbine. fig. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. In such cases. providing that the primary winding is connected in delta. c a different arrangement for the neutral on the load-side winding. J24 . c the LV busbars supply loads which are particularly sensitive to harmonics.particular supply sources and loads .10 complementary equipments transformers A two-winding transformer included on the upstream side of the static contactor of circuit 2 (see figure J2-5) allows: c a change of voltage level when the power network voltage is different to that of the load.) driven alternator is provided as a standby power supply.

as recommended in European Standard EN 60742. but for small transformers (< 50 kVA) may reach values of 20 to 25 times the nominal full-load current.m. industrial-heating processes.3. the first current peak can attain a value equal to 10 to 15 times the full-load r. of the types Compact NS or Multi 9* curve D (figure J3-3). and the manufacturers must be consulted for details. This transient current decreases rapidly. particular supply sources and loads . The exploitation of these transformers requires a knowledge of their particular function. high values of transient current (which includes a significant d.J25 .e. current.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer The protective device on the supply circuit for a LV/LV transformer must avoid the possibility of incorrect operation due to the magnetizing in-rush current surge. according to circumstances. I Î first 10 to 25 In In θ t fig.s. J3-2: tripping characteristic of a Compact NS STR circuit breaker. LV/LV transformers are generally supplied with protective systems incorporated. together with a number of points described below. It is necessary to use therefore: c selective (i.). 3. Note: In the particular cases of LV/LV safety isolating transformers at extra-low voltage. c changing the method of earthing for certain loads having a relatively high capacitive current to earth (informatic equipment) or resistive leakage current (electric ovens. slightly time-delayed) circuit breakers of the type Compact NS STR* (figure J3-2) or c circuit breakers having a very high magnetic-trip setting. and as discussed in detail in Sub-clause 3. be provided on the primary side. value of the first peak instantaneous I trip fig. t 50 to 70 ms r.s. component) occur. in any case. The magnitude of the current peak depends on: c the value of voltage at the instant of energization. protection of LV/LV transformers J These transformers are generally in the range of several hundreds of VA to some hundreds of kVA and are frequently used for: c changing the (LV) voltage level for: v auxiliary supplies to control and indication circuits.5 of Chapter G.s. mass-cooking installations.c. J3-3: tripping characteristic of a circuit breaker according to standardized type D curve (for Merlin Gerin 10 to 14 In).1 transformer-energizing in-rush current At the moment of energizing a transformer. value of the first peak 10In 20In I fig.m. In distribution-type transformers.1. J3-1: transformer-energizing in-rush current. Overcurrent protection must. v lighting circuits (230 V created when the primary system is 400 V 3-phase 3-wires). noted above in 3. 3. c the magnitude and polarity of magnetic flux (if any) existing in the core of the transformer. * Merlin Gerin. an earthed metal screen between the primary and secondary windings is frequently required. t In r. with a time constant θ (see figure J3-1) of the order of several milli-seconds to several tens of milli-seconds.m. and must be taken into account when considering protection schemes. c characteristics of the load on the transformer. etc.

5 25 31.5 5.5 circuit breakers type C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NS100H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801NH/L C1001N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1251N/H trip-unit current rating (A)/type no. This practice has two disadvantages: c the fuses must be largely oversized (at least 4 times the nominal full-load rated current of the transformer). 3.5 80 450 2450 5. is that the short-circuit protection on the primary side can be set at a high value.5 800 2160 11400 5. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued) J 3.5 5. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers 3-phase transformers (400 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 5 10 16 20 25 31. the short-circuit protective relay of which is immune to high transient-current peaks.5 160 600 5.5 350 1240 5 50 265 1900 5 40 350 1530 5 63 305 2000 4.5 5 4.5 200 790 5900 5 250 950 6500 5 315 1160 7400 4.5 160 680 5900 5.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer (continued) Example (figure J3-4) A 400 V 3-phase circuit is supplying a 125 kVA 400/230 V transformer (In = 180 A) for which the first in-rush current peak can reach 17 In.5 12. however. 3.particular supply sources and loads .5 16 170 840 5. i.5 63 460 2150 5 100 450 3950 5 80 520 2540 5 100 570 3700 5.5 50 410 1650 4.5 10 115 530 5 8 130 390 4.c.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 250 315 400 500 630 7 14 23 28 35 44 56 70 89 113 141 176 225 352 444 563 704 887 4.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers 3-phase kVA rating no-load losses (W) full-load losses (W) s. A Compact NS250 circuit breaker with Ir setting of 200 A would therefore be a suitable protective device. NS250N tripping unit STR22SE (Ir = 200) 3 x 70 mm2 400/230 V 125 kVA fig.5 16 140 730 4.5 25 310 1180 5. * Motor-control circuit breaker.5 400 1240 9300 6 500 1485 9400 6 630 1855 11400 5.5 5.5 20 150 865 4. 17 x 180 A = 3.5 20 270 800 5. The primary-side short-circuit protection setting must. be sufficiently sensitive to ensure its operation in the event of a short-circuit occurring on the secondary side of the transformer (upstream of secondary protective devices). either a load-break switch or a contactor must be associated with the fuses. c in order to provide isolating facilities on the primary side.c.5 5 5 4. voltage (%) 5 100 250 4.3 110 320 4.067 A.5 175 200 1065 1200 4 4 125 160 525 635 3950 4335 5 table J3-5: typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers.5 5.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.5 120 635 5 10 150 500 5. A particular case: overload protection installed at the secondary side of the transformer An advantage of overload protection located on the secondary side. J26 .5 125 680 3700 4.5 5. Note: The primary protection is sometimes provided by fuses.5 40 215 1400 5 31.3.5 4.e. as shown in figure J5-3. or alternatively a circuit breaker type MA* may be used. type a M. J3-4: example. 20 32 63 63 80 80 80 100 MA100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-6: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.5 8 105 400 5 6. voltage (%) 1-phase kVA rating no-load losses (W) full-load losses (W) s.5 12.5 6 6 5.5 5 5 5.

9 4.1 1.9 1.1 0. 40 63 80 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-7: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.J 3-phase transformers (230 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 5 10 16 20 25 31. 1-phase transformers (400 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 0.5 6 circuit breakers type C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NS100H/L NS100H/L NS100H/L NS100H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS630N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1251N/H C1251N/H trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.5 5 5 5.63 1 1.6 5 5 5 4.54 2.5 4.44 3.5 5 5 circuit breakers type C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NS160H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400 NS630 C801N/H/L C801N/H/L trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.5 4 5 6.5 24 30 39 49 61 77 98 122 154 195 244 305 390 13 10.8 12.1 9.5 5.2 15.39 0.5 4.5 5.88 6. particular supply sources and loads .5 5 4.5 9.5 5.16 0.4 0.61 0.25 0. 1 1 1 2 3 6 10 10 16 20 32 40 50 63 63 80 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-8: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.2 4 2.24 0.5 4.5 5.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 250 315 400 12 24 39 49 61 77 97 122 153 195 244 305 390 609 767 974 4.6 2 2.9 3 2.5 4 4 4 5 4.98 1.5 16 20 25 31.5 5.4 19.3 8 10 12.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 0.5 7 5.5 5 5 4.J27 .5 7.5 5.

25 0.9 21.5 4.5 9.8 8.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.16 0.1 27 34 42 53 68 84 105 133 169 211 266 338 422 528 675 13 10.4 0.5 4 4 5 5 4.6 5 5 5 4.6 2 2.4 0.5 16 20 25 31.5 5 5 circuit breakers type C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS630N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C1001N/H/L trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.63 1 1.9 3 2.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 0.5 7.5 7 5.1 1.7 2.7 4.particular supply sources and loads .2 4 2.5 4 5 6.3.5 16.4 10.5 5. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers (continued) 1-phase transformers (230 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 0.7 1.2 6.5 4.9 1.1 1. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued) J 3. J28 . 1 2 3 4 6 10 16 16 20 40 50 63 80 100 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-9: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.1 0.3 8 10 12.

In fact. fuse blown or CB tripped) must not result in total loss of illumination in an area which is capable of accommodating more than 50 persons. as well as general lighting. are as follows: c installations which illuminate areas accessible to the public must be controlled and protected independently from installations providing illumination to other areas. Failure of the standby lighting system must automatically switch on the emergency lighting system. c loss of supply on a final lighting circuit (i. Emergency lighting must ensure easy evacuation of persons from the premises concerned. the provision of adequate illumination in the event of fire or other catastrophic circumstances is of great importance in reducing the likelihood of panic. The planning and realization of a lighting installation requires a sound understanding of the materials installed. when normal lighting systems may have failed. absolute discrimination between protective devices on the different circuits must be provided. 4. Standby lighting permits everyday activities to continue more or less normally. Furthermore. c general emergency lighting General lighting is obligatory when an area can accommodate 100 persons or more (50 persons or more in areas below ground level).e.J29 . Sub-clause 4. luminous directional indications to the nearest emergency exits must be provided. and in permitting the necessary safety manœuvres to be carried out. in the event that the normal lighting system fails. or must be entirely class II.e. normal lighting Regulations governing the minimum requirements for ERP (Establishments Receiving the Public) in most European countries. emergency lighting These schemes include illuminated emergency exit signs and direction indications. emergency lighting must be adequate to allow any particular safety manœuvres provided in the premises to be carried out.7 describes different kinds of suitable power supplies. more than one device must be used). c protection by RCDs (residual current differential devices) must be divided amongst several devices (i. i.4. in emergency lighting circuits. particular supply sources and loads . where the latter fails. v the installation must be an IT scheme. definitions Normal lighting refers to the installation designed for everyday use. doubly-insulated. independent of other supplementary systems. A fault on a lighting distribution circuit must not affect any other circuit: v the discrimination of overcurrent-protection relays and of RCDs must be absolute.e. together with familiarity with the rules for safety against fire hazards in establishments receiving the public. depending on the original design specification. c emergency exit indications In areas accommodating more than 50 persons. so that only the faulty circuit will be cut off. and on the extent of the normal lighting failure.1 service continuity continuity of normal lighting service must be sufficient. Standby lighting is intended to substitute normal lighting. lighting circuits J the presence of adequate lighting contributes to the satety of persons. emergency lighting is intended to facilitate the evacuation of persons in case of fire or other panic-causing situations.

or the welding of contacts in a contactor. One of the tubes has a capacitor connected in series with its ballast. lighting circuits (continued) J 4. causes a high-voltage transient pulse to appear across the tube.particular supply sources and loads . viz: v to limit the preheating current during the (brief) starting period. c the ballast is an iron-cored inductor.5 ms. The ballast.6) with the corresponding consumption of reactive energy. engender disturbances during the periods of starting. by breaking the (electrode-preheating) current passing through the ballast. single-phase fluorescent lamp with its individual p. The arrangement is known internationally as a “duo”-circuit luminaire.5 In for 1 sec) according to type of starter. no particular problems table J4-1: analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits. A number of lamps on one circuit can result in peaks of 300-400 A for 0.1-1. In this case.a. fluorescent lamp with HF ballast Advantages: Energy savings of the order of 25%. its function is threefold.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) fluorescent tubes For normal operation a fluorescent tube requires a ballast and a starter (device for initiating the luminous discharge). switching-off disturbances no particular problems steady-operating disturbances circulation of harmonic currents (sinusoidal currents at frequencies equal to whole-number multiples of 50 (or 60) Hz: c delta-connected lamps (see Appendix J2) (3-ph 3-wire 230 V system) 1 2 3 presence of 5th and 7th harmonics at very low level c star-connected lamps (3-ph 4-wire 400/230 V system) 1 2 3 N no particular problems presence of 3 rd harmonic currents in the neutral. No flicker or stroboscopic effects. of the neutral conductor must equal that of the phase conductors. The discharge is then self-sustaining at normal voltage. order of magnitude 10 In for 1 sec. limit each circuit to 8 tubes per contactor. J30 . which is generally metered. This causes an arc (in the form of a gaseous discharge) to be established through the tube. c moderate overload at the beginning of steady operating condition (1. to nullify the flicker effect. single-phase twin-tube fluorescent lamp with each tube having its own starter and series ballast. capacitor and the tube. The capacitor displaces the phase of the current through its tube. v to stabilize the current through the luminous column (hence the term “ballast”). For this reason each fluorescent lamp is normally provided with its own power-factor-correction capacitor. which can reach 70 to 80% of the nominal phase current. steady operation and extinction.s. which. The presence of the ballast means that the power-factor (cos ø) of the circuit is low (of the order 0. c same order of moderate overload at beginning of steady operating condition as for the single tube noted above. therefore. In practice.f. permanently connected in series with the tube. The two sets of equipment are connected in parallel.f. This can cause a CB to trip. A B starter ballast starter switching-on disturbances c high current peak to charge capacitor. v to provide a pulse of high voltage at the end of the starting period to strike the initial arc. c can generate a current peak at start. the c. c no high current peak as noted above. This arrangement is recommended for difficult cases.4. correction capacitor 1 2 3 c the starter is a switch. These disturbances are analysed in table J4-1 below. Rapid one-shot start. as well as correcting the overall p. c can cause leakage to earth of HF current (at 30 kHz) via the phase conductor capacitances to earth.

4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker The rated current of a circuit breaker is generally chosen according to the rating of the circuit conductors it is protecting (in the particular circumstances in the Note of 4. the interior of distribution panels supplying lighting schemes are frequently at an elevated temperature.g.3 the circuit and its protection dimensions and protection of the conductors The maximum currents in the circuits can be estimated using the methods discussed in Chapter B. Furthermore.3 above. i. particular supply sources and loads . See the Note following table J4-2. The temperature within the distribution panel also influences the choice of the protective device (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. the factor ks is generally near unity.J31 . there is no diversity.5 2 2. Some milli-seconds after switching on.e.5 3 3. In general tables are available from manufacturers to assist in making a choice.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 230 V 1-phase current rating In (A) 6 10 10 16 16 20 20 25 25 32 32 40 50 50 The following tables allow direct selection of circuit breaker ratings for certain particular cases. c the power factor. Consequently. the filament resistance rises to 2302/100 = 529 ohms. however. even among a number of lighting circuits from a given distribution panel. power (kW) 1 1. 230 V 3-phase current rating In (A) 3 4 6 10 10 10 16 16 16 20 20 25 25 32 400 V 3-phase current rating In (A) 2 3 4 4 6 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 20 table J4-2: protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating circuits (see Note below).4). the reverse procedure was found to be necessary). factor of simultaneity ks (diversity) A particular feature of large (e. Accordingly. Note: at room temperature the filament resistance of a 100 W 230 V incandescent lamp is approximately 34 ohms. The circuit conductor ratings are defined by the maximum steady load current of the circuit. an important consideration to be taken into account when selecting protective devices. factory) lighting circuits is that the whole load is “on” or “off”.J 4. the cable size is chosen after the protective CB (with an instantaneous trip setting sufficient to remain closed during the current peaks) has been selected. 4. The initial current peak at the instant of switch closure is therefore practically 15 times its normal operating current. Note: for circuits in which large peak currents occur (at times of switching on) and their magnitude is such that CB tripping is a possibility. account must be taken of: c the nominal power rating of the lamp and the ballast. A similar (but generally less severe) transient current peak occurs when energizing any resistivetype heating appliance.5 4 4.

pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 Calculation for tubes with p.25 x e where: U = phase/phase voltage tables J4-4: current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be protected. mercury vapour fluorescent lamps P i 700 W 6A P i 1000 W 10 A P i 2000 W 16 A metal-halogen mercury-vapour lamps P 275 W 6A P 1000 W 10 A P 2000 W 16 A high-pressure sodium discharge lamps P 400 W 6A P 1000 W 10 A table J4-3: maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit. J32 .86 U Pu x 1.f.86 V Pu x 1. connected in delta number of tubes per phase = 0.25 = factor for watts consumed by ballast. for high-pressure discharge lamps. lighting circuits (continued) J 4.8 C x 0.86 = cos ø of circuit.particular supply sources and loads .8 = derating factor for high temperature in CB housing. with or without individual power-factor correcting capacitors.or 3.8 C x 0. V = phase/neutral voltage. capacitor. single-phase distribution 230 V three-phase distribution + N : 400 V phase/phase types de tube number of luminaires per phase luminaires rating (W) single-phase 18 7 14 21 42 70 112 140 175 with capacitor 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 58 2 4 6 13 21 34 43 54 duo circuit 2x18= 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 with 2x36= 72 1 3 5 10 17 28 35 43 capacitor 2x58= 116 1 2 3 6 10 17 21 27 current rating of 1-.f.2-.3 -or 4. 0. 0. connected in star number of tubes per phase = 0.25 where: C = current rating of C B. three-phase 3 wire system(230 V) phase/phase types de tube number of luminaires per phase luminaires rating (W) single-phase 18 4 8 12 24 40 64 81 101 with capacitor 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 58 1 2 3 7 12 20 25 31 duo circuit 2x18= 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 with 2x36= 72 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 capacitor 2x58= 116 0 1 1 3 6 10 12 15 current rating of 2.4.pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 225 112 69 112 56 34 32 281 140 87 140 70 43 40 351 175 109 175 87 54 50 443 221 137 221 110 68 63 562 281 174 281 140 87 80 703 351 218 351 175 109 100 127 64 40 64 32 20 32 162 81 50 81 40 25 40 203 101 63 101 50 31 50 255 127 79 127 63 39 63 324 162 100 162 81 50 80 406 203 126 203 101 63 100 Calculation for tubes with p.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker (continued) The following table (J4-3) is valid for 230 V and 400 V installations. 1. Pu = nominal power rating of tube (W). capacitor.

i. central clock relaying remotely controlled circuit breaker over communications bus remotely controlled static contactor/ circuit breaker combination residual current circuit breaker controlled over communications bus according to type table J4-5: types of remote control. simplifies lighting-control circuits considerably. particular supply sources and loads . remote-control mode function of corresponding switchgear and controlled equipment remote control remote control + overcurrent protection circuit breaker controlled by hard-wire system remote control + overcurrent protection + insulation monitoring and protection residual current circuit breaker controlled by hard-wire system local control devices centralized control devices Certain switching devices include control circuitry for operation at ELV (extra-lowvoltage. The situation at the time of writing is summarized below in table J4-5.e.000 V with respect to the power circuits. < 50 V or < 25 V according to requirements). thereby enlarging the scope and diversity of control schemes.J 4.5 choice of control-switching devices The advent of switching devices which combine the functions of remote control and protection. these control circuits being insulated for 4. point-to-point remote control centralized remote control point-to-point and centralized remote control control signals over communications bus control signals over timemultiplexing channels bistable switch contactor “pilot” bistable switch remote controlled switch remotely controlled switch push-button switch push button stairway time-switch with automatic switch-off automatic photo-electric lighting-control switches movement detectors.J33 . of which the remotely-controllable residual-current circuit breaker is the prototype.

the minimum value of short-circuit current exceeds by a suitable margin the short-circuit magnetic relay setting Im of the CB concerned. current Isc2 at the secondary terminals of a single-phase LV/ELV transformer is equal to Us where Zs = Us2 x Usc % Zs Pn 100 Pn x 100 = 400 x 100 so that Isc2 = Us x Usc% 12 x 6 = 555 A which gives Isc1 = 29 A in the primary circuit.4.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits A LV/ELV transformer is often located in an inaccessible position. of the conductors. is recommended.3 m It is then necessary to check that this length is sufficient to reach the 12 V distribution board. overload protection is not necessary.0. If the number of lamps on the circuit has been correctly chosen. c if necessary.7 mΩ will therefore be: Rc (mΩ) x S (mm2) in metres = 9.3 x 10/6 = 2. c to ensure protection against short-circuits. For this reason the protection is commonly provided on the primary circuit.a. lighting circuits (continued) J 4.5 (µΩ. and to automatically provide a safety margin under all circumstances.0313 .0216 Im2 Isc2 383 555 = 9. for example.12 = 0. overload protection must be provided.mm) 2 x 22. However. an arithmetic subtraction. not resistive. will satisfy the constraint for maximum Rc. Circuit breaker type C trips if the primary current u Im1 = 10 In = 20 A. The maximum length of the 12 V circuit based on 9. J4-6: example.c. 2A LV ELV 230/12 V 400 VA Usc = 6% secondary circuit fig. or type aM fuses).e. as (implied) in the example.7 milli-ohms. because the source impedance (i. secondary) circuit* may be deduced from these two secondary s.e. then an increase in the c. Example: The s. v in the case of fuses it is also necessary to ensure that the I2t energy let-through of the fuse(s) at minimum short-circuit current is well below the level of the thermal withstand capacity of the circuit conductors. will be mainly reactive. currents.s. in principle. It must therefore be verified that: v in the case of a CB.7 mΩ * from the transformer terminals to the ELV distribution board. If the length is insufficient. which corresponds to a secondary current of 20 x 230 = 383 A 12 The maximum resistance of the ELV (i. a conductor of 10 mm2 would allow 1. U2/555. proportional to the increased length required.V2 = 12 .7 x 6 2 x 22.particular supply sources and loads . where the outgoing ways are protected with other devices.2 m of circuit length in the above case. however. so that protection installed on the secondary side would be equally difficult to reach. greater than 9.5 for a 6 mm2 copper cable = 1. Note: The true value of Rc permitted is. for simplicity. The protective device is therefore chosen: c to provide switching control (Multi 9 type C CB. J34 . as shown. viz: 555 A and 383 A as follows: Rc = U2 .c.

c autonomous units may be of the permanently-lit type or non-permanently-lit type. in less than 15 seconds. failure of standby lighting must automatically bring the emergency lighting system into operation. in the case of a central emergency power source. Type C The lamps may. Type A The lamps are supplied permanently and totally during the presence of the public by a single central source (battery of storage cells. The following four classifications are typical. either: c by a battery to which the lamps are permanently connected. with automatic load shedding of non-essential loads (if necessary). particular supply sources and loads . Conduit boxes. capable of assuring satisfactory performance for at least one hour in the event of fire. and which is on permanent trickle charge from a normal lighting source. with (in any case) a minimum of one hour. Classification of such locations leads to the determination of suitable types of solutions. The battery is trickle-charged in normal circumstances. Standby lighting systems operate to maintain illumination. c failures in the central emergency supply source must be detected at a sufficient number of points and adequately signalled to supervisory/maintenance personnel. the failure of one source must leave sufficient capacity in service to maintain supply to all safety systems. on the loss of normal supply. However. must leave all other sources and safety equipments unaffected. or from the emergency-lighting supply. or by a system of compressed air. or one equipment concerned with safety. etc. and fluorescent or incandescent lamps for exit and directionindicating signs.7 supply sources for emergency lighting Supply sources for emergency-lighting systems must be capable of maintaining the supply to all lamps in the most unfavourable circumstances likely to occur. provided that the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: c where there are several sources. or. and for a period judged necessary to ensure the total evacuation of the premises concerned. trunking. must also be fire-resistant. c the heat-engine-driven generator sets must be capable of automatically picking-up the full emergency lighting load from a standby (stationary) condition. The circuits for all emergency lamps must be independent of any other circuits (2). These circuits must be independent of any other circuits (1). if supplied. (1) Circuits for types A and B. and which remain alight (for at least one hour). may be fed from the normal lighting system. the characteristics of which also assure supplies to essential loads within one second (since the set is already running and supplying the emergency lighting) in the event of failure of the normal power supply. The engine start-up power is provided by a battery which is capable of six starting attempts.J35 . junction sleeves and so on must satisfy national standard heat tests. that ensure a minimum of capacity equal to the full emergency-lighting load for one hour. be supplied in normal conditions and.J 4. compatibility between emergency lighting sources and other parts of the installation Emergency-lighting sources must supply exclusively the circuits installed only for operation in emergency situations. The circuits for all emergency lamps must be independent of any other circuits (1). c the emergency-lighting batteries must be maintained on charge from the normal source by automatically regulated systems. c by autonomous units which are normally supplied and permanently alight from the normal lighting supply. Central sources for emergency supplies may also be used to provide standby supplies. authorized for use in emergency-lighting schemes in the different areas. or. c by a heat-engine-driven generator. Minimum reserves of energy in the two systems of start-up must be maintained automatically. Type D This type of emergency lighting comprises hand-carried battery-powered (primary or secondary cells) at the disposal of service personnel or the public. or a heat-engine-driven generator). following the failure of normal supply. or may not. c any safety equipment must be arranged to receive supply from any source. Type B The lamps are permanently supplied during the presence of the public. c the failure of one source. on failure of normal lighting circuits (generally in non-emergency circumstances). or the circuits must be installed in protective cable chases. by virtue of a self-contained battery. (2) Cable circuits of type C are not required to comply with the conditions of (1). These units have fluorescent lamps for general emergency lighting. classification of emergencylighting schemes Many countries have statutory regulations concerning safety in buildings and areas intended for public gatherings.

including: v isolating facility. and reliability and availability levels which must influence the choice of protective equipment. or. owing to the particular characteristics. therefore. Loss of production is a further. J36 . v accident due to sticking (contact welding) of the controlling contactor. The consequences of an incorrectly protected motor can include the following: c for persons: v asphyxiation due to the blockage of motor ventilation. J5-1: direct-on-line starting-current characteristics of an induction motor. v electrocution due to insulation failure in the motor. etc. shows diverse motor-circuit configurations commonly used in LV distribution boards.particular supply sources and loads . v manufacturing time delayed. 5. v cost of repairs to the motor. specific to motors. Table J5-2 below. it is the overall cost of failure which must be considered. The protection of these motors is consequently a matter of great importance in numerous applications. and difficulties of access to it increase. and can therefore be the cause of an important voltage drop. c preventive or limitative protection equipment. specific features of motor performance influence the powersupply circuits required for satisfactory operation. It is.e. and very widely used. v permanent insulation-resistance monitor or RCD (residual-current differential device).1 protective and control functions required functions to be provided generally include: c basic protective devices. the safety of persons and goods. v speed controller. v protection against overload. c for the motor: v motor windings burnt out due to stalled rotor. 95% of motors installed around the world are asynchronous. A motor power-supply circuit presents certain constraints not normally encountered in other (common) distribution circuits. v manual local and/or remote control. v loss of production. v cost of dismantling and reinstating or replacement of motor. Functions generally provided are: c basic protection. a penalty which is increasingly severe as the size of the motor. c electronic control equipment. asynchronous motors J the asynchronous (i. and evidently important factor. c number and frequency of start-up operations are generally high.5. c preventive or limitative protection by means of: v temperature sensors. c electronic controls consisting of: v progressive “soft-start” motor starter. such as: c heavy start-up current (see figure J5-1) which is highly reactive. In economic terms. induction) motor is robust and reliable. v protection against short-circuits. damaged due to a stalled rotor. c for the driven machine and the process: v shaft couplings and axles. t I" = 8 to 12 In Id = 5 to 8 In In = nominal motor current td 1 to 10s 20 to 30 ms In Id I" I fig. c the heavy start-up current means that motor overload protective devices must have operating characteristics which avoid tripping during the starting period. v multi-function relays.

Sub-clause 2-2 electronic controls c large power range c method is simple c avoids need to stock and compact for fuse cartridges low-power motors c disconnection is visible in certain cases c identification of the reason for tripping i.e.J basic protection fuse-disconnector + discontactor (using thermal relay) circuit breaker* motor circuit + discontactor breaker* + contactor (using thermal relay) contactor circuit breaker* ACPA standards disconnection (or isolation) manual control remote control short-circuit protection * circuit breaker includes disconnector capability overload protection c large power range c allow all types of starting schemes c a well-proven method c suitable for systems having high fault levels refer also to Chapter H2. or stalled-rotor condition c imbalance. particular supply sources and loads . Signalled indication of need for motor maintenance or replacement. speed controller c from 2 to 130 % of nominal speed c thermal protection is incorporated c possibility of communication facilities preventive or limitative protection devices table J5-2: commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits. connected to associated relays. absence or inversion of phase voltages c earth fault or excessive earth-leakage current c motor running on no-load. multi-function relays Direct and indirect thermal protection against: c the starting period excessively long.J37 . short circuit or overload c low installation costs c no maintenance c high degree of safety and reliability c suitable for systems having high fault levels c long electrical life progressive “soft-start” starter device c limitation v current peaks I v voltage drops U v mechanical constraints during start-up period c thermal protection is incorporated thermal sensors Protection against abnormal heating of the motor by thermistance-type sensors in the motor windings. motor blocked during start-up c pre-alarm overheating indication permanent insulation-to-earth monitor and RCD (residual-current differential relay) Protection against earth-leakage current and short-circuits to earth.

as well as operation and c better protection for the starter for shortmaintenance. ** Merlin Gerin. c possibility of adding RCD: c additional complementary devices v an RCD of 500 mA sensitivity practically sometimes required on a motor circuit are eliminates fire risk due to leakage current. c full-load current switching possibility (by c etc. c protection specific to the particular motor (but at least thermal relay overcurrent protection). J38 .1. Advantages c interlocking. limited by the cable and the wiring of the c better continuity performance: a motor starter (e. except items for which minor damage is normal in the particular circumstances. These standards are being adopted (often without any changes) by a number of countries. following the elimination of a fault. co-ordination between them is essential. J5-3: tripping characteristics of a circuit breaker (type MA)** and thermal-relay / contactor (1) combination.. as national standards. The control and protection of a motor can be provided by one. 30 A). c short-circuit protection. e. so that the current is stock (of different sizes).g. none of the devices involved must be damaged. cable thermal-withstand limit limit of thermalrelay constraint short-circuit tripping characteristic of the circuit breaker (type MA) In Is I" Imagn.2 standards The international standards covering materials discussed in this Sub-clause are: IEC 947-2. easily accommodated. etc. after a given number of service operations. The kind of co-ordination required depends on the necessary degree of service continuity and on safety levels. In the case of an electrical fault of any kind. coordination between them is necessary. 5.05 . c disconnection (isolation) for safety of personnel during maintenance work. CB) in the event of contactor failure. circuit breaker only l CB plus contactor (see Note) short-circuit-current breaking capacities 20 to 30 ms fig. e. the direct-acting trip coil of the circuit can be re-energized immediately CB). When these functions are performed by several devices. t circuit breaker magnetic relay contactor thermal relay câble motor (nominal current In) ts 1 to 10 s end of start-up period range 1. the CB avoids the need to replace blown In the majority of cases short-circuit faults fuses and the necessity of maintaining a occur at the motor. installation work. and so on.g. 947-4-1. v protection against destruction of the motor c tripping of all three phases is assured (short-circuiting of laminations) by the early (thereby avoiding the possibility of “singledetection of earth-fault currents (300 mA to phasing”). contact welding.5. the association of a circuit breaker incorporating an instantaneous magnetic trip for shortcircuit protection and a contactor with a thermal overload relay* provides many advantages. This combination of devices facilitates c diverse remote indications.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay functions to be implemented are: c control (start/stop). and 947-6-2. two or three devices. asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. * The association of an overload relay and a contactor is referred to as a “discontactor” in some countries.20 In characteristics of thermal relay among the many possible methods of protecting a motor. 947-3. c protection against short-circuits.. by: circuit currents up to about 30 In (see c the reduction of the maintenance work load: figure J5-3).particular supply sources and loads . which share the required functions of: c control (start/stop). c specific protection as noted in Sub-clause 5. c isolation (safety during maintenance). replaceable arcing contacts in certain contactors.1 Where several different devices are used to provide protection.g.

those of the CB and those of the contactor) are acting in series. v specifications stipulating this type of coordination. c there is an operational requirement for a load-breaking facility in the event of contact welding of the contactor. c type 2: burning. utilization category AC-1 AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 application characteristics Non-inductive (or slightly inductive) loads: cos ø u 0. c the job specification calls for complementary functions.e. Conclusion The association circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay(1) for the control and protection of motor circuits is eminently appropriate where: c the maintenance service for an installation is reduced. plugging. distribution) Starting and switching off of slip-ring motors Cage motors: starting.c. according to the state of the constituant parts following a circuit breaker trip out on fault. which must never present a danger to personnel. v volume and cost of switchgear reduced. which is generally the case in tertiary and small-and medium-sized industrial enterprises. c type 1: v qualified maintenance service. IEC 947-4-1 defines two types of coordination. The combination effectively increases the s. c type 2: v continuity of service imperative. The following table gives some typical examples of the utilization categories covered. v continuity of service not demanded. standardization of the association of circuit breakers/ discontactors Categories of contactor The standard IEC 947-4 gives utilization categories which considerably facilitate the choice of a suitable contactor for a given service duty. c its current breaking and making capabilities. Types of co-ordination For each association of devices. or the opening of a contactor on overload.95 (heating. The utilization categories advise on: c a range of functions for which the contactor may be adapted. and must be chosen to satisfy (optimally) the needs of the user and the cost of installation.J39 . v no maintenance service. or provided by replacement of motor-starter drawer.J Note: When short-circuit currents are very high. v all elements other than the contactor and its relay must remain undamaged. and switching off motors during running Cage motors: starting. type 1 and type 2. Which type to choose? The type of co-ordination to adopt depends on the parameters of exploitation. the contacts of some contactors may be momentarily forced open by electro-magnetic repulsion. inching table J5-4: utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4). according to its utilization. and the risk of welding of the contacts of the contactor are the only risks allowed. current-breaking capacity above that of the CB alone. particular supply sources and loads . which set maximum allowable limits of deterioration of switchgear. c standard test values for expected life duration on load. a type of coordination is given. so that two sets of contacts (i. (1) a contactor in association with a thermal relay is commonly referred to as a discontactor. c type 1: deterioration of the contactor and/or of its relay is acceptable under 2 conditions: v no risk for the operator.

c. co-ordination is provided in the design. and to establish the s. For such a case. with intervening circuit conductors. short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a combination circuit breaker + contactor In the studies. the s. The combination can therefore be used on a circuit for which the prospective short-circuit current level exceeds the rated s. In figure J5-5 the thermal relay is protected if its limit boundary for thermal withstand is placed to the right of the CB magnetic trip characteristic curve.5. J5-6: circuit breaker and contactor mounted in juxtaposition. that of the CB + contactor combination. In the case of a motor-control circuit breaker incorporating both magnetic and thermal devices. Laboratory tests and calculations by manufacturers are necessary to determine which type of CB to associate with which contactor. Tables are published by Merlin Gerin giving this information in their “LV Distribution” catalogue.c. current-breaking capability of a CB + contactor combination. current-breaking capacity which must be compared to the prospective short-circuit current is: c either. or slightly less than. it is not possible to predict the s. IEC 947-4-1 requires the rating of the circuit breaker to be equal to or greater than the prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation. c or. * Motor Control Centre. J5-7: circuit breaker and contactor separately mounted. J5-5: the thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay must be to the right of the CB magnetic-trip characteristic. in the same drawer or compartment of a MCC*). asynchronous motors (continued) J 5.c. J40 . no excessive deterioration of either device and no welding of contactor contacts. A short-circuit downstream of the combination will be limited to some extent by the impedances of the contactor (see previous Note) and the thermal relay.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay (continued) key points in the successful association of a circuit breaker and a discontactor t Compact NS type MA 2 1 CB magnetic-trip performance curve 2 thermal-relay characteristic 3 thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay 1 3 Isc ext. that of the CB only. M fig.e. current-breaking capacity of the circuit breaker. i. for the case where the contactor is separated from the CB (so that a short-circuit is possible on the intervening circuit). c the short-circuit current breaking rating of the contactor must be greater than the regulated threshold of the CB magnetic trip relay. the setting of the magnetic relay (as seen from figure J5-5). Standards define precisely all the elements which must be taken into account to realize a correct co-ordination of type 2: c absolute compatibility between the thermal relay of the discontactor and the magnetic trip of the circuit breaker. breaking capacity of the combination. if these devices are physically close together (e. M fig. I fig.c. c a reliable performance of the contactor and its thermal relay when passing short-circuit current. since it (the contactor) must be capable of breaking a current which has a value equal to.g.particular supply sources and loads . This feature very often presents a significant economic advantage.

the signal being processed by an associated control device acting to trip the circuit breaker (figure J5-8). J5-9: multi-function protection. c phase current imbalance. The main protection devices of this type for motor are: c thermal sensors in the motor (windings. c earth fault (by RCD).J choice of instantaneous magnetic-trip relay for the circuit breaker The operating threshold must never be less than 12 In for this relay. inverse rotation. c running on no-load.J41 . loss of one phase. providing a reliable. multi-function motor-protection relay The multi-function relay.). high-performance and permanent monitoring/control function. c efficient surveillance of all motor-operating schedules. c possibility of communication via communication buses. c rotor stalled. c overheating. in order to avoid possible tripping due to the first current peak during start-up. J5-8: overheating protection by thermal sensors. so that action can be taken (automatically or by operator intervention) to avoid or limit the otherwise inevitable consequences. This current peak can vary from 8 In to 11 or 12 In. bearings. c multifunction protections. provides protection for motors. fig. cooling-air ducts. thermal sensors Thermal sensors are used to detect abnormal temperature rise in the motor by direct measurement. The advantages of this relay are essentially: c a comprehensive protection. etc. c alarm and control indications. 5. typified by the Telemecanique relay. The thermal sensors are generally embedded in the stator windings (for LV motors). c insulation-failure detection devices on running.4 preventive or limitative protection preventive or limitative protection devices detect signs of impending failure. type LT8 above. fig. or stationary motor. such as: c thermal overload. particular supply sources and loads . blocked rotor on start-up. associated with a number of sensors and indication modules. or starting-up period too long.

contamination.particular supply sources and loads . and signals audibly and visually any abnormal reduction of the insulation resistance level. c protected against false operation. provide the following possibilities: c to avoid the destruction of a motor (by perforation and short-circuiting of the laminations of the stator) caused by an eventual arcing fault to earth. c to reduce considerably the risk of fire due to earth-leakage currents (sensitivity i 500 mA). c in manufacturing: loss of production. J5-11: example using relay RH328A. Some versions of RCDs. such as: c for motors used on emergency systems for example: failure to start or to perform correctly.03 to 250 A). especially when installed in humid and/or dusty locations.4 preventive or limitative protection (continued) preventive protection of stationary motors This protection concerns the monitoring of the level of insulation resistance of a stationary motor. c possibility of discriminative tripping or to take account of particular operational requirements. This type of protection is indispensable for essential-services and emergency-systems motors. A typical RCD for such duties is type RH328A relay (Merlin Gerin) which provides: c 32 sensitivities (0. RH328A MERLIN GERIN fig. Furthermore. asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. according to the size of the motor (approx.c. and so on). c insulation of d. J5-10: preventive protection of stationary motors. if necessary. excessive humidity.). c automatic operation if the circuit from the current transformer to the relay is broken. This protection can detect incipient fault conditions by operating at leakage currents in the range of 300 mA to 30 A. Example: a vigilohm SM 20 (Merlin Gerin) relay monitors the insulation of a motor. J42 . specially designed for such applications. circuit components: class A. etc. Instantaneous tripping by the RCD will greatly limit the extent of damage at the fault location. sensitivity: 5 % In). SM20 MERLIN GERIN SM20 IN OUT fig. this relay can prevent any attempt to start the motor. Irrigation pumps for seasonal operation. by virtue of 8 possible timedelays (instantaneous to 1 s. Such protection avoids the destruction of a motor by short-circuit to earth during start-up (one of the most frequently-occurring incidents) by giving a warning in advance that maintenance work is necessary to restore the motor to a satisfactory operational condition. limitative protection Residual current differential protective devices (RCDs) can be very sensitive and detect low values of leakage current which occur when the insulation to earth of an installation deteriorates (by physical damage.5. Examples of application (figure J5-10) Fire-protection system “sprinkler” pumps. thereby avoiding the undesirable consequences of insulation failure during operation.

1 x 0. for extreme cases.1 x 0.5 times the load torque. the motor torque would be 2. it is largely inductive. In general. However. so that most power-supply authorities have strict rules intended to limit such disturbances to tolerable levels. The amount of disturbance created by a given motor depends on the “strength” of the network. maximum starting current (A) overheadundergroundline network cable network 45 45 100 200 60 60 125 250 table J5-12: maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V).5 11 22 other methods of starting (kW) 11 22 45 dwellings others overhead line network underground cable network 1.92 = 1. moreover. in failure to start.7 times the load torque. 5. slip-ring motors. the torque of the motor must exceed the load torque by at least 70%. Other (but generally more costly) alternative starting arrangements exist. Corresponding maximum power ratings of the same motors are shown in table J5-13. These two factors are both very unfavourable to the maintenance of voltage at the motor. 5. which reduce the large starting currents of DOL motors to acceptable levels. c for a voltage drop of 10% during start-up. Failure to provide sufficient voltage will reduce the motor torque significantly (motor torque is proportional to U2) and will result either in an excessively long starting time. a maximum allowable voltage drop of 10% Un is recommended during the start-up of a motor.e.4 3 5. particular supply sources and loads . the starting current is much greater than the full-load current of the motor.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) The effect of power factor correction on the amount of current supplied to a motor is indicated in table B4 in Chapter B Sub-clause 3-1.852 = 1. For distribution networks in many countries. c for a voltage drop of 15% during start-up.J voltage drop at the terminals of a motor during starting must never exceed 10% of rated voltage Un. star-delta starters. the “stronger” the system and the lower the disturbance (principally volt-drop) experienced by neighbouring consumers. and the motor would accelerate to its rated speed normally. even in areas supplied by one power authority only.c. and the method of correction in Chapter E Clause 7. the motor torque would be 2. its torque would be 2. or. typical values of maximum allowable starting type of motor single. on the short-circuit fault level at the point concerned. type of motor singleor three-phase location single-phase 230 V (kW) three-phase 400 V direct-on-line starting at full load (kW) 5. for example. so that the motorstarting time would be longer than normal. “weak” areas of the network exist as well as “strong” areas. The importance of limiting voltage drop at the motor during start-up In order that a motor starts and accelerates to its normal speed in the appropriate time. “soft start” electronic devices. Since.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV The disturbances caused on LV distribution networks during the start-up of large DOL (direct-on-line) a. motors can occasion considerable nuisance to neighbouring consumers. i.J43 . it is always advisable to secure the agreement of the power supplier before acquiring the motors for a new project.5 table J5-13: maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors. etc. Example: c with 400 V maintained at the terminals of a motor. The higher the fault level.location or three-phase single phase three phase dwellings others dwellings others currents for DOL motors are shown below in table J5-12.1 times that of the load torque.

and d.032 ohm.1 short-circuit currents in order to calculate the maximum short-circuit current from a battery of storage cells. V is either Vb or Vg as previously defined. there are differences in: c the calculations for short-circuit currents. protection of direct-current installations J differences between a. installations Although the basic design principles in each case are similar.5 = 55 mΩ for the battery.particular supply sources and loads . direct-current generator If Vg is the open-circuit voltage of the generator and Ri its internal resistance. the following approximate formula may be used: Isc = kC where C = the rated ampere-hour capacity of the battery. c fully-charged open-circuit voltage 240 V (110 cells at 2. will give a terminal short-circuit current of 230 x 1. battery of storage cells (or accumulators) For a short-circuit at its output terminals.c. J6-1: battery of storage cells.2 V/cell). and for a d. and having an internal resistance of 0. generator rated at 200 kW. c autonomy 1/2 hour.9 kA 0. In this case Isc = + - fig. Vg may be taken as 1.6. Isc fig.4 kA 55 The short-circuit currents are seen to be (relatively) low. J6-3: short-circuit at any point of an installation. Rl is the sum of the resistances of the faultcurrent loop conductors.1 Un. six times the nominal full-load current of the motor) so that: V Isc = + 6 (In mot) Ri + Rl where In mot is the sum of the full-load currents of all running motors at the instant of short-circuit. an approximate formula may be used. J6-2: direct-current generator. 6. namely: Isc = kC where C is the ampere-hour rating of the battery and k is a coefficient close to 10. In the absence of precise data. c internal resistance is 0. 3 and Isc = 240 x 10 = 4. and in any case is always less than 20. 230 V. then: Isc = Vg / Ri.c. Example: What is the short-circuit current level at the terminals of a battery with the following characteristics: c 500 Ah capacity. Where motors are included in the system. Example: A d. and. and k is a coefficent close to 10 (and in any case is less than 20). c the choice of protective equipment. J44 .5 milli-ohm/cell so that Ri = 110 x 0. they will each (initially) contribute a current of approximately 6 In (i. as a function of its ampere-hour capacity) When Ri is not known. a battery will pass a current according to Ohm’s law equal to Isc = Vb/Ri where: Vb = open circuit voltage of the fullycharged battery Ri = the internal resistance of the battery (this value is normally obtained from the manufacturer of the battery.e. when the internal resistance of the battery is unknown.c. since the techniques employed for the interruption of direct current differ in practice from those used for alternating current. system of voltage Un.1 = 7. Isc at any point in an installation V Ri + Rl Where Ri is as previously defined. c discharge rate 300 A.032 G = Icc fig.c.

to permit circuit isolation (figure J6-6). Provide an additional pole for inserting in the earthed polarity conductor. fault B fault C case 2 pole (a) must break maximum Isc* at U/2 volts poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts as for fault A but concerning pole (b)* * U/2 divided by Ri/2 = Isc (max. currentbreaking capacity). The pole may therefore consist of one module or (particularly in d. Note: In the following text the word “pole” has two meanings. to attain the levels indicated in table J6-4. In the case of circuit breakers. Note: each pole is equally stressed for faults at A.) case 3 there is no short-circuit in this case poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts as for fault A the most unfavourable case case of a circuit breaker A=B=C see Note below the table provide in the CB pole for each conductor the number of contacts necessary to break Isc (max. the protective devices against short-circuits must be adequately rated for the voltage levels noted in table J6-4 above. A pole of a circuit breaker may be made up of modules. voltage at their terminals when breaking short-circuit currents. and the number of series-connected contacts per pole required for a given system voltage) for circuit breakers made by Merlin Gerin. for example: the positive pole or the negative pole of a battery or generator. Voltage stresses across opening contacts are reduced by the technique of connecting a number of contacts in series per pole. since maximum Isc must be broken with U/2 across the CB pole(s) in each case. Referring to a d. 6.c. and of protective switchgear Devices for circuit interruption are sensitive to the level of d. viz: 1. c the rated current required. types of network system earthing one pole earthed at the source i + source with mid-point earthing i + unearthed system source is not earthed i + earthing schemes and various fault conditions a R B b C A – a R B b C A – a R B b C A U – U/2 + U/2 U analysis of each fault fault A case 1 pole (a) must break maximum Isc at U volts poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts there is no short-circuit current in this case fault A all the contacts participating in current interruption are series connected in the positiveconductor (or the negative conductor if the positive pole of the source is earthed). and in the following text.J45 .c. each of which contains a contact. which depend on the source voltage and on the method of earthing the source. Referring to a switch or circuit breaker. Table J6-5 below gives characteristics (current ratings. The table below provides the means for determining these voltages.c. 2. source. c the short-circuit current level at its point of installation (in order to specify its s. circuits) several seriesconnected modules. as mentioned in the table below. The choice of protective device depends on: c the voltage appearing across the currentbreaking element. this voltage dictates the number of circuit-breaking contacts that must be connected in series for each pole of a circuit breaker. s. for example: a pole of a circuit breaker makes or breaks the current in one conductor. table J6-4: characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d.) at the voltage U/2.c.J 6. particular supply sources and loads .c. system earthing.3 choice of protective device for each type of possible insulation failure. B or C. current-breaking capacity.c. c the time constant of the fault current (L/R in milli-seconds) at the point of installation of the CB.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure. fault B (or faults A and C simultaneously) provide the number of contacts necessary for breaking the current indicated in the CB pole of each conductor.

circuit of a 250 V system. i. When used on a d.c. as shown in figure J6-6. Example 2 Choice of protection for a 100 A outgoing d.42 50 (3p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 85 (2p) 85 (2p) 50 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 25 (3p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p50 (4p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) tripping units MP1/MP2/MP3 special for direct current table J6-5: choice of d.c.c. + 125 V = - NC100 H 3-pole 80 A load fig. effectively triple the speed of contact separation. J6-7: example.c. or d. Table J6-4 shows that each pole will be subject to a recovery voltage of U/2.38 1.136 A. protection of direct-current installations (continued) J 6. if it is required that the d. a.4 examples Example 1 Choice of protection for an 80 A outgoing d. + 250 V = - NC100 H 4-pole 100 A load fig. circuit breakers.38 1. J6-6: example. J46 . fault.c. 6. Isc = 15 kA.42 1.38 1. i. to provide isolation (for maintenance work on the load circuit for example).42.6. 2 contacts in the positive and 2 contacts in the negative pole of the CB.e.m. Table J6-4 shows that the full system voltage will appear across the contacts of the positive pole. current. * These tripping units may be used on a. This technique is often necessary for successfully breaking d. circuit breaker should trip at 800 A or more the coefficient given in table J6-5 is 1. It will be seen in the 250 V column that 4 contacts will break 20 kA at that voltage (case B of table J6-4). Note: three contacts in series.42 = 1. of which the midpoint is earthed.c.particular supply sources and loads .3 choice of protective device (continued) type sc current-breaking capacity kA for L/R i 0.c. but the operating levels marked on each unit correspond to r. For example. circuit breaker the setting must be changed according to the co-efficient in table J6-5. provide an external relay (if necessary) coefficient for uprating the instantaneous magnetic tripping units* special DC 1. then the setting required will be 800 x 1.42 1. values.c. The Isc = 15 kA.015 seconds (the number of series-connected contacts per pole is shown in brackets) 24/48 V 125 V 250 V C32HDC 1 to 40 20 (1p) 10 (1p) 20 (2p) 10 (2p) C60a 10 to 40 10 (1p) 10 (2p) 20 (3p) 25 (4p) C60N 6 to 63 15 (1p) 20 (2p) 30 (3p) 40 (4p) C60H 1 to 63 20 (1p) 25 (2p) 40 (3p) 50 (4p) C60L 1 to 63 25 (1p) 30 (2p) 50 (3p) 60 (4p) NC100H 50 to 100 20 (1p) 30 (2p) 40 (3p) 20 (4p) NC100LH 10 to 63 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1 p) NS100N 16 to 100 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NC100H 16 to 100 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS100L 16 to 100 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS160N 40 to 160 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NS160H 40 to 160 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS160L 40 to 160 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS250N 40 to 250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NS250H 40 to 250 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS250L 40 to 250 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS400H MP1/MP2-400 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS630H MP1/MP2/MP3-630 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) C1251N-DC P21/P41-1250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) M10-DC 1000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M20-DC 2000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M40-DC 4000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M60-DC 6000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p) M80-DC 8000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p) ratings (A) thermal overload protection 500 V 750 V 1000 V special DC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC no thermal relay. Preferred practice is to (also) include a contact in the negative conductor of the outgoing circuit. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is an appropriate choice. of which the negative pole is earthed.s. circuit of a 125 V system. 125 V for all types of s.38 1. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is suitable for cases A and C.42 1. which open in unison.c. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin.e.c.

+ - U fixed + - U variable ou fixed TR5A XM200 fig. the current magnitudes will be sufficient to trip the instantaneous magnetic relays. Sub-clause 3. J6-8: insulation (to earth) monitors for an IT direct-current installation. which will be cleared by overcurrent protection. it is sufficient to verify that the current magnitude exceeds that necessary to operate the magnetic (or short-time delay) circuit breaker tripping units. Sub-clause 3. systems. c automatic tripping is achieved in the timeperiod specified. c principles of the IT scheme for case 3 in Sub-clause 6.2.c.c.c. v the presence of two concurrent faults to earth (one on each polarity) constitutes a short-circuit. RCDs are not applicable to d. As for the a.J47 . The checking methods are identical to those recommended for an a. network. particular supply sources and loads .5 protection of persons The rules for protection are the same as those already covered for a. systems. v the insulation level of the installation must be under permanent surveillance and any failure must be immediately indicated and alarmed: this can be achieved by the installation of a suitable monitoring relay as shown in Chapter G. so that in practice: c the principles of the TN scheme are used for cases 1 and 2 of Sub-clause 6.c. in the case of a shortcircuit.2.1): c all exposed conductive parts are interconnected and earthed. the conventional voltage limits and the automatic disconnection times for safety of persons are different (see tables G8 and G9 of Chapter G.4.J 6. circuits. It is then sufficient to check that. However.

m. or in damper windings (see note 1) of salient-pole alternators. shown in figure AJ1-2. AJ1-1: short-circuit current of one phase of a 3-phase alternator with the d. is very nearly equal to the leakage reactance. in a short-circuited alternator (no d.e. and not. the result of which is the principal factor in the "a. Eventually. Suffix "q" is used for quadrature quantities. in which the (greatly reduced) rotor flux produces just enough voltage to maintain the stator current at the level of equilibrium between the three quantities. the induced currents oppose the change). its reduction rate at any instant depending on the magnitude of the quantity causing the phenomenon.c. In the simple studies needed for 3-phase symmetrical fault levels and for circuitbreaker performance based on such faults. and the reason for this is that. due to loss of synchronism.c.c.c. the change of flux induces a current in the closed rotor circuit in the direction which. Note 1: Damper windings are made up of heavy gauge copper bars embedded in the pole faces of salient-pole rotors. generated in the stator windings. i. Their purpose is to help to maintain synchronous stability of the alternator. the envelope of the a. current decrement is therefore composed of the sum of two exponentially-decaying quantities. Appendix J1 . viz. viz. this accounts for the suffix "d" of reactance values. a stable state is reached. then currents induced in the damper windings will be in a direction that produces a torque which acts to slow (an overspeeding rotor) or to accelerate (an underspeeding rotor). and the reduced fault current. in effect. thereby reducing the e. current decrement would be similar to that of curve b in figure AJ1-1. component has been eliminated.c. current decrement" shown in figure AJ1-1. component of armature current versus time.m. by chance. For advanced analytical studies of alternators. to form a squirrel-cage "winding" similar to that of an induction motor. in turn.f. from which the d. A similar. by an increase in impedance of the machine (that is why the term "effective reactance" was used in Chapter J Sub-clause 1. and so on. AJ1-2: a. At the instant of short-circuit. The presence of either of the two features. etc. which is defined later. produced by them acts in direct opposition to that of the excitation current in the rotor winding.7.c. the flux follows the exponential law of natural decay.f. i" Vo/x"d Vo/x'd i' i t Vo/xd substransient period transient period steady state ia enveloppe of the current. there were no eddy currents induced in the unlaminated face of round-rotor alternators. as the rotor flux begins to diminish. The large stator currents are (practically) entirely inductive. no currents will be induced in the damper windings.e. ia x''d = the sub-transient reactance Vo/i'' x'd = the transient reactance Vo/i' xd = the synchronous reactance Vo/i Vo = peak rated voltage of the alternator fig. but much smaller effect occurs due to eddy currents in the surface of solid unlaminated rotors of turbo-alternators. are derived for each component system. the voltage of a phase happens to be maximum at the instant of short-circuit. With the rotor turning at the same speed as that of the m.1 . which reduces exponentially to zero after (commonly) some tens of cycles. i. transient in the phase concerned. there will be no d. due to armature reaction. and consequently reducing the magnitude of the fault current.m. ** the sub-transient reactance. The overall a. gives rise to the sub-transient component of current (curve C). so that the synchronously rotating m. The gradual predominance of the stator m. The effect is cumulative. component. in which a short-circuit is applied instantaneously to all three terminals of a machine at no load. component eliminated. mentioned above however. The reduction of fault current therefore is caused by a diminution of the generated e. The reduction of current magnitude from its initial value occurs in the following way.m. The resulting currents in all three phases will normally* include a d. c b i 0 a t fig. due to the stator currents. in fact. but having a very much shorter time constant. the current reduction requires a certain time. current. The effect is analogous to that of the closed circuit of the rotor-excitation winding described above (i. and subtransient and transient reactances. of a recording made during the testing of a 3-phase 230 V 50 kVA machine.e. depends on the overall effect of rotor and stator time constants.c. short-circuit characteristics of an alternator J The characteristics of a 3-phase alternator under short-circuit conditions are obtained from oscillogram traces recorded during tests. The definitions of alternator reactance values are based on such "symmetrical" curves. as shown in figure AJ1-2. The result is that the rotor flux starts to reduce. * unless.e. excited (at a fixed level) to produce nominal rated voltage.f. In that case. increases the excitation current. stator) windings. As shown in figure AJ1-1.f. the direct-axis component system only is required.e.m. the sub-transient and the transient components. transient is shown). If. the only impedance limiting the magnitude of current is principally** the inherent leakage reactance of the armature (i. The curve shown below in figure AJ1-1 is the current trace. i. during a short-circuit. opposes the establishment of a reduced level of magnetic flux.1).c. two component axes "direct" and "quadrature" are defined. generally of the order of 10%-15%.f. now reduces the rotor flux at a slower rate. the so-called transient-current envelope. if a difference in the speed of rotation occurs.c. flux and voltage.

so that Vo must be the rated peak voltage of the machine. Moreover. stator phase current d. fig. transient curve. component.c. These components give rise to additional electro-dynamic and thermal stresses in the machine itself.e.m.J The reactances are generally defined as r. the d. component time instant of short circuit The current envelope of an asymmetrical transient has the same dimensions about the d. In the current trace of figure AJ1-2. as the symmetrical envelope has about the current zero axis. A typical test trace of this condition is shown in figure AJ1-3. as defined in figure AJ1-2.s. 2 . transient value at zero time (the instant of fault) is equal to the peak value of current given by Vo/xd''. i. AJ1-3: a fully-offset asymmetrical transient fault-current trace. and are illustrated in figure C5.Appendix J1 . currents. however.1 of Chapter C.c.s. and in circuitbreakers protecting a faulted circuit. Note 2: in the definition of "i" some authors use the actual voltage measured during the test. voltages divided by r.c. xd is generally denoted by Xs and is referred to as "synchronous reactance". instead of Vo. asymmetrical currents As previously noted. it is simpler to use the projected peak values of current.m.c. The consequence of asymmetrical transient fault currents and the standardized relationship between the symmetrical and asymmetrical quantities for circuit breaker performance ratings are given in Sub-clause 1. all 3-phases of short-circuit current will include a d. The worst condition is that of a phase in which the d.c. in general. component is the maximum possible.

Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart from fuses) normally incorporated in circuit electrical protection against overload currents short-circuit currents insulation failure isolation . is however. the protection of circuits . remotelycontrolled circuit breakers.H2-1 . c protection of appliances and apparatus being supplied (e. namely: c over-voltage protection. c it must be provided with a means of locking open with a key (e. all circuits of an LV installation shall have means to be isolated. residualvoltage-operated devices . including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PEN conductor) must be open (1). c protection of persons in the event of insulation failure. a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy (unfaulted) installation. the basic functions of LV switchgear H2 the role of switchgear is that of: c electrical protection. strongly recommended (for reasons of greater safety and facility of operation).e. residual current devices. An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements: c all poles of a circuit. for example.switching off for mechanical maintenance table H2-1: basic functions of LV switchgear. In addition to those functions shown in table H2-1.a gap or interposed insulating barrier between the open contacts.g motors. are both deemed to satisfy the national standards of many countries. c the protection of electric motors (see chapter J clause 5) against overheating. The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus. etc. Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit breaker. in the form of thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated tripping devices (less-commonly. c equipment and appliances supplied from the installation. In practice. National and international standards define the manner in which electric circuits of LV installations must be realized. c persons and animals. specially designed to match the particular characteristics of motors are used. A distinction is made between the protection of: c the elements of the installation (cables. while not always obligatory. c local or remote switching. at the distribution board from which the final circuit (i. c under-voltage protection are provided by specific devices (lightning and various other types of voltage-surge arrester.functional switching . v against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between conductors of different phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor. Thermal relays.emergency stopping .isolation clearly indicated by an authorized fail-proof mechanical indicator . due. breakers.) from the remainder of a system which is energized. it is preferred to provide a means of isolation at the origin of each circuit. and closes before them (IEC 947-1). by means of a padlock) in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure by inadvertence. c safe isolation from live parts. to long term overloading. In principle.1 electrical protection electrical protection assures: c protection of circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses of short-circuit currents. and the capabilities and limitations of the various switching devices which are collectively referred to as switchgear.2 isolation a state of isolation clearly indicated by an approved "fail-proof" indicator. etc. Such relays may. stalled rotor. also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload. or an item of plant (such as a motor. wires. clearly visible. According to the system of earthing for the installation (TN. The neutral contact opens after the phase contacts. 1. The main functions of switchgear are: c electrical protection. as noted in chapter H1 sub-clause 1. creepage distances. c the protection of persons against insulation failures (see chapter G). Shortcircuit protection is provided either by type aM fuses or by a circuit breaker from which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed.the switchgear . single-phasing. Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some national standards. in order that personnel may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety. c electrical isolation of sections of an installation. c it must conform to a recognized national or international standard (e. if required. and to separate the defective circuit from the rest of the installation. IEC 947-3) concerning clearance between contacts. etc. in order to maintain an optimum continuity of service. control . The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive (short-circuit) currents. but not recommended by IEC).1. 1. etc. relays associated with: contactors. These functions are summarized below in table H2-1.g. other functions. and/or permanent monitoring of the insulation resistance of the installation to earth.).4. and with combined circuit breaker/isolators… and so on). switchgear…). or those due to overloading and insulation failure. and also: (1) the concurrent opening of all live conductors. c local or remote switching.acceptable to. c the protection of circuits (see chapter H1): v against overload. overvoltage withstand capability. TT or IT) the protection will be provided by fuses or circuit breakers.emergency switching .g. the circuit to which the load is connected) originates. or the visible separation of contacts. or otherwise made inoperative.

Switchgear intended for such duty must be installed at least: c at the origin of any installation.0 mA at the end of its useful life.the switchgear . . by means of an indicator solidly welded to the operating shaft of the device. * IEC 617-7 and 947-3. In this case the construction of the device must be such that. 1. 8 or 10 kV according to its service voltage. c emergency switching.). service (nominal) voltage (V) 230/400 400/690 1. and include: c functional control (routine switching. The operation of switchgear is an important part of power-system control. leakage currents between the open contacts of each phase must not exceed: . or an individual piece of equipment.or mechanical. etc.3 switchgear control switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded system at any moment. according to requirements.e. a circuit breaker or switch-fuse) it is preferable to include a switch at each level of distribution. c maintenance operations on the power system. functional control This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation.the protection of circuits . open. also referred to as a load-break isolating switch circuit breaker suitable for circuit isolation fig. v voltage-surge withstand capability. H2-3: symbol for a disconnector* also commonly referred to as an isolator. In order to provide the maximum flexibility and continuity of operation. if tests are carried out at sea level. in fact. for example). where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be seen (some national standards impose this condition for an isolating device located at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer).2 isolation (continued) v verification that the contacts of the isolating device are. having a peak value of 5. by push-button on the switch or at a remote location (load-shedding and reconnection. on each outgoing way of all distribution and subdistribution boards. This symbol may be combined with those indicating other features where a device also performs other functions as shown in figure H2-4.either visual. item of plant. i. H2-2 . The manœuvre may be: c either manual (by means of an operating lever on the switch) or. in the eventuality that the contacts become welded together in the closed position. c electric. and those that provide protection are invariably omni-polar*.5 mA for a new device. Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous. With the isolating device open. as well as any circuit breakers used for change-over (from one source to another) must be omni-polar units. c at the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads). fig. These switches operate instantaneously (i. the test values must be increased by 23% to take into account the effect of altitude. H2-4: symbols for circuit isolation capability incorporated in other switching devices. The verification may be: . v leakage currents. table H2-2: peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen. the basic functions of LV switchgear (continued) H2 1. as shown in table H2-2.2/50 µs impulse.g. In broad terms "control" signifies any facility for safely modifying a load-carrying power system at all levels of an installation. Consequently.1. Note. The main circuit breaker for the entire installation. particularly where the switching device also constitutes the protection (e.0. The device must satisfy these conditions for altitudes up to 2.e. across open contacts. In this guide the terms "disconnector" and "isolator" have the same meaning.6. . switch-disconnector*. See standard IEC 947 and the Note immediately preceding table F-10. the indicator cannot possibly indicate that it is in the open position. etc. with no deliberate delay). * one break in each phase and (where appropriate) one break in the neutral (see table H1-65).000 metres.000 impulse withstand peak voltage (kV) 5 kV 8 kV 10 kV Industrial LV switchgear which affords isolation when open is marked on the front face by the symbol . The isolating device. when open must withstand a 1.

since it functions as a protective earthing wire as well as the system neutral conductor. but in unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by means of a key held by an authorized person. switching-off for mechanical maintenance work This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery. or could become.H2-3 . It should be noted that in certain cases. In the two cases: c the emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop pushbutton must be recognizable and readily accessible. (1) Taking into account stalled motors. with the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism. an emergency system of braking. the protection of circuits . (2) In a TN schema the PEN conductor must never be opened. An emergency stop is intended to arrest a movement which has become dangerous. may require that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until final stoppage of the machinery. c a single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors (1) (2).the switchgear .H2 emergency switching emergency stop An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is. The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching device. dangerous (electric shock or fire). in proximity to any position at which danger could arise or be seen. c a "break glass" emergency switching initiation device is authorized.

2. a LV disconnector is essentially a deadsystem switching device to be operated with no voltage on either side of it. This capability is normally more than adequate for longer periods of (lower-valued) operational overcurrents. provide any protection for the circuit it controls. H2-6: symbol for a load-breaking switch. fig. load-break switches are assigned a fault-current making rating.the switchgear . Interlocking with an upstream switch or circuit breaker is frequently used. such as those of motor-starting. lockable. It does not consequently. two-position device (open/closed) which provides safe isolation of a circuit when locked in the open position. It is used to close and open loaded circuits under normal unfaulted circuit conditions. H2-5: symbol for a disconnector (or isolator). It must. c mechanical and electrical endurance (generally less than that of a contactor). each of which is suitable for a different range of load power factors. overvoltage. as shown in table H2-7. fig. * i. must also be satisfied. Such switches are commonly referred to as "fault-make load-break" switches. because of the possibility of an unsuspected short-circuit on the downstream side. Upstream protective devices are relied upon to clear the short-circuit fault. c current making and breaking ratings for normal and infrequent situations. successful closure against the electrodynamic forces of short-circuit current is assured.the protection of circuits . i. Standardized mechanical-endurance. Its characteristics are defined in IEC 947-3. load-breaking switch This control switch is generally operated manually (but is sometimes provided with electrical tripping for operator convenience) and is a non-automatic two-position device (open/closed). be capable of withstanding the passage of short-circuit currents and is assigned a rated short-time withstand capability. IEC 947-3 also recognizes 3 categories of load-breaking switch. the switchgear and fusegear H2 2. generally for 1 second. and leakage-current tests. particularly when closing. unless otherwise agreed between user and manufacturer. A disconnector is not designed to make or to break current* and no rated values for these functions are given in standards.e.1 elementary switching devices disconnector (or isolator) This switch is a manually-operated. IEC standard 947-3 defines: c the frequency of switch operation (600 close/open cycles per hour maximum). When closing a switch to energize a circuit there is always the possibility that an (unsuspected) short circuit exists on the circuit. however. H2-4 . For this reason.e.

Category AC-23 includes occasional switching of individual motors. the protection of circuits . while the peak value (expressed in kA) is given by a factor "n" in table XVI of IEC 947.9 0. c to break a current of 8 In (= 800 A) at a power factor of 0.2 time-constant 5 5 5 5 5 10 15 15 n 1.0 2. reproduced below for reader convenience (table H2-8).42 1. The switching of capacitors or of tungsten filament lamps shall be subject to agreement between manufacturer and user. switches according to IEC 947-3. test current I (A) I i 01 500 1 500 < I i 3 000 3 000 < I i 4 500 4 500 < I i 6 000 6 000 < I i 10 000 10 000 < I i 20 000 20 000 < I i 50 000 50 000 < I power-factor (ms) 0. component.7 2. c time-delay functions.95 0. The utilization categories referred to in table H2-7 do not apply to an equipment normally used to start.53 1. fig.35 lagging.c.m.the switchgear .1 2.H2 nature of current alternating current utilization category frequent infrequent operation operation AC-20A AC-20B AC-21A AC-22A AC-21B AC-22B typical applications connecting and disconnecting under no-load conditions switching of resistive loads including moderate overloads switching of mixed resistive and inductive loads.47 1.35 lagging.8 0. Example: A 100 A load-break switch of category AC-23 (inductive load) must be able: c to make a current of 10 In (= 1. c maintained-contact features.7 0. accelerate and/or stop individual motors. c stage-lighting schemes.Part 1. c factory illumination.s.3 0. The utilization categories for such an equipment are dealt with in chapter J. etc. including moderate overloads switching of motor loads or other highly inductive loads AC-23A AC-23B table H2-7: utilization categories of LV a. where 12 In equals the r. Typical applications are: c two-way switching on stairways of large buildings.2 table H2-8: factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part1).c. table J5-4. value of the a. Auxiliary devices are available to provide: c remote indication of its state at any instant.25 0. bistable switch (télérupteur) This device is extensively used in the control of lighting circuits where the depression of a pushbutton (at a remote control position) will open an already-closed switch or close an open switch in a bistable sequence.5 0. H2-9: symbol for a bistable remotelyoperated switch (télérupteur). c to withstand short-circuit currents (not less than 12 In) passing through it for 1 second.41 1.H2-5 .000 A) at a power factor of 0.

1 elementary switching devices (continued) contactor The contactor is a solenoid-operated switching device which is generally held closed by (a reduced) current through the closing solenoid (although various mechanically-latched types exist for specific duties). The first value In corresponds to the maximum continuous current for the whole fuse and the second value Ich corresponds to the G characteristic of the fuse link.35. c mechanical endurance (number of off-load manœuvres). manufactured in the form of a cartridge for rated currents up to 100 A and designated type gG in IEC 269-3. etc. the current/time relationship being presented in the form of a performance curve for each type of fuse. temporary of 3. in domestic and similar installations. uninterrupted. Type gI fuses should never be used. with cartridge types designated gG (general use). A gM fuse-link. but at the present time the aM fuse in combination with a thermal overload relay is more-widely used. it is necessary to include either fuses or a circuit breaker in series with. For short-circuit protection therefore. two classes of LV cartridge fuse are very widely used: c for domestic and similar installations type gG c for industrial installations type gG..the protection of circuits .the switchgear . the second value Ich denotes the time-current characteristic of the fuse-link as defined by the gates in Tables II. 30. Fuses break a circuit by controlled melting of the fuse element when a current exceeds a given value for a corresponding period of time. III and VI of IEC 269-1. Discontactors are used extensively for remote push-button control of lighting circuits. H2-10: symbol for a contactor. For further details see note at the end of sub-clause 2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued) H2 2.200 cyles per hour). The first value In denotes both the rated current of the fuse-link and the rated current of the fuseholder. similar in all main essentails to type gG fuses. H2-6 . control circuit power circuit fig. and gM and aM (for motor-circuits) in IEC 269-1 and 2. and may also be considered as an essential element in a motor controller. c the start-stop cycles (1 to 1.200 A) and a minimum current-making rating of 10 In (= 1. The large number of repetitive operating cycles is standardized in table VIII of IEC 947-4-1 by: c the operating duration: 8 hours. Important: Some national standards use a gI (industrial) type fuse. c utilization category: (for definition see table J5-4) for example. Contactors are designed to carry out numerous close/open cycles and are commonly controlled remotely by on-off pushbuttons. H2-11: symbol for fuses. c a rated current making and breaking performance according to the category of utilization concerned. These two ratings are separated by a letter which defines the applications. A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for motor protection. c those for industrial use. The discontactor is not the equivalent of a circuit breaker. The main differences between domestic and industrial fuses are the nominal voltage and current levels (which require much larger physical dimensions) and their fault-current breaking capabilities. the discontactor contacts. and upstream of. which is possible when their characteristics are capable of withstanding the motor-starting current without deterioration. and short-circuit conditions. intermittent. since its short-circuit currentbreaking capability is limited to 8 or 10 In. a contactor of category AC3 can be used for the starting and stopping of a cage motor. For example: In M Ich denotes a fuse intended to be used for protection of motor circuits and having the characteristic G.500 A) at a power factor (lagging) of 0. An aM fuse-link is characterized by one current value In and time-current characteristic as shown in figure H2-14. Example: A 150 A contactor of category AC3 must have a minimum current-breaking capability of 8 In (= 1. discontactor* A contactor equipped with a thermal-type relay for protection against overloading defines a "discontactor". as noted in sub-clause 2. fig. Type gG fuse-links are often used for the protection of motor circuits. Standards define two classes of fuse: c those intended for domestic installations. 10. fuses Fuses exist with and without "fuse-blown" mechanical indicators. designed to cover starting.2.2. This type of fuse is more popular in some countries than in others. which has a dual rating is characterized by two current values. however. *This term is not defined in IEC publications but is commonly used in some countries. 60 and 90 minutes.1. gM or aM. c electrical endurance (number of on-load manœuvres). "combined switchgear elements".

no levels of conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are fixed. as shown in figure H2-12 and in table H2-13. By way of comparison. in order to avoid the consequences of possible long term overloading (60% overload for up to one hour in the worst case). H2-14: standardized zones of fusing for type aM fuses (all current ratings). IEC 269-1 standardized tests require that a fuse-operating characteristic lies between the two limiting curves (shown in figure H2-12) for the particular fuse under test. Note: the small "arrowheads" in the diagram indicate the current/time "gate" values for the different fuses to be tested (IEC 269). Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1. conventional fusing current If I2 2. They are not therefore autonomous.e.H2-12) is the value of current which will cause melting of the fusible element before the expiration of the specified time.25 In 1. 1h.1. and must always be associated with another device which protects against overload.e. and fuses tested to IEC 269 must give operating curves which fall within the shaded area.25 In 1.5 In 1.25 In 1.6 In 1. and v when passing 1. c class gG fuses These fuses provide protection against overloads and short-circuits. fuse-blown curve Inf I2 I fig.1 In 1.6 In 1. H2-12: zones of fusing and non-fusing for gG and gM fuses. c class aM (motor) fuses These fuses afford protection against shortcircuit currents only and must necessarily be associated with other switchgear (such as discontactors or circuit breakers) in order to ensure overload protection < 4 In.25 In these fuses have a poor performance in the low overload range. v the two examples given above for a 32 A fuse.05 In must not trip in less than one hour.6 In (i. Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1. a circuit breaker of similar current rating: v which passes 1. or less (25% overload for up to one hour in the worst case).5 In 1. explain why class rated current* In (A) In i 4 A 4 < In < 16 A 16 < In i 63 A 63 < In i 160 A 160 < In i 400 A 400 < In conventional nonfusing current Inf 1. Since aM fuses are not intended to protect against low values of overload current.25 In (i.9 In 1.1 A) must melt in one hour or less (table H2-13). The characteristic curves for testing these fuses are given for values of fault current exceeding approximately 4 In (see figure H2-14). as described in the note at the end of sub-clause 2.H2-7 . 52. the protection of circuits .6 In conventional time h 1 1 1 2 3 4 gG gM table H2-13: zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1). according to their class. t minimum pre-arcing time curve fuse-blown curve 4In x In fig. This means that two fuses which satisfy the test can have significantly different operating times at low levels of overloading.the switchgear . v it is therefore necessary to install a cable larger in ampacity than that normally required for a circuit.6 In 1. * Ich for gM fuses class aM fuses protect against short-circuit currents only. Conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are standardized. v the conventional non-fusing current Inf is the value of current that the fusible element can carry for a specified time without melting. 40 A) must not melt in less than one hour (table H2-13) v the conventional fusing current If (=I2 in fig. together with the foregoing notes on standard test requirements. t minimum pre-arcing time curve gM fuses require a separate overload relay.H2 fusing zones conventional currents The conditions of fusing (melting) of a fuse are defined by standards.25 In it must trip in one hour.

s. and fault levels are generally low. for example. H2-15). 63 A. (IEC) 160A 20 100A (b) 10 (a) 5 50A nominal fuse ratings 2 peak current cut-off characteristic curves 1 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 a. H2-15: current limitation by a fuse. prospective fault current (kA) peak 100 (c) 50 Reminder Short-circuit currents initially contain d.c.m. can be as high as 2. component) immediately following the instant of fault. component of the prospective fault current current peak limited by the fuse 0.m. prospective current will limit the peak current to 10 kA (b). H2-15A: limited peak current versus prospective r. I prospective fault-current peak rms value of the a.c. The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only when the prospective r.the protection of circuits . H2-8 . This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur.41. For example.m.c. components. 2.s. a current cut-off begins before the occurrence of the first major peak.c. The same fuse for a condition of 20 kA r. Without a current-limiting fuse the peak current could attain 50 kA (c) in this particular case. This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peakcurrent limitation.c.c. As already mentioned. XL is small compared with R and so for final circuits I peak / I rms ~ 1. maximum possible current peak characteristic i.5Ir.m. This value (63 A) is selected to withstand the high starting currents of a motor. the fusible element of which corresponds to the current value Ich (ch = characteristic) which may be. so that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value (fig. as previously noted.s. component of prospective fault current (kA) r. At lower levels of distribution in an installation. Note on gM fuse ratings.s.e. transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the current peak. component of fault current for LV fuses.5 (standardized by IEC. and shown in figure H2-15A). values of the a. component of the prospective fault current. component of fault current attains a certain level. depending on the fuse nominal current rating.005s t 0. fig. owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high short-circuit current levels*. the steadystate operating current (In) of which may be in the 10-20 A range.02s Tf: fuse pre-arc fusing time Ta: arcing time Ttc: total fault-clearance time fig.the switchgear .m.95 in table H2-8.01s Tf Ta Ttc 0. the magnitude and duration of which depend on the XL/R ratio of the faultcurrent loop.m. Close to the source (HV/LV transformer) the relationship I peak / Irms (of a. so that its time/ current characteristic is identical to that of a 63 A gG fuse. This is the IEC testing value. *for currents exceeding a certain level.s. thereby minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. value of the a.m. a. A gM type fuse is essentially a gG fuse.c. the d.s. On the other hand.) of 2 kA (a). at lower distribution levels in an installation. a condition which corresponds with figure H2-15 above and with the "n" value corresponding to a power factor of 0. as shown below in figure H2-15A. No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses. in the above graph the 100 A fuse will begin to cut off the peak at a prospective fault current (r. the switchgear and fusegear (continued) H2 2. R greatly predominates XL. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the r.2. as previously mentioned.s.c.1 elementary switching devices (continued) rated short-circuit breaking currents A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that.

striker-pin fuses and overload relay. These blades are not continuous throughout their length. switch.H2 This means that a physically smaller fuse barrel and metallic parts can be used. since the heat dissipation required in normal service is related to the lower figures (10-20 A). 2.e. when compared with aM fuses. The only advantage offered by gM fuses. in general. the terms "switch-fuse" and "fuse-switch" have specific meanings. and associated with a motor-overload type of thermal relay. viz: v a switch-fuse comprises a switch (generally 2 breaks per pole) on the upstream side of three fixed fuse-bases. over extended periods) combinations of units specifically designed for such a performance are employed. but each has a gap in the centre which is bridged by the fuse cartridge. as shown in figures H2-17(a) and (b). the protection of circuits . viz: protection. the ensemble. H2-17 (a): symbol for a non-automatic switch-fuse. and is commonly associated with a thermal-type overcurrent relay for overload protection (for which the fuses alone may not be suitable). fig. In M Ich). This type of combination is generally used for current levels exceeding 100 A. The most commonly-used combinations are described below: switch and fuse combinations Two cases are distinguished: c the type in which the operation of one (or more) fuse(s) causes the switch to open.2 combined switchgear elements Single units of switchgear do not. H2-16: symbol for an automatictripping switch-fuse. and a system of switch tripping springs and toggle mechanisms. This is achieved by the use of fuses fitted with striker pins. are reduced physical dimensions and slightly lower cost. although suitable for shortcircuit protection. v a fuse-switch consists of three switch blades each constituting a double-break per phase. It is evident that. control and isolation.H2-9 . fig. and so a separate thermal-type relay is always necessary when using gM fuses. overload protection for the motor is not provided by the fuse. and in IEC 947-3. into which the fuse carriers are inserted (figure H2-17(a)). Where the installation of a circuit breaker is not appropriate (notably where the switching rate is high. while the second current rating (Ich) relates to its (short-time) starting-current performance. i. therefore. In some countries. If the switch is classified as AC22 or AC23.e. fulfil all the requirements of the three basic functions. is suitable for the control and protection of a motor circuit. suitable for this situation would be designated 32M63 (i. and: c the type in which a non-automatic switch is associated with a set of fuses in a common enclosure. H2-17 (b): symbol for a non-automatic fuse-switch. with a thermal overload relay. fig. Some designs have only a single break per phase. The first current rating In concerns the steady-load thermal performance of the fuselink. A standard gM fuse.the switchgear .

the switchgear and fusegear (continued) H2 2. The protection of induction motors is considered in chapter J.the switchgear . where the disconnector or switch-disconnector allows safe operations such as: c the changing of fuse links (with the circuit isolated). The switch must be of class AC22 or AC23 if the circuit supplies a motor. A fuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) requires no interlocking (figure H2-18 (b)). H2-18 (a): symbol for a fusedisconnector + discontactor. H2-10 . It is necessary. The combination is used mainly for motorcontrol circuits. To avoid confusion between the first group (i. automatic tripping) and the second group.switch-disconnector + discontactor As previously mentioned. since the fusedisconnector has no load-switching capability. while their principal use is in domestic and similar installations. c work on the circuit downstream of the discontactor (risk of remote closure of the discontactor). fuse . clause J5. H2-18 (b): symbol for a fuse-switchdisconnector + discontactor. therefore. fig.disconnector + discontactor fuse . The fuse-disconnector must be interlocked with the discontactor such that no opening or closing manœuvre of the fuse-disconnector is possible unless the discontactor is open (figure H2-18 (a)). the term "switch-fuse" should be qualified by the adjectives "automatic" or "non-automatic". or for control and protection of a circuit supplying motors. circuit-breaker + contactor circuit-breaker + discontactor These combinations are used in remotelycontrolled distribution systems in which the rate of switching is high. fig. to add fuses (generally of type aM) to perform this function.2 combined switchgear elements (continued) The current range for these devices is limited to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase.2.e. a discontactor does not provide protection against short-circuit faults.the protection of circuits .

2 switchgear selection Software is being used more and more in the field of optimal selection of switchgear.1 tabulated functional capabilities After having studied the basic functions of LV switchgear (clause 1. A number of switchgear combinations are studied and compared with each other against relevant criteria. reduces installation costs and problems of installation or exploitation. reference is made to chapter H1. In order to determine the number of poles for an item of switchgear. initially more costly. the protection of circuits . table H2-1) and the different components of switchgear (clause 2).g.the switchgear . table H2-19 summarizes the capabilities of the various components to perform the basic functions. 3. choice of switchgear H2 3. RCCBs according to IEC 1008) without being explicitly marked as such. IT.H2-11 . Multifunction switchgear. (1) Where cut-off of all active conductors is provided (2) It may be necessary to maintain supply to a braking system (3) If it is associated with a thermal relay (the combination is commonly referred to as a "discontactor") (4) In certain countries a disconnector with visible contacts is mandatory at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer (5) Certain items of switchgear are suitable for isolation duties (e. for operational reasons it may be necessary to stop the process in general at the incoming circuit to every distribution board at the supply point to each machine and/or on the machine concerned at the supply point to each machine origin of each circuit origin of each circuit origin of circuits where the earthing system is appropriate TN-S. c conformity with all regulations and specifications concerning safe and reliable circuit performance. It is often found that such switchgear provides the best solution. c compatibility with upstream switchgear or taking into account its contribution. table H1-65. from the rated current In to the fault-level rating Icu. TT table H2-19: functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear. with the aim of achieving: c satisfactory performance. switchgear item isolator (or disconnector) (4) switch (5) residual device (RCCB) (5) switchdisconnector contactor bistable-switch (telerupteur) fuse circuit breaker (5) circuit breaker disconnector (5) residual and overcurrent circuit breaker (RCBO) (5) point of installation (general principle) isolation control functional emergency switching emergency stop switching for (mechanical) mechanical maintenance electrical protection overload short-circuit differential c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c c c c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c c c c c c (3) c c c c c c c c c c origin of each circuit all points where. Each circuit is considered one at a time. among those mentioned in table H2-19 and summarized in table H2-1. and a list is drawn up of the required protection functions and exploitation of the installation. c compatibility among the individual items.3. clause 7.

4. numerous other possibilities exist. c 947-2: part 2: circuit breakers.the switchgear .tripped on fault). functions isolation control possible conditions c c c (with the possibility of a tripping coil for remote control) c c c c (with differential-current relay) c (with undervoltage-trip coil) c added or incorporated c (generally optional with an electronic tripping device) functional emergency switching switching-off for mechanical maintenance overload short-circuit insulation faulty undervoltage protection remote control indication and measurement table H2.4. by means of auxiliary units. or an equivalent national standard. c 947-7: part 7: ancillary equipment.20: functions performed by a circuit-breaker/disconnector. standards For industrial LV installations the relevant IEC standards are. the appropriate standard is IEC 898. c 947-5: part 5: control-circuit devices and switching elements.1 standards and descriptions industrial circuit breakers must conform with IEC 947-1 and 947-2 or other equivalent standards. or are due to be: c 947-1: general rules. For domestic and similar LV installations. As shown in table H2-19 the circuit breaker/ disconnector is the only item of switchgear capable of simultaneously satisfying all the basic functions necessary in an electrical installation. Corresponding European standards are presently being developed. with which they will be in very close agreement. switch-disconnectors and fuse combination units.the protection of circuits . Domestic-type circuit breakers should conform to IEC standard 898. by means of accessories. c 947-4: part 4: contactors and motorstarters. circuit breakers H2 the circuit breaker/disconnector fulfills all of the basic switchgear functions. provide a wide range of other functions. c 947-3: part 3: switches. These features make a circuit-breaker/ disconnector the basic unit of switchgear for any electrical installation. or an equivalent national standard. remote control… etc. Corresponding European and many national standards are presently in the course of harmonization with the IEC standards. while. for example: indication (on-off . H2-12 . Moreover. c 947-6: part 6: multiple function switching devices. undervoltage tripping. it can. disconnectors.

fig. one of which is installed on each phase. as shown in figure H2-23. H2-21: principal parts of a circuit breaker..H2 description Figure H2-21 shows schematically the principal parts of a LV circuit breaker and its four essential functions: 1 . H2-23: domestic-type circuit breaker as above (H2-22) plus protection against electric shocks by the addition of a modular block. more recently. 2 . the protection of circuits . RCBOs.a space allocated to the several types of terminal currently used for the main powercircuit conductors. domestic circuit breakers conforming to IEC 898 and similar national standards perform the basic functions of: c isolation c protection against overcurrent. some models can be adapted to provide sensitive detection (30 mA) of earth-leakage current with CB tripping. while an electromagnetic striker pin operates at current levels reached in short-circuit conditions.the latching mechanism which becomes unlatched by the tripping device on detection of abnormal current conditions. 4 . IEC 947-2 (appendix B) CBRs. and. while other models (complying with IEC 1009) have this residual-current feature incorporated. or: c an electronic relay operated from current transformers. 3 . in which a thermally-operated bi-metal strip detects an overload condition. comprising the fixed and moving contacts and the arc-dividing chamber.H2-13 .the circuit-breaking components.the switchgear . viz. by the addition of a modular block. fig. power circuit terminals contacts and arc-dividing chamber fool-proof mechanical indicator latching mechanism trip mechanism and protective devices fig.a trip-mechanism actuating device: c either: a thermal-magnetic device. H2-22: domestic-type circuit breaker providing overcurrent protection and circuit isolation features. This mechanism is also linked to the operation handle of the breaker.

* Merlin Gerin product. moulded-case type industrial circuit breakers conforming to IEC 947-2 are now available. as shown in figure H2-24. H2-14 . by means of associated adaptable blocks provide a similar range of auxiliary functions to those described above (figure H2-25). 1 2 3 4 5 O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF fig. which.the protection of circuits . H2-25: example of a modular (Compact NS*) industrial type of circuit breaker capable of numerous auxiliary functions.4. SDE SD OF1 OF2 OF2 SDE SD OF1 fig.1 standards and descriptions (continued) apart from the above-mentioned functions further features can be associated with the basic circuit breaker by means of additional modules. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. H2-24: "Multi 9" system* of LV modular switchgear components. notably remote control and indication (on-off-fault).the switchgear .

while complying with the specified temperature limit. Iu being rated uninterrupted current. rated current (In) This is the maximum value of current that a circuit breaker.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker the fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker are: c its rated voltage Ue c its rated current In c its tripping-current-level adjustment ranges for overload protection (Ir** or Irth**) and for short-circuit protection (Im)** c its short-circuit current breaking rating (Icu for industrial CBs.the switchgear . rated operational voltage (Ue) This is the voltage at which the circuit breaker has been designed to operate.H2 heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers of large current ratings. ** Current-level setting values which refer to the current-operated thermal and "instantaneous" magnetic tripping devices for over-load and short-circuit protection. Other values of voltage are also assigned to the circuit breaker. have numerous built-in communication and electronic functions (figure H2-26). fig. as noted in sub-clause 4. conforming to IEC 947-2.H2-15 . and also with: c a 20 mA output loop. 4. Icn for domestic-type CBs). c load indication at the CB. Example: A circuit breaker rated at In = 125 A for an ambient temperature of 40 °C will be equipped with a suitably calibrated overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A). or again. c remote indication contacts. The same circuit breaker can be used at higher values of ambient temperature however. H2-26: examples of heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers. * Merlin Gerin products. designed to withstand high temperatures. These circuit breakers are provided with means to adjust protective-device settings over a wide range. is assigned a rating which corresponds with that of the highest current-level-setting tripping unit that can be fitted. only 109 A at 60 °C. The use of an electronic-type of tripping unit. if suitably "derated". Note: In for circuit breakers (in IEC 947-2) is equal to Iu for switchgear generally. allows circuit breakers (derated as described) to operate at 60 °C (or even at 70 °C) ambient. without exceeding the specified temperature limits of the currentcarrying parts.3. by reducing the trip-current setting of its overload relay. and marking the CB accordingly. can carry indefinitely at an ambient temperature stated by the manufacturer. corresponding to disturbed conditions. Derating a circuit breaker is achieved therefore. the protection of circuits . fitted with a specified overcurrent tripping relay. in normal (undisturbed) conditions. Thus. The "Masterpact"* provides many automation features in its tripping module. frame-size rating A circuit breaker which can be fitted with overcurrent tripping units of different currentlevel-setting ranges. the circuit breaker in an ambient temperature of 50 °C could carry only 117 A indefinitely.

the switchgear . which is considered to be unrealistically high by most European manufacturers (M-G = 10 to 14 In). 0. set at 0.7 In i Ir < In long delay 0.2 In < fixed < 4. rated current of the tripping unit to suit the circumstances In adjustment range overload trip current setting to suit the circuit Ir circuit-breaker frame-size rating 224 A 288 A 320 A 400 A I fig. IEC standards do not specify values.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued) overload relay trip-current setting (Irth or Ir) Apart from small circuit breakers which are very easily replaced. Their tripping threshold Im is: c either fixed by standards for domestic type CBs. industrial circuit breakers are equipped with removable. sub-clause 1. The thermal-trip relays are generally adjustable from 0.3).4 to 1 times In. type of protective relay thermalmagnetic thermalmagnetic thermalmagnetic overload protection Ir = In For the latter circuit breakers there exists a wide variety of tripping devices which allow a user to adapt the protective performance of the circuit breaker to the particular requirements of a load. overcurrent-trip relays. in order to adapt a circuit breaker to the requirements of the circuit it controls. will have a trip-current setting: Ir = 320 x 0.g.9 = 288 A Note: for circuit breakers equipped with non-adjustable overcurrent-trip relays. Moreover.7 In That value must be greater than the maximum load current IB. (1) 50 In in IEC 898.0 times In. (2) For industrial use. It also represents the maximum current that the circuit breaker can carry without tripping. or. but less than the maximum current permitted in the circuit Iz (see chapter H1. adjustable 1.the protection of circuits . domestic breakers IEC 898 modular industrial (2) circuit breakers industrial (2) circuit breakers IEC 947-2 Ir = In fixed Ir = In fixed adjustable: 0. H2-16 . c indicated by the manufacturer for industrialtype CBs according to related standards. short-circuit relay trip-current setting (Im) Short-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or slightly time-delayed) are intended to trip the circuit breaker rapidly on the occurrence of high values of fault current.standard setting: 5 to 10 In short-delay. e. IEC 898. Example (figure H2-27): a circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overcurrent trip relay. exchangeable. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. notably IEC 947-2. to give Ir = 288 A. and to avoid the need to install over-sized cables.4 In i Ir < In electronic short-circuit protection low setting standard setting type B type C 3 In i Im < 5 In 5 In i Im < 10 In low setting standard setting type B or Z type C 3. the adjustment range is greater. the trip relays are generally adjustable.9. The above values are given only as being those in common use.low setting : 2 to 5 In . i. The trip-current setting Ir or Irth (both designations are in common use) is the current above which the circuit breaker will trip.4.e. Ir = In.28: tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers.8 In 7 In < fixed < 10 In fixed: Im ≈ 7 to 10 In adjustable: .5 Ir i Im < 10Ir instantaneous (I) fixed I ≈ 12 to 15 In high setting circuit type D 10 In i Im < 20 In (1) high setting type D or K 10 In < fixed < 14 In table H2. typically 0.9.7 to 1. but when electronic devices are used for this duty. H2-27: example of a 400 A circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overload trip unit adjusted to 0.

2 table H2-31: Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit.time delay .m. This rated value (Icu) for industrial CBs and (Icn) for domestic-type CBs is normally given in kA r. all power-system short-circuit fault currents are (more-or-less) at lagging power factors. fig. close to generators or large transformers. breaking capacities of CBs are governed by standards.close/open sequence to test the Icu capacity of a CB. i. for example. the d. Table H2-31 below extracted from IEC 947-2 relates standardized values of cos ϕ to industrial circuit breakers according to their rated Icu. the short-circuit current-breaking performance of a LV circuit breaker is related (approximately) to the cos ϕ of the fault-current loop. Icu (rated ultimate s.c. component of the fault current. rated short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu or Icn) The short-circuit current-breaking rating of a CB is the highest (prospective) value of current that the CB is capable of breaking without being damaged. In practice. value of the a.c. In such a case it is referred to as a circuit breaker-disconnector and marked on its front face with the symbol All Multi 9. I: short-circuit instantaneous relay trip-current setting. Icu 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 50 kA i Icu cos ϕ 0. The value of current quoted in the standards is the r. Compact NS and Masterpact LV switchgear of Merlin Gerin manufacture is in this category. have not been impaired by the test. (IEC 947-2).3 0. H2-29: performance curve of a circuit breaker thermal-magnetic protective scheme.25 0. Im: short-circuit (magnetic or long-delay) relay trip-current setting. H2-30 : performance curve of a circuit breaker electronic protective scheme.H2 t (s) t (s) I(A) Ir Im PdC Ir Im I PdC I(A) fig.m.c.s. breaking capacity) are defined in IEC 947-2 together with a table relating Ics with Icu for different categories of utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B (time-delayed tripping) as discussed in subclause 4. PdC: breaking capacity. In general. c current and voltage phase displacement. and include: c operating sequences. breaking capacity) and Ics (rated service s. Standard values for this relationship have been established in some standards. and standards are based on values commonly considered to be representative of the majority of power systems. i. isolating feature A circuit breaker is suitable for isolating a circuit if it fulfills all the conditions prescribed for a disconnector (at its rated voltage) in the relevant standard (see sub-clause 1.3. c following an open . Breaking a current at low lagging* values of cos ϕ is considerably more difficult to achieve. closing and opening on short-circuit. v the disconnection (isolation) performance and v the correct operation of the overload protection. the protection of circuits .5 0. a zero power-factor circuit being (theoretically) the most onerous case.c. Ir: overload (thermal or short-delay) relay trip-current setting.c. further tests are made to ensure that v the dielectric withstand capability.e. comprising a succession of manœuvres. the lower the power factor of the fault-current loop.s. interruption of the current is easier than that at any other power factor.e. When the current is in phase with the supply voltage (cos ϕ for the circuit = 1).the switchgear .H2-17 . the greater the level of fault current (at a given voltage).2). transient component (which is always present in the worst possible case of short-circuit) is assumed to be zero for calculating the standardized value. Tests for proving the rated s.

according to IEC 947-2: c those of category A.2) there are two categories of LV industrial switchgear.4. rated impulse-withstand voltage (Uimp) This characteristic expresses. rated insulation voltage (Ui) This is the value of voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than 2 Ui) and creepage distances are referred. H2-18 . category (A or B) and rated short-time withstand current (Icw) As already briefly mentioned (sub-clause 4. where the fault-current level is lower than that of the short-time withstand current rating (Icw) of the CB (figure H2-23). circuit breakers (continued) H2 4.the switchgear . i. and. For further details see chapter F. in order to discriminate with other circuit breakers on a time basis. This is generally applied to large open-type circuit breakers and to certain heavy-duty moulded-case types. clause 2. The maximum value of rated operational voltage must never exceed that of the rated insulation voltage. it is possible to delay the tripping of the CB. c those of category B for which. A and B.the protection of circuits . H2-32: category A circuit breaker. t (s) I(A) Im fig. for which there is no deliberate delay in the operation of the "instantaneous" short-circuit magnetictripping device (figure H2-32). Icw is the maximum current that the B category CB can withstand.e. are generally moulded-case type circuit breakers.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker Familiarity with the following less-important characteristics of LV circuit breakers is. in kV peak (of a prescribed form and polarity) the value of voltage which the equipment is capable of withstanding without failure. Ue i Ui. H2-33: category B circuit breaker. under test conditions. for a period of time given by the manufacturer. however. thermally and electrodynamically. often necessary when making a final choice. without sustaining damage. t (s) I(A) Im I Icw PdC fig.

H2
rated making capacity (Icm)
Icm is the highest instantaneous value of current that the circuit breaker can establish at rated voltage in specified conditions. In a.c. systems this instantaneous peak value is related to Icu (i.e. to the rated breaking current) by the factor k, which depends on the power factor (cos ϕ) of the short-circuit current loop (as shown in table H2-34). Example: a LV circuit breaker has a rated breaking capacity Icu of 100 kA r.m.s. Its rated making capacity Icm will be 100 x 2.2 = 220 kA peak. Icu 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 50 kA i Icu cos ϕ 0.5 0.3 0.25 0.2 Icm = kIcu 1.7 x Icu 2 x Icu 2.1 x Icu 2.2 x Icu

table H2.34: relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different power-factor values of short-circuit current, as standardized in IEC 947-2.

in a correctly designed installation, a circuit breaker is never required to operate at its maximum breaking current Icu. For this reason a new characteristic Ics has been introduced. It is expressed in IEC 947-2 as a percentage of Icu (25, 50, 75, 100%).

rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics)
The rated breaking capacity (Icu) or (Icn) is the maximum fault-current a circuit breaker can successfully interrupt without being damaged. The probability of such a current occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are considerably less than the rated breaking capacity (Icu) of the CB. On the other hand it is important that high currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so that the CB is immediately available for reclosure, after the faulty circuit has been repaired. It is for these reasons that a new characteristic (Ics) has been created, expressed as a percentage of Icu, viz: 25, 50, 75, 100% for industrial circuit breakers. The standard test sequence is as follows: c O - CO - CO* (at Ics); c tests carried out following this sequence are intended to verify that the CB is in a good state and available for normal service. For domestic CBs, Ics = k Icn. The factor k values are given in IEC 898 table XIV. In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k factor of 100% so that Ics = Icu.
Note: O represents an opening operation. CO represents a closing operation followed by an opening operation.

many designs of LV circuit breakers feature a short-circuit current limitation capability, whereby the current is reduced and prevented from reaching its (otherwise) maximum peak value (figure H2-35). The current-limitation performance of these CBs is presented in the form of graphs, typified by that shown in figure H2-36, diagram (a).

fault-current limitation
The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB concerns its ability, more or less effective, in preventing the passage of the maximum prospective fault-current, permitting only a limited amount of current to flow, as shown in figure H2-35. The current-limitation performance is given by the CB manufacturer in the form of curves (figure H2-36 diagrams (a) and (b)). c diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of current plotted against the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of the prospective fault current ("prospective" fault-current refers to the fault-current which would flow if the CB had no current-limiting capability); c limitation of the current greatly reduces the thermal stresses (proportional I2t) and this is shown by the curve of diagram (b) of figure H2-36, again, versus the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of the prospective fault current. LV circuit breakers for domestic and similar installations are classified in certain standards (notably European Standard EN 60 898). CBs belonging to a class (of
limited peak current (kA)
n rre cu d tics ite ris lim te n- rac no ha c t

current limiters) have standardized limiting I2t let-through characteristics defined by that class. In these cases, manufacturers do not normally provide characteristic performance curves.
Icc prospectice fault-current peak

prospectice fault-current

limited current peak limited current tc t

fig. H2-35: prospective and actual currents.
limited peak current (A2 x s) 4,5.105

22

2.105

(a)

prospective a.c. component (r.m.s.) 150

(b)

prospective a.c. component (r.m.s.) 150 kA

fig. H2-36: performance curves of a typical LV current-limiting circuit breaker.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-19

4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued)
current limitation reduces both thermal and electrodynamic stresses on all circuit elements through which the current passes, thereby prolonging the useful life of these elements. Furthermore, the limitation feature allows "cascading" techniques to be used (see 4.5) thereby significantly reducing design and installation costs.

the advantages of current limitation
The use of current-limiting CBs affords numerous advantages: c better conservation of installation networks: current-limiting CBs strongly attenuate all harmful effects associated with short-circuit currents; c reduction of thermal effects: conductors (and therefore insulation) heating is significantly reduced, so that the life of cables is correspondingly increased; c reduction of mechanical effects: forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are lower, with less risk of deformation and possible rupture, excessive burning of contacts, etc.; c reduction of electromagnetic-interference effects: less influence on measuring instruments and associated circuits, telecommunication systems, etc. These circuit breakers therefore contribute towards an improved exploitation of: c cables and wiring; c prefabricated cable-trunking systems; c switchgear, thereby reducing the ageing of the installation. Example: On a system having a prospective shortcircuit current of 150 kA r.m.s., a circuit breaker limits the peak current to less than 10% of the calculated prospective peak value, and the thermal effects to less than 1% of those calculated. Cascading of the several levels of distribution in an installation, downstream of a limiting CB, will also result in important economies. The technique of cascading, described in sub-clause 4.5 allows, in fact, substantial savings on switchgear (lower performance permissible downstream of the limiting CB(s)) enclosures, and design studies, of up to 20% (overall). Discriminative protection schemes and cascading are compatible, in the range Compact NS*, up to the full short-circuit breaking capacity of the switchgear.
* A Merlin Gerin product.

4.4 selection of a circuit breaker
the choice of a range of circuit breakers is determined by: the electrical characteristics of the installation, the environment, the loads and a need for remote control, together with the type of telecommunications system envisaged.

choice of a circuit breaker
The choice of a CB is made in terms of: c electrical characteristics of the installation for which the CB is destined; c its eventual environment: ambient temperature, in a kiosk or switchboard enclosure, climatic conditions, etc.; c short-circuit current breaking and making requirements; c operational specifications: discriminative tripping, requirements (or not) for remote control and indication and related auxiliary contacts, auxiliary tripping coils, connection into a local network (communication or control and indication) etc., c installation regulations; in particular: protection of persons; c load characteristics, such as motors, fluorescent lighting, LV/LV transformers, etc. Problems concerning specific loads are examined in chapter J. The following notes relate to the choice of a LV circuit breaker for use in distribution systems.

choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature
The rated current of a circuit breaker is defined for operation at a given ambient temperature, in general: c 30 °C for domestic-type CBs; c 40 °C for industrial-type CBs. Performance of these CBs in a different ambient temperature depends principally on the technology of their tripping units.
ambient temperature

temperature of air surrounding the circuit breakers

ambient temperature

single CB in free air

circuit breakers installed in an enclosure

fig. H2-37: ambient temperature.

H2-20 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

H2
circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping units have a tripcurrent level that depends on the surrounding temperature.

uncompensated thermalmagnetic tripping units
Circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-current level that depends on the surrounding temperature. If the CB is installed in an enclosure, or in a hot location (boiler room, etc.), the current required to trip the CB on overload will be sensibly reduced. When the temperature in which the CB is located exceeds its reference temperature, it will therefore be "derated". For this reason, CB manufacturers provide tables which indicate factors to apply at temperatures different to the CB reference temperature. It may be noted from typical examples of such tables (tables H2-38) that a lower temperature than the reference value produces an up-rating of the CB. Moreover, small modular-type CBs mounted in juxtaposition, as shown typically in figure H2-24, are usually mounted in a small closed metal case. In this situation, mutual heating, when passing normal load currents, generally requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.8.

C60a. C60H: curve C. C60N: curves B and C (reference temperature: 30 °C) rating (A) 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C 35 °C 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C 55 °C 1 1.05 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.90 0.88 2 2.08 2.04 2.00 1.96 1.92 1.88 1.84 1.80 3 3.18 3.09 3.00 2.91 2.82 2.70 2.61 2.49 4 4.24 4.12 4.00 3.88 3.76 3.64 3.52 3.36 6 6.24 6.12 6.00 5.88 5.76 5.64 5.52 5.40 10 10.6 10.3 10.0 9.70 9.30 9.00 8.60 8.20 16 16.8 16.5 16.0 15.5 15.2 14.7 14.2 13.8 20 21.0 20.6 20.0 19.4 19.0 18.4 17.8 17.4 25 26.2 25.7 25.0 24.2 23.7 23.0 22.2 21.5 32 33.5 32.9 32.0 31.4 30.4 29.8 28.4 28.2 40 42.0 41.2 40.0 38.8 38.0 36.8 35.6 34.4 50 52.5 51.5 50.0 48.5 47.4 45.5 44.0 42.5 63 66.2 64.9 63.0 61.1 58.0 56.7 54.2 51.7 NS250N/H/L (reference temperature: 40 °C) rating (A) 40 °C 45 °C TM160D 160 156 TM200D 200 195 TM250D 250 244 50 °C 152 190 238 55 °C 147 185 231

60 °C 0.85 1.74 2.37 3.24 5.30 7.80 13.5 16.8 20.7 27.5 33.2 40.5 49.2 60 °C 144 180 225

tables H2-38: examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature. Example What rating (In) should be selected for a CB c protecting a circuit, the maximum load current of which is estimated to be 34 A; c installed side-by-side with other CBs in a closed distribution box; c in an ambient temperature of 50 °C. A circuit breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 35.6 A in ambient air at 50 °C (see table H2-38). To allow for mutual heating in the enclosed space, however, the 0.8 factor noted above must be employed, so that, 35.6 x 0.8 = 28.5 A, which is not suitable for the 34 A load. A 50 A circuit breaker would therefore be selected, giving a (derated) current rating of 44 x 0.8 = 35.2 A.

compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units
These tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload trip-current setting (Ir or Irth) to be adjusted, within a specified range, irrespective of the ambient temperature. For example: c in certain countries, the TT system is standard on LV distribution systems, and domestic (and similar) installations are protected at the service position by a circuit breaker provided by the supply authority. This CB, besides affording protection against indirect-contact hazard, will trip on overload; in this case, if the consumer exceeds the current level stated in his supply contract with the power authority. The circuit breaker (i 60 A) is compensated for a temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C. c LV circuit breakers at ratings i 630 A are commonly equipped with compensated tripping units for this range (- 5 °C to + 40 °C).

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-21

4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
general note concerning derating of circuit breakers
It is evident that a CB rated to carry a current In at its reference ambient temperature (30 °C) would overheat when carrying the same current at (say) 50 °C. Since LV CBs are provided with overcurrent protective devices which (if not compensated) will operate for lower levels of current in higher ambient temperatures, the CB is automatically derated by the overload tripping device, as shown in the tables H2-38. Where the thermal tripping units are temperature-compensated, the tripping current level may be set at any value between 0.7 to 1 x In in the ambient temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C. The reference ambient temperature in this case is 40 °C (i.e. on which the rating In is based). For these compensated units, manufacturers' catalogues generally also give derated values of In for ambient temperatures above the compensated range, e.g. at + 50 °C and + 60 °C; typically, 95 A at + 50 °C and 90 A at + 60 °C, for a 100 A circuit breaker.

H2-22 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

H2
electronic tripping units are highly stable in changing temperature levels.

electronic tripping units
An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable performance in changing temperature conditions. However, the switchgear itself often imposes operational limits in elevated temperatures, M25N/H/L circuit breaker A circuit breaker B
coeff. 1 2500

as mentioned in the general note above, so that manufacturers generally provide an operating chart relating the maximum values of permissible trip-current levels to the ambient temperature (figure H2-39). i 40 °C 2500 1 2500 1 45 °C 2500 1 2500 1 50 °C 2500 1 2500 1 55 °C 2450 0.98 2350 0.94 60 °C 2400 0.96 2200 0.88

In (A) maximum adjustment Ir In (A) maximum adjustement Ir

In (A)

circuit breaker A 0.96 2400 0.94 2350 circuit breaker B

0.88 2200 θ °C 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

fig. H2-39: derating of two circuit breakers having different characteristics, according to the temperature.

selection of an instantaneous, or short-time-delay, tripping threshold
Principal charasteristics of magnetic or shorttime-delay tripping units. Type classification according to IEC 898. See also table H2-28. type
t

tripping unit low setting type B

applications c sources producing low-short-circuit-current levels (standby generators) c long lengths of line or cable

I t

standard setting type C

c protection of circuits: general case

I t

high setting type D or K

c protection of circuits having high initial transient current levels (e.g. motors, transformers, resistive loads)

I
t

12 In type MA

c protection of motors in association with discontactors (contactors with overload protection)

I

table H2-40: different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time-delayed.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-23

4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
the installation of a LV circuit breaker requires that its short-circuit breaking capacity (or that of the CB together with an associated device) be equal to or exceeds the calculated prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation.

selection of a circuit breaker according to the short-circuit breaking capacity requirements
The installation of a circuit breaker in a LV installation must fulfil one of the two following conditions: c either have a rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icu (or Icn) which is equal to or exceeds the prospective short-circuit current calculated for its point of installation, or c if this is not the case, be associated with another device which is located upstream, and which has the required short-circuit breaking capacity. In the second case, the characteristics of the two devices must be co-ordinated such that the energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which the downstream device and all associated cables, wires and other components can withstand, without being damaged in any way. This technique is profitably employed in: c associations of fuses and circuit breakers; c associations of current-limiting circuit breakers and standard circuit breakers. The technique is known as "cascading" (see sub-clause 4.5 of this chapter).

the circuit breaker at the output of the smallest transformer must have a short-circuit capacity adequate for a fault current which is higher than that through any of the other transformer LV circuit breakers (fig. H2-42).

The selection of main and principal circuit breakers c a single transformer Table C-13 (in chapter C) gives the shortcircuit current level on the downstream side of a commonly-used type of HV/LV distribution transformer. If the transformer is located in a consumer's substation, certain national standards require a LV circuit breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible*. Example (figure H2-41): What type of circuit breaker is suitable for the main circuit breaker of an installation supplied through a 250 kVA HV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transformer in a consumer's substation? In transformer = 360 A Isc (3-phase) = 8.9 kA. A 400 A CB with an adjustable tripping-unit range of 250 A-400 A and a short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu) of 35 kA* would be a suitable choice for this duty.
* A type Visucompact NS400N of Merlin Gerin manufacture is recommended for the case investigated.

250 kVA 20 kV/400 V

Visucompact NS400N

fig. H2-41: example of a transformer in a consumer's substation.

c several transformers in parallel (figure H2-42) v the circuit breakers CBP outgoing from the LV distribution board must each be capable of breaking the total fault current from all transformers connected to the busbars, viz: Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3, v the circuit breakers CBM, each controlling the output of a transformer, must be capable of dealing with a maximum short-circuit current of (for example) Isc2 + Isc3 only, for a short-circuit located on the upstream side of CBM1. From these considerations, it will be seen that the circuit breaker of the smallest transformer will be subjected to the highest level of fault current in these circumstances, while the circuit breaker of the largest transformer will pass the lowest level of short-circuit current. v the ratings of CBMs must be chosen according to the kVA ratings of the associated transformers. Note: the essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in parallel may be summarized as follows: 1. the phase shift of the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units to be paralleled. 2. the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units. 3. the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units. For example, a 750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will
H2-24 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

HV Tr1 LV A1 B1 CBM A2 B2 CBP E

HV Tr2 LV CBM A3 B3 CBP

HV Tr3 LV CBM

fig. H2-42: transformers in parallel.

share the load correctly with a 1,000 kVA transformer having a Zsc of 6%, i.e. the transformers will be loaded automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. For transformers having a ratio of kVA ratings exceeding 2, parallel operation is not recommended, since the resistance/ reactance ratios of each transformer will generally be different to the extent that the resulting circulating currrent may overload the smaller transformer.

The Icu rating in each case = 150 kA.C. 2 and 3 would be current-limiting circuit breakers types NS 400 L. Example: (figure H2-44) c circuit breaker selection for CBM duty: In for an 800 kVA transformer = 1. no-load voltage) Icu (minimum) = 48 kA (from table H2-43). i.4 kV distribution-type units rated as listed. the protection of circuits . NS 100 L and NS 250 L respectively (by MG) or their equivalents. c between each incoming-circuit CBM and each outgoing-circuit CBP there is 1 metre of busbar. this table shows selected circuit breakers of M-G manufacture recommended for main and principal circuit breakers in each case. breaking capacity (Icu) required for these circuit breakers is given in the table (H2-43) as 71 kA. The table is based on the following hypotheses: c the short-circuit 3-phase power on the HV side of the transformer is 500 MVA. 3 Tr 800 kVA 20 kV/400V CBM CBP1 CBP2 CBP3 400 A 100 A 200 A fig H2-44: transformers in parallel. v exploitation of the "cascading" technique. breaking cap.C. number and kVA ratings of 20/0. c the cables from each transformer to its LV circuit breaker comprise 5 metres of singlecore conductors.e. * or Ics in countries where this alternative is practised. c circuit breaker selection for CBP duty: The s. breaking capacity of main CBs (Icu)* kA 14 27 22 43 24 48 27 54 31 62 36 72 39 77 main circuit breakers (CBM) total discrimination with out going-circuit breakers (CBP) M08 N1/C 801 N ST M08 N1/C 801 N ST M10N1/CM1250/C 1001 N M10H1/CM1250/C 1001 N M12N1/CM1250/C 1251 N M12H1/CM1250/C 1251 N M16N1/CM1600 M16H2/CM1600 M20N1/CM2000 M20H1/CM2000 M25N1/CM2500 M20H2/CM2500H M32H1/CM3200 M32H2/CM3200H minimum S.H2 Table H2-43 indicates. c the switchgear is installed in a floormounted enclosed switchboard. the CBM indicated in the table is a Compact C1251 N (Icu = 50 kA) (by Merlin Gerin) or its equivalent. c the transformers are standard 20/0. for several transformers in parallel. Moreover.4 kV transformers 2 x 400 3 x 400 2 x 630 3 x 630 2 x 800 3 x 800 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 minimum S.the switchgear . for the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal CBs (CBM and CBP respectively. in an ambient-air temperature of 30 °C.H2-25 .c. of principal CBs (Icu)* kA 27 40 42 64 48 71 54 80 60 91 70 105 75 112 rated current In of principal circuit breaker (CPB) 250 A NS 250 N NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 L NS 250 L table H2-43: maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively). A recommended choice for the three outgoing circuits 1.126 A (at 410 V. with its attendant economy for all downstream components. in figure H2-42) are subjected. These circuit breakers provide the advantages of: v absolute discrimination with the upstream (CBM) breakers.

c insufficient short-circuit currentbreaking rating In low-voltage distribution systems it sometimes happens. or 25% of the 3-phase short-circuit current if it exceeds 10 kA. on the upstream side. v solution 1: check whether or not appropriate CBs upstream of the CBs affected are of the current-limiting type. v short-circuit current-breaking rating: A 2-pole phase-neutral CB must. v the length. v solution 3: associate current-limiting fuses (gG or aM) with the CBs concerned. however. TN-S and IT schemes. In an IT scheme. This arrangement must. cascading: a particular solution to problems of CBs insufficiently rated for S.the protection of circuits . c two-pole circuit breakers (for phase and neutral) with one protected pole only These CBs are generally provided with an overcurrent protective device on the phase pole only. it is necessary to use the method indicated in chapter H1 clause 4. notably. the blowing of the neutral fuse must cause the CB to trip on all phases.no fuse in the neutral conductor.2. the value of 3-phase shortcircuit current can be determined rapidly for any point in the installation.C. by convention. breaking duty. if that current is i 10 kA. however. v solution 2: install a range of CBs having a higher rating. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. v protection against indirect contact: this protection is provided according to the rules for IT schemes.a. A circuit breaker rated for a short-circuit breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated value may then be selected. c detailed calculation of the short-circuit current level In order to calculate more precisely the shortcircuit current. except in particular circumstances on some IT systems. c. and the composition of the conductors between the two points. In this case. as described in chapter G sub-clause 6.5) to be applied.4. allowing the principle of cascading (described in sub-clause 4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued) short-circuit fault-current levels at any point in an installation may be obtained from tables. when the short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a CB is slightly less than that derived from the table.. This solution is economically interesting only where one or two CBs are affected. except in certain IT installations where a double fault produces a current in the neutral which exceeds the short-circuit breaking rating of the CB.s. associating fuses with CBs avoids the need for a fuse in the neutral. that the Isc calculated exceeds the Icu rating of the CBs available for installation. H2-26 . be capable of breaking on one pole (at the phase-to-phase voltage) the current of a double fault equal to 15% of the 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of its installation.the fuse rating must be appropriate .the switchgear . respect the following rules: . the following conditions must be respected: v condition (c) of table H1-65 for the protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent in the case of a double fault. and may be used in TT. or system changes upstream result in lowerlevel CB ratings being exceeded. Choice of outgoing-circuit CBs and final-circuit CBs c use of table H1-40 From this table. knowing: v the value of short-circuit current at a point upstream of that intended for the CB concerned. especially in heavy-duty networks.

Conditions of exploitation Most national standards permit use of the cascading technique. so that users can confidently design a cascading scheme based on the combination of circuit breaker types recommended. * Merlin Gerin products in general. A contact bar (per phase) in the module bridges two (specially-designed heavy-duty) contacts. in all circuits downstream of its location. NS 250 and NS 400) is particularly interesting. the electromagnetic force tends to move the contact bar to open its contacts. The resistance of the arcs is comparable with system impedances at low voltage. the protection of circuits . laboratory tests are necessary to ensure that the conditions of exploitation required by national standards are met and compatible switchgear combinations must be provided by the manufacturer.e. the tripping of the limiting CB main contacts is briefly delayed. This occurs at relatively low values of shortcircuit current. which then passes through the arcs formed at each contact. so that the current is correspondingly restricted.5 coordination between circuit breakers Preliminary note on the essential function of current limiting circuit breakers Low-voltage current-limiting CBs exploit the resistance of the short-circuit current arc in the CB to limit the value of current. a current-limiting CB permits the use. of switchgear and circuit components having much lower short-circuit breaking capacities. and close to the contact bar. NS 160. for example. Failure of downstream CBs to trip will result in the tripping of the current-limiting CB. Such tests are carried out by manufacturers who provide the information in the form of tables. When used in a cascading scheme as described below. the current magnitude is (to some extent) self-regulating. particularly since the power factor of the fault-current loop is increased by the resistive impedance of the arcs.H2-27 .e. cables and other circuit components of significantly lower performance than would otherwise be necessary. i. Other rigidly-fixed conductors are arranged in series with. the technique of "cascading" uses the properties of current-limiting circuit breakers to permit the installation of all downstream switchgear. Furthermore.H2 4. A new range of Compact* current-limiting circuit breakers with powerful limiting performances (namely: NS 100. The circuit breaker is easily able to break the resulting low value of current. the contact pressure of which is accurately maintained by springs. while a current-limiting circuit breaker has the effect on downstream circuits of (apparently) increasing the source impedance during short-circuit conditions. By way of an example. It may be noted that. it has no such effect at any other time. such that when current is passed through the ensemble. i. to allow downstream high-speed circuit breakers to clear the (limited) current. thereby simplifying and reducing the cost of an installation. the more the repulsive force on the bar and the greater the arc resistance as its path lengthens. H or L for a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. table H2-45 indicates the possibilities of cascading circuit breaker types* C 60 and NC 100 when installed downstream of current-limiting CBs NS 250 N. and thermal and electromechanical withstand capabilities than would otherwise be the case. on condition that the amount of energy "let through" by the limiting CB is less than that which all downstream CBs and components are able to withstand without damage. during the starting of a large motor (where a low source impedance is highly desirable). The contact bar in the limiter module resets under the influence of its pressure springs when the flow of short-circuit current ceases. cascading Definition of the cascading technique By limiting the peak value of short-circuit current passing through it. In practice this can only be verified for CBs by tests performed in a laboratory. after its brief time delay. the higher the current.the switchgear . the currentlimiter CB remains closed. Reduced physical size and lower performance requirements lead to substantial economies and to the simplification of installation work. An improved method of achieving currentlevel limitation is to associate a separate current-limiting module (in series) with a standard CB.

circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. i. while all other protective devices remain unaffected (figure H2-46).m. and based on the principles of current levels.s. c simplification.5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued) Advantages of cascading The limitation of current benefits all downstream circuits that are controlled by the current-limiting CB concerned. a wider choice of downstream switchgear and appliances. or a combination of both.e. 150 NS250L 100 70 NS250H 36 NS250N 25 22 Short-circuit breaking capacity of the downstream CBs (benefiting from the cascading technique) kA r.the switchgear . H2-28 . occurring at any point in the installation. is cleared by the protective device located immediately upstream of the fault. c economy of space requirements.the protection of circuits . A (patented) system by Merlin Gerin exploits the advantages of both current-limitation and discrimination. Discrimination is partial if the maximum possible short-circuit current on circuit B exceeds the short-circuit trip-current setting of circuit breaker A. both A and B will trip (figure H2-48).s. c the use of lighter-duty switchgear and appliances. For this maximum condition.m.4. currentlimiting CBs can be installed at any point in an installation where the downstream circuits would otherwise be inadequately rated. IscA A IscB B absolute discrimination IrB IccB Icc partial discrimination B only open A and B opens IrB Ic IccB Icc fig. H2-46: absolute and partial discrimination. For this condition. A more recent development is based on the principles of logic. Discrimination between circuit breakers A and B is absolute if the maximum value of shortcircuit-current on circuit B does not exceed the short-circuit trip setting of circuit breaker A. since light-duty equipment is generally less voluminous. 150 NC100LH NC100LMA 100 NC100LS 70 NC100LS NC100L NC100LH NC100LMA 50 NC100L 40 C60L i 40 C60L i 40 30 C60H C60N C60N C60L C60H C60H C60L C60L (50 to 63) (50 to 63) NC100H NC100H 25 C60N NC100H 20 C60a C60a 15 C60a tables H2-45: example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. The result is: c simplified short-circuit current calculations.e. The principle is not restrictive. i. discriminative tripping (selectivity) Discrimination is achieved by automatic protective devices if a fault condition. discrimination may be absolute or partial. Short-circuit breaking capacity of the upstream (limiter) CBs kA r. with consequently lower cost. or time-delays. B only will trip (figure H2-47).

this system provides absolute discrimination between two circuit breakers passing the same fault current. H2-47: absolute discrimination between CBs A and B. The heated-air pressure level depends on the energy level of the arc. The upstream CB has two high-speed magnetic tripping thresholds: . discrimination based on arc-energy levels (Merlin Gerin patent) In the range of short-circuit currents. This method is realized by setting successive relay tripping thresholds at stepped levels. as described in the following pages (figures H2-54 and H2-55). with progressively longer delays towards the source. A mechanical time-delay added to a currentlevel scheme can improve the overall discrimination performance. according to the particular conditions. t B A Irm B Irm A Isc B I 2. discrimination based on current levels. the protection of circuits . t B A Isc B Irm A delayed Irm A instantaneo us I 4. upstream circuit breaker A is delayed sufficiently to ensure absolute discrimination with B (for example: Masterpact electronic). H2-48: partial discrimination between CBs A and B. In the two-level arrangement shown. A t B A ∆t B Isc B I 3.H2 t t B A B A Isc downstream of B Ir B Ir A Icc B Irm A I Ir B Ir A B only opens Irm A Isc B A and B open IscA I fig. t conventional instantaneous magnetic-trip characteristic pressure operated magnetic-trip characteristic Irm B Irm A Isc table H2-49: summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping. from downstream relays (lower settings) towards the source (higher settings).Irm A (instantaneous) standard (Compact type SA) * short-delay. discrimination based on stepped time delays. This is achieved by using current-limiting CBs and initiating CB tripping by pressure-sensitive detectors in the arcing chambers of the CBs. such that downstream relays have the shortest operating times. as noted in the above examples.Irm A (delayed) or a SD* electronic timer .H2-29 . discrimination based on a combination of methods 1 and 2. Discrimination is absolute if Isc B < Irm A (instantaneous). fig.the switchgear . This method is implemented by adjusting the time-delayed tripping units. Discrimination is absolute or partial. 1.

Two circuit breakers A and B in series (i. above. The delay is sufficient to ensure absolute discrimination with any downstream high-speed CB at any value of s.000 A (an improvement over the limit of 2.500 A obtained when using a standard tripping unit). t A (compact S) B only B opens A and B open Irm A Irm S delayed instantaneous I fig.5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued) current-level discrimination is achieved with stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements. passing the same current) are discriminative if the current-breaking period of downstream breaker B is less than the non-tripping time of circuit breaker A. c the delay corresponding to the first step is greater than the total current-breaking time of a high-speed CB (type Compact for example) or of fuses (figure H2-52).e. even those that are not classified as currentlimiters. H2-52: discrimination by time delay. to ensure satisfactory performance of this arrangement. c the downstream circuit breaker is not a current-limiter. These circuit breakers are fitted with trip units which include a non-adjustable mechanical short-time-delay feature. H2-51: use of a "selective" circuit breaker upstream. Careful calculation and testing is necessary. Absolute discrimination in this situation is practically impossible because Isc A z Isc B. such as: c the delay corresponding to a given step is greater than the total current breaking time of the next lower step. current up to Irms (figure H2-51).c. but would be insufficient to cause circuit breaker A to trip. e. Current-level discrimination Current-level discrimination is achieved with circuits breakers. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. magnetic trip set at 2. I peak A fault upstream of B fault downstream of B current limitation curve for circuit breaker (see note) B Isc I Isc prospective (rms) fig. discrimination based on time-delayed tripping uses CBs referred to as "selective" (in certain countries). as previously noted in 1. t A B non tripping time of A current-breaking time for B only B open Ir B Isc B Isc I fig. The discrimination may be absolute or partial for a short-circuit fault downstream of B. so that both circuit breakers will generally trip in unison. H2-30 . preferably limiters. For a short-circuit downstream of B. Note: All LV breakers (considered here) have some inherent degree of current limitation. and limited to the Irm of the upstream circuit breaker.g.4. for circuit breaker B. the limited level of peak current IB would operate the (suitably adjusted) magnetic trip unit of B. Ir = 250 A. Application of these CBs is relatively simple and consists in delaying the instant of tripping of the several series-connected circuit breakers in a stepped time sequence. c CBs with adequate thermal and mechanical withstand capabilities at the elevated current levels and time delays envisaged. Discrimination at several levels An example of a practical scheme with (MG) circuit breakers Masterpact (electronic protection devices). and stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements. however. In this case discrimination is partial. H2-50: downstream limiting circuit breaker B. These CBs can be equipped with adjustable timers which allow 4 time-step selections. Improvement in discriminative tripping can be obtained by using a current limiter in a downstream location. c the upstream circuit breaker is highspeed with a short-delay (SD) feature. c the downstream circuit breaker is a current limiter.the switchgear . This accounts for the curved characteristic shown for the standard circuit breaker A in figure H2-50.the protection of circuits . Example: circuit breaker A: Compact NS250 N fitted with a trip unit which includes a SD feature. Time-based discrimination This technique requires: c the introduction of "timers" into the tripping mechanisms of CBs.000 A circuit breaker B: Compact NS100N Ir = 100 A The Merlin Gerin distribution catalogue indicates a discrimination limit of 3.

CB (A) Compact NS (a) CB (B) Compact NS Isc = 50 kA I Isc (prospective) CB (A) only CB (A) and CB (B) in series Isc (limited) t Pressure in arcing chamber CB (A) setting (b) (c) CB (B) setting t fig. as previously mentioned). together with interconnecting pilot wires for data exchange between the CBs. designed for this application. as previously described in this chapter.H2 discrimination schemes based on logic techniques are possible. the pressure rise can be reliably detected and used to initiate instantaneous tripping. use the principle of arc-energy levels to obtain discrimination. Limitation and discrimination by exploitation of arc energy The technique of "arc-energy discrimination" (Merlin Gerin patent) is applied on circuits having a short-circuit current level u 25 In and ensures absolute selectivity between two CBs carrying the same short-circuit current. The intense heat of the current arc in each CB causes a rapid expansion of the air in the confined space of the arcing chambers. The fault current will be very strongly limited by the resistance of the two series arcs. thereby ensuring back-up protection in the event that B fails to clear the fault. using CBs equipped with electronic tripping units designed for the purpose (Compact. the larger the short-circuit current. Above a certain level of current. c the ratio of the two trip-unit current ratings is > 1. then the arc resistance of CB (A) only will limit the current. circuit breaker A is set to trip instantaneously. Operation principle Both CBs are current limiters. H2-54).6. which will be sufficient to operate its pressure-sensitive tripping unit (diagrams (b) and (c) of fig. Discrimination principle If both CBs include a pressure tripping device suitably regulated. For overcurrent conditions less than those of short-circuits i 25 In. H2-53: discrimination logic. so that the electromagnetic forces due to a short-circuit downstream of CB (B) will cause the currentlimiting arcing contacts of both CBs to open simultaneously. The larger current through CB (A) will produce a correspondingly greater pressure. the conventional protection schemes are employed. . NS250N TM260D CB (A) CB (B) NS100N TM100D fig. the protection of circuits .H2-31 A pilot wires B fig. With 2 levels A and B (figure H2-53). H2-54 (a)). The resulting current will therefore be significantly greater than that occurring for a short-circuit downstream of CB (B) (where the two arcs in series cause a very strong limitation. If a short-circuit occurs downstream of CB (A) but upstream of CB (B). the faster the CB will trip. Discrimination is assured with this particular switchgear if: c the ratio of rated currents of the two CBs u 2.the switchgear . This signal causes the tripping unit of A to be delayed. Masterpact by MG) and interconnected with pilot wires. As can be seen from figure H2-49 (4).5. to ensure discrimination. Discrimination logic This discrimination system requires CBs equipped with electronic tripping units. unless the relay of circuit breaker B sends a signal to confirm that the fault is downstream of B. thereby producing a correspondingly rapid pressure rise. H2-55: ratio of rated currents of CBs and of tripping units. H2-54: arc-energy discrimination principles. H2-54). must comply with limits stated in the text. Discrimination requires that the energy allowed to pass by the downstream CB (B) is less than that which will cause the upstream CB (A) to trip (fig. and so on… This system (patented by Merlin Gerin) also allows rapid localization of the fault. then absolute discrimination between two CBs of different current ratings can be achieved by setting CB (B) to trip at a lower pressure level than that of CB (A) (fig. as shown (typically) in figure H2-55. recently-introduced circuit breakers such as Merlin Gerin type NS.

What is the maximum short-circuit trip current setting and its maximum time delay allowable? The curves of figure H2-57 show that discrimination is assured if the short-time delay tripping unit of the CB is set at: c a level i 6 Ir = 10.01 step C step B step A step 0 1800 A Ir 10 kA Isc maxi 31. c maximum time-delay allowable for the short-circuit current tripping element. transformer .6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation In general the transformer in a consumer's substation is protected by HV fuses.and/ or VT. c short-circuit level at HV terminals of transformer: 250 MVA.2.4 kA 1250 kVA 20 kV / 400 V Visucompact CM 2000 set at 1800 A fig. c a time-delay setting of step O or A. H2-56: example. Discrimination can be achieved.4.8 kA. A general policy for HV fuse/LV circuit breaker discrimination.2. which is based on standardized manufacturing tolerance limits. H2-57: curves of HV fuses and LV circuit breaker. so that the tripping characteristic curve of the latter must be to the left of that of the HV fuse pre-arcing curve.4 kV.LV circuit breaker: 10 metres single-core cables. for further details. The basic requirement is that a HV fuse will not operate for LV faults occurring downstream of the transformer LV circuit breaker. in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC 787 and IEC 420.the protection of circuits .the switchgear . circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. c cabling.2. and Appendix C1. H2-32 .7. This requirement generally fixes the maximum settings for the LV circuit breaker protection: c maximum short-circuit current-level setting of the magnetic tripping element. suitably rated to match the transformer.800 A (Ir).4 kA I fig. which energize a shunt-trip coil of the circuit breaker. c transformer HL/LV: 1. See also Chapter C sub-clause 3. and illustrated in figure C-21.operated relays. together with high-speed tripping for faults on the transformer. is mentioned in chapter C sub-clause 3. by using the methods described in chapter C sub-clause 3.7. t (ms) 1000 200 100 CM 2000 set at 1800 A minimum pre-arcing curve for 63 A HV fuses (current referred to the secondary side of the transformer) 6 Ir 8 Ir 10 1 Ir 4 Ir 220 1 50 0. c HV fuses: 63 A (table C 11). adopted in some countries. Where a transformer is controlled and protected on the high-voltage side by a circuit breaker.250 kVA 20/0. it is usual to install separate CT. 63 A full-load current 1760 A 3-phase short-circuit current level 31. by following the advice of the fuse manufacturer. c LV circuit breaker: Visucompact CM 2000 set at 1.

in order to ensure a safe and reliable installation. etc. covers all insulated conductors. starting at the origin of the installation. c not cause voltage drops likely to result in an inferior performance of certain loads. through the intermediate stages to the final circuits.B. or fuses) In choice of protective device short-circuit MVA at the origin of the circuit short-circuit current Isc short-circuit current-breaking rating of C. the protective devices (circuit breakers or fuses) must: c protect the cabling and busbars for all levels of overcurrent.1 methodology and definitions component parts of an electric circuit and its protection are determined such. * the term "cabling" in this chapter. it must: c carry the permanent full load current. e.1. methodology Following a preliminary analysis of the power requirements of the installation.the switchgear . The cabling and its protection at each level must satisfy several conditions at the same time. Particular loads (as noted in Chapter J) require that the cable supplying them be oversized. general H1 1.2 of this Chapter.H1-1 . Moreover. or fuses conditions of installation cross-sectional area of conductors of the circuit verification of the maximum voltage drop verification of thermal withstand requirements IT or TN scheme verification of the maximum length of the circuit TT scheme determination of the cross-sectional area of the conductors confirmation of the cross-sectional area of the cabling. or fuses I scb choice of C.B.earthed installations are obligatorily protected at the origin by a RCD. the protection of circuits .B. The cross-sectional areas of conductors are determined by the general method described in Sub-clause 1. up to and including short-circuit currents. etc. thereby delaying automatic disconnection (it may be remembered that TT. that all normal and abnormal operating constraints are satisfied. a study of cabling* and its electrical protection is undertaken. and normal short-time overcurrents. for example: an excessively long acceleration period when starting a motor.earthed systems. and the choice of its electrical protection table H1-1: logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit. particularly in TN. kVA to be supplied upstream or downstream network maximum load current IB rated current of protective device (C. where the length of circuits may limit the magnitude of short-circuit currents. including multi-core and single-core cables and insulated wires drawn into conduits. and that the protection of the circuit be likewise modified. generally rated at 500 mA). as decribed in Chapter B Clause 4. c ensure protection of persons against indirect contact hazards.and IT. Apart from this method some national standards may prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to be observed for reasons of mechanical endurance.g.

c at all upstream circuit levels this current corresponds to the kVA to be supplied. as shown in figure H1-2. c 1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth). ks and ku respectively. resistance-type spot welding. Overcurrents of relatively short duration can however. occur in normal operation. without reducing its normal life expectancy. general (continued) H1 1. c 2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth. if permanent damage to the cabling (and appliance if the overcurrent is due to a defective load component) is to be avoided. H1-2: calculation of maximum load current IB.69 = 200 A sub-distribution board 80 A 60 A 100 A IB = 50 A normal load motor current 50 A M fig.g. Short-circuit currents These currents result from the failure of insulation between live conductors or/and between live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthed neutrals) in any combination.1 methodology and definitions (continued) definitions Maximum load current: IB c at the final circuits level. particularly where frequent starting is concerned (e.69 IB = 290 x 0. or other loads which take an initially-high current. lift motors. on several parameters: c constitution of the cable and cable-way (Cu or Alu conductors. insulation. Maximum permissible current: IZ This is the maximum value of current that the cabling for the circuit can carry indefinitely. number of active conductors). H1-2 . c ambient temperature. viz: c 3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth. PVC or EPR etc. Both cables and thermaltype relays are affected. or not). c influence of neighbouring circuits. The current depends. and so on. and so on) the cumulative thermal effects of the overcurrents must be taken into account. for example. which takes account of the factors of simultaneity (diversity) and utilization. c method of installation. This current must be cut off with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude. In the case of motor-starting. If either of these conditions persists however beyond a given period (depending on protective-relay settings or fuse ratings) the circuit will be automatically cut off. main distribution board combined factors of simultaneity (or diversity) and utilization ks x ku = 0. due to a number of small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally.1. two types of overcurrent are distinguished: Overloads These overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits.the switchgear . this current corresponds to the rated kVA of the load. or not). overcurrents An overcurrent occurs each time the value of current exceeds the maximum load current IB for the load concerned. motorstarting loads.the protection of circuits . for a given crosssectional area of conductors.

Ir (or Irth)* means regulated "nominal" current level.a. t I2t cable characteristic temporary overload fuse curve IB t Ir cIz Iz 1 2 I fig. H1-4: circuit protection by fuses. * both designations are commonly used in different standards. θ means "temperature". the protection of circuits . θa1 > θa2 5s I2t = k2S2 Iz1 < Iz2 I fig. For instance. Note: Isc means 3-phase short-circuit current. of insulated conductor (mm2).H1 1. i.s. be determined approximately by the formula: Is2 x t = k2 x S2 which shows that the allowable heat generated is proportional to the cross-sectional-area of the condutor squared.H1-3 . k: insulated conductor constant (values of k2 are given in table H1-54). The characteristics of insulated conductors when carrying short-circuit currents can.g. For a given insulated conductor. Is: short-circuit current (A r. c acting to cut-off the current in a time shorter than that given by the I2t characteristic of the circuit cabling.the switchgear .m. t maximum load current I2t cable characteristic temporary overload circuit-breaker tripping curve IB Ir Iz ISCB PdC I fig.2 overcurrent protection principles A protective device is provided at the origin of the circuit concerned.e. Where: t: duration of short-circuit current (seconds). IZ1 is less than IZ2 (fig. H1-5). S: c. short-circuit breaking current of the circuit breaker. H1-3: circuit protection by circuit breaker. H1-5: I2t characteristic of an insulated conductor at two different ambient temperatures. a 50 A nominal circuit breaker can be regulated to have a protective range.s. c but allowing the maximum load current IB to flow indefinitely. for a high ambient temperature (θa1 > θa2). the maximum permissible current varies according to the environment.). IscB means rated 3-ph. e. for periods up to 5 seconds following short-circuit initiation. a conventional overcurrent tripping level (see figure H1-6) similar to that of a 30 A circuit breaker.

urre -c ult protective device For fuses type gl: In i 10 A k3 = 1. where I2 is the fusing (meltinglevel) current. circuit cabling m u cu m rre pe nt rm Iz iss i bl e m ax i 1. the rated short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse ISCF u ISC the 3-ph. general (continued) H1 1. another protective device which has the necessary short-circuit rating.45 IZ (as noted in the "general rules" above) will always be respected.the switchgear . Protection by fuses The condition I2 i 1.1. short-circuit current level at the point of fuse installation.the protection of circuits .45 IZ which corresponds to zone "b" in figure H1-6. c its tripping current I2 "conventional" setting is less than 1. H1-4 . criteria for fuses: IB i In i IZ k3 and. 45 x Iz n its om re in gu al la cu te rr d en cu t rre In nt or Ir co nv en tri tio p na cu l o rre ve nt rc I2 urr en t fig.45 IZ will be valid if In i IZ/k3. criteria for a circuit breaker: IB i In (or Ir) i Iz and.45 Iz ISCB u ISC zone a zone b zone c general rules A protective device (circuit breaker or fuse) functions correctly if: c its nominal current or its setting current In is greater than the maximum load current IB but less than the maximum permissible current IZ for the circuit. IB i In i IZ corresponding to zone "a" in figure H1-6. This particular case is examined in Sub-clause 5. This corresponds to zone "c" in figure H1-6.21 In > 25 A k3 = 1.45 Iz ISC ISCB zone c zone b fa g t ui atin irc r -c king t or a sh bre h nt p 3. IB i In i Iz I2 i 1.45 Ir) so that the condition. i.1. The "conventional" setting tripping time may be 1 hour or 2 hours according to local standards and the actual value selected for I2. short-circuit current level at the point of CB installation.6 to 1.3 practical values for a protection scheme The following methods are based on rules laid down in the IEC standards.45 In (or 1. Association of different protective devices The use of protective devices which have fault-current ratings lower than the fault level existing at their point of installation are permitted by IEC and many national standards in the following conditions: c there exists upstream. equal to k2 x In (k2 ranges from 1. at a time of lowest value of short-circuit current. c the technique known as "cascading" in which the strong current-limiting performance of certain circuit breakers effectively reduces the severity of downstream short-circuits.31 10 A < In i 25 A k3 = 1. I2 is the current (denoted If) which will operate the fuse in the conventional time. c its 3-phase short-circuit fault-current breaking rating is greater than the 3-phase short-circuit current existing at its point of installation. and are loads representative of the practices in many countries.45 IZ must also be taken into account. that I2 i 1. the overcurrent device protecting the circuit will operate correctly. rated short-circuit breaking current ISCB u ISC the 3-ph.10 Moreover. associated cabling and appliances can withstand without damage. A further factor k3 has been introduced (in the national standards from which these notes have been abstracted) such that I2 i 1. applications Protection by circuit breaker By virtue of its high level of precision the current I2 is always less than 1.9) according to the particular fuse concerned. it is necessary to ensure that. Possible combinations which have been tested in laboratories are indicated in certain manufacturers catalogues.e. and c the amount of energy allowed to pass through the upstream device is less than that which the downstream device and all m ax um im a lo d cu n rre t IB IB In zone a Iz I2 1. For fuses. the short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse ISCF must exceed the level of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation of the fuse(s). Particular case: if the circuit breaker itself does not protect against overloads. In pratice this arrangement is generally exploited in: c the association of circuit breakers/fuses. H1-6: current levels for determining circuit breaker or fuse characteristics.

5 cables in parallel Conductors of the same cross-sectional-area. P1: C60 calibre 15 A 2.4 location of protective devices a protective device is. v the secondary circuits of current transformers. in general.H1-5 . and the protection of the cabling is of secondary importance. the protection of circuits . v circuits of large lifting electromagnets.g. This arrangement is convenient for motor circuits. A <3m P1 short-circuit sc protective device B s overload protective device3 B P2 B P3 case (1) case (2) case (3) circuits with no protection Either c the protective device P1 is calibrated to protect the cable S2 against overloads and short-circuits. and of the same material. c the short-circuit protection (SC) located at the origin of the circuit conforms with the principles of Sub-clause H1-5. Consider case (1) in the diagram c AB i 3 metres. P2 50 mm2 P P3 10 mm2 P4 25 mm2 possible alternative locations in certain circumstances The protective device may be placed part way along the circuit: c if AB is not in proximity to combustible material.H1 1. 1. No circuit interruption can be tolerated. The device (S) constitutes the control (start/stop) and overload protection of the motor while (SC) is: either a circuit breaker (designed for motor protection) or fuses type aM. Three cases may be useful in practice.5 mm2 table H1-7: general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices. can be connected in parallel.the switchgear . the same length. method of installation. v excitation circuits of rotating machines. The following precautions should be taken to avoid the risk of short-circuits on the paralleled cables: c additional protection against mechanical damage and against humidity. Or c where the breaking of a circuit constitutes a risk. and c if no socket-outlets or branch connections are taken from AB. etc. Protection against overload and short-circuits is identical to that for a single-cable circuit.5 mm2 S2: 1. general rule A protective device is necessary at the origin of each circuit where a reduction of permissible maximum current level occurs. Consider case (3) c the overload device (S) is located adjacent to the load. c the cable route should be chosen so as to avoid close proximity to combustible materials. and c AB has been installed to reduce to a practical minimum the risk of a short-circuit (wires in heavy steel conduit for example).1. by the introduction of supplementary protection.1. required at the origin of each circuit. taking into account the mutual heating effects. Consider case (2) c the upstream device P1 protects the length AB against short-circuits in accordance with Sub-clause H1-5. e. The maximum permissible current is the sum of the individual-core maximum currents.

These studies were carried out with ECODIAL 2. and by the adoption of a 3-phase 3-wire IT-system at the main general distribution board from which the processing plant is supplied.the switchgear .18% 3x (3 x 240) Following the one-line diagram of the system shown in figure H1-8 below. H1-6 . general (continued) H1 1. 44 kA C1 8m .7% Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 C3 C4 3x (1 x 240) T1 315 kVA 400 V Q7 NS630N STR35SE 630 A B2 Q8 Q9 Q10 I1 I2 Q11 NS250N TMD 250 A Q12 NS160N TMD 160 A Q13 NS100N TMD 80 A fig.000 kVA transformer. a reproduction of the results of a computer study for the circuit C1 and its circuit breaker Q1.the protection of circuits . Q1 M16 N1 STR 38 1600 A B1 G1 500 kVA 721 A Q2 C801N STR35SE 800 A C2 15m . This is followed by the same calculations carried out by the methods described in this guide.1. H1-8: one-line diagram of the installation. The remainder of the installation is isolated by a 315 kVA 400/400V transformer: the isolated network is a TT-earthed 3-phase 4-wire system. and C2 with associated circuit breaker Q2 are presented.6 worked example of cable calculations installation scheme The installation is supplied through a 1.2 software (a Merlin Gerin product). TR1 1000 kVA 5% 400 V 26. The process requires a high degree of supply continuity and this is provided by the installation of a 500 kVA 400 V standby generator.

the switchgear .7 20334 .16 2.H1 calculations using software Ecodial 2.18 8.9 26.18 25.H1-7 .7 1374 40 3 M 16 N1 STR 38 1600 1374 3 1 125 5 3 .53 the protection of circuits .55 2.44 .23 output 3 3 x 240 1 x 240 8 .75 15 output input data 400 25.55 .18 2.43 9.13 8.34 24.1 .53 9.2 General network characteristics earthing system neutral distributed voltage (V) frequency (Hz) Transformer TR 1 number of transformers upstream fault level (MVA) rating (kVA) short-circuit impedance voltage (%) remarks nominal current (A) resistance of transformer (mΩ) reactance of transformer (mΩ) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) short-circuit power factor Cable C 1 maximum load current (A) type of insulation conductor material ambient temperature (°C) single-core or multi-core cable installation method number of circuits in close proximity (table H1-14) other coefficient number of phases selected cross-sectional area (mm2) protective conductor neutral conductor length (m) voltage drop ∆U (%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) touch voltage (V) Circuit breaker Q 1 voltage (V) 3-ph short-circuit current upstream of the circuit breaker (kA) maximum load current (A) ambient temperature (°C) number of poles circuit breaker type tripping unit type rated current (A) Busbars B 1 maximum load current (A) number of phases number of bars per phase width (mm) thickness (mm) length (m) remarks impedance of busbars R (mΩ) impedance of busbars X (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U(%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-ph short-circuit current (kA) IT N 400 50 input data 1 500 1000 5 output input data 1374 PRC Cu 30 UNI 13 1 1 1374 2.45 .11 .

25 mΩ per phase 240 x 3 0.2).s. 0.42 Three single-core XLPE-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used for each phase. H1-8 .374 A applying H1.82 K 3 = 1.12 x 8 X= = 0.32 mΩ per phase 3 (0.the switchgear .000 = In = 1. Iz = 433 A The method of installation is characterized by the reference letter E.000 kVA transformer has a rated no-load voltage of 420 V. The resistances and the inductive reactances for the three conductors in parallel are.67 21. Dimensioning circuit C 2 Circuit C 2 supplies a 315 kVA 3-phase 400/400 V isolating transformer Ib = 315 = 433 A.82 x 1 a c.42 x e A multi-core XLPE cable laid on a cable tray (together with two other cables) in an ambient air temperature of 30 °C is proposed.a.5 x 8 R= = 0. Circuit C 1 must be suitable for a current of In = 1. * Withdrawable. Plug-in type CBs are generally moulded-case units.18 13221 5.1 Iz I’z = = 1.2): 22. 433 I’z = = 528 A so that 1 x 0.2.2 mΩ per phase. The circuit breaker is regulated to 433 A. CBs are generally mounted in drawers for maintenance purposes. Table H1-17 indicates that the c. is 240 mm2.12 mΩ/metre was advised by the cable maker).6 worked example of cable calculations (continued) Circuit breaker Q 2 voltage (V) 3-ph short-circuit current upstream of the circuit breaker (kA) maximum load current (A) ambient temperature (°C) number of poles circuit breaker type tripping unit type rated current (A) 3-phase fault current (A) protection against indirect contact assured upstream circuit breaker absolute discrimination Cable C 2 maximum load current (A) type of insulation conductor material ambient temperature (°C) single-core or multi-core cable installation method number of circuits in close proximity (table H1-14) other coefficient number of phases selected cross-sectional area (mm2) protective conductor neutral conductor length (m) voltage drop ∆U (%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) touch voltage (V) input data 400 24.82 ( 3 three-phase groups in a single layer) K 3 = 1 (temperature 30 °C). The resistance and inductive reactance are respectively: 22.75 .the protection of circuits . for a length of 8 metres (see H1-4. of 240 mm2 is appropriate. K1xK2xK3 Each conductor will therefore carry 558 A.93 10.33 3. which may be completely removed from the fixed-base sockets.s. and the "K" correcting factors are: K1=1 K 2 = 0.53 433 40 3 NS630 N STR23SE 630 13221 M16 N1 STR38 input data 433 PRC Cu 30 UNI 13 1 1 3 1 x 240 1 x 70 15 .a.08 x 15 = 1. one might choose: Iz = 1.4 mΩ per phase 240 X = 0. If the circuit breaker is a withdrawable or unpluggable* type. these cables will be laid on cable trays corresponding with reference F (see tables in Clause H1 2.1.374 A per phase ex 0. general (continued) H1 1.57 73 output output table H1-9: calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (M. the same calculations using the methods recommended in this guide Dimensioning circuit C 1 The HV/LV 1.5 x 15 R= = 1. which can be regulated.G). The "K" correction factors are as follows: K1=1 K 2 = 0.676 A.

Tables H1. an indirect contact danger will exist at the transformer tank.772 3 = 26. is at the transformer tank. The only indirect-contact requirement for this circuit.a.24 8.2. RCDs are often employed in such cases.the switchgear .5 24.2 sub-total for Q2 3. withdrawal or unplugging facility and general ease of maintenance. In order to make the final choice.5.e.3. of its PE conductor should be: 21.15 x 5 = 0.530 The factor 1.77 V ∆U % = 100 x 0.34 %.its resistance being negligibly small. provided that it also satisfies the requirements for indirect-contact protection (i. For the circuit C2. For circuit C2. conductors is too high. is invariably selected for this section of the installation. 1. The protective conductor Thermal requirements. 400 At the circuit terminals of the LV/LV transformer the percentage volt-drop ∆U % = 0. therefore.s.7 mm2 176 In this case a 70 mm2 conductor may be adequate if the indirect-contact protection conditions are also satisfied.59. but the protection on the second faulty LV circuit must do so infallibly to ensure protection against the indirect contact danger.3 to 6. must be considered. isolating capability.29 it can be seen that: for C1 (3 x 240 mm2 per phase) 0. Dimensioning considerations for this conductor are given in Sub-clause 6.6.000 x √0.H1 Calculation of short-circuit currents for the selection of circuit breakers Q 1 and Q2 *all values are to a 420 voltage base e circuits R* X* Z* components parts mΩ mΩ mΩ 500 kVA at the HV source network 0. The maximum permitted length of the circuit is given by: 0. This means that if one (of the two) concurrent LV phase-to-earth faults should occur in the transformer.487 = 50 metres. generally connects the tank of the HV/LV transformer to the earth electrode for the installation at a common earthing busbar in the main general distribution board. for the protective earth (PE) conductor for circuit C1 will be: 26500 x √0. The inductive reactance of busbars B1 is estimated to be 0. when using the adiabatic method (IEC 724 (1984) Clause 2) the c.s.6 mm2 176 a single 240 mm2 conductor dimensioned for other reasons mentioned later is therefore largely sufficient.36 = 0.E.1 u = 47.e. the protection of circuits . the current level at which the instantaneous short-circuit magnetic trip of the 630 A circuit breaker operates).60 and H1.25 0.5 = 76.53 %. that its impedance is sufficiently low). Overcurrent protective devices must then be relied upon to cut-off the faulty circuits.050 0.25 + 240/70) x 630 x 11. conductor mentioned above. features such as selectivity. Isc* kA 26.43 and G. as described. please refer to Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.374 A x 0. (The value in the denominator 630 x 11. as noted in Chapter G Sub-clauses 6.E.2 Sub-clause H1-4.2 shows the formula for calculating the short-circuit current Isc at a given point in the system. a conductor of large c.85 cable C 2 1.6 21.2. where the resistance of P.a. and very often HV lightning arresters on the transformer are connected to earth through the P.5 x (1.10 cable C 1 0.25 in the denominator is a 25% increase in resistance for a 240 mm2 conductor.5 = Im i. and so on. For further details of magnetic tripping devices.42 table H1-10: example of short-circuit current evaluation.015 km = 1.2 may be used for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit.21 V/A/km x 1.36 V ∆U % = 100 x 1.008 km ∆U = 3 = 0. the HV overcurrent protection for the transformer is unlikely to operate. in accordance with Chapter G Sub-clause 5.72 11. except in particular circumstances i.94 10.13 busbars B1 0.542 + 8. This value is equal to 10 In + 15 % (the highest positive manufacturing tolerance for the tripping device).5 kA at Q 1. Since a HV fault to earth at the transformer is also always possible.61 show that.35 HV/LV transformer 2. In such a case.40 1. Protection against indirect-contact hazards Reminder: the LV neutral point of an IT-scheme transformer is isolated from earth.a.s.32 sub-total for Q1 2. Voltage drop From table H1.21 V/A/km x 433 A x 0. The Isc at the location of Q 2 is computed as for Q 1. Circuit C 1 will be of class 2 insulation i. tables G.19 %.1 u = 37.E.77 9. conductor in question.8 x 230 x 240 x ex 103 Lmax = 2 x 22.e. The length of 15 metres is therefore fully protected by "instantaneous" overcurrent devices.77 = 0.75 9. or the formula given in Sub-clause G. each on a different phase (or on one phase and a neutral conductor). 400 for C2 ∆U = 0. the c. with the aid of manufacturers catalogues. If the rated no-load voltage of the transformer is 420 V: 420 Isc = 2.75 mΩ .54 8. or is earthed through a high resistance (1-2 kΩ) so that an indirect-contact hazard can only exist if two earth faults occur concurrently.H1-9 . double insulation and no earthed exposed conductive parts. and found to be 21 kA.e. The 240 mm2 P.

The procedure is as follows: c determine an appropriate code-letter reference which takes into account: v the type of circuit (single-phase. corresponding to a conductor size that the protective device is capable of protecting fuse IZ = 1.the switchgear . which takes into account the influences of factor K (I'Z = IZ/K). The dimensioning of the neutral and protective conductors is explained in H1-6 and H1-7. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors H1 2. The first step is to determine the size of the phase conductors. and c the factor of influence K. In this clause the following cases are considered: c unburied conductors.2. and of the insulating sheath of the conductors (refer to tables H1-17 or H1-24) I 'Z S1 I 'Z S2 verification of other conditions that may be required-see figure H1. v ambient temperature. H1-10 . or under plaster c in underfloor cavity or behind false ceiling c in a trench.10 In if In 25 A* I Z1 circuit breaker I Z = I n* I Z2 Determination of the size (c. depending on type of conductor and method of installation.31 In if In 10 A* IZ = 1. 2.1 * or slightly greater table H1-11: logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits the size of a phase conductor is given in tables which relate: c the code letter symbolizing the method of installation. v circuit grouping. surface or flush-mounting.g. The possible methods of types of conductor single-core wires and multi-core cables installation are numerous. or on supporting brackets c surface-mounted clear of the surface (e. on cleats) c catenary cables B C E single-core cables F table H1-12: code-letter reference.1 general installation conditions for the conductors maximum load current IB IB rated current In of the protective device must be equal to or greater than the maximum load current IB determination of K factors and of the appropriate letter code In choice of maximum permissible current IZ for the circuit. c buried conductors. etc.) of the conductors of the circuit capable of carrying IZ1 or IZ2.) and v the kind of installation: and then c determine the factor K of the circuit considered. threephase.a.the protection of circuits .21 In if In 10 A* and In 25 A* IZ = 1. which covers the following influences: v installation method. but the most common of them have been grouped according to four classes of similar environmental conditions. determination of the code-letter reference The letter of reference (B to F) depends on the type of conductor used and its method of installation. The tables in this clause permit the determination of the size of phase conductors for a circuit of given current magnitude. by use of an equivalent current I'Z. as shown below in table H1-12. perforated trays. These tables distinguish unburied circuits from buried circuits. letter code multi-core cables method of installation c under decorative moulding with or without a removable cover.s. moulding or wainscoting c surface-mounted in contact with wall or ceiling c on non-perforated cable trays c cable ladders. of the letter code.

code letter B installation details .79 0.79 0.72 0. C. and is given by: K = K1 x K2 x K3 the three component factors depending on different features of the installation. F . is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables. code letter location of correction factor K2 cables in close number of circuits or multicore cables proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 B.50 0.75 0.45 0.72 0.90 .77 .H1-11 .13 to H1.88 0.95 1 table H1-13: factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H).H1 for circuits which are not buried.72 0.61 on ceiling E.73 0. Two circuits are considered to be in close proximity when L.68 0.78 on cable ladders. determination of the factor K The factor k summarizes the several features which characterize the conditions of installation.15 below.61 0.73 0.78 0.65 0.71 0.72 on horizontal perforated trays. The values of these factors are given in tables H1.80 0. etc table H1-14: correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer the protection of circuits .52 0.80 0. K2 and K3.80 0.the switchgear .construction cavities and closed cables trenches C B.63 0. correction factor K1 Factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation. factor k characteristizes the conditions of installation.62 0.multi-core cables 0.87 0.41 0.00 0.00 0.C embedded 1.73 0.cables installed directly in thermal-insulation materials example K1 0.60 0.95 0.82 0. brackets.75 0.70 on walls or floors. factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.95 0. or on vertical trays single layer 1.85 0.64 0. Correction factor K2 Factor K2 is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close proximity.78 0. the distance between two cables. E.72 0.00 0.54 0.81 0.72 0.70 .66 0.77 0.79 0.surface mounted on ceiling .70 0.57 0.70 0.conduits installed in thermalinsulation materials 0.38 or buried in the walls C single layer 1.F single layer 1.00 0. or on unperforated cables trays single layer 0. factor K2 is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close proximity. It is obtained by multiplying three correction factors K1.other cases 0.82 0.

71 0. the latter comprising 2 cables per phase.93 0.76 60 0.22 1.96 40 0.07 1.15 15 1.75.91 45 0.04 30 1.12 1.61 0.15 1.58 0. The code letter indicated in table H1-12 is E.12 20 1. H1-12 .58 75 80 table H1-15: correction factor K3 for ambient temperatures other than 30 °C. therefore.17 1.00 35 0. circuit no. according to the type of insulation. 2 and no. c six single-core cables (circuit no. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2.80 3 layers : 0. Example: A 3-phase 3-core XLPE cable is laid on a perforated cable-tray in close proximity to three other circuits. H1-16: example in the determination of factors K1.71 0. ambient temperatures cross-linkedpolyethylene (XLPE) butyl. There are. 3 are 3-phase circuits. effectively 5 3-phase circuits to be considered.91. K1 given by table H1-13 = 1. K2 given by table H1-14 = 0. consisting of: c a 3-phase 3-core cable (circuit no.the protection of circuits .00 1. 1). Correction factor K3 Factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the temperature. c three single-core cables (circuit no.the switchgear . will have the following values : 2 layers : 0.75 x 0.91 = 0.65 70 0. The ambient temperature is 40 °C. as shown in figure H1-16. ethylenepropylene-rubber (EPR) 10 1. by which K2 must be multiplied.00 1. 2).29 1.07 1.70.71 65 0.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued) When cables are installed in more than one layer a further factor.82 0.79 0. K3 given by table H1-15 = 0.08 25 1.50 0.93 0.87 0.68.2. K = K1 x K2 x K3 = 1 x 0.22 1. factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the temperature according to the type of insulation. 1 2 3 insulation elastomer (rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) θa = 40°C XLPE fig.73 4 or 5 layers : 0.87 50 0.82 55 0. K2 and K3. 3).

s. together with corresponding cable sizes for different types of insulation and core material (copper or aluminium).s. 1. insulation and number of conductors (2 or 3) rubber butyl or XLPE or EPR or PVC code B PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 B code letter C PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 C letter E PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 E F PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 F c.a.5 c.H1 determination of the minimum cross-sectional area of a conductor The current Iz when divided by K gives a fictitious current I'z. insulation material and the fictitious current I'z. the protection of circuits .H1-13 .a.5 18.a.5 18. conductor material.5 22 23 24 26 1.s. Values of I'z are given in table H1-17 below.5 16.5 21 24 25 27 30 31 33 36 2. copper 2.).a.5 c.5 copper 4 28 32 34 36 40 42 45 49 4 (mm2) (mm2) 6 36 41 43 48 51 54 58 63 6 10 50 57 60 63 70 75 80 86 10 16 68 76 80 85 94 100 107 115 16 25 89 96 101 112 119 127 138 149 161 25 35 110 119 126 138 147 158 169 185 200 35 50 134 144 153 168 179 192 207 225 242 50 70 171 184 196 213 229 246 268 289 310 70 95 207 223 238 258 278 298 328 352 377 95 120 239 259 276 299 322 346 382 410 437 120 150 299 319 344 371 395 441 473 504 150 185 341 364 392 424 450 506 542 575 185 240 403 430 461 500 538 599 641 679 240 300 464 497 530 576 621 693 741 783 300 400 656 754 825 940 400 500 749 868 946 1083 500 630 855 1005 1088 1254 630 c.5 19. 2. derived from the code letter. aluminium 4 22 25 26 28 31 33 35 38 4 alu (mm2) 6 28 32 33 36 39 43 45 49 6 (mm2) 10 39 44 46 49 54 59 62 67 10 16 53 59 61 66 73 79 84 91 16 25 70 73 78 83 90 98 101 108 121 25 35 86 90 96 103 112 122 126 135 150 35 50 104 110 117 125 136 149 154 164 184 50 70 133 140 150 160 174 192 198 211 237 70 95 161 170 183 195 211 235 241 257 289 95 120 186 197 212 226 245 273 280 300 337 120 150 227 245 261 283 316 324 346 389 150 185 259 280 298 323 363 371 397 447 185 240 305 330 352 382 430 439 470 530 240 300 351 381 406 440 497 508 543 613 300 400 526 600 663 740 400 500 610 694 770 856 500 630 711 808 899 996 630 table H1-17: case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c.s.5 15.a.5 17.the switchgear .5 21 23 25 26 28 2.5 19.s.

the protection of circuits .2.s.8 conduits. For an aluminium conductor the corresponding values are 43 A and 6 mm2.8 A 0. Cables are in close proximity when the distance L separating them is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables concerned.57 0. Correction factor K5 Factor K5 is a measure of the mutual influence of circuits placed side-by-side in close proximity.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits In the case of buried circuits the determination of minimum conductor sizes. When cables are laid in several layers. K6 and K7.68. H1-18: example for the determination of minimum cable sizes. c circuit breaker: In = 25 A v permissible current Iz = 25 A v fictitious current I'z = 25 = 36.41 0. and is obtained from the following factors: K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = K each of which depends on a particular feature of installation.the switchgear .2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued) Example The example shown in figure H1-16 for determining the value of K.6 A 0. H1-14 .65 0. factor K4 measures the influence of the method of installation. by using the table H1-17. Determination of the cross-sectional areas A standard value of In nearest to.45 0.8 for 2 layers.68 v cross-sectional-area of conductors is found as follows: In the column PR3 corresponding to code letter E the value of 42 A (the nearest value greater than 36.21 x 25 = Iz = 30. one based on protection by a circuit breaker and the second on protection by fuses.52 0. The XLPE cable to be installed will carry 23 amps per phase.00 0. The values of these several factors are given in tables H1-19 to H1-22.60 0. will also be used to illustrate the way in which the minimum cross-sectional-area (c. K5. c fuses: In = 25 A v permissible current Iz = K3 In = 1. c the factor K = 0.80 0. 2. 0.7 for 4 layers or 5 layers. or in decorative mouldings other cases 1 table H1-19: correction factor K4 related to the method of installation.a.) of conductors may be found. multiply K5 by 0. necessitates the establishement of a factor K. determination of factor K Factor K summarizes the global influence of different conditions of installation.73 for 3 layers.50 0. but higher than 23 A is required. for buried circuits the value of factor K characteristizes the conditions of installation. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2. Previous examples show that: c the appropriate code letter is E. of 4 mm2. method of installation K4 placed in earthenware ducts. in 0.3 = 40. of copper or aluminium conductors are (in this case) found to be the same as those noted above for a circuit-breaker-protected circuit.38 table H1-20: correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer.a.s. Two solutions are possible. and is obtained by multiplying together correction factors K4. 0.3 A v the fictitious current I'z = 30. 1 2 3 θa = 40°C XLPE fig. factor K5 measures the mutual influence of circuits placed side-byside in close proximity. A code letter corresponding to a method of installation is not necessary.70 0. Correction factor K4 Factor K4 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.8 A) is shown to require a copper conductor c.68 v the cross-sectional-areas. location of correction factor K5 cables side-by-side number of circuits or of multicore cables in close proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 buried 1.54 0.

10 1.63 0.86 table H1-21: correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil.76 55 0. K = K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = 0.6.00 1.45 0.65 table H1-22: correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C. The conductors are PVC insulated and supply a 5 kW lighting load. K5 from table H1.20 = 0. K4 from table H1-19 = 0.05 dry soil 1. the protection of circuits . nature of soil K6 very wet soil (saturated) 1.96 30 0. Correction factor K6 This factor takes into account the nature and condition of the soil in which a cable (or cables) is (are) buried. The circuit is protected by a circuit breaker.07 15 1.77 0.21 = 1. K6 and K7.13 damp soil 1. The soil temperature is 20 °C. Example A single-phase 230 V circuit is included with four other loaded circuits in a buried conduit. K7 from table H1. θa = 20°C 5 kW 230 V insulation polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) fig.89 40 0. soil temperature °C cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) 10 1.55 0.84 0.04 20 1.the switchgear .8. notably its thermal conductivity.05 1.H1-15 .0.93 35 0.21 wet soil 1.95 0. H1-23: example for the determination of K4. K5.00 very dry soil (sunbaked) 0.85 45 0. K6 from table H1.22 = 1.71 60 0. factor K7 is a measure of the influence of the soil temperature.48.89 0. Correction factor K7 This factor takes into account the influence of soil temperature if it differs from 20 °C.0.80 50 0.H1 factor K6 is a measure of the influence of the earth in which the cable is buried.71 0.00 25 0.

a.e.5 26 32 31 37 copper 2. 10 57 68 67 80 aluminium 16 74 88 87 104 2 (mm ) 25 94 114 111 133 35 114 137 134 160 50 134 161 160 188 70 167 200 197 233 95 197 237 234 275 120 224 270 266 314 150 254 304 300 359 185 285 343 337 398 240 328 396 388 458 300 371 447 440 520 table H1-24: case of a buried circuit: minimum c. of circuit conductors In the column PVC. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2. K Example This is a continuation of the previous example. of the circuit conductors.s.000 IB = = 22 A 230 Selection of protection A circuit-breaker rated at 25 A would be appropriate.a.the protection of circuits .s. H1-25: example for determination of the minimum c.2. K5. Full load current 5.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits (continued) determination of the smallest c.s. In the case where the circuit conductors are in aluminium. Maximum permanent current permitted Iz = 25 A (i. type of insulation.a. or cross-linked polyethylene XLPE. insulation and number of loaded conductors rubber or PVC Butyl. for which the factors K4. and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz ). the corresponding crosssectional-areas are given in table H1-24 below. the circuit-breaker rating In) Fictitious current Iz 25 I'z = = = 52.the switchgear .a. θa = 20°C 5 kW 230 V fig. for buried circuits Knowing Iz and K. or ethylene-propylene rubber EPR 3 conductors 2 conductors 3 conductors 2 conductors c. H1-16 . and the factor K was found to be 0.48. K6 and K7 were determined.s.a.a. in terms of type of conductor.s. (cross-sectional-area) of a conductor.1 A K 0. the same fictitious current (52 A) would require the choice of 10 mm2 corresponding to a fictitious current value (for aluminium) of 68 A. a current of 54 A corresponds to a 4 mm2 copper conductor.5 34 42 41 48 (mm2) 4 44 54 53 63 6 56 67 66 80 10 74 90 87 104 16 96 116 113 136 25 123 148 144 173 35 147 178 174 208 50 174 211 206 247 70 216 261 254 304 95 256 308 301 360 120 290 351 343 410 150 328 397 387 463 185 367 445 434 518 240 424 514 501 598 300 480 581 565 677 c.48 C. 2 conductors. 1.s.

This section deals with methods of determining voltage drops.) depends on the voltage at its terminals being maintained at a value close to its rated value. then a drop of 40% or more will occur during start-up. c they satisfy the essential operational requirements. For these reasons it is recommended that the maximum value of 8% in steady operating conditions should not be reached on circuits which are sensitive to under-voltage problems. 3. satisfactory motor performance requires a voltage within ± 5% of its rated nominal value in steady-state operation. that at full-load current. c they can be tolerated by the load. Similar (but inverse) problems will arise in countries which presently operate 240/415 V systems. if the IEC 230/400 V standard is adopted by them. Important: In a number of countries the existing 220/380 V 3-phase systems are being uprated to operate eventually at nominal 230/400 V (the recommended IEC standard). etc.3. After several years of transition in the appliances industry.1 maximum voltage-drop limit Maximum allowable voltage-drop limits vary from one country to another. remain stationary due to insufficient torque to overcome the load torque) with consequent over-heating and eventual trip-out. c finally an 8% voltage drop represents a continuous (E2/R watts) of power loss. When voltage drops exceed the values shown in table H1-26 larger cables (wires) must be used to correct the condition. v or accelerate very slowly. lighting circuit. In such conditions the motor will either: v stall (i. etc. can lead to problems for motor loads. as mentioned in Chapter B Sub-clause 4. determination of voltage drop H1 The impedance of circuit conductors is low but not negligible: when carrying load current there is a fall in voltage between the origin of the circuit and the load terminals. Typical values for LV installations are given below in table H1-26.e. for continuous loads will be a significant waste of (metered) energy. the load terminal voltage is maintained within the limits required for correct performance. If 8% voltage drop occurs at full-load current. c a fully-loaded "old" transformer and a "new" motor: risk of undervoltage at the motor. The correct operation of an item of load (a motor. Transformer manufacturers in these countries have recently increased the no-load secondary voltage of their distribution transformers accordingly. Dangerous possible consequences for motors are: c a lightly-loaded "new" transformer and an "old" motor: risk of overvoltage on the motor. c starting current of a motor can be 5 to 7 times its full-load value (or even higher). The value of 8%.H1-17 . HV consumer LV consumer 8%(1) 5%(1) load (1) between the LV supply point and the load fig.). in order to check that: c they conform to the particular standards and regulations in force. maximum voltage-drop between the service-connection point and the point of utilization lighting other uses (heating and power) a low-voltage service connection from a LV 3% 5% public power distribution network consumers HV/LV substation supplied from 6% 8% a public distribution HV system table H1-26: maximum voltage-drop limits. therefore. It is necessary therefore to dimension the circuit conductors such. the protection of circuits . for example: c in general. The rated voltage of consumer appliances will evolve in the same time-scale.3 (factor of simultaneity. voltage-drop calculations must take account of these changes. From now on. simultaneous switching (by chance) of several loads. to 237/410 V. etc. These voltage-drop limits refer to normal steady-state operating conditions and do not apply at times of motor starting. so that the heavy current loading (with possibly undesirable low-voltage effects on other equipment) will continue beyond the normal start-up period. while permitted. distribution transformers will be manufactured with no-load ratios of 242/420 V.the switchgear . which. H1-27: maximum voltage drop.

If: IB: the full load current in amps L: length of the cable in kilometres R: resistance of the cable conductor in Ω/km 22.95 0.35 10.65 1 0.the protection of circuits .6 0.25 0.4 1.2 0.35 v in normal service: cos ϕ = 0.30 0.a.08 Ω/km.4 4.24 0.52 0.22 0. ϕ: phase angle between voltage and current in the circuit considered. or lighting with a cos ϕ in the neighbourhood of unity.26 0.55 0.26 0.31 0.8 Un: phase-to-phase voltage.19 0.39 0.5 2.48 0.21 0.56 0.37 0.4 12 5.13 table H1-29: phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit. of 500 mm2. circuit single phase: phase/phase single phase: phase/neutral balanced 3-phase: 3 phases (with or without neutral) table H1-28: voltage-drop formulae. In the absence of any other information.2 7.29 0.1 2. For prefabricated pre-wired ducts and bustrunking.7 1.2 0.the switchgear .8 24 14.33 0.1 3.5 1.6 6.5 2.8.8 1.4 0. Vn: phase-to-neutral voltage.24 0.18 0.37 0.3 2.5 3.19 cos ϕ = 1 30 18 11.27 0.5 6.42 0.24 0. Voltage drop in a cable is then given by: K x IB x L c.5 1.15 0.64 0.8 cos ϕ = 0. Cu 1. take X as being equal to 0. less than 50 mm2. generally: c lighting: cos ϕ = 1 c motor power: v at start-up: cos ϕ = 0.77 0.mm2/km R= for copper S (c.21 lighting start-up cos ϕ = 0.2 3.2 1.1 0.6 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Al 10 16 25 35 50 70 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 balanced three-phase circuit motor power normal service start-up cos ϕ = 0. in volts per ampere per km.86 0.3 0.36 1.3.s.23 0. voltage drop (∆ U) in volts ∆U = 2 IB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L ∆U = 2 IB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L ∆U = eIB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L in % 100 ∆U Un 100 ∆U Vn 100 ∆U Un simplified table Calculations may be avoided by using the table H1-29 below.75 0.15 0.30 0. IB is the full-load current in amps.5 Ω.5 2. single-phase or 3-phase.s.s. with an adequate approximation. L is the length of cable in km.34 0.7 8 3.47 0.19 0.15 K is given by the table.75 0. in mm2) Note: R is negligible above a c. X: inductive reactance of a conductor in Ω/km Note: X is negligible for conductors of c. H1-18 .29 0.a.6 5. in terms of: c kinds of circuit use: motor circuits with cos ϕ close to 0.32 0.8 1.29 0. in mm2) 2 36 Ω.1 6.s.mm /km R= for aluminium S (c.4 9.a.05 1 1.41 0.21 0.5 4.35" of table H1-29 may be used to compute the voltage drop occurring during the start-up period of a motor (see example (1) after the table H1-29).7 2.17 0. the phase-to-phase voltage drop per km of cable per ampere. which gives.64 0. The column motor power cos ϕ = 0. resistance and inductive reactance values are given by the manufacturer.a.s. c of the type of cable.47 0. in mm2 single-phase circuit motor power normal service cos ϕ = 0.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions use of formulae The table below gives formulae commonly used to calculate voltage drop in a given circuit per kilometre of length.9 1.35 20 9. determination of voltage drop (continued) H1 3.a.16 0.16 lighting cos ϕ = 1 25 15 9.

H1-19 .a.e.05 = 13 V Owing to the additional current taken by the motor when starting.05 = 4.52 x 500 x 0.the switchgear .2 + 2. H1-30: example 1. 10 x 1400 = 14 V 1000 ∆U distribution board = 14 V ∆U for the motor cable = 13 V ∆U total = 13 + 14 = 27 V i.75 % 400 a value which is satisfactory during motor starting. ∆U line = 0.02 = 7.8 on normal permanent load. c 500 A (5 In) at a cos ϕ = 0. each of 2. c voltage drop during motor start-up: ∆U cable = 0. i.s.2 V The total volt-drop is therefore 7. 27 x 100 = 6. the protection of circuits . with the distribution board of figure H1-30 distributing a total of 1.000 A) is 10 V phase-to-phase.6 V 9.e. the volt drop at the distribution board will exceed 10 Volts. What is the volt drop at the motor terminals: c in normal service? c during start-up? Solution: c voltage drop in normal service conditions: ∆U % = 100 ∆U/Un Table H1-29 shows 1 V/A/km so that: ∆U for the cable = 1 x 100 x 0. H1-31: example 2.125 V = 2.e.38 V phase to neutral. Example 2 A 3-phase 4-wire copper line of 70 mm2 c. The line supplies. and each passing 20 A.55 V/A/km.e. It is assumed that the currents in the 70 mm2 line are balanced and that the three lighting circuits are all connected to it at the same point. copper 20 m long.38 = 9.2 % 230 V This value is satisfactory. 15 x 100 = 3.125 V phase-to-phase which: 4. Supposing that the infeed to the distribution board during motor starting is 900 + 500 = 1.6 V x 100 = 4.05 = 5 V ∆U total = 10 + 5 = 15 V = i.a.75 % 400 This value is less than that authorized (8%) and is satisfactory.5 mm2 c. 1000 A 400 V 50 m / 35 mm2 Cu IB = 100 A (500 A during start-up) fig. among other loads.s. being less than the maximum permitted voltage drop of 6%. e c voltage drop in any one of the lighting single-phase circuits: ∆U for a single-phase circuit = 18 x 20 x 0.55 x 150 x 0.H1 examples: Example 1 (figure H1-30) A three-phase 35 mm2 copper cable 50 metres long supplies a 400 V motor taking: c 100 A at a cos ϕ = 0. What is the voltage drop at the end of the lighting circuits? Solution: c voltage drop in the 4-wire line: ∆U % = 100 ∆U/Un Table H1-29 shows 0. and a length of 50 m passes a current of 150 A. The voltage drop at the origin of the motor cable in normal circumstances (i. 50 m / 70 mm2 Cu IB = 150 A 20 m / 2.35 during start-up.5 mm2 Cu IB = 20 A fig.400 A then the volt-drop at the distribution board will increase approximately pro rata. 3 single-phase lighting circuits.

5 8.4.0 13.2 21.71 1.3 transformer rating 50 to 630 800 to 2500 Usc in % type of transformer oil-immersed cast-resin 4% 6% 6% 6% table H1-32: typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV.41 5. In the following notes a 3-phase short-circuit of zero impedance (the so-called bolted short-circuit) fed through a typical HV/LV distribution transformer will be examined.9 14.4 27. or less. Other factors which have not been taken into account are the impedance of the busbars and of the circuit breakers.0 2500 3437 49. The choice of circuit breakers and incorporated protective devices against short-circuit fault currents is described in Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. is sufficiently accurate for basic installation design purposes.4 43. The conservative fault-current value obtained however.5 26.14 100 137 3.65 250 344 8.04 500 687 16. Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA 630 866 20.7 7. Example: 400 kVA transformer.1 11.63 3.49 5. in the large majority of cases. Isc1 Isc2 Isc3 Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3 fig. so that: In x 100 Isc = where Usc P x 103 and: In = eU20 P = kVA rating of the transformer.71 1.1 52.63 5.28 2. Short-circuit currents occurring in a network supplied from an alternator and also in d.5 22. or 250 MVA.68 315 433 10.9 17.75 kA 4 c in practice Isc is slightly less than that calculated by this method. is more common.2 13.4 21. transformer rated power (kVA) transformer current Ir (A) oil-immersed transformer Isc (kA) cast-resin transformer Isc (kA) 50 69 1. in which case the values obtained from table H1-33 when added together will give a slightly higher fault-level value than would actually occur. 242/420 V at no load Usc = 4% In = 400 x 103 = 550 A ÷ ex 420 550 x 100 Isc = = 13. In = nominal current in amps Isc = short-circuit fault current in amps. A level of 250 MVA. Typical values of Usc for distribution transformers are given in the table H1-32..07 7.4 27.9 1000 1375 21. systems are dealt with in Chapter J Sub-clauses 1.1.the switchgear .5 22.4 16.4 43. short-circuit current calculations H1 knowing the levels of 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit currents (Isc) at different points in an installation is an essential feature of its design. this type of fault is the most severe.1 800 1100 17.1 34.8 33. 4. U20 = phase-to-phase secondary volts on open circuit.5 10.9 tables H1-33: Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA.38 8.1 34. the case of several transformers in parallel feeding a busbar The value of fault current on an outgoing circuit immediately downstream of the busbars (figure H1-34) can be estimated as the sum of the Isc from each transformer calculated separately. Usc = short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer in %.1 52.42 2. Except in very unusual circumstances.8 2000 2749 40. protective devices (discriminative trip settings) and so on.4 17.c.14 1.5 1600 2199 33.1 and 6.93 9.9 49.8 11.4.40 3.0 40. and is certainly the simplest to calculate.the protection of circuits .1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV distribution transformer the case of one transformer c as a first approximation the impedance of the HV system is assumed to be negligibly small.14 400 550 13. A knowledge of 3-phase symmetrical shortcircuit current values (Isc) at strategic points of an installation is necessary in order to dimension switchgear (fault current rating).45 3.4 17. as shown in the following table (H1-33) since the HV system impedance is such that its fault level at the HV terminals of the transformer rarely exceeds 500 MVA.. The simplified calculations and practical rules which follow give conservative results of sufficient accuracy. H1-20 . for installation design purposes. cables (thermal withstand rating).28 160 220 5. H1-34.2 1250 1718 26. It is assumed that all transformers are supplied from the same HV network.

s.053 Xa (mΩ) 0. Ra may be taken to be equal to 0.H1-21 .71 0. and so on. predominantly both resistive (or both inductive) be combined to give a single equivalent resistance (or reactance) as follows: Let R1 and R2 be the two resistances connected in parallel. cable. The method consists in dividing the network into convenient sections. namely.) is characterized by its impedance Z. *Short-circuit MVA: eEL Isc where: EL = phase-to-phase nominal system voltage expressed in kV (r. as shown in the impedance diagram of figure H1-35.m.s. The parameters R. to give RT and XT. expressed in volts. transformer. * up to 36 kV Ra (mΩ) 0. Isc = 3-phase short-circuit current expressed in kA (r. If more accurate calculations are necessary.the switchgear . General methods for reducing impedances to a single equivalent impedance are given.15 Xa. R1 R2 X1 X2 or for reactances X3 = R1 + R2 X1 + X2 Combining two or more dissimilar circuits in parallel is (fortunately) seldom required in normal radial-type installation networks and will not be demonstrated in the main text. Where sections are connected in series in the network all the resistive elements in the section are added arithmetically. Table H1-36 gives values for Ra and Xa corresponding to the most common HV* short-circuit levels in public power-supply networks.. and to calculate the R and X values for each.). in Appendix H1. likewise for the reactances. comprising an element of resistance (R) and an inductive reactance (X). expressed in kVA. The upstream (HV) resistance Ra is generally found to be negligible compared with the corresponding Xa. however. busbar. as follows Uo2 Zs = where: Psc Zs = impedance of the HV voltage network.. 250 MVA and 500 MVA. Psc 250 MVA 500 MVA Uo (V) 420 420 Psc = HV 3-phase short-circuit fault level. the protection of circuits . The impedance (Z) for the combined sections concerned is then calculated from ZT = RT 2 + XT 2 Any two sections of the network which are connected in parallel.). method of calculating ZT Each component of an installation (HV network. ZT = total impedance per phase of the installation upstream of the fault location (in ohms). from which an equivalent impedance can be deduced. It may be noted that capacitive reactances are not important in short-circuit current calculations. R3 = determination of the impedance of the HV network c network upstream of the HV/LV transformer (table H1-36) The 3-phase short-circuit fault level in kA or in MVA* is given by the power supply authority concerned. X and Z are expressed in ohms. the latter then being taken as the ohmic value for Za.m. and are related by the sides of a rightangled triangle. H1-35: impedance diagram. expessed in milli-ohms. A formula which makes this deduction and at the same time converts the impedance to an equivalent value at LV is given. if. then the equivalent resistance R3 wil be given by: Z X ϕ R fig.H1 4.106 0. can. circuit breaker.2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation In a 3-phase installation Isc at any point is given by: Isc = U20 (amps) eZT U20 = phase-to-phase voltage of the opencircuited secondary windings of the powersupply transformer(s). Uo = phase-to-phase no-load LV voltage.353 table H1-36: the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer.

the manufacturer should be consulted. particularly in the case of large motors and/or numerous smaller motors.4 315 4 6.3 10.3 22.5 6.0 42.2 26.4 6 8.5 mΩ.1 100 4 37. viewed from the LV terminals.4.e. For prefabricated bus-trunking and similar pre-wired ducting systems.a. but at low voltage this resistance is sufficient to reduce the fault-current to some extent.the switchgear .2 4.2 5.7 28.the protection of circuits .8 5.3 10.1 6 18.s.2.8 26.4 105.1 25. a running motor will act (for a brief period) as a generator.3 8.08 mΩ/metre may be used (for 50 Hz systems) or 0.6 4.9 21.2 630 4 2.096 mΩ/metre (for 60 Hz systems).3 104. of conductor in mm2.6 400 4 5.5 6 33.6 63. Note: for circuit breaker fault-current makingduty however.mm2/m for aluminium. 3.8 11. For c. the contribution from motors is often reduced to very low values at the instant of contact separation.9 12.1 5.5 m In for m similar motors operating concurrently.5 In from each motor i.6 1250 6 1.6 14.15 mΩ/metre* length for LV busbars (doubling the spacing between the bars increases the reactance by about 10% only).9 13. while the resistance is neglected. i. a value of 0.1 6. Usc = the short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer expressed in %.5 70.2 6 10.5 66.2 6 3.1 141. * and fuses c fault-arc resistance Short-circuit faults generally form an arc which has the properties of resistance.6 2000 6 1. 4 or 5 In. but 0.1 16.4 6.2 6 2.15 mΩ per CB.6 33.3 6 0.7 41.9 13. Rtr = resistance of one phase of the transformer in milli-ohms (the LV and corresponding HV winding for one LV phase are included in this resistance value). 800 6 2. for more precise calculation.7 6 6. so that the impedance is practically all reactive.6 6 1.18 mΩ/metre length at 60 Hz. * for 50 Hz systems. This phenomenon will effectively ease the current-breaking duty of a CB.a.3 2500 6 0.1 6 4. S = c.9 4.6 20. of less than 50 mm2 reactance may be ignored. no account can be taken of diminution of fault current contribution. but with lowinertia high-speed LV CBs* the value given in the above formula is recommended.8 160 4 16. the total contribution can be estimated from the formula: Iscm = 3.2 32. the impedance of circuit breakers upstream of the fault location must be taken into account. and feed current into the fault.6 13.5 6 1. is given by the formula: U22O Usc Ztr = x milli-ohms where: Pn 100 U2 o = open-circuit secondary phase-tophase voltage expressed in volts.8 8.4 1600 6 1. Pn = rating of the transformer (in kVA).5 100. and for that reason is frequently ignored. However. The reactance value conventionally assumed is 0.2 transformer rated power oil-immersed transformer Usc Rtr Xtr Ztr cast-resin transformer Usc Rtr Xtr Ztr kVA % mΩ mΩ mΩ % mΩ mΩ mΩ 50 4 95. Xtr = Ztr 2 − Rtr 2 For an approximate calculation Rtr may be ignored since X ≈ Z in standard distributiontype transformers. c busbars The resistance of busbars is generally negligible.s. c circuit breakers In LV circuits. this fault-current contribution may be ignored.8 table H1-37: resistance.5 500 4 3.4 10.e.2 250 4 9.mm2/m for copper.4 16. 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation (continued) c transformers (table H1-37) The impedance Ztr of a transformer.9 17.0 13.3 8.7 21. reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers with HV windings i 20 kV. In general.3 1000 6 2. In the absence of other information. In = nominal full-load current in amps. single-phase-motor contribution being insignificant.5 8.9 10. The transformer windings resistance Rtr can be derived from the total losses as follows: Pcu = 3 In2 Rtr so that Rtr = Pcu x 103 3 In2 in milli-ohms where Pcu = total losses in watts.0 44. c motors At the instant of short-circuit.5 6. short-circuit current calculations (continued) H1 4. 36 mΩ. Experience has shown that a reduction of the order of 20% may be expected.9 59. Cable reactance values can be obtained from the manufacturers.1 4.9 10. H1-22 .2 41.5 16. and amounts to approximately 0. c circuit conductors The resistance of a conductor is given by the formula: ρx L Rc = where S ρ = the resistivity constant of the conductor material at the normal operating temperature being: 22. but affords no relief for its fault-current making duty. For HV circuit breakers. and each running motor will initially feed current into the fault at a level approaching its own starting current. The motors concerned will be the 3-phase motors only.2 5.6 6 1. The resistance is not stable and its average value is low.2 6 0.

15 circuit breaker busbars RB = 0 XB = 1. knowing: c the value of short-circuit current upstream of the point considered c the length and composition of the circuit between the point at which the short-circuit current level is known.75 Isc2 = 18.12 = 0.000 kVA HV/LV transformer.35 Isc4 = 3. then divide the resistance of one conductor by the number of conductors. XT (mΩ) Isc = 3 420 2 2 RT + XT HV network 0.053 0. In such a case. 4.68 =8 26. U20: phase-to-phase no-load secondary voltage of HV/LV transformer (in volts).15 mΩ/m circuit conductors (2) motors three-phase short-circuit current in kA M cables : Xc = 0.15 mΩ/pole XB = 0. Psc: 3-phase short-circuit power at HV terminals of the HV/LV transformers (in kVA).5 x 5 5 m copper 4 240 4 x 240 mm2/phase = 0. If more precise values are required.5 milli-ohms x mm2/metre for copper ρ = 36 milli-ohms x mm2/metre for aluminium.5 x 20 20 m 10 10 mm2 copper = 45 = 1.353 Psc = 500 MVA transformer 2.24 kA three-core cable Xc = 20 x 0. * a Merlin Gerin product (see Chapter B.35 10.2 20. derived by the "method of composition" (mentioned in Chapter G Sub-clause 5.08 Rc = 22.08 mΩ/m table H1-38: recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system.2 above) or to use a software package. The reactance remains practically unchanged.H1 recapitulation table system elements considered supply network table H1-33 transformer table H1-34 resistance R in milli-ohms Ra ≈ 0.6 71. Pn: rating of the HV/LV transformer (in kVA).08 x 5 2.3 x 103 watts single-core cables Xc = 0. such as Ecodial*.24 kA final circuits table H1-39: example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1.3 kA main RD = 0 XD = 0.15 Xa R can therefore be neglected in comparison with X 3 Rtr = Pcu x 10 3In2 Rtr = is often negligible compared to Xtr for transformers > 100 kVA negligible negligible for S > 200 mm2 in the formula below: R = ρ L (1) S R = ρ L (1) S see Sub-clause 4.5 x 100 100 m 95 95 mm2 copper = 23. XT: total reactance (1) ρ = resistivity at normal temperature of conductors in service ρ = 22.08 Rc = 22.34 20 kV/420 V Pn = 1000 kVA Usc = 6% Pcu = 13. R (mΩ) X (mΩ) RT (mΩ) RT : total resistance.523 11.5 2.H1-23 .2 22. (2) If there are several conductors in parallel per phase.5).75 Isc3 = 7.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end The following tables.6 kA 10 m three-core cable Xc = 100 x 0.1 Rc = 22.2) give a rapid and sufficiently accurate value of short-circuit current at a point in a network.40 Isc1 = 21. it is possible to make a detailled calculation (see Sub-Clause 4.the switchgear . the protection of circuits . It is then sufficient to select a circuit breaker with an appropriate short-circuit fault rating immediately above that indicated in the tables. the possibility of using the cascading technique should be considered. moreover. in which the use of a currentlimiting circuit breaker at the upstream position would allow all circuit breakers downstream of the limiter to have a shortcircuit-current rating much lower than would otherwise be necessary (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. Usc: short-circuit impedance voltage of the HV/LV transfomer (in %). and the point at which the level is to be determined.523 12. Pcu: 3-phase total losses of the HV/LV transformer (in watts).2 "motors" (often negligible at LV)) U2o Isc = 2 2 3 RT + XT Xa ≈ Za = reactance X in milli-ohms U22 0 Psc circuit breaker busbars Ztr 2 − Rtr 2 U2 Usc avec Ztr = 2 0 x Pn 100 XD = 0. Clause 1. Methodology).

9 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 240 240 0.5 8 9.3 1.5 10 13 25 50 65 75 100 130 250 150 0.5 7 6.5 15 30 37 44 60 75 150 95 0.4.3 1.2 1.s.5 6.2 1.8 2.3 1.5 4 4 4 3.5 6.5 7.5 8.4 4.4 1.5 40 39 39 39 39 39 37 35 33 32 30 29 22 15 13 12 9.5 4 2.5 1.8 2.5 3.8 2 4 8 10 12 16 20 40 80 100 120 160 200 400 300 1.2 2.6 2.2 1.5 9.5 9.6 2.8 1.5 2.5 6 5.7 1.4 1.6 1.9 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 200 120 0.5 3 3 2.7 3.3 1.7 1.1 2.9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. of length of circuit (in metres) 230 V / phase 400 V conductors (in mm2) 2.4 1.5 6.5 15 19 22 30 37 75 50 1.8 2.1 2.7 3 3.9 2.5 4.5 0.4 1.9 2.5 0.9 1.6 5 10 13 15 21 26 50 100 130 150 210 260 3 x 185 1.3 1.1 2.4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 35 34 34 34 34 34 33 31 30 29 27 26 21 15 13 11 9 8 4.5 1 1.5 6.a.3 2.8 2.5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6.5 9 12 14 18 23 46 50 1.5 4.7 1.6 2 2.5 9.1 2.1 2.5 6.6 3 6.9 1.5 1.5 50 49 48 48 48 48 46 42 40 39 36 33 25 17 14 13 10 8.5 1.9 0.5 7 9 10 14 17 35 70 85 100 140 170 2 x 185 1.1 1.732 copper 230 V / 400 V H1-24 .4 1.8 2.5 5.5 7.5 10 13 25 50 65 75 100 130 250 300 0.8 1. short-circuit current calculations (continued) H1 4.5 5.3 1.5 12 15 19 24 49 95 120 150 190 240 2 x 120 1.6 5 10 13 16 21 26 50 35 1.4 5 9.7 2 2.4 1.5 9.5 4 7.1 1.5 5 9.s.5 10 14 17 34 25 1 1.1 10 13 15 20 25 50 100 130 150 200 250 2 x 150 1.1 2.3 2.5 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 22 22 21 20 17 13 11 10 8.s.1 1.5 4 7.5 5 5 4.6 2.9 2.9 1.5 3 4 5 6.6 3.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.8 2 2.2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.5 11 14 17 22 28 55 110 140 170 220 280 2 x 185 2 2.5 3 4 5 6.3 2.5 12 14 19 24 48 95 120 140 190 240 3 x 150 1.5 13 16 32 65 80 95 130 160 320 240 1.7 3.5 5 6.the protection of circuits .3 2.5 11 21 25 0.5 15 19 23 30 38 75 150 190 230 300 380 3 x 150 2.5 3.7 3 4 5. in terms of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c.3 2.5 8.5 5 10 13 15 20 25 50 100 130 150 200 250 3 x 120 1.9 1.5 17 34 43 50 70 85 170 185 0.9 1.5 5 7 8.9 3. in a 230/400 V 3-phase system.8 3.7 2.3 4.3 1.4 2.8 1.1 8 10 12 16 20 41 80 100 120 160 200 2 x 240 1.5 7 4 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 14 11 10 9 7.4 1.5 11 21 16 0.5 2.5 7 8.5 3 3.1 2.5 13 25 32 38 50 65 130 120 0.3 2.3 2.6 3 2.1 1.5 2.5 6.9 2.5 1.7 1.5 20 24 29 39 49 95 190 240 290 390 Isc upstream Isc downstream (in kA) (in Ka) 100 94 94 93 92 91 83 71 67 63 56 50 33 20 17 14 11 9 5 90 85 85 84 83 83 76 66 62 58 52 47 32 20 16 14 11 9 4.7 3 4 4.7 3.2 3 3.9 1 1.8 1 1.8 1 1.5 1.4 2.7 1.9 0.3 2.3 1.5 8.5 6 7.the switchgear .3 1.3 2. divide the above lengths by e= 1.5 15 19 23 30 38 75 150 190 230 300 380 table H1-40: Isc at a point downstream.5 4 5.4 3 4 8 10 1.2 1.7 2.5 6.5 4.6 3.9 2.5 70 67 67 66 66 65 61 55 52 49 45 41 29 18 16 14 11 5 4.5 6.6 2.5 9 18 23 28 37 46 90 95 1.1 2.5 5 6.8 1.5 4.5 8 9.5 6.5 1.2 1.1 2.6 5 6 0.8 2 4.6 3 4 1 1.7 3.5 8 4.8 5.5 80 76 76 75 75 74 69 61 57 54 49 44 31 19 16 14 11 9 4.5 60 58 58 57 57 57 54 48 46 44 41 38 27 18 15 13 10 8.5 11 21 27 32 40 55 110 70 1.1 2.6 5 4 0.5 9 8.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end (continued) c.2 2.5 1.5 3.5 4 8.6 1.1 2.5 13 16 20 26 33 65 130 160 200 260 330 3 x 120 2.8 1.5 13 16 0.5 8 7 6 4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9. of length of circuit (in metres) phase conductors (in mm2) 1.8 aluminium c.5 3 6 7.9 1 1.5 8.5 30 30 29 29 29 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 19 14 12 11 9 7.8 1 1.7 5. Note: for a 3-phase system having 230 V between phases.5 4 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 13 13 12 9.2 1.5 10 13 17 33 35 0.5 4 8 16 21 25 33 41 80 160 210 250 330 410 3 x 185 2.7 3 3.4 2.5 5 3.5 13 10 0.7 3 6 12 15 18 24 30 60 120 150 180 240 300 3 x 240 2.3 2.9 3.6 3 6.5 13 17 20 26 33 65 70 0.5 7 8 11 14 27 55 70 80 110 140 270 185 1 1.5 4.3 1.9 1 1.8 2 2.5 3.5 9 12 15 30 60 75 90 120 150 300 2 x 120 0.9 1.9 1 1.5 3. of the intervening conductors.8 1.9 3.3 2.5 6 1.5 6.5 4 4.1 4 5.3 2.1 4 5.1 1.5 2.9 2.4 1.9 0.6 2.9 2.5 13 16 32 65 80 95 130 160 320 2 x 150 1 1.5 7.a.5 4.5 8 17 32 40 47 65 80 160 150 0.5 6.a.9 2.8 1.9 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.8 1 1.

a. This value in the example is seen to be 19 kA.the switchgear . In consequence. Select the c.H1-25 .a.s. and stop at a row in the middle section (of the 3 sections of the table) corresponding to the known fault-current level (or the nearest to it on the high side). is 50 mm2). 400 V Icc = 28 kA 50 mm2. and the horizontal row corresponding to the upstream Isc (or nearest to it on the high side). a DIN-rail-mounted circuit breaker rated at 63 A and Isc of 50 kA (such as a NC100LH unit*) can be used for the 55 A circuit in figure H1-41. A Compact* rated at 260 A with an Isc capacity of 25 kA (such as a NS160N unit*) can be used to protect the 160 A circuit. The procedure for aluminium conductors is similar. of the conductor in the column for copper conductors (in this example the c. Descend vertically the column in which the length is located. the protection of circuits . * Merlin Gerin product. The value of short-circuit current at the downstream end of the 11 metre circuit is given at the intersection of the vertical column in which the length is located. 4. H1-41: determination of downstream short-circuit current level Isc using table H1-40.H1 Example: The network shown in figure H1-41 typifies a case for the application of table H1-40. Search along the row corresponding to 50 mm2 for the length of conductor equal to that of the circuit concerned (or the nearest possible on the low side). but the vertical column must be ascended into the middle section of the table. Cu 11 m Icc = ? IB = 55 A IB = 160 A fig.s. In this case 30 kA is the nearest to 28 kA on the high side.4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter Please refer to Chapter J.

5. lighting rails. on LV circuits. circuit breaker with instantaneous magnetic short-circuit protective relay only load-breaking contactor with thermal overload relay fig. circuit breaker D S1 S2 < S1 load with incorporated overload protection fig. H1-42: circuit protected by aM fuses. examples of such arrangements Figures H1-42 to H1-44 show some common arrangements where overload and shortcircuit protections are effected by separate devices. a single protective device protects against all levels of current. from the overload threshold through the maximum rated short-circuit current-breaking capability of the device. particular cases of short-circuit current H1 5. H1-43: circuit protected by circuit breaker without thermal overload relay. In general. H1-26 .the switchgear . etc. however. Figure H1-44 constitutes a derogation in the basic protection rules. aM fuses (no protection against overload) load-breaking contactor with thermal overload relay fig. In certain cases. the most common circuits using separate devices control and protect motors. it is essential that it will operate with certainty at the lowest possible level of short-circuit current that can occur on the circuit. overload protective devices and separate short-circuit protective devices are used. and is generally used on circuits of prefabricated bustrunking. As shown in figures H1-42 and H1-43.the protection of circuits .1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current if a protective device in a circuit is intended only to protect against short-circuit faults. H1-44: circuit breaker D provides protection against short-circuit faults as far as and including the load.

conditions to be respected The protective device must therefore satisfy the two following conditions: c its fault-current breaking rating > Isc the 3-phase short-circuit current at its point of installation.5 x 0.a. the voltage at the point of protection P is assumed to be 80% of the nominal voltage during a shortcircuit fault. Two cases are considered below: 1. For cables i 120 mm2. of a phase conductor in mm2 L = length in metres In order that the cable will not be damaged by heat Isc u Im 2L Im 0. so that 0. The method of calculating the maximum permitted length has already been demonstrated in TN. or fusion current c Ia < Isc (min) for protection by fuses.027 Ω. L load P 0. in a time tc compatible with the thermal constraints of the circuit conductors.8 U i f Using the "conventional method".H1 it is necessary that the protective device instantaneous-trip setting c Im < Isc (min) for protection by a circuit breaker.s. c Isc (min) > Ia for protection by fuses. c elimination of the minimum short-circuit current possible in the circuit. t t= k2 S2 I2 Ia I fig. calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit The minimum short-circuit current will occur when two phase wires are short circuited at the remote end of the circuit.8 x U x Sph 2 x ρ x Im practical method of calculating Lmax The limiting effect of the impedance of long circuit conductors on the value of short-circuit currents must be checked and the length of a circuit must be restricted accordingly. where ρ = resistivity of copper* at the average temperature during a short-circuit. reactance may be neglected. Im = magnetic trip current setting for the CB Lmax = maximum circuit length in metres.H1-27 . respectively (see Chapter G Sub-clauses 5.earthed schemes for single and double earth faults. where: K2 S2 tc = (tc < 5 seconds) Isc (min) Comparison of the tripping or fusing performance curve of protective devices.8 U u ρ or Sph 0.926 Sph Lmax = Im * or for aluminium according to conductor material ** the high value for resistivity is due to the elevated temperature of the conductor when passing short-circuit current. t t= k2 S2 I2 Im I fig.and IT.8 U = Isc Zd. and Sph : c. t t= k2 S2 I2 Ia I fig. H1-47: protection by gl-type fuses.2 and 6.8 U Sph Lmax = 2 ρ Im with: U = 400 V ρ = 1. See figure H1-45. H1-46: protection by aM-type fuses.mm2/m**. with the limit curves of thermal constraint for a conductor shows that this condition is satisfied if: c Isc (min) > Im (instantaneous or short timedelay circuit-breaker trip setting current level). so that 2L Zd = ρ Sph the protection of circuits . where: Zd = impedance of the fault loop Isc = short-circuit current (ph/ph) U = phase-to-phase nominal voltage.018 = 0. The value of the current Ia corresponds to the crossing point of the fuse curve and the cable thermal withstand curve (figures H1-46 and H1-47). 5.2). in practice this means that the length of circuit downstream of the protective device must not exceed a calculated maximum length: Lmax = 0.the switchgear . H1-45: protection by circuit breaker.

then 6.'s than those listed. particular cases of short-circuit current (continued) H1 5. (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm2) level Im of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element (in A) 1. tabulated values for Lmax Table H1-49 below gives maximum circuit lengths (Lmax) in metres.e.08mΩ/metre for cables (at 50 Hz).e. apply correction factors (given in table H1-53) to the lengths obtained. calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit The minimum Isc will occur when the shortcircuit is between a phase conductor and the neutral. Suitable values (taken from French standard NF 15-100) are as follows: 150 mm2 : R + 15% 185 mm2 : R + 20% 240 mm2 : R + 25% 300 mm2 : R + 30% where R is the value calculated from ρ 2L R= Sph For larger c. protected by general-purpose circuit breakers.s. Irm is guaranteed to be within ± 20% of the regulated value.a. the resistance calculated for the conductors must be increased to account for the non-uniform current density in the conductor (due to "skin" and "proximity" effects.5 2. In other cases.s. 240 592 462 370 296 235 185 147 118 H1-28 . Reactance may be taken as 0. operating current c.2 for details of regulation of circuit-breaker protective elements.2 Irm Irm = regulated short-circuit current trip setting.s.096 mΩ/metre. Refer to Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. for: c 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuits (i.842 Sph Sph Lmax = where m = (1+m) Im Sn (1) for larger c.421 Im c If Sn for the neutral conductor < Sph. without neutral.5.62).5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 50 148 246 394 63 117 195 313 470 80 92 154 246 370 100 74 123 197 296 493 125 59 99 158 237 395 160 46 77 123 185 308 494 200 37 62 99 148 247 395 250 30 49 79 118 197 316 494 320 23 38 62 92 154 247 386 400 18 31 49 74 123 197 308 432 500 15 25 39 59 99 158 247 345 494 560 13 22 35 53 88 141 220 308 441 630 12 19 31 47 78 125 196 274 392 700 11 18 28 42 70 113 176 247 353 494 800 9 15 25 37 61 98 154 215 308 432 875 8 14 22 34 56 90 141 197 282 395 1000 7 12 20 30 49 79 123 173 247 345 469 1120 6 11 17 26 44 70 110 154 220 308 419 1250 6 10 16 24 39 63 99 138 197 276 375 474 1600 7 12 18 31 49 77 108 154 216 293 370 532 2000 6 10 15 24 39 62 86 123 173 234 296 425 570 2500 8 12 20 31 49 69 99 138 188 237 340 438 3200 6 9 15 25 38 54 77 108 146 185 265 340 4000 7 12 20 31 43 62 86 117 148 212 273 5000 6 10 16 25 34 49 69 94 118 170 218 6300 8 12 20 27 39 55 74 94 134 175 8000 6 10 15 21 31 43 59 74 105 136 10000 8 12 17 25 35 47 59 85 109 12500 6 10 14 20 28 37 47 67 87 table H1-49: maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium. the lengths must be multiplied by 0.the switchgear . The calculations are based on the foregoing methods. c where Sn for the neutral conductor = Sph for the phase conductor Sph Lmax = 3.2 (i. At 60Hz the constant is 0.the protection of circuits . reactance values must be combined with those of resistance to give an impedance. 120%).1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current (continued) 2. but using the following formulae (for cable i 120 mm2 (1)). without neutral) and c 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuits. with Im = 1. previously noted in Chapter G Sub-clause 5. A calculation similar to that of example 1 above is required. hence the worst-case factor of 1.'s.a.2).a.

H1 Tables H1-50 to H1-52 below give maximum circuit length (Lmax) in metres for: c 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuits (i.s.s. again.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 105 176 283 423 706 1129 10 63 105 170 254 423 639 1058 13 48 81 130 195 325 521 814 1140 16 40 65 105 158 264 422 661 925 1255 20 32 52 84 126 211 337 528 740 1004 25 25 41 67 101 169 270 423 592 803 32 20 32 52 79 132 211 330 462 627 40 16 26 42 63 105 168 264 370 502 50 12 20 33 50 84 135 211 296 401 63 10 16 26 40 67 107 167 234 318 80 8 13 21 31 52 84 132 185 251 100 6 10 16 25 42 67 105 148 200 125 5 8 13 20 33 54 84 118 160 table H1-52: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers (Merlin Gerin). IEC 898 is the relevant international standard for these circuit breakers.5 2.e.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 296 494 790 10 178 296 474 711 13 137 228 385 547 912 16 111 185 296 444 741 20 89 148 237 356 593 948 25 71 119 190 284 474 759 32 56 93 148 222 370 593 926 40 44 74 119 178 296 474 741 50 36 59 95 142 237 379 593 830 63 28 47 75 113 188 301 470 658 854 80 22 37 59 89 148 237 370 519 704 100 18 30 47 71 119 190 296 415 563 125 14 24 38 57 95 152 237 331 450 table H1-50: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers. protected in both cases by domestic-type circuit breakers or with circuit breakers having similar tripping/current characteristics. See also table H2-28 for tripping ranges.a. without neutral. Note: IEC 898 provides for an upper shortcircuit-current tripping range of 10-50 In for type D circuit breakers.s. C and D differ only in the levels of short-circuit-current trip setting Im. without neutral) and c 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuits. European standards. apply correction factors to the lengths indicated. rated current cross-sectional-area (c.the switchgear . the protection of circuits . a range which covers the vast majority of domestic and similar installations.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1. These circuit breakers have fixed overload (thermal) tripping elements and fixed shortcircuit (magnetic) tripping elements.a. are based on a range of 10-20 In. and the above table H1-52 however.5 2. These factors are given in table H1-53.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 148 247 395 593 988 10 89 148 237 356 593 948 13 68 114 182 274 456 729 16 56 93 148 222 370 593 926 20 44 74 119 178 296 474 741 25 36 59 95 142 237 379 593 830 32 28 46 74 111 185 296 463 648 880 40 22 37 59 89 148 237 370 519 704 50 18 30 47 71 119 190 296 415 563 63 14 24 38 56 94 150 235 329 446 80 11 19 30 44 74 119 185 259 351 100 9 15 24 36 59 95 148 207 281 125 7 12 19 28 47 76 119 166 225 table H1-51: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers. rated current cross-sectional-area (c. In other cases. The calculations are carried out according to the method described above.H1-29 . rated current cross-sectional-area (c.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1. with Im = 1.a.2 Irm as previously noted. Categories B.

In table H1-49 the row Im = 500 A crosses the column c.77 for the c. = 10 mm2 and the conductor material is copper.000 A (accuracy of ± 20%). examples Example 1 In a 3-phase 3-wire installation the protection is provided by a 250 A industrial-type circuit breaker.e.58 = 57 metres. H1-30 .000 x 1. Example 2 In a single-phase 230 V (phase to neutral) system. i. The cable c.a. the row Im = 2.the switchgear . the instantaneous short-circuitcurrent trip setting of which. = 120 mm2 and the conductor material is copper. particular cases of short-circuit current (continued) H1 5.a.s. = 120 mm2 at the value for Lmax of 296 m. The circuit breaker will therefore protect the cable against short-circuit current.a.s.a. therefore.e.58 0.a. a worst case of 600 A to be certain of tripping.58.39 (1) Sph =2 S neutral 1-phase 2-wire 0.e.the protection of circuits . This factor is seen to be 0. (1) 0.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current (continued) circuit details 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit or 1 ph 2-wire 400V circuit (no neutral) or 2 ph 3-wire 230/400 V circuit (i. = 10 mm2 at the value for Lmax of 99 m.s. The circuit breaker protects the cable against short-circuit faults.400 A to trip. is set at 2.5. Being a 230 V single-phase circuit. a correction factor from table H1-53 must be applied.000 A crosses the column c. in the worst case would require 2. provided that its length does not exceed 296 metres. provided that its length does not exceed 99 x 0.s.2 = 2.58 (phase and neutral) 230 V circuit table H1-53: correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52. In table H1-49. with neutral) Sph =1 S neutral 1 0. The cable c.s. of the neutral conductor. i. the protection is provided by a circuit breaker with an instantaneous short-circuitcurrent trip setting of 500 A (± 20%).

S (in mm2) can be allowed to carry a current I amps.a.4786 5. is considerably less. S (mm2) The factor k2 is given in table H1-54 below. i.s.s.2006 7. Tables of coordination ensuring adequate protection of their products are generally published by the manufacturers of such systems.936 electrodynamic constraints For bus-trunking and other kinds of prefabricated pre-conductored channels. except in cases where cables of small c. PVC XLPE copper aluminium copper k 115 76 143 k2 13225 5776 20449 1. causing its temperature to rise.094 x 106 ampere2-seconds.839 13. rails. Example: Is a copper-cored XLPE cable of 4 mm2 c.a.0826 0.5 0.0297 0. adequately protected by a C60N circuit breaker (Merlin Gerin)? The above table shows that the I2t value for the cable is 0.2079 0. The cable is therefore adequately protected by the circuit breaker up to its full rated breaking capability. the relationship I2t = k2 S2 characterizes the time in seconds during which a conductor of c. while the maximum "let-through" value by the circuit breaker.7806 35 16.the switchgear .H1-31 .s. the main general distribution board. limited by the circuit breaker or fuse.0199 0.2656 3. a higher conductor temperature than that which would actually occur.H1 5. since in practice. some heat would leave the conductor and pass into the insulation.e. allowed to pass by the protecting circuit-breaker (from manufacturers catalogues) is less than that permitted for the particular conductor (as given in table H1-55 below).2620 5.6100 12. must be less than that for which the pre-conductored system is rated.8241 19.0500 50 29.3272 x 106.0361 0. The peak value of current.2116 0. thermal constraints When the duration of short-circuit current is brief (several tenths of a second up to five seconds maximum) all of the heat produced is assumed to remain in the conductor.032 46. The heating process is said to be adiabatic. an assumption that simplifies the calculation and gives a pessimistic result.3856 1.3225 0.3272 6 0. the protection of circuits .133 table H1-55: maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106).0924 0.5225 10.0552 0. as given in the manufacturer's catalogue.8836 2. aluminium 94 8836 0.7362 10 1. are installed close to.5 0. insulation conductor conductor copper (Cu) aluminium (Al) PVC 13225 5776 PR 20449 8836 table H1-54: value of the constant k2. For a period of 5 seconds or less. it is necessary to verify that the electrodynamic withstand performance when carrying short-circuit currents is satisfactory. and is abstracted from the French standards NF C 15-100. or feeding directly from.2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit conditions in general verification of the thermal-withstand capability of a cable is not necessary.0756 25.0130 0. and amounts to 0.0450 16 3.5776 2.a. before its temperature reaches a level which would damage the surrounding insulation.2350 25 8.0460 2. The method of verification consists in checking that the thermal energy I2t per ohm of conductor material.1414 0.1278 4 0.4761 0.3181 0. etc.

i. since high values of earth-fault current are not needed to operate the RCD-type of protection used in TT installations. This arrangement ensures the minimum possible inductive reactance in the earth-fault currentcarrying circuits. c have an individual terminal on common earthing bars in distribution boards.E. no PE conductor can be connected to the neutral conductor. PEN fig. TT scheme The PE conductor need not necessarily be installed in close proximity to the live conductors of the corresponding circuit. H1-32 .) as the live cables of the related circuit. c TN-C scheme (the neutral and PE conductor are one and the same. as shown in figure H1-56. P. with a looped connection from the earth terminal to the neutral terminal of the appliance (figure H1-57). protective earthing conductors (PE) H1 6. removable links. connection PE conductors must: c not include any means of breaking the continuity of the circuit (such as a switch.the protection of circuits . etc. as previously noted. These conductors conduct fault current due to insulation failure (between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part) to the earthed neutral of the source. Downstream of the point of separation. in the same conduits. choice and dimensioning of PE conductors (extracted from IEC standards and the French standard NF C 15-100) Protective (PE) conductors provide the bonding connection between all exposed and extraneous conductive parts of an installation. on the same cable tray. c connect exposed conductive parts individually to the main PE conductor. c TN-C to TN-S transition The PE conductor for the installlation is connected to the PEN terminal or bar (figure H1-58) generally at the origin of the installation. H1-58: the TN-C-S scheme.1 connection and choice connection. not in series. PEN PE N fig.e. In IT and TN-earthed schemes it is strongly recommended that PE conductors should be installed in close proximity (i.e. PE conductors must be: c insulated and coloured yellow and green (stripes). PE correct PE incorrect fig. must be installed as close by as possible to the corresponding live conductors of the circuit and no ferro-magnetic material must be interposed between them. The protective function of a PEN conductor has priority. referred to as a PEN conductor). IT and TN schemes The PE or PEN conductor. H1-56: a poor connection in a series arrangement will leave all downstream appliances unprotected. The main earthing terminal is connected to the earthing electrode (see Chapter F) by the earthing conductor (grounding electrode conductor in USA).the switchgear . c be protected against mechanical and chemical damage. etc.6. so that all rules governing PE conductors apply strictly to PEN conductors. in parallel. H1-57: direct connection of the PEN conductor to the earth terminal of an appliance. conductors are connected to the main earthing terminal of the installation. A PEN conductor must always be connected directly to the earth terminal of an appliance. to create the main equipotential bonding system.).

's compared to those of the corresponding-circuit phase conductors.2 conductor dimensioning Table H1-60 below is based on the French national standard NF C 15-100 for LV installations. for TT installations. and so on… IT scheme strongly recommended TN scheme strongly recommended TT scheme correct conditions to be respected the PE conductor must be insulated to the same level as the phases c the PE conductor may be bare or insulated (2) c the electrical continuity must be assured by protection against deterioration by mechanical. This method is used in practice. and also for the conductor to the earth electrode. conduits*. or in the same cable run independent of the phase conductors metallic housing of bus-trunking or of other prefabricated prewired ducting (5) external sheath of extruded. such as. NB: these elements must carry an indivual green/yellow striped visual indication.H1-33 . in table H1-60 for: Sph i 16 mm2 SPE = Sph 16 < Sph i 35 mm2 SPE = 16 mm2 Sph > 35 mm2 SPE = Sph/2 c note: when. (8) In the prefabricated pre-wired trunking and similar elements. mineral.a. the protection of circuits . are: metal conduits*. while being economical and assuring protection of the conductor against overheating. 6.s. ladders. The surest means of achieving a low loop impedance is to use a supplementary core in the same cable as the circuit conductors (or taking the same route as the circuit conductors). This table provides two methods of determining the appropriate c. ducts. This means that a current may be flowing through it at any time (in the absence of an earth fault).a.s. possible (4) table H1-59: choice of protective conductors (PE). 15 to 100 mm long (or the letters PE at less than 15 cm from each extremity). hot-water pipes. This stratagem minimizes the inductive reactance and therefore the impedance of the loop. c simplified This method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those of the correspondingcircuit phase conductors. (3) The manufacturer provides the necessary values of R and X components of the impedances (phase/PE. type of protective earthing conductor (PE) supplementary in the same conductor cable as the phases. assuming that the same conductor material is used in each case. (4) Possible.the switchgear . (2) The PEN conductor is a neutral conductor that is also used as a protective earth conductor. For this reason an insulated conductor is recommended for PEN operation. and for dimensioning an earthing conductor*. chemical and electrochemical hazards c their conductance must be adequate possible (1) possible (1) (2) correct possible (3) possible (3) possible (4) PE possible (3) PEN (8) PE possible (3) PEN not recommended (2) (3) PE possible (4) PEN forbidden correct possible possible PE possible (4) possible PEN not recommended (2) (4) forbidden for use as PE conductors. (5) It must allow the connection of other PE conductors.H1 types of materials Materials of the kinds mentioned below in table H1-59 can be used for PE conductors. the c.g. (7) With the agreement of the appropriate water authorities. the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the source earthing electrode. of the PE conductor can be limited to 25 mm2 (for copper) or 35 mm2 (for aluminium). or other PE conductor in the housing. cable-armouring tapes* or wires*. therefore. gas pipes. Thus. * grounding electrode conductor. * forbidden in some countries only-universally allowed to be used for supplementary equipotential conductors. in a TT scheme. since the impedance of the earth-fault loop cannot be known at the design stage. trays. leads to small c. (6) These elements must be demountable only if other means have been provided to ensure uninterrupted continuity of protection. "pyrotenax" type systems) certain extraneous conductive elements (6) such as: c steel building structures c machine frames c water pipes (7) metallic cable ways.a. (1) In schemes TN and IT.s. the metallic housing may be used as a PEN conductor. provided that the conditions mentioned in the last column are satisfied. The two methods are: c adiabatic (which corresponds with that described in IEC 724) This method. fault clearance is generally effected by overcurrent devices (fuses or circuit breakers) so that the impedance of the fault-current loop must be sufficiently low to assure positive protective device operation. to ensure positive operation by instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. The result is sometimes incompatible with the necessity in IT and TN schemes to minimize the impedance of the circuit earth-fault loop.insulated conductors (e. for both PE or PEN conductors. Measurements on the completed installation are the only practical means of assuring adequate protection for persons. phase/PEN) to include in the calculation of the earth-fault loop impedance. trunking. but not recomended. in parallel with the corresponding bar.

and c Imax likely to pass through the neutral in normal circumstances.6. Minimum 16 mm2 for copper or galvanized steel.a. be less than that necessary for the neutral.2 of this Chapter). in any case. its c. c. 25/mm Alu c without mechanical protection. of earthing conductor between the installation earth electrode and the main earth terminal SPEN = Sph with minimum c when protected against mechanical 10/mm2 Cu.s. is equal to or larger than 10 mm2 (copper) or 16 mm2 (aluminium).5 mm2 if the PE is mechanically protected c 4 mm2 if the PE is not mechanically protected. (2) Refer to table H1-55 for the application of this formula.s. as discuss in Subclause 7. of PEN conductor c the kVA rating of single-phase loads is less than 10% of the total kVA load.a. k values The data presented in table H1-61 are those most commonly needed for LV installation design. correspond with those published in IEC 724 (1984).s. commonly used in national standards and complying with IEC 724. c without either of the above protections.a.a.s. minimum of 25 mm2 for bare copper and 50 mm2 for bare galvanized steel. Since a PEN conductor functions also as a neutral conductor. and the temperature rise ranges. protection of the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective devices provided for phase-conductor protection (described in Sub-clause 7. a PEN conductor is not allowed in a flexible cable.a.the protection of circuits .a.s. of PE conductor Alu i 16 25 35 > 35 SPE = Sph (1) SPE = 16 SPE = Sph/2 SPE = I √t (1) (2) k c. H1-34 .'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors (to the installation earth electrode). but protected against corrosion by impermeable cable sheath.s.35 > 35 adiabatic any size method c. Moreover. protective earthing conductors (PE) (continued) H1 6.a. This c. cannot be less than that of the phase conductors unless: c.1 of this Chapter.2 conductor dimensioning (continued) The neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c. (1) When the PE conductor is separated from the circuit phase conductors. the following minimum values must be respected: c 2. nature of insulation polyvinylchloride (PVC) final temperature (°C) insulated conductors not incoporated in cables or bare conductors in contact with cable jackets copper aluminium steel conductors of a multi-core-cable copper aluminium 160 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C cross-linked-polyethylene (XLPE) ethylene-propylene-rubber (EPR) 250 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 143 95 52 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 115 76 176 116 64 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 143 94 table H1-61: k factor values for LV PE conductors. (3) According to the conditions prescribed in the introduction to this table. 16/mm2 Alu damage: S = I √t (2) SPEN = Sph/2 à Sph (3) with k 2 2 minimum 16/mm Cu. Furthermore. is less than the current permitted for the cable size selected.the switchgear . values of factor k to be used in the formulae (2) These values are identical in several national standards. cannot. of phase conductors Sph (mm2) Cu simplified i 16 method 25. together with factor k values and the upper temperature limits for the different classes of insulation.a. table H1-60: minimum c.s.s.

All phase and neutral conductors upstream of the main incoming circuit breaker controlling and protecting the MGDB are protected by devices at the HV side of the transformer. in general.2 s 0. The table indicates the c. Dimensioning of the phase and neutral conductors from the transformer is exemplified in Sub-clause 1.s. ducting. must be dimensioned accordingly. Recommended conductor sizes for bare and insulated PE conductors from the transformer neutral point. H1-8). The kVA rating to consider is the sum of all (if more than one) transformers connected to the MGDB. P (kVA) LV voltages 127/ 230/ 220 V 400 V i 63 i 100 100 160 125 200 160 250 200 315 250 400 315 500 400 630 500 800 630 1000 800 1250 conductor material copper t(s) aluminium t(s) c.s.s. In IT schemes.5 mm2 for mechanically protected conductors .4 equipotential conductor The main equipotential conductor This conductor must. of the conductors in mm2 according to: c the nominal rating of the HV/LV transformer(s) in kVA. particulary for indirect-contact protection schemes in TN. …) M1 (*) with a minimum of 2.H1 6.a.2 seconds columns. Equipotential conductors which are not incorporated in a cable.s. 4 mm2 for conductors not mechanically protected copper equivalent fig. at least equal to a half of that of the largest PE conductor.5 s 0.3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) these conductors must be dimensioned according to national practices. are indicated below in table H1-63.5 s 0. H1-64: supplementary equipotential conductors. girders. shown in figure H1-62.5 s 0.s. wherever possible.a.2 s 0. H1-62: PE conductor to the main earth bar in the MGDB.6 of this chapter (for circuit C1 of the system illustrated in fig. is 6 mm2 (copper) or 10 mm2 (aluminium). and in special locations with increased electrical risk (IEC 364-4-41 refers).a. must be at least a half of that of the protective conductor to which it is connected. – between two exposed conductive parts.H1-35 . Other important uses for supplementary equipotential conductors concern the reduction of the earth-fault-loop impedance.a. should be protected mechanically by conduits. conductors bare 0.2 s 0.2 s 0. c the kinds of insulation and conductor materials.s.s. together with the PE conductor. etc.or IT-earthed installations. if an overvoltage protection device is installed (between the transformer neutral point and earth) the conductors for connection of the device should also be dimensioned in the same way as that described above for PE conductors.2 s 0. the protection of circuits . If it connects two exposed conductive parts (M1 and M2 in figure H1-64) its c.a. must be at least equal to that of the smaller of the two PE conductors (for M1 and M2). Supplementary equipotential conductor This conductor allows an exposed conductive part which is remote from the nearest main equipotential conductor (PE conductor) to be connected to a local protective conductor. in terms of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times used in France. but in no case need exceed 25 mm2 (copper) or 35 mm2 (aluminium) while its minimum c.2 s 0. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB. c the fault-current clearance time by the HV protective devices. of PE conductors SPE (mm2) PE MGDB main earth bar for the LV installation fig. Its c. have a c. in seconds. The conductors in question.a.5 s 25 25 25 25 35 50 50 70 70 95 95 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 95 120 120 150 25 35 50 70 70 95 120 150 150 185 185 conductors conductors PVC-insulated XLPE-insulated 0.5 s 25 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 95 95 120 25 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 120 150 25 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 185 185 240 25 25 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 70 95 25 25 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 120 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 150 185 table H1-63: c.the switchgear . If the HV protection is by fuses.5 s 0. then use the 0. 6.a. if SPE1 i SPE2 if SLS = SPE1 SPE1 SLS SPE2 M1 M2 – between an exposed conductive part and a metallic structure S SLS = PE 2 SPE1 SLS metal structures (conduits.

the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit.e. will open all poles. and the protection of the neutral conductor. i.a. i. including the neutral pole. TT. but in practice.a. Reclosing of the switch however. namely: c the type of earthing system.a. in accordance with the following Sub-clause H1-7.the current likely to flow through the neutral in normal conditions is less than the permitted value Iz.s. a 3-phase 3-wire scheme is preferred..1 dimensioning the neutral conductor influence of the type of earthing system TT.the switchgear . must be possible only when the used cartridge has been replaced by a new one. depend on several factors. * the 3rd and multiples of the 3rd harmonic. This table can also be used for fuses able to emulate this omnipolar opening. Circuit breaking Table H1-65 is based on circuit breakers. of PEN conductor" column). however.a. the circuit breakers are omnipolar. or: .e.7. it is not recommended to distribute the neutral conductor. should be considered when referring to the table. The influence of triplen* harmonics must be given particular consideration. the neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since it constitutes a PE as well as a neutral conductor (see table H160 "c. of the neutral conductor must be equal to that of the phases.2 protection of the neutral conductor Table H1-65 summarizes the several possible cases. of the neutral may be chosen to be: v equal to that of the phase conductors. c three-phase circuits of c. in which the operation of one or more fuses provokes a mechanical trip-out of all poles of an associated series-connected load-break switch. 7. TN-S and IT schemes c single-phase circuits or those of c.2. etc.a.the single-phase power of the circuit is less than 10% of the balanced 3-phase power of the circuit. the conditions described above for TT and TN-S schemes are applicable. The table has been based on French national standards (NF C 15-100). the neutral conductor H1 The c. IT scheme In general. > 16 mm2 copper or 25 mm2 aluminium: the c. The following points however. H1-36 . c method of protection against indirectcontact hazards according to the methods described below.s. i 16 mm2 (copper) 25 mm2 (aluminium): the c.s. TN.2. The action can only be achieved with fuses in an indirect way.the protection of circuits .s. or: . The action is commonly caused by a strikerpin which is projected by means of an explosive cartridge (triggered by the blowing fuse) against the switch tripping mechanism. which in the event of a fault. Protection against electric shocks Table H1-65 takes into account the fact that protection against indirect-contact dangers depend either on 300 mA RCDs (TT system) or on circuit breakers (TN and IT systems). 7. apart from its current-carrying requirement. on condition that: .s. TN-C scheme The same conditions apply in theory as those mentioned above.a. Circuit isolation It is considered to be good practice that every circuit be provided with the means for its isolation. or v smaller. as previously noted in Chapter F Sub-clause 2.s. When a 3-phase 4-wire installation is necesssary.

similar) final circuits. of neutral conductor Sph = c. Refer to example 2 for CB 5. (C) authorized for IT schemes in certain conditions.s.s.a. of which the ratio of the extreme circuit ratings does not exceed 2. thermal magnetic Symbol for overcurrent and short-circuit tripping devices. the protection of circuits .the switchgear . (A) authorized for TT and TN schemes if a RCD is installed at the origin of the circuit or upstream of it. viz: if the circuit breaker controlling a number of homogeneous (i.e. and if no artificial neutral is distributed downstream of its location.H1 reminder: protection against indirect contact earthing systems TT by RCD TN-C provided by circuit breakers or fuses with Ia (fuses) or Im (CB) < Isc (min) TN-S according to the method of protection chosen IT provided by circuit breakers or fuses and one RCD at least for each group of appliances connected to an earth electrode (see figure G20) protected circuit 1-phase P-N phase/neutral (C) 1-phase phase/phase 2P (A) (A) 3-phase 3-wire 3P 3-phase 4-wire 3P-N Sn = Sph* (C) * Sn = c. of phase 3P-N Sn < Sph (B) (B) (C) table H1-65: table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems.a. and which are protected against a second fault occurring elsewhere in the installation by a RCD of sensitivity i 15% of that of the calibration of the final circuit having the smallest c.s.a. and if the normal service current is substantially less than the maximum permissible for the neutral conductor concerned. (B) authorized for TT and TN schemes if the neutral conductor is protected against shortcircuits by protective arrangements made for the phases.H1-37 .

with tripping devices similar to those mentioned in example 1.5 mm2 DPN DPN 3d = 3 tripping units 4d = 4 tripping units diff. The circuit breakers will therefore be 4-pole units. H1-67: example 2. may however. HS 300 mA NS160N 4-pole 4d 125 A 8 9 C60N 4-pole 4d 32 A 10 NS160N 3-pole 3d 125 A NS80HMA 12 11 contactor LC1 D63 thermal overload relay 3 x 16 mm2 NS160N 4-pole + MT100/160 3d 160 A diff. 2 and 3 As in example 1. but it does provide two levels of voltage. the neutral conductor may be earthed. Circuit breaker 5 This arrangement corresponds with that described in (C) of table H1-65 concerning a circuit breaker connected directly to. and controlling the busbars from which a number of similar final circuits. the neutral and phase conductors of which have the same c. the neutral conductor H1 7.5 mm2 DPN 2 x 1. e.s. the circuits protected by these CBs have a neutral conductor of 50% of the c.1 TT and TN-S schemes) is not satisfied in this case.the switchgear 30 kW 58 A outdoor lighting . of the phase conductors. A 4-pole circuit breaker having 3 tripping devices is therefore suitable (1 device per phase).a. The interposition of a LV/LV transformer in a 3-phase 3-wire IT scheme (as shown in figure H1-8) is a preferred method of obtaining the two levels of voltage.2 protection of the neutral conductor (continued) examples Example 1: (figure H1-66) 3-phase 4-wire circuit with 3 x 95 mm2 copper phase conductors and 1 x 50 mm2 copper neutral conductor. The installation is TT-earthed with RCD protection upstream.5 mm2 DPN 4 x 2. particularly for small or medium-sized installations. A suitable circuit breaker for this purpose would be a 4-pole unit rated at 250 A with 3 trip units (1 for each phase) set at 250 A and 1 trip unit (for the neutral) set at 125 A.e.the protection of circuits . Circuit breaker 1.a.a. BS 10 A 4 x 6 mm2 N PE PE 4 x 50 mm2 4 x 6 mm2 3 x 50 mm2 4 x 70 mm2 DPN 2 x 2. The condition of single-phase power being < 10% of the 3-phase power delivered (Sub-clause 7.250 A trip units 1 . H1-67) An installation is IT-earthed with a distributed neutral (i. but the 4-pole incoming CB (no 5) has only the (300 mA) RCD protection (mentioned in (C) of table H1-65) the magnetic core of which embraces all 4 conductors. A reduced neutral c. H1-66: example 1.s. 400 kVA HV LV N 4-pole CB 3 . a 3-phase 4-wire system in which the neutral is not earthed). 1-phase and neutral CBs) are supplied. 230 V and 400 V.125 A 50 mm2 3 x 95 mm2 3-phase power 140 kVA 1-phase power 70 kVA 3-phase loads 1-phase loads fig.s. Single-phase power of load: 70 kVA (connected phase-neutral). provided that it is correctly protected. (protected by 2-pole. since 70/140 = 50%. 2 single-core cables 120 mm2 per phase .1 x 120 mm2 (neutral) PE PIM compact NS250N 4-pole 3d 250 A 1d 125 A PE PE compact NS400N 4-pole 3d 250 A 1d 125 A 3 x 120 mm2 +1 x 70 mm2 3 x 185 mm2 +1 x 95 mm2 NS100N 3-pole 3d 100 A 4 3 x 35 mm2 6 PE 5 NS100N 4-pole 32 A 300 mA PE 7 C60N 4-pole 4d 32 A diff.5 mm2 2 x 1. and in such a case. Overcurrent tripping is provided on all outgoing CBs.7. Example 2: (fig. Three-phase power of load: 140 kVA.g. It may be noted that circuit breaker 12 supplies a long lighting circuit. be used. BS = low-sensitivity differential tripping fig. The operation of any one (or more) of these tripping units will trip all four poles of the circuit breaker. HS = high-sensitivity differential tripping diff. H1-38 . This arrangement is not recommended.

neutral = c. Circuit breaker 5 c. A 4-pole circuit breaker with one tripping device per phase is therefore appropriate. 1.e. circuit 1) may be half that of the phase conductors of the circuit. The protection against indirect contact for this circuit (1) is provided by CB1 if the maximum length of the circuit is less than Lmax (see Chapter G Sub-clause 5. * Chapter G Sub-clause 5. conductor*. a 4-pole circuit breaker is suitable.e. t minimum pre-arcing time curve fuse-blown curve 4In x In fig.5 (1. so that the c. the protection of circuits . requiring the shortest Lmax). For a 630 A CB.8 x 230 x 240 x 103 22. of the PEN conductor from the source (i. Associated circuit breaker and contactor 8 This combination provides short-circuit protection (circuit breaker) and overload protection (thermal relays on contactor to suit motor characteristics).s.a.15 where the factor 1. Circuit breaker 9 Controls and protects an extensive lighting circuit.s.25 factor in the denominator is a 25% increase in resistance for a 240 mm2 c. H1-68: example 3. phase.a.s. having 3 tripping devices (1 for each phase). 2. so that a tripping device for the neutral current is not necessary. The circuit breaker has no thermal tripping devices. Lmax = 208 metres.the switchgear . the worst case. and since the phase and neutral conductors have the same c. The total single-phase power of the load is less than 10% of the 3-phase power.s. so that a tripping device for the neutral is required. and 1 tripping device for the neutral (set at 80 A) is required. while Ia = 630 x 4 x 1.a.a. regulated to trip instantaneously at a current level of 4 In L max = 0.2).a. neutral = 50% c. phase.2 Section of the installation which is TN-S connected (PE conductor and neutral conductor separated at a point upstream) Circuit breaker 4 c.a.a. Circuit breaker 6 The protection of a circuit supplying socket outlets.15 allows for the guaranteed ± 15% tolerance of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element of the circuit breaker (i.s. must include a RCD of high sensitivity (generally of 30 mA). since no switchgear of any kind must be included in the combined protective and neutral conductor (PEN) associated with them.25 + 2) x Ia The 1. A 4-pole circuit breaker with 3 tripping devices (set at 160 A) for the phases.s. as mentioned frequently in earlier Chapters.s.H1 Example 3: (figure H1-68) TN-C/TN-S installation Three-pole circuit breakers only must be used for nos. as noted in (B) of table H1-65. 3 and 7. while the contactor has three (one for each phase).H1-39 .

IEC 479-1. and corresponding protective measures. general G 1. Is: touch current fig. The point 500 ms/100 mA close to the curve C1 corresponds to a probability of heart fibrillation of the order of 0. official guides and circulars. G1: curve C1 (of IEC 479-1) defines the current-magnitude/time-duration limits which must not be exceeded. but has become alive accidentally (due to insulation failure or some other cause). codes of practice. indirect contact An indirect contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductive part which is not normally alive. c indirect contact. IEC 755. the protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations.G1 . Any person coming into contact with live metal risks an electric shock. The degree of danger for the victim is a function of the magnitude of the current. codes of practice. IEC 1008. IEC 1009 and IEC 947-2 appendix B. G1). Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 364. electric shock An electric shock is the pathophysiological effect of an electric current through the human body. official guides and circulars.1 electric shock when a current exceeding 30 mA passes through a part of a human body. unless the current is interrupted in a relatively short time. G3: indirect contact. IEC 1009 and IEC 947-2 appendix B.2 A B C1 C2 C3 2 3 4 ∂ imperceptible ∑ perceptible ∏ reversible effects: muscular contraction π possibility of irreversible effects C1: no heart fibrillation C2: 5% probability of heart fibrillation C3: 50% probability of heart fibrillation 0. IEC 755. 1.2 direct and indirect contact standards and regulations distinguish two kinds of dangerous contact: c direct contact.14%. IEC Publication 479-1 defines four zones of current-magnitude/time-duration. the parts of the body through which the current passes. the person concerned is in serious danger if the current is not interrupted in a very short time. G2: direct contact. Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 364. and the duration of current flow. the person concerned is likely to be killed. Its passage affects essentially the circulatory and respiratory functions and sometimes results in serious burns.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 mA current passing through the body Is fig. insulation failure 1 2 3 PE conductor Id 1 2 3 N busbars Is Is fig. etc. The protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations. IEC 1008. Id: insulation fault current protection against electric shocks . in each of which the pathophysiological effects are described (fig.1 0. ms 10000 5000 2000 1000 500 1 200 100 50 20 10 0. etc.1. IEC 479-1. duration of current flow t Curve C1 (of figure G1) shows that when a current greater than 30 mA passes through a part of a human being. direct contact A direct contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductor which is live in normal circumstances.

etc. or c with the automatic action of an intervening metal shutter.5. etc. This protection is based on residual-current operated high-sensitivity fastacting relays. and in particular circumstances. insulation. etc. fig. the first measure may not prove to be infallible.protection against electric shocks .2).1 measures of protection against direct contact IEC and national standards frequently distinguish between degrees of protection c complete (insulation.) must only be removable. To be considered as providing effective protection against direct-contact hazards. have access. drawer. The metal enclosure and all metal shutters must be bonded to the protective earthing conductor for the installation. 2. c additional protection in the event that a direct contact occurs. G4: inherent direct-contact protection by the insulation of a 3-phase cable with outer sheath. Two complementary measures are commonly employed as protection against the dangers of direct contact: c the physical prevention of contact with live parts by barriers. opened or withdrawn: c by means of a key or tool provided for the purpose. as described in Sub-clause G3. enclosures) c partial or particular. particular measures of protection Protection by the use of extra-low voltage SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) schemes This measure is used only in low-power circuits. pillars. lacquers and varnishes do not provide an adequate protection. an opening in an enclosure (door. partial measures of protection Protection by means of obstacles. control panels and distribution-board enclosures.2. removable only with a key or with tools. Paints. inaccessibility. Protection by means of barriers or enclosures This measure is in widespread use. these equipments must possess a degree of protection equal to at least IP2X or IPXXB (see Chapter F Sub-clause 7. fig. since many components and materials are installed in cabinets. or otherwise authorized personnel only. in practice. or by placing out of reach This practice concerns locations to which qualified. which are highly effective in the majority of direct contact cases. Moreover. despite the above measures. protection against direct contact G two measures of protection against direct-contact hazards are often imposed. or c after complete isolation of the live parts in the enclosure. G5: example of direct-contact prevention by means of an earthed metal enclosure. measures of complete protection Protection by the insulation of live parts This protection consists of an insulation which conforms to the relevant standards. panel. G2 . since.

which operate at 30 mA or less. such as a person. are highly recommended as an effective protection against both direct. c normal (or abnormal) wear and tear of insulation. with a live conductor. either through faulty insulation or through contact of an earthed object. Among these reasons may be cited: c lack of proper maintenance. c immersion in water. Standard residual-current devices. . This additional protection is imposed in certain countries for circuits supplying socket outlets of ratings up to 32 A. G6: high-sensitivity RCD. fig. sufficiently sensitive for directcontact protection are rated at 30 mA of differential current. referred to as RCDs. highly-sensitive fast-tripping devices. In order to protect users in such circumstances. c accidental contact. Other standard IEC ratings for high-sensitivity RCDs are 10 mA and 6 mA (generally used for individual appliance protection). in which any difference between the current entering a circuit and that leaving it.and indirect-contact hazards. and with sufficient rapidity to prevent permanent injury to. etc. must (on a system supplied from an earthed source) be flowing to earth.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact an additional measure of protection against the hazards of direct contact is provided by the use of residualcurrent operated devices. and even higher if the location is wet and/or temporary (such as work-sites for example). These devices operate on the principle of differential current measurement. carelessness. c imprudence. but experience has shown that for various reasons they cannot be regarded as being infallible.G3 . but in any case. flexure and abrasion of connecting leads. IEC wiring regulations impose the use of RCDs on circuits supplying socket outlets. for example. or death by electrocution. or used for special purposes. Chapter L section 3 itemizes various common locations in which RCDs of high sensitivity are obligatory (in some countries). installed in particular locations considered to be potentially dangerous. based on the detection of residual currents to earth (which may or may not be through a human being or animal) are used to disconnect the power supply automatically.a situation in which insulation is no longer effective.G 2. and are referred to as RCDs of high sensitivity. Some national wiring regulations impose their use on all circuits supplying socket outlets. of a normally healthy human being. protection against electric shocks . All the preceding protective measures are preventive.

TN or IT. in practice the disconnecting times and the choice of protection schemes to use depend on the kind of earthing system concerned. (3) touch voltage Uc: Touch voltage Uc is the voltage existing (as the result of insulation failure) between an exposed conductive part and any conductive element within reach which is at a different (generally earth) potential.30 0.45 5 0. The greater the value of Uc. G4 .25 0.12 0. c automatic disconnection of the section of the installation concerned. the greater the rapidity of supply disconnection required to provide protection (see Tables G8 and G9).protection against electric shocks . in such a way that the touch-voltage/time safety requirements are respected for any level of touch voltage Uc(3). v electrical separation by means of isolating transformers. v equipotential locality. but which is not part of the circuit for the appliance. Failure of the basic insulation will result in the conductive parts becoming live. For special locations.04 0. (1) The resistance of the floor and the wearing of shoes are taken into account in these values.50 0.out-of-reach or interposition of barriers. table G9: maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 25 V. the maximum permitted touch voltage (UL) is 50 V. (1) Conductive material (usually metal) which may be touched. (2) The definition of resistances of the walls.06 0.02 0. is referred to as an indirect contact.05 0. TT. the limit is reduced to 25 V. installation earth electrode Uc fig.10 assumed touch voltage (V) 25 50 75 90 110 150 230 280 maximum disconnecting time for the protective device (seconds) alternating direct current current 5 5 0.08 0. the provision of devices for indirect-contact protection. G7: in this illustration the dangerous touch voltage Uc is from hand to hand. principle This protective measure depends on two fundamental requirements: c the earthing of all exposed conductive parts of equipment in the installation and the constitution of an equipotential bonding network (see Sub-clause F4-1).17 0.60 5 0.25 0.40 0. is referred to as "exposed conductive parts". the measures of protection are: c automatic disconnection of supply (at the first or second fault detection. * For most locations. The highest value of Uc that can be tolerated indefinitely without danger to human beings is called the "conventional touch-voltage limit" (UL).30 2 0. Conductive material(1) used in the manufacture of an electrical appliance. Precise indications are given in the corresponding paragraphs.18 0.20 0. is separated from live parts by the "basic insulation". and include: c automatic disconnection of power supply to the appliance concerned. reminder of the theoretical disconnecting-time limits* assumed touch voltage (V) < 50 50 75 90 120 150 220 280 350 500 maximum disconnecting time for the protective device (seconds) alternating direct current current 5 5 5 5 0. c special arrangements such as: v the use of class II insulation materials.5 3. v non-conducting location(2) .80 0.3.12 0. Touching a normally-dead part of an electrical appliance which has become live due to the failure of its insulation. Various measures are adopted to protect against this hazard. floor and ceiling of a non-conducting location is given in Sub-clause G3.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply protection against indirect-contact hazards by automatic disconnection of the supply can be achieved if the exposed conductive parts of appliances are properly earthed. or an equivalent degree of insulation. See G4-1 and Clause L3. without dismantling the appliance.27 1 0.02 table G8: maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 50 V(1). or strongly recommend. depending on the system of earthing) c particular measures according to circumstances.48 5 0. protection against indirect contact G national regulations covering LV installations impose.34 5 0.

HV/400V 1 2 3 4 substation earth electrode installation earth electrode Uc Rn : 10 Ω RA : 20 Ω fig. where space limitations may impose the adoption of a TN earthing scheme. The impedance of the earth-fault loop therefore consists mainly of the two earth electrodes (i. The supply system neutral is normally earthed at a point outside the area of influence of the electrode for the installation. principle In this scheme all the exposed and extraneous conductive parts of the installation must be connected to a common earth electrode.) and agricultural and horticultural establishments. example The resistance of the substation neutral earth electrode Rn is 10 ohms. appears on an exposed conductive part.7 A.G 3. G10: automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation.G5 . For temporary supplies (to work-sites etc. Automatic protection for a TT-earthed installation is assured by the use of a RCD of sensitivity: I∆n i UL = 50 V RA RA where RA = the resistance of the earth electrode for the installation. protection against electric shocks . but. or more. The earth-fault current Id = 7. notably in the case of a consumer-type substation within the installation area. but where all other conditions required by the TN system cannot be fulfilled. the value of UL in the abovementioned formula must be replaced by 25 V. and the use of a differential-current form of protection is essential.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation is effected by a RCD having a sensitivity of U 50 V* I∆n i L = RA RA where RA = resistance of the installation earth electrode * 25 V in some particular cases. so that the magnitude of the earth-fault current is generally too small to operate overcurrent relays or fuses. This principle of protection is also valid if one common earth electrode only is used. I∆n = 50 = 2.5 A so that a standard 300 mA 20 RCD will operate in 30 ms to clear a condition in which 50 V touch voltage. The touch-voltage Uc = IdRA = 154 V and therefore dangerous. The resistance of the installation earth electrode RA is 20 ohms.e. the source and installation electrodes) in series. but need not be so. I∆n = rated differential current operating level.

Type G (general) and type S (selective) have tripping time/current characteristics as shown in table G11.3 = 3. This method. and need not be considered.2 "conventional method" and. so that positive operation in the shortest possible time is assured. These characteristics allow a certain degree of selective tripping between the several combinations of rating and type.3. as shown later in Sub-clause 4. Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance.protection against electric shocks less than this value. The "instantaneous" magnetic tripping device setting of the circuit breaker is many times G6 .8 Zs Zc principle In this scheme all exposed and extraneous conductive parts of the installation are connected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. In all TN arrangements. the earth-fault current Id = Uo or 0. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises are often provided. In order to ensure adequate protection. the live phase conductors to the fault position.3 milli-ohm. For such duties RCDs known as RCBOs ("O" for overcurrent) as defined in IEC 1009 must be employed.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation the principle of the TN scheme of earthing is to ensure that earth-fault current will be sufficient to operate overcurrent protective devices (direct-acting tripping. RCCB* (residual current circuit breaker) as defined in IEC 1008 is a specific class of RCD. in which the neutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. this feature facilitates their use and allows the adoption of an effective scheme of discriminative protection. or TN-C-S method of implementing the TN principle is used. overcurrent relays and fuses) so that Uo Uo* Ia i or 0. 3. As noted in Chapter F Sub-clause 4. Ia = a current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified. Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see "conventional method" Sub-clause 5. G12: automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation. Note: the path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally) much higher impedance values than those listed above. in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. The impedance Zs of the loop = ZAB + ZBC + ZDE + ZEN + ZNA. in this example. the way in which this direct connection is carried out depends on whether the TN-C. In high-rise apartment blocks. In figure G12 the method TN-C is shown. If ZBC and ZDE are predominant. earth electrodes are normally installed at intervals along the neutral of the supply network. High fault current levels simplify protection requirements but can give rise to touch voltages exceeding 50% of the phase-toneutral voltage at the fault position during the brief disconnection time. while the consumer is generally required to instal an earth electrode at the service position.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation (continued) the tripping times of RCDs are generally lower than those prescribed in the majority of national standards. TN-S. In practice. example A F E NS160 35 mm2 D 50 m 35 mm2 C B 3 2 1 PEN N RnA Uc fig.576 A (≈ 22 In based on a 160 A circuit breaker).8 Uo u Ia where Zs Zc Uo = nominal phase-neutral voltage. will give a fault current of 230 x 0. Id = the fault current. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protective conductor at each level. ** Note : the use of the term "circuit breaker" does not mean that a RCCB can break short-circuit currents.3 . any insulation fault to earth constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. x I∆n instantaneous (ms) domestic type S (ms) industrial setting I** (ms) * Merlin Gerin 1 2 5 300 150 40 >5 40 500 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 table G11: maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008). In figure G12 the touch voltage 230 Uc = = 115 V 2 and is therefore dangerous.816 A (≈ 18 In) 64.3. which is recommended. is explained in chapter G Sub-clause 5. the protective conductors from the fault position back to the source. specified disconnection time RCD is a general term for all devices operating on the residual-current principle.2. then: ZS = 2ρ x L = 64. equal to the sum of the impedances of: the source. so that S Id = 230/64.2). Note: some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltage drop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE.8 x 103 = 2. therefore.

It is sufficient therefore that the fault current Uo / Zs or 0. In consequence. The corresponding value of Ia can be read from the graph.8 x 230/Ia. then these times can easily be achieved by the use of RCDs.This impedance value must never be exceeded and should preferably be substantially less to ensure satisfactory fuse operation. as well as for final circuits supplying a fixed appliance. G14: disconnection by circuit breaker for a TN-earthed installation. This separation is commonly made at the service position. specified maximum disconnection times The times specified are a function of the nominal voltage phase/earth.8 Uo as indicated in figure G15. since all types of trip unit. as mentioned in note 2. In any case.G for TN earthing. Zs Zc Example: The nominal phase-neutral voltage of the network is 230 V and the maximum disconnection time given by the graph in figure G15 is 0. must largely exceed that necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. The common equipotential busbar is installed in the distribution-board cabinet for the area concerned. which. is the phase/neutral voltage.8* Zs Zc * according to the "conventional" method of calculation (see sub-clause 5.35 s. Using the voltage (230 V) and the current Ia.05 s. The condition to observe therefore is that: Ia < Uo or 0. t 1 : instantaneous trip 2 : short time-delayed trip 2 1 Im Uo/Zs I fig.G7 .8 Uo/Zc as determined above. be necessary on TN-earthed systems. must always be taken into consideration. from which portable or mobile equipment might be supplied. it is sufficient to verify that the fault current will always exceed the current-setting level of the instantaneous or short-time delay tripping unit (Im): Im < Uo or 0. Note 1: a longer time interval than those specified in the table (but in any case less than 5 seconds) is allowed under certain circumstances for distribution circuits. The fault current Uo/Zs or 0. Note 3: the use of RCDs may. in any area where socket-outlets are installed. and certain national regulations impose. for 127 V 0. instantaneous or slightly retarded.1 table G13: maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41).4 seconds. Note 2: when the conventional voltage limit is 25 V. to be sure of tripping whithin the permitted time limit. for 400 V If the circuits concerned are final circuits. the specified disconnection times are: 0. G15: disconnection by fuses for a TN-earthed installation. or than the very short-time tripping threshold level.2). if the protection is to be provided by a circuit breaker.4 s Ia Uo/Zs I fig. the complete loop impedance or the circuit loop impedance can be calculated from Zs = 230/Ia or Zc = 0. for all practical purposes on TN systems. magnetic or electronic. protection by means of fuses The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can be accertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned. the maximum allowable disconnection time depends on the nominal voltage of the system.8 0. for 230 V 0.2 0. protection cannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zs or Zc exceeds a certain value. Uo (volts) phase/neutral 127 230 400 > 400 disconnection time (seconds) UL=50 V (see note 2) 0.4 0. The maximum tolerance authorized by the relevant standard. are suitable: Ia = Im. on condition that a dangerous touch voltage is not thereby caused to appear on another appliance. Ia can be determined from the fuse performance curve. the provision of equipotential bonding of all extraneous and exposed conductive parts that are simultaneously accessible.1 second. IEC recommends. protection by means of a circuit breaker The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth fault in less than 0. t tc = 0.8 Uo / Zc determined by calculation (or established on site) be greater than the instantaneous trip-setting current. automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time will always be assured. Use of RCDs on TN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductor must (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD.2 s. protection against electric shocks . however.

so that when added vectorially. c all exposed and extraneous conductive parts are earthed via an installation earth electrode.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system In this type of system: c the installation is isolated from earth. HV/400 V Id2 Id1 3 2 1 PE Id1 Id2 A Uc Id2 Id2 ZF fig. while the second fault could feasibly be located at the opposite end of the installation.500 During a phase-to-earth fault. G8 . or the neutral point of its power-supply source is connected to earth through a high impedance. However.3. the leakage (capacitive) impedance to earth ZF is of the order of 3. and rapid clearance by fuses or automatic circuit breaker tripping depends on the type of earth-bonding scheme. The touch voltage Uc is therefore 198 x 5 x 10-3 = 0. it is conventional to double the loop impedance of a circuit. so that a high level of fault current is assured. which is evidently harmless. on a different phase. In this case no earth electrodes are included in the fault current path. and whether separate earthing electrodes are used or not. The voltages of the two healthy phases have (because of the fault) increased to √3 the normal phase voltage.500 ohms per phase. together with an alarm signal (audio and/or flashing lights.2) is respected and no dangerous touch voltages can occur.e. Since the exposed conductive parts of the installation are connected directly to earth. circuit breakers and fuses. The current through the short-circuit is given by the vector sum of the neutral-resistor current Id1 (= 153 mA) and the capacitive current (Id2). The first fault could occur at the end of a circuit in a remote part of the installation. in an IT scheme it is intended that a first fault to earth will not cause any disconnection.) in the event of a first earth fault occurring. * Resistive leakage current to earth through the insulation is assumed to be negligibly small in the example. G16: phases to earth insulation monitoring relay (obligatory on IT-earthed installation). the neutral impedance Zct plays practically no part in the production of touch voltages to earth. in this scheme: c a permanent surveillance of the condition of the insulation to earth must be provided. or on a neutral conductor. as shown in figure G19. first fault On the occurrence of a short-circuit fault to earth. so that the capacitive currents increase by the same amount. a rapid disconnection becomes imperative. a condition that is neither dangerous to personnel. referred to as a "first fault". the current passing through the electrode resistance RnA is the vector sum of the capacitive currents in the two healthy phases. i. Fault clearance is carried out differently in each of the following cases: 1st case: concerns an installation in which all exposed conductive parts are bonded to a common PE conductor. Example: For a network formed from 1 km of conductors. In practice the current Id is feeble.99 V. G17: fault-current paths for a first (earth) fault on an IT-earthed installation. For this reason. one from the other by 60°. and conventional overcurrent protective devices are used. These currents are displaced. the simultaneous existence of two earth faults (if not both on the same phase) is dangerous. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. this amounts to 3 x 66 mA = 198 mA i. c the rapid location and repair of a first fault is imperative if the full benefits of the IT system are to be realized. when calculating the anticipated fault setting level for its overcurrent protective device(s). . in the installation concerned. the capacitive current* to earth is therefore Uo = 230 = 66 mA per phase ZF 3. Continuity of service is the great advantage afforded by the scheme. the fault current is very small. such that the rule Id x RA i 50 V (see G3. nor harmful to the installation. In normal (unfaulted) operation. as shown in figure G17. Id2 in the present example. etc. B Id1 Zct 1500 Ω Id1 Id2 RnA = 5 Ω fig.e.protection against electric shocks second fault situation On the appearance of a second fault.

2 table G18: maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41). the PE conductors being the same size as the phase conductors. G.8 e Uo* u Ia 2 Zc Specified tripping/fuse-clearance times Disconnecting times for 3-wire 3-phase IT schemes differ from those adopted for 4-wire 3-phase IT schemes. F. Reminder: In an IT system. i. In such a case. So that the resistance of circuit 1 loop FGHJ = 2 RHJ = 2 ρ l mΩ a where: ρ = the resistance in milli-ohm of a copper rod 1 metre long of c. c RCCBs In particular cases.G9 . In four-wire IT installations. then the voltage to use for the fault-current calculation is the phase-to-phase value. and are given for both cases in table G18. (1) When the conventional voltage limit is 25 V.2 seconds at 230/400 V and 0. the levels of instantaneous and short time-delay overcurrent-trip settings must be decided. 1 mm2 l = length of the circuit in metres a = c. shown in Sub-clause 3.470 A 129 c fuses The current Ia for which fuse operation must be assured in a time specified according to table G18 can be found from fuse operating curves.5 seconds at 230/400 V and 0.1 5 0. with the same sized conductors. the impedance of the circuit loop when using the "conventional method" (Sub-clause 5.3. 1.2 seconds at 400/690 V.3. the two circuits involved in a phase-to-phase short circuit are assumed to be of equal length.s. the disconnecting times become: c in the case of a 3-phase 3-wire scheme.8 0. RCCBs are necessary. with fault-level calculations and tripping/fuseoperating times suitably adapted. In this case. Zct G C Rn RA fig.8 x ex 230 x 103 = 2.0 second at 127/220 V. protection against indirect contact hazards can be achieved by using one RCCB for each circuit.4 seconds at 127/220 V. 0. disconnection time (seconds) UL = 50 V (1) 3-phase 3-wires 3-phase 4-wires 0. 0.3) Ia = current level for trip setting Uo/U (volts) Uo = phase-neutral volts U = phase-phase volts 127/220 230/400 400/690 580/1000 c if no neutral conductor is provided.4 0.s.5 x 50 = 64. The times recommended in table G18 can be readily complied with. (2) 0. Example: from the case shown in figure G19.2 of this chapter) will be twice that calculated for one of the circuits in the TN case. C. determine that the short-circuit protection provided by the 160 A circuit breaker is suitable to clear a phase-to-phase shortcircuit occurring at the load ends of the circuits concerned.3 mΩ 35 and the loop resistance B. The current levels and protective measures depend on the switchgear and fusegear concerned: c circuit breakers In the case shown in figure G19. * based on the "conventional method" noted in the first example of Sub-clause 3.8 0. as described in figure G15. the lowest short-circuit fault currents will occur if one of the (two) faults is from the neutral conductor to earth (all four conductors are insulated from earth in an IT scheme). 0.a. J will be 2 x 64. Example HV/400 V A Id J K NS160 160 A 50 m 35 mm2 H F E 50 m 35 mm2 D B 3 2 1 PE busbars c in the case of a 3-phase 4-wire scheme. therefore. the phase-to-neutral voltage must be used to calculate short-circuit protective levels i.8 Uo* u Ia where 2 Zc Uo = phase/neutral voltage Zc = impedance of the circuit fault-current loop (see G3.e. G19: circuit breaker tripping on second (earth) fault when exposed conductive parts are connected to a common protective conductor.3 = 129 mΩ The fault current will therefore be: 0.2 0. D. of the conductor in mm2 = 2 x 22. c where the system includes a neutral conductor in addition to the 3 phase conductors. The current indicated should be significantly lower than the fault currents calculated for the circuit concerned. (1) 0. protection against electric shocks .e.a.06 seconds at 400/690 V.G 1st case: where all exposed conductive parts are connected to a common PE conductor conventional overcurrent protection schemes (such as those used in TN systems) are applicable. E. H.4 0.

230 V / 24 V the use of PELV (Protection by Extra Low Voltage) This system is for general use where low voltage is required. Three conditions of exploitation must be respected in order to provide satisfactory protection against indirect contact: c no live conductor at SELV must be connected to earth. The conception is similar to that of the SELV system. etc. is required. 6 V rms is the maximum permitted voltage. except when the equipment is in the zone of equipotential bonding. where no direct-contact protection is provided. G20: the application of RCDs when exposed conductive parts are earthed individually or by groups. 2nd case: concerns exposed conductive parts which are earthed either individually (each part having its own earth electrode) or in separate groups (one electrode for each group). The secondary voltage never exceeds 50 V rms. . by the HV/LV case 1 electrode contact resistances with the earth. to other exposed conductive parts. In all other cases. then it is possible for the second earth fault to occur in a different group or in a separatelyearthed individual apparatus. so that inadvertent connection to a different voltage level is not possible. but the secondary circuit is earthed at one point. and large-area contact with the human body is not expected.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system (continued) 2nd case: where exposed conductive parts of appliances are earthed individually or in separate groups. as defined in IEC 742. This measure depends on supplying power at very low voltage from the secondary windings of isolating transformers especially designed according to national or to international (IEC 742) standards. as shown in figure G20 (see also Table H1-65c). but the operating current of the RCDs must evidently exceed that which occurs for a first fault. there is no need to provide protection against direct-contact hazards. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. case 2 HV/LV RCD N PIM RCD N RCD RCD PIM group earth group 1 earth Rn RA 1 group 2 earth RA 2 Rn RA fig. G21: low-voltage supplies from a safety isolating transformer.protection against electric shocks fig. protection of the neutral conductor. when the SELV voltage is less than 25 V.2. c socket outlets for the SELV system must not have an earth-pin contact. wandering-lead hand lamps. c exposed conductive parts of SELV-supplied equipment must not be connected to earth. Additional protection to that described above for case 1. The more sensitive RCDs are therefore necessary. Note 1: see also Chapter H1 Sub-clause 7. or preferred for safety reasons. thereby making protection by overcurrent devices unreliable. and other portable appliances for outdoor use. the overcurrent protection operates. The SELV circuit plugs and sockets must be special. IEC 364-4-41 defines precisely the significance of the reference PELV. Note 2: in 3-phase 4-wire installations protection against overcurrent in the neutral conductor is sometimes more conveniently achieved by using a ring-type current transformer over the single-core neutral conductor. unless cables which are insulated for the highest voltage of the other circuits are used for the SELV circuits. and/or an earthed metal screen is sometimes incorporated between the windings.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection extra-low voltage is used where the risks are great: swimming pools. For a second fault occurring within a group having a common earth-electrode system.). other than in the high-risk locations noted above. The impulse withstand level of insulation between the primary and secondary windings is very high. and the equipment is used in normally dry locations only. on IT-earthed systems. Note: In normal conditions. G10 . the use of SELV (Safety by Extra Low Voltage) Safety by extra low voltage SELV is used in situations where the operation of electrical equipment presents a serious hazard (swimming pools. Particular requirements are indicated in Chapter L. These measures require that: c SELV circuits must use conduits exclusively provided for them. Clause 3: "special locations". If all exposed conductive parts are not bonded to a common electrode system. and consists of a RCD placed at the circuit breaker controlling each group and each individually-earthed apparatus. c all live parts of SELV circuits and of other circuits of higher voltage must be separated by a distance at least equal to that between the primary and secondary windings of a safety isolating transformer. amusement parks. and the nominal voltage does not exceed 25 V rms. The reason for this requirement is that the separate-group electrodes are "bonded" through the earth so that the phase-to-phase short-circuit current will generally be limited when passing through the earth bond.3. or to extraneous conductive parts. each appliance or each group must (in addition to overcurrent protection) be protected by a RCD. as described above for case 1. Protection against direct-contact hazards is generally necessary. etc. 3.

the separation of electric circuits is suitable for relatively short cable lengths and high levels of insulation resistance. with a high degree of insulation between primary and secondary windings. A simple example is that of drawing a cable into a PVC conduit. If a direct contact is made with one conductor. It is preferably used for an individual appliance. the separation of electric circuits The principle of separation of circuits (generally single-phase circuits) for safety purposes is based on the following reasoning. appropriate measures described in IEC 364-4-41 must be taken to ensure protection against both direct and indirect contact hazards. c supplementary insulation in an electrical installation (IEC 364-4-41: Sub-clause 413-2). In the case of a second fault. Since the conductor capacitance to earth is very small. a very small current only will flow into the person making contact. successful exploitation of the principle requires that: c no conductor or exposed conductive part of the secondary circuit must be connected to earth. As the length of circuit cable increases. protection against electric shocks . but not all of the requirements relating to SELV or PELV are fulfilled. c a high insulation-resistance value must be maintained for the cabling and appliances. IEC 439-1 describes a set of requirements. These conditions generally limit the application of this safety measure to an individual appliance. It is important to take particular care in the exploitation of class II equipment and to verify regularly and often that the class II standard is maintained (no broken outer envelope. For these reasons. G23: principle of class II insulation level. a voltage of 50 V or less is used. The two conductors from the unearthed single-phase secondary winding of a separation transformer are insulated from earth. remote-control switches. be encountered when the circuit contains equipment (such as transformers. through the earth and back to the other conductor through the low conductor-to-earth insulation resistance. a low value of insulation resistance with respect to earth can result in danger. c some cables are recognized as being equivalent to class II by many national standards. * It is recommended in IEC 364-4-41 that the product of the nominal voltage of the circuit in volts and length in metres of the wiring system should not exceed 100 000. or with equivalent protection. As indicated above. the direct contact current will progressively increase to a point where a dangerous electric shock will be experienced. such as an earthed metal screen between the windings. via the inherent capacitance of that conductor with respect to earth. but not connected to earth. through the earth and back to the other conductor. c the socket outlets must be provided with an earth-pin connection. No conductive parts of a class II appliance must be connected to a protective conductor: c most portable or semi-fixed appliances. separation transformer 230 V / 230 V class II fig. it is necessary to observe the following requirements: c the exposed conductive parts of all appliances must be connected together by an insulated protective conductor. etc.G11 . Electronic devices. Methods are also described for distribution boards. relatively short lengths of well-insulated cable are essential in separation schemes. Construction of the transformer is to class II insulation standards. for example. relays. and that the length of the wiring system should not exceed 500 m. certain lamps. The earth-pin connection is used in this case only to ensure the interconnection (bonding) of all exposed conductive parts. the current is generally below the level of perception. class II appliances symbol These appliances are also referred to as having "double insulation" since in class II appliances a supplementary insulation is added to the basic insulation. radio and television sets have safety levels equivalent to class II. Note: Such conditions may. equivalent to class II.). Some national standards such as NF C 15-100 (France) (annex to 413. but are not formally class II appliances.5 active part basic insulation supplementary insulation fig. Chapter 41) describe in more detail the necessary measures to achieve the supplementary insulation during installation work. and some types of transformer are designed to have double insulation. c for distribution boards and similar equipment. Transformers are specially designed for this duty. for functional reasons. according to the location and use of these circuits. since the current path is then via the person making contact. c the length of secondary cabling must be limited to avoid large capacitance values*. Even if a short length of cable precludes any danger from capacitive current. for what is referred to as "total insulation". In the case where several appliances are supplied from a separation transformer.G FELV system (Functional Extra Low Voltage) Where. overcurrent protection must provide automatic disconnection in the same conditions as those required for an IT scheme of power system earthing. G22: safety supplies from a separation transformer. contactors) insufficiently insulated with respect to circuits at higher voltages.

). the probability of touching a live exposed conductive part. but no fault current will flow. the resistance to earth at any point must be: > 50 kΩ (installation voltages i 500 V).5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection (continued) in principle. c entrances to the chamber must be arranged so that persons entering are not at risk.protection against electric shocks . Different instrument suppliers provide electrodes specific to their own product. a person entering the chamber would be at risk (since he/she would be stepping on to a live floor). *Note: extraneous conductive parts entering (or leaving) the equipotential space (such as water pipes. and is implemented according to the following conditions: c the floor and the walls of the chamber must be non-conducting. G12 . and earth (i. and so is not an easily applied principle out-of-reach or interposition of obstacles. while at the same time touching an extraneous conductive part at earth potential. is extremely low. all exposed conductive parts. insulated obstacles insulated walls 2. earth-free equipotential chambers In this scheme. such as a lighting switch mounted in an industrial-type cast-iron conduit box. safety by placing simultaneously-accessible conductive parts out-of-reach. requires also a non-conducting floor. this measure can only be applied in a dry location. in the absence of significant fault current. nonconducting floor at entrances.3.) and give rise to a number of practical installation difficulties. c the placing of equipment and obstacles must be such that simultaneous contact with two exposed conductive parts or with an exposed conductive part and an extraneous conductive part by an individual person is not possible.g. or by interposing obstacles. > 100 kΩ (500 V < installation voltages i 1000 V). etc. Special protective devices are also necessary to detect insulation failure.e. G25: equipotential bonding of all exposed conductive parts simultaneously accessible. including the floor (see *Note) are bonded by suitably large conductors. since such parts are likely to be bonded to protective (earthed) conductors elsewhere in the installation. c no exposed protective conductor must be introduced into the chamber concerned. Suitable precautions must be taken to protect personnel from this danger (e.5 m electrical apparatus insulated floor >2m electrical apparatus electrical apparatus <2m fig. In such conditions. The electrode contact area and pressure must evidently be the same for all tests.) must be encased in suitable insulating material and excluded from the equipotential network.g. so that care should be taken to ensure that the electrodes used are those supplied with the instrument. a person standing on a conducting floor outside the chamber must not be able to reach through the doorway to touch an exposed conductive part. e. By these means. Resistance is measured by means of "MEGGER" type instruments (hand-operated generator or battery-operated electronic model) between an electrode placed on the floor or against the wall. such that no significant difference of potential can exist between any two points. In practice. earth-free equipotential chambers are associated with particular installations (laboratories. etc. etc.e. A failure of insulation between a live conductor and the metal envelope of an appliance will result in the whole "cage" being raised to phase-to-earth voltage. the nearest protective earth-conductor). i. for example. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. There are no universally recognized standards established for these tests at the time of writing. M conductive floor insulating material fig. G24: protection by out-of-reach arrangements and the interposition of non-conducting obstacles.

caravans. c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1).G13 . G27: distribution circuits. for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V.1 protective measures the application to living quarters is covered in Chapter L Clause 1. high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). pleasure boats.4. c at level B: RCD instantaneous. A B fig. and is given in table G26. G29: circuit supplying socket-outlets. c supply circuits to work-sites. and travelling fairs(1).g. In each case. This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits. c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1). I∆n 3A 1A 500 mA 300 mA 30 mA maximum resistance of the earth electrode (50 V) (25 V) 16 Ω 8Ω 50 Ω 25 Ω 100 Ω 50 Ω 166 Ω 83 Ω 1666 Ω 833 Ω The choice of sensitivity of the differential device is a function of the resistance RA of the earth electrode for the installation. (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3. c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use). fig. c in some countries. protection against indirect contact General case Protection against indirect contact is assured by RCDs. the sensitivity must be compatible with the resistance of the earth electrode concerned. RA 1 RA 2 a distant location fig. "S" type. Case where the exposed conductive parts of an appliance. the sensitivity I∆n of which complies with the condition: 50 V (1) I∆n i RA (1) 25 V for work-site installations. G28: separate earth electrode. Case of distribution circuits IEC 364-4-41 and a number of national standards recognize a maximum tripping time of 1 second in installation distribution circuits (as opposed to final circuits). etc. c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1). e. are connected to a separate earth electrode Protection against indirect contact by a RCD at the circuit breaker controlling each group or separately-earthed individual appliance. This allows a degree of selective discrimination to be achieved: c at level A: RCD time-delayed. table G26: the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be exceeded. agricultural establishments. or group of appliances. this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. protection against electric shocks . implementation of the TT system G 4.

G30: fire-risk location. and sensitive earth-fault protection). G14 . and mandatory in many countries. the international standard for industrial differential circuit breakers is IEC 947-2 and its appendix B. G32: industrial-type CB with RCD module. c differential switches conforming to particular national standards. 4. *see NOTE concerning RCCBs at the end of Sub-clause 3. The sensitivity of the RCD must be i 500 mA. RCDs are mandatorily used at the origin of TT-earthed installations. protection when exposed conductive parts are not connected to earth (in the case of an existing installation where the location is dry and provision of an earthing connection is not possible. overload. including DIN-rail mounted units. DIN-rail circuit breaker with RCD module fig.protection against electric shocks . The ensemble provides a comprehensive range of protective functions (isolation.2. or in the event that a protective earth wire becomes broken) RCDs of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) will afford both protection against indirect-contact hazards. implementation of the TT system (continued) G 4. are available. conforming to IEC 755. and the additional protection against the dangers of direct-contact . to which may be associated an auxiliary module. fire-risk area fig. short-circuit. c relays with separate toroidal (ring-type) current transformers.4. thereby ensuring the level of service continuity required. G31: unearthed exposed conductive parts (A).2 types of RCD RCDs are commonly incorporated in the following components: c industrial-type moulded-case differential circuit breakers conforming to IEC 947-2 and its appendix B. c domestic-type differential circuit breakers (RCCBs)* conforming to IEC 755. where their ability to discriminate with other RCDs allows selective tripping. 1008.1 protective measures (continued) in areas of high fire risk RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk is necessary in some locations. and 1009 (RCBOs). Adaptable differential circuit breakers. fig.

These units are designed for domestic and similar installations. which. As noted in sub-clause 7. Note: Both RCCBs and RCBOs as standardized in IEC 1008 and 1009 respectively. discrimination is possible at three or four different levels of distribution. differential switches are covered by particular national standards (NF C 61-140 for France). "Monobloc" type of earth-fault differential circuit breakers designed for the protection of socket-outlet circuits and final circuit protection. other than that immediately upstream of a fault position c with equipment currently available. "Residual-current load-break switches" would be a more accurate description of a RCCB. protection against electric shocks .G the international standards for domestic circuit breakers (RCBOs) is IEC 1009. provide complete isolation when opened. or by a combination of both methods. which are then protected individually or by groups. overcurrent protection is provided. G33: domestic earth-fault differential circuit breakers. if existing) and on individual-appliance protection. The Appendix is based on the relevant requirements of IEC 755. v at local general distribution boards. although assigned a rated making and breaking capacity. CBRs Amendment 1 (1992) of the product standard IEC 947-Part 2: "Circuit Breakers" includes Appendix B. is not designed to break short-circuit currents (the unique feature of a circuit breaker) so that the term RCCB can be misleading. fig. fig. RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers are standardized in IEC 755. The incoming-supply circuit breaker can also have timedelayed characteristics (type S). RCCBs. G35: RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers. v at socket outlets for individual appliance protection c in general. devices for automatic disconnection in the event of an indirect-contact hazard occurring are installed together with additional protection against direct-contact hazards. G34: differential switches (RCCBs). in addition to sensitive differential earth-fault protection. v at sub-distribution boards. which covers the incorporation of residual-current protection into industrialtype LV circuit breakers. at distribution boards (and subdistribution boards. fig. there are ranges of "monobloc" differential circuit breakers intended for domestic and tertiary sector applications. IEC 1009 is the international reference standard. The RCBO has a rated short-circuit breaking capability and is properly referred to as a circuit breaker. IEC 1008 and IEC 1009. RCBOs The "O" stands for "Overcurrent" which refers to the fact that. RCBOs and CBRs RCCBs (Residual Current Circuit Breakers) These devices are more-accurately described in the French version of IEC 1008 as "interrupteurs" which is generally translated into English by "load-break switches". viz: v at the main general distribution board. Differential switches (RCCBs) are used for the protection of distribution or sub-distribution boards. Circuit breakers so equipped are referred to as CBRs. RCDs with separate toroidal CTs can be used in association with circuit breakers or contactors.3 coordination of differential protective devices Discriminative-tripping coordination is achieved either by time-delay or by subdivision of circuits.G15 .3 a SCPD (ShortCircuit Protective Device) must always be series-connected with a RCCB. Such discrimination avoids the tripping of any circuit breaker. 4. In addition to the adaptable industrial circuit breakers which comply to industrial and domestic standards.

discrimination at 2 levels Protection: c level A: RCD time-delayed setting 1 (for industrial device) type S (for domestic device) for protection against indirect contacts. c level B: RCD instantaneous. 300 mA and 1 A and the corresponding tripping times. G38: discrimination at 3 or 4 levels. with high sensitivity on circuits supplying socket-outlets or appliances at high risk (washing machines. G16 . c level D: RCD instantaneous. See also Chapter L Clause 3). time-delayed) industrial (settings I and II) domestic S time delayed I RCD 30 mA general domestic and industrial setting 0 10 15 30 60 1000 500 600 current (mA) 10 100 500 1000 (A) 100 150 300 1 1. etc.5 fig. B RCCB 1 A delay time 250 ms C RCCB 300 mA delay time 50 ms or type S D RCCB 30 mA fig.e. c level B: RCD time-delayed (setting II). A relay with separate toroidal CT 3 A delay time 500 ms discrimination at 3 or 4 levels Protection: c level A: RCD time-delayed (setting III).3 coordination of differential protective devices (continued) discrimination between RCDs Discrimination is achieved by exploiting the several levels of standardized sensitivity: 30 mA.protection against electric shocks . G36: discrimination between RCDs.4. as shown below in figure G36. A RCD 300 mA type S B RCD 30 mA fig. G37. time (ms) 10000 1000 500 300 250 200 150 130 100 60 40 II 300 mA selective RCDs (i. 100 mA. implementation of the TT system (continued) G 4. c level C: RCD time-delayed (setting I) or type S.

protection against electric shocks . 30 mA RCD 30 MCB + RCD mA remotelycontrolled actuator fig. One motor is provided with specific protection. G39: typical 3-level installation. showing the protection of distribution circuits in a TT-earthed system.G discriminative protection at three levels main circuit breaker HV/LV MERLIN GERIN differential relay with separate toroidal CT setting level ≤ 50/RA time-delay setting level II Rp Rn RA 3 2 1 N PE NS400 NS80H-MA MERLIN GERIN differential relay with separate CT discontactor N 1 2 3 PE instantaneous 300 mA T T Vigi compact NS100 setting level 300 mA MERLIN GERIN SM20 IN OUT M earth leakage current monitor MCB 300 mA type S timedelayed RCD RCD MCB discontactor distribution box M N Ph PE DPN Vigi 30 mA T TEST XC40 diff.G17 .

ducts. so that any restriction in the magnitude of earth-fault currents will be mainly caused by the installation conductors (long flexible leads to appliances greatly increase the "fault-loop" impedance. for TN systems. (3) a PEN conductor must never be interrupted under any circumstances. or be mounted on steel work. by fuses and circuit breakers. practically instantaneously. To ensure correct operation of overcurrent devices in the latter case. c the method of composition. (2) for a substation in which the metering is at low-voltage. implementation of the TN system G 5. 2. c the "conventional method" of calculating the minimum levels of earth-fault currents. always provide sufficient current to operate an overcurrent device. a means of isolation is required at the origin of the LV installation. Control and protective switchgear for the several TN arrangements will be: c 3-pole when the circuit includes a PEN conductor. The reasoning behind these recommendations is that. and the isolation must be clearly visible. a TN-S scheme should be adopted within the installation). based on an assumed voltage drop and the use of prepared tables. especially since the zero-phase-sequence impedances are extremely difficult to determine with any resonable degree of accuracy in an average LV installation. or c the conductor will weld itself into a solid fault and provide adequate current to operate overcurrent devices.3). since inductive and/ or proximity effects can increase the effective impedance of the conductor. in principle. 5.e.2 protection against indirect contact Three methods of calculation are commonly used: c the method of impedances. based on the summation of all the impedances (positivephase-sequence only) around the fault loop. The most recent IEC recommendations for indirect-contact protection on TN earthing schemes only relates maximum allowable tripping times to the nominal system voltage (see table G13 in Sub-clause 3. Other simpler methods of adequate accuracy are preferred. with a corresponding reduction of short-circuit current). A rigorous analysis requires the use of phasesequence-component techniques applied to every circuit in turn. which is an estimation of short-circuit current at the remote end of a loop. while during the installation work certain rules must be fully respected.5. but the amount of computation is not considered justifiable. the current which must pass in order to raise the potential of an exposed conductive part to 50 V or more is so high that one of two possibilities will occur: c either the fault path will blow itself clear. note (1) the TN scheme requires that the LV neutral of the HV/LV transformer. when the short-circuit current level at the near end of the loop is known. TN-C RpnA TN-C-S fig. the neutral and protective conductors should be separated (i. These methods are only reliable for the case in which the cables that make up the earthfault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and not separated by ferromagnetic materials. c the conventional method. and the extraneous conductive parts in the sub-station and installation. 3. The foregoing list indicates the conditions to be respected in the implementation of a TN scheme for the protection against indirect contacts. one earth electrode only is usually required at the service position. as listed below and illustrated in figure G40.protection against electric shocks . The principle is straightforward. 5 2 5 PEN 1 3 PE N 4 2 5 imposed conditions Certain conditions must be observed. Note : This is not normally done for a single domestic installation. methods of determining levels of short-circuit current In TN-earthed systems.1 preliminary conditions At the design stage. connection must be made directly to the earth terminal of an appliance (see 3 in figure G40) before being looped to the neutral terminal of the appliance.e. etc. based on the trigonometric addition of the system resistances and inductive reactances. a short-circuit to earth will. G40: implementation of the TN system of earthing. Three practical methods are: c the "method of impedances". i. earth electrodes should be provided at evenly-spaced points (as far as practical conditions allow) along the PE conductor. 5. in the case of a PEN conductor (a neutral conductor which is also used as a protective conductor). c preferably 4-pole (3 phases + neutral) when the circuit includes a neutral with a separate PE conductor. all be earthed to a common earthing system. for each circuit. the maximum permitted lengths of cable downstream of a controlling circuit breaker (or set of fuses) must be calculated. 1. a reasonably accurate assessment of short-circuit earthfault current levels must be determined at the design stage of a project. 4. The source and supply mains impedances are much lower that those of the installation circuits. the PE conductor must not pass through ferro-magnetic conduit. c the "method of composition". earth faults should be cleared by overcurrent-protection devices. or where a cable is movable. together with the use of tables of values for obtaining rapid results. where the conductor i 6 mm2 for copper or 10 mm2 for aluminium. G18 . the exposed conductive parts of the substation and of the installation.

etc. an apparent increase in resistance. at the point at which the circuit protective device is located) remains at 80% or more of the nominal phase to neutral voltage. which include typical values.8 Uo Sph Lmax = ρ (1+m) Ia Example: B A PE Id L SPE C Sph fig. Principle: The principle bases the short-circuit current calculation on the assumption that the voltage at the origin of the circuit concerned (i. This approximation is considered to be valid for cable sizes up to 120 mm2. using the formula: 2 2 I =U/ (∑R) +(∑X) where (∑R)2 = (the sum of all resistances in the loop)2 and (∑X)2 = (the sum of all inductive reactances in the loop)2 and U = nominal system phase-to-neutral voltage The application of the method is not always easy. such as ECODIAL 2 (Merlin Gerin).5 10-3 for copper = 36 10-3 for aluminium Ia = trip current setting for the instantaneous operation of a circuit breaker. method of composition This method permits the determination of the short-circuit current at the end of a loop from the known value of S. the resistance value R is increased as follows: core size (mm2) value of resistance S = 150 mm2 R+15% S = 185 mm2 R+20% S = 240 mm2 R+25% * causes proximity and skin effects.G for calculations. m = Sph / SPE Sph = cross-sectional area of the phase conductors of the circuit concerned in mm2 SPE = cross-sectional area of the protective conductor concerned in mm2 protection against electric shocks .G19 . or Ia = the current which assures operation of the protective fuse concerned. the maximum length of any circuit of a TN-earthed installation is: 0.8 Uo Sph Lmax = metres. conductor lengths. because it supposes a knowledge of all parameter values and characteristics of the elements in the loop. in the specified time. i. using the conventional method. together with the circuit loop impedance. the inductive reactance internal to* and between conductors is negligibly small compared to the cable resistance. conventional method This method is generally considered to be sufficiently accurate to fix the upper limit of cable lengths. for a TN-earthed system. In many cases. This coefficient takes account of all voltage drops upstream of the point considered. National Authorities generally also publish Guides. etc. where: ρ (1+m) Ia Lmax = maximum length in metres Uo = phase volts = 230 V for a 230/400 V system ρ = resistivity at normal working temperature in ohm-mm2/metre = 22. G41: calculation of L max.) included in the earth-fault loop circuit from which the short-circuit earth-fault current is calculated. In LV cables. * This results in a calculated current value which is less than that which would actually flow. a national guide can supply typical values for estimation purposes. by means of the approximate formula: U Isc I= where U + Zsc Isc Isc = upstream short-circuit current I = end-of-loop short-circuit current U = nominal system phase voltage Zsc = impedance of loop Note: in this method the individual impedances are added arithmetically* as opposed to the previous "method of impedances" procedure. to compute the short-circuit current. The maximum length of a circuit in a TNearthed installation is given by the formula: 0.e. The 80% value is used. Above that size. method of impedances This method summates the positivesequence impedances of each item (cable.e. modern practice is to use software agreed by National Authorities. when all conductors of a 3-phase 4-wire circuit are in close proximity (which is the normal case). or fuse. at the sending end. transformer. If the overcurrent settings are based on this calculated value. and based on the method of impedances. is assured. then operation of the relay. PE conductor.C.

67 0.31 m=4 0. c type of earthing scheme (see fig. with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 rated current (A) 1 2 3 4 1227 613 409 307 681 511 1090 818 6 204 341 545 818 8 10 153 123 256 204 409 327 613 491 1022 818 13 16 94 77 157 128 252 204 377 307 629 511 1006 818 20 25 61 49 102 82 164 131 245 196 409 327 654 523 1022 818 32 38 64 102 153 256 409 639 894 40 31 51 82 123 204 327 511 716 45 27 45 73 109 182 291 454 636 50 25 41 65 98 164 262 409 572 777 63 19 32 52 78 130 208 325 454 617 80 15 28 41 61 102 164 258 358 485 100 12 20 33 49 82 131 204 288 388 table G44: maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B (1) circuit breakers. tables The following tables. Equivalent tables for protection by Compact and Multi 9 circuit breakers (Merlin Gerin) are included in the relevant catalogues. Circuits protected by Compact* or Multi 9* circuit breakers for industrial or domestic use SPH mm2 1.5 2.40 0. and the conductor materials. * Based on tables given in the guide UTE C15-105. implementation of the TN system (continued) G 5. c type of circuit breaker (i. (1) For the definition of type B circuit breaker refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. c cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors.5. c operating-current settings. G47). * Merlin Gerin products. beyond which the ohmic resistance of the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit.50 0. in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices.5 2. the type of circuit.25 table G42: correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems. The tables take into account: c the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses.62 0. applicable to TN systems. C or D).protection against electric shocks .e. B. have been established according to the "conventional method" described above.2.2 protection against indirect contact (continued) the following tables* give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded. Correction factor m Table G42 indicates the correction factor to apply to the values given in tables G43 to G46 according to the ratio SPH/SPE. Circuits protected by general-purpose circuit-breakers nominal crosssectional area of conductors mm2 1. The tables may be used for 230/400 V systems. The tables give maximum circuit lengths. circuit 3P + N or P + N conductor material copper aluminium m = SPH/SPE (or PEN) m=1 m=2 1 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 instantaneous or short-time-delayed tripping current Im (amperes) 50 103 171 274 410 63 81 136 217 326 80 64 107 171 256 427 100 51 85 137 205 342 125 41 66 109 164 273 436 160 32 53 85 126 214 342 200 25 42 68 102 171 274 428 250 20 34 54 82 137 219 342 479 320 16 26 43 64 107 171 267 374 400 13 21 34 51 85 137 213 299 406 500 10 17 27 41 68 109 171 239 325 479 560 9 15 24 36 61 97 152 214 290 427 630 8 13 21 32 54 87 135 190 258 380 700 7 12 19 29 49 78 122 171 232 342 464 800 6 10 17 25 42 68 107 150 203 299 406 875 6 10 16 23 39 62 98 136 185 274 371 469 1000 1120 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 10000 12500 5 8 8 7 5 14 12 11 8 7 5 20 18 16 13 10 8 6 5 34 30 27 21 17 14 10 8 7 5 55 49 44 34 27 21 17 13 11 8 7 5 85 76 66 53 43 34 27 21 17 13 10 8 7 120 107 96 75 80 48 37 30 24 19 15 12 9 162 145 130 101 81 65 50 40 32 26 20 16 12 239 214 191 150 120 96 75 60 48 38 30 24 19 325 290 260 203 162 130 101 81 65 51 40 32 26 410 366 328 256 205 165 128 102 82 65 51 41 33 446 398 357 279 223 178 139 111 89 71 56 44 36 471 422 329 264 211 165 132 105 84 66 53 42 410 328 263 205 164 131 104 82 66 52 table G43: maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers.42 m=3 0. G20 .

Example: A 3-phase 4-wire (230/400 V) installation is TN-C earthed.G21 . protection against electric shocks . (1) For the definition of type D circuit breakers refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. the exposed conductive parts of which are connected to an independent earth electrode.G SPH mm2 1. A circuit is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A. the earthing scheme must be TN-S. G47: separate earth electrode.2. What is the maximum length of circuit.5 2.5 2. Downstream of the RCD.2.6 2 2. SPH rated current (A) mm2 1 1.42 (table G42 for m = SPH/SPE = 2).5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 1. The sensitivity of the RCD must be adapted to the earth electrode resistance (RA2 in figure G47).5 3 4 6 6.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 rated current (A) 1 2 3 4 6 613 307 204 153 102 1022 511 341 256 170 818 545 409 273 818 613 409 1022 681 8 77 128 204 307 511 818 10 13 61 47 102 79 164 126 245 189 409 315 654 503 1022 786 16 38 64 102 153 256 409 639 894 20 31 51 82 123 204 327 511 716 25 25 41 65 98 164 262 409 572 777 32 19 32 51 77 128 204 319 447 607 40 15 26 41 61 102 164 256 358 485 45 14 23 36 55 91 145 227 318 431 50 12 20 33 49 82 131 204 286 389 63 10 16 26 39 65 104 162 227 309 80 8 13 20 31 51 82 128 179 243 100 6 10 16 25 41 65 102 143 194 table G45: maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type C (1). to which must be applied a factor of 0.5 13 35 58 93 34 56 90 16 27 46 73 20 22 37 58 25 18 29 47 70 32 14 23 37 55 40 11 18 29 44 73 45 10 16 26 39 65 50 9 15 23 35 58 63 7 12 19 28 46 74 80 5 9 14 21 35 58 100 4 7 12 18 29 47 73 438 274 219 175 146 110 73 730 456 365 292 243 183 122 116 88 730 584 467 389 292 195 186 141 117 876 701 584 438 292 279 211 175 974 730 487 465 352 292 779 743 564 467 881 730 140 135 110 88 234 225 183 146 117 91 374 359 292 234 187 146 117 104 93 584 562 456 365 292 228 183 162 146 116 88 1022 818 786 639 511 409 319 258 227 204 162 123 102 867 692 558 432 347 308 277 220 174 139 table G46: maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin (1). particular case where one or more exposed conductive part(s) is (are) earthed to a separate earth electrode Protection must be provided against indirect contact by a RCD at the origin of any circuit supplying an appliance or group of appliances.42 = 259 metres. and consists of an aluminium cored cable with 50 mm2 phase conductors and a neutral conductor (PEN) of 25 mm2. For typical use of an MA circuit breaker. RA 1 RA 2 a distant location fig. below which protection of persons against indirectcontact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Table G44 gives 617 metres. (1) For the definition of type C circuit breakers refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.3 8 70 53 10 44 73 12. The maximum length of circuit is therefore: 617 x 0. refer to Chapter J figure J5-3.

5. implementation of the TN system (continued)

G
5.3 high-sensitivity RCDs
IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1), c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1), c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1), c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1), c supply circuits to work-sites, caravans, pleasure boats, and travelling fairs(1). This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits, c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use), c in some countries, this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A.
(1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3.

fig. G48: circuit supplying socket-outlets.

5.4 protection in high fire-risk locations
In locations where the risk of fire is high, the TN-C scheme of earthing is often prohibited, and the TN-S arrangement must be adopted. Protection by a RCD of sensitivity 500 mA at the origin of the circuit supplying the fire-risk location is mandatory in some countries.
fire-risk area

fig. G49: fire-risk location.

G22 - protection against electric shocks

G
5.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high
When the earth-fault current is restricted due to an inevitably high fault-loop impedance, so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to trip the circuit within the prescribed time, the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1: install a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with an operation level which is lower than the usual setting, for example: 2In i Irm i 4In This affords protection for persons on circuits which are abnormally long. It must be checked, however, that high transient currents such as the starting currents of motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. Suggestion 2: install a RCD on the circuit. The device need not be highly-sensitive (HS) (several amps to a few tens of amps). Where socket-outlets are involved, the particular circuits must, in any case, be protected by HS (i 30 mA) RCDs; generally one RCD for a number of socket outlets on a common circuit.

PE or PEN 2 i Irm i 4In unusually long cable

fig. G50: a circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic trip.

phases neutral PE

TN-S

phases PEN

TN-C

fig. G51: RCD protection on TN systems with high earth-fault-loop impedance. Suggestion 3: increase the size of the PE or PEN conductors and/or the phase conductors, to reduce the loop impedance. Suggestion 4: add supplementary equipotential conductors. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3, i.e. a reduction in the earthfault-loop resistance, while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures. The effectiveness of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed conductive part and the local main protective conductor. For TN-C installations, bonding as shown in figure G52 is not allowed, and Suggestion 3 should be adopted.

fig. G52: improved equipotential bonding.

protection against electric shocks - G23

6. implementation of the IT system

G
The basic feature of the IT scheme of earthing is that, in the event of a short-circuit to earth fault, the system can continue to function without interruption. Such a fault is referred to as a "first fault". In this scheme, all exposed conductive parts of an installation are connected via PE conductors to an earth electrode at the installation, while the neutral point of the supply transformer is isolated from earth or connected to earth through a high resistance (commonly 1,000 ohms or more). This means that the current through an earth fault will be measured in milli-amps, which will not cause serious damage at the fault position, or give rise to dangerous touch voltages, or present a fire hazard. The system may therefore be allowed to function normally until it is convenient to isolate the faulty section for repair work. In practice, the scheme requires certain specific measures for its satisfactory exploitation: c permanent monitoring of the insulation with respect to earth, which must signal (audibly or visually) the occurrence of the first fault, c a device for limiting the voltage which the neutral point of the supply transformer can attain with respect to earth, c a "first-fault" location routine by an efficient maintenance staff. Fault location is greatly facilitated by automatic devices which are currently available, c automatic high-speed tripping of appropriate circuit breakers must take place in the event of a "second fault" occurring before the first fault is repaired. The second fault (by definition) is an earth fault affecting a different phase than that of the first fault or a neutral conductor*. The second fault results in a short-circuit through the earth and/or through PE bonding conductors.
* on systems where the neutral is distributed, as shown in figure G58.

6.1 preliminary conditions
Preliminary conditions are summarized in table G53 and fig. G54. minimum functions required protection against overvoltages at system frequency neutral earthing resistor (for impedance earthing variation) overall earth-fault monitor with alarm for first fault condition automatic fault clearance on second fault and protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent location of first fault components and devices (1) voltage limiter (2) resistor (3) permanent insulation monitor PIM with alarm feature (4) four-pole circuit breakers (if the neutral is distributed) all 4 poles + trip (5) with device for fault-location on live system, or by successive opening of circuits examples (MG) Cardew C impedance Zx Vigilohm TR22A or XM 200 Compact circuit breaker or RCD-MS

Vigilohm system

table G53: essential functions in IT schemes.
HV/LV 4 L1 L2 L3 N 4 2 1 3 5 4

fig. G54: 3-phase 3-wire IT-earthed system.

G24 - protection against electric shocks

G
6.2 protection against indirect contact
first-fault condition
The earth-fault current which flows under a first-fault condition is measured in milli-amps. The touch voltage with respect to earth is the product of this current and the resistance of the installation earth electrode and PE conductor (from the faulted component to the electrode). This value of voltage is clearly harmless and could amount to several volts only in the worst case (1,000 Ω earthing resistor will pass 230 mA* and a poor installation earth-electrode of 50 ohms, would give 12.5 V, for example). An alarm is given by the permanent earthfault monitoring. Principle of earth-fault monitoring A generator of very low frequency a.c. current, or of d.c. current, (to reduce the effects of cable capacitance to negligible levels) applies a voltage between the neutral point of the supply transformer and earth. This voltage causes a small current to flow according to the insulation resistance to earth of the whole installation, plus that of any connected appliance. Low-frequency instruments can be used on a.c. systems which generate transient d.c. components under fault conditions. Certain versions can distinguish between resistive and capacitive components of the leakage current. Modern developments permit the measurement of leakage-current evolution, so that prevention of a first fault can be achieved. Examples of equipment and devices** c manual fault-location (fig. G55). The generator may be fixed (example: XM200) or portable (example: XGR permitting the checking of dead circuits) and the receiver, together with the magnetic tongtype pick-up sensor, are portable.
* On a 230/400 V 3-phase system. ** The equipment and devices described to illustrate the principles of fault location, are manufactured by M.G.

modern monitoring systems greatly facilitate first-fault location and repair.

MERLIN GERIN
XM100

XM200
P12 P50 P100
ON/O FF

XGR

XRM

fig. G55: non-automatic (manual) fault location. c fixed automatic fault location (fig. G56) The monitoring relay XM200, together with the fixed detectors XD301 (each supplied from a toroidal CT embracing the conductors of the circuit concerned) provide a system of automatic fault location on a live installation. Moreover, the level of insulation is indicated for each monitored circuit, and two levels are checked: the first level warns of unusually low insulation resistance so that preventive measures may be taken, while the second level indicates a fault condition and gives an alarm.

MERLIN GERIN
XM100

toroidal CTs

XM200

1 to 12 circuits

XD301 XD301 XD312

XD301

fig. G56: fixed automatic fault location.

protection against electric shocks - G25

6. implementation of the IT system (continued)

G
6.2 protection against indirect contact (continued)
c automatic monitoring, logging, and fault location. The Vigilohm System also allows access to a printer and/or a PC which provides a global review of the insulation level of an entire installation, and records the chronological evolution of the insulation level of each circuit. The central monitor XM300C, together with the localization detectors XL308 and XL316, associated with toroidal CTs from several circuits, as shown below in figure G57, provide the means for this automatic exploitation.

MERLIN GERIN
XM100

XM300 C
MERLIN GERIN
XL08

MERLIN GERIN
XL16

897

678
XL308

XL316

fig. G57: automatic fault location and insulation-resistance data logging. Implementation of permanent insulationmonitoring (PIM) devices c connection The PIM device is normally connected between the neutral (or articificial neutral) point of the power-supply transformer and its earth electrode, c supply Power supply to the PIM device should be taken from a highly reliable source. In practice, this is generally directly from the installation being monitored, through overcurrent protective devices of suitable short-circuit current rating, c impedance of the PIM device In order to maintain the level of earth-fault within safe limits, the current passing through a PIM device during a short-circuit to earth is normally limited to a value < 30 mA. Where the neutral point is earthed through an impedance, the total current passing through the PIM device and the impedance (in parallel with it) must be < 500 mA. This means that a touch voltage of less than 50 V will occur in the installation as long as the installation earth-electrode resistance is less than 100 ohms, and that fire risk of electrical origin is avoided, c level settings Certain national standards recommend a first setting at 20% below the insulation level of the new installation. This value allows the detection of a reduction of the insulation quality, necessitating preventive maintenance measures in a situation of incipient failure. The detection level for earth-fault alarm will be set at a much lower level.
G26 - protection against electric shocks

By way of an example, the two levels might be: v new installation insulation level: 100 kΩ v leakage current without danger: 500 mA (fire risk at > 500 mA) v indication levels set by the consumer: - threshold for preventive maintenance: 0.8 x 100 = 80 kΩ - threshold for short-circuit alarm: 300 mA. Notes: v following a long period of shutdown, during which the whole, or part of, the installation remains de-energized, humidity can reduce the general level of insulation resistance. This situation, which is mainly due to leakage current over the damp surface of healthy insulation, does not constitute a fault condition, and will improve rapidly as the normal temperature rise of current-carrying conductors reduces the surface humidity. v the PIM device (XM) can measure the resistive and the capacitive current components of the leakage current to earth, separately, thereby deriving the true insulation resistance from the total permanent current leakage.

G
the case of a second fault
A second earth fault on an IT system (unless occurring on the same conductor as the first fault) constitutes a phase-phase or phase-toneutral fault, and whether occurring on the same circuit as the first fault, or on a different circuit, overcurrent protective devices (fuses or circuit breakers) would normally operate to effect an automatic fault clearance. The settings of overcurrent tripping relays and the ratings of fuses are the basic parameters that decide the maximum practical length of circuit that can be satisfactorily protected, as discussed in Sub-clause 5.2. Note: in normal circumstances, the fault current path is through common PE conductors, bonding all exposed conductive parts of an installation, and so the fault loop impedance is sufficiently low to ensure an adequate level of fault current. Where circuit lengths are unavoidably long, and especially if the appliances of a circuit are earthed separately (so that the fault current passes through two earth electrodes), reliable tripping on overcurrent may not be possible. In this case, an RCD is recommended on each circuit of the installation. Where an IT system is resistance earthed, however, care must be taken to ensure that the RCD is not too sensitive, or a first fault may cause an unwanted trip-out. Tripping of residual current devices which satisfy IEC standards may occur at values of 0.5 I∆n to I∆n, where I∆n is the nominal residual-current setting level. at the remote end of a loop, when the level of short-circuit current at the near end of the loop is known. Complex impedances are combined arithmetically in this method, c the conventional method, in which the minimum value of voltage at the origin of a faulty circuit is assumed to be 80% of the nominal circuit voltage, and tables are used based on this assumption, to give direct readings of circuit lengths. These methods are reliable only for the cases in which wiring and cables which make up the fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and are not separated by ferromagnetic materials.

three methods of calculating shortcircuit current levels are commonly employed: c method of impedances, which takes account of complex representation of impedances, c method of composition, is a conservatively approximate method, which combines impedances arithmetically, c conventional method, is a simplified method based on an assumed minimum voltage during fault, and the use of tables. the software Ecodial 2 (Merlin Gerin) is based on the "method of impedances".

A reasonably accurate assessment of shortcircuit current levels must be carried out at the design stage of a project. A rigorous analysis is not necessary, since current magnitudes only are important for the protective devices concerned (i.e. phase angles need not be determined) so that simplified conservatively approximate methods are normally used. Three practical methods are: c the method of impedances, based on the vectorial summation of all the (positivephase-sequence) impedances around a faultcurrent loop, c the method of composition, which is an approximate estimation of short-circuit current Method of impedances This method as described in Sub-clause 5.2, is identical for both the IT and TN systems of earthing. Method of composition This method as described in Sub-clause 5.2, is identical for both the IT and TN systems of earthing.

the maximum length of an IT earthed circuit is: c for a 3-phase 3-wire scheme 0.8 Uo ex Sph L max = 2 ρ Ia (1+m) c for a 3-phase 4-wire scheme 0.8 Uo S1 L max = 2 ρ Ia (1+m)

Conventional method The principle is the same for an IT system as that described in Sub-clause 5.2 for a TN system, viz: the calculation of maximum circuit lengths which should not be exceeded downstream of a circuit breaker or fuses, to ensure protection by overcurrent devices. It is clearly impossible to check circuit lengths for every feasible combination of two concurrent faults. All cases are covered, however, if the overcurrent trip setting is based on the assumption that a first fault occurs at the remote end of the circuit concerned, while the second fault occurs at the remote end of an identical circuit, as already mentioned in Subclause 3.4. This may result, in general, in one trip-out only occurring (on the circuit with the lower trip-setting level), thereby leaving the system in a first-fault situation, but with one faulty circuit switched out of service. c for the case of a 3-phase 3-wire installation the second fault can only cause a phase/ phase short-circuit, so that the voltage to use in the formula for maximum circuit length is eUo. The maximum circuit length is given by: 0.8 e Uo Sph Lm = metres 2 ρ (1+m) Ia

For the case of a 3-phase 4-wire installation the lowest value of fault current will occur if one of the faults is on a neutral conductor. In this case, Uo is the value to use for computing the maximum cable length, and, 0.8 Uo S1 Lm = metres 2 ρ (1+m) Ia (i.e. 50% only of the length permitted for a TN scheme). Reminder: there is no length limit for earth-fault protection on a TT scheme, since protection is provided by RCDs of high sensitivity. In the preceding formulae: Lmax = longest circuit in metres Uo = phase-to-neutral voltage (230 V on a 230/400 V system) ρ = resistivity at normal operating temperature = 22.5 x 10-3 ohms-mm2/m for copper = 36 x 10-3 ohms-mm2/m for aluminium Ia = overcurrent trip-setting level in amps or Ia = current in amps required to clear the fuse in the specified time m = Sph/SPE SPE = cross-sectional area of PE conductor in mm2 S1 = S neutral if the circuit includes a neutral conductor.

protection against electric shocks - G27

12 copper aluminium 3ph + N or 1ph + N copper aluminium table G59: correction factors.57 0. c operating-current settings. G28 . However. One of its circuits is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A. the following tables* give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded. The 25 mm2 PE conductor is also aluminum.50 0. to apply to the circuit lengths given in tables G43 to G46. and differs from that for TN.20 0.43 0. the table of correction factors (table G59) which takes into account the ratio Sph/SPE.2 protection against indirect contact (continued) N N D PE C A B PE Id Id Id Id fig. Tables The following tables have been established according to the "conventional method" described above.86 0. What is the maximum length of circuit. for IT-earthed systems. when considering an IT system.36 (m = 2 for aluminium cable). and of the type of circuit (3-ph 3-wire.21 0. showing fault-current path for a double-fault condition.16 m=4 0. with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact.31 0. and consists of an aluminium-cored cable with 50 mm2 phase conductors. The maximum length is therefore 222 metres.protection against electric shocks . is specific to the IT system. beyond which the ohmic resistance of the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit. below which protection of persons against indirect-contact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Table G44 indicates 617 metres. 1-ph 2-wire) as well as conductor material.54 0. The tables take into account: c the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses. circuit 3 phases conductor material m = S ph/SPE (or PEN) m=1 m=2 0. * The tables are those shown in Sub-clause 5. c correction factor: table G59 indicates the correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46. c cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors.36 0.6. implementation of the IT system (continued) G 6. 3-ph 4-wire. in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices.27 0.21 m=3 0.33 0. c type of earthing scheme.25 0.2 (tables G43 to G46). The tables give maximum circuit lengths. to which must be applied a correction factor of 0.34 0. G58: calculation of Lmax. for an IT-earthed system. Example A 3-phase 3-wire 230/400 V installation is IT-earthed.

G29 . c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use). fig. The sensitivity of the RCD must be i 500 mA. pleasure boats. this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. fire-risk area fig.G 6. c in some countries. (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3. c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1). 6. c supply circuits to work-sites. G61: fire-risk location. This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits.4 in areas of high fire-risk RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk. c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1). and travelling fairs(1). protection against electric shocks . c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1).3 high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). is mandatory in many countries. caravans. G60: circuit supplying socket-outlets.

G63: RCD protection.e. that high transient currents such as the starting currents of motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. This affords protection on circuits which are abnormally long. PE or PEN 2In i Irm i 4In unusually long cable fig. fig. while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures. a reduction in the earthfault-loop resistance. it is found that the fault-current loop impedance of a circuit will be inevitably high. G64: improved equipotential bonding. The effectiveness of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed conductive part and the local main protective conductor. For TN-C installations. the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1: instal a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with an operation level which is lower than the usual setting. be protected by a high-sensitivity RCD (i 30 mA). If the circuit is supplying socket outlets. bonding as shown in figure G52 is not allowed. it will. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3. Suggestion 3: increase the size of the PE conductors and/or the phase conductors. It must be checked. for example: 2In i Irm i 4 In. Suggestion 4: add supplementary equipotential conductors. Note: this is also the case when one (of two) earth faults occurs at the end of a long flexible lead.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high When. so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to operate within the prescribed time. phases neutral PE Suggestion 2: instal a RCD on the circuit of low sensitivity (several amps to a few tens of amps. TN-S fig. since it must not operate for a first fault).6. i. G62: a circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic trip. in any case. for example. G30 .protection against electric shocks . however. and Suggestion 3 should be adopted. during the design stage of the installation. implementation of the IT system (continued) G 6. to reduce the loop impedance.

A magnetic core encompasses all the currentcarrying conductors of an electric circuit and the magnetic flux generated in the core will depend at every instant on the arithmetical sum of the currents. similar to that shown in figure G66.1 description principle The essential features are shown diagrammatically in figure G65 below. due to the sudden rise of the two healthy phases to phase/phase voltage above earth. In a normally healthy circuit (figure G65) i1 + i2 = 0 and there will be no flux in the magnetic core. Fax terminal 0. protection against electric shocks .0 mA IT* workstation 1 to 2 mA Printer (IT*) < 1 mA IT* terminal 1 to 2 mA Photocopier 0. a condition that cannot be realized in practical installations.5 to 1. in its coil. permanent leakage current in a given installation can be estimated from the following values.f. i1 i2 i3 S N Ø id fig. 7. either or both of which can lead to unwanted tripping by RCDs. and to the intrinsic capacitance between live conductors and earth. or via protective conductors in a TN-earthed system. etc. G66: standardized 0. Certain techniques have been developed to overcome these operational problems. but will return to the source P N via the earth.5 mA * Information Technology. An earth-fault current id will pass through the core to the fault. If the residual current exceeds the value required to operate the tripping device.G31 . On 3-phase systems the capacitive leakage current to earth would be zero if the conductors of all three phases had equal capacitance to earth. measured at 230 V 50 Hz. The sudden occurrence of a first-fault on an ITearthed system also causes transient earthleakage currents at high frequency. The current balance in the conductors passing through the magnetic core therefore no longer exists.m. while those passing in the opposite direction will be negative.5 to 1. The larger the installation the lower its insulation resistance and the greater its capacitance with consequently increased leakage current. In the absence of moreprecise data. transient leakage currents The initial energization of the capacitances mentioned above gives rise to high-frequency transient currents of very short duration.2 application of RCDs earth-leakage currents exist which are not due to a fault.7. then the associated circuit breaker will trip. which is mainly due to imperfect insulation. so that a current i3 flows in the tripping-device operating coil.).f.5 µs 60% fig. informatics and computer-based systems. and abstracted from "Bulletin de l'UTE" April 1992. residual current differential devices (RCDs) G 7. G65: the principle of RCD operation. 100% 90% 10 µs (f = 100 kHz) 10% t ca.m. The capacitive current to earth is sometimes increased significantly by filtering capacitors associated with electronic equipment (automation.5 µs/100 kHz current transient wave. permanent earth leakage currents Every LV installation has a permanent leakage current to earth. The difference current is known as the "residual" current and the principle is referred to as the "differential current" principle. as well as transient overvoltages. the currents passing in one direction being considered as positive. The resultant alternating flux in the core induces an e. and the difference gives rise to a magnetic flux in the core. in its coil. and zero e.0.

c permanent leakage currents downstream of a RCD must be studied. in practice.5 µs/100 kHz impulse 8/20 µs impulse switching static electricity radiated waves repetitive transient bursts IEC 801-4 electrostatic discharges IEC 801-2 radiated electromagnetic fields IEC 801-3 required withstand quantity 6 kV peak 200 A peak* 200 A peak 60 A peak for 10 mA RCDs 5 kA peak for types "S" or time-delayed models (see note) 4 kV 8 kV 3 V/m table G70: electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs. For very particular cases. These overvoltages give rise to transient currents represented by a current impulse wave of the conventional 8/20 µs form.1 t 8 µs 20 µs fig. eliminate the influence of all corresponding current transients. the levels shown in table G70 are complied with in design and manufacturing specifications*. 3 i mA* = 230 V x 1009π x 10 C (n F) 10 i mA* = 0. the manufacturers must be consulted. and radiated electromagnetic waves (radio. to indicate proof against incorrect operation due to transients.072 C (n F) at 50 Hz implementation c every RCD installed must have a minimum level of immunity to unwanted tripping in conformity with the requirements of table G70. where current surges of external origin are the most severe. Sub-clause 1. residual current differential devices (RCDs) (continued) G 7.3) of a duration less than 40 ms. Records have established that. The transient currents flow to earth via the capacitances of the installation surge arresters or through an insulation failure. or again. by Merlin Gerin. or due to abrupt changes of system operating conditions (faults. * Merlin Gerin products.) are part of the increasingly important field of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility). G32 .072 C at 50 Hz i mA = 0. 120 and 149. G68: standardized current-impulse wave 8/20 µs.9 0.5 U 1. fig. The 5 kA peak test reflects this high-performance duty requirement. the leakage current downstream of a RCD must not exceed 0.5 I∆n. These sudden changes often cause large transient voltages and currents in system inductive and capacitive circuits. before a new stable state is reached. switching. having a peak value of several tens of amperes (figure G68). fuse operation.I∆n for a nominal rating of I∆n. will. In practice. etc. ignition systems. I 0. * for RCDs having I∆n < 10 mA this test is not required (IEC 1008-1). Since RCDs complying with IEC and many national standards may operate within the range 0. RCDs type "S" or time-delay setting levels I or II (see figure G36) cover all transient leakage currents. relays. particularly in the case of large installations and/or where filter circuits are present.086 C at 60 Hz where C = capacity (in n F) of one phase to earth. The limitation of permanent leakage current to 0. overvoltages remain generally below 6 kV. current for the choice of the sensitivity of a RCD is: i mA* = 0.25 I∆n. may be consulted.2/50 µs impulse wave (figure G67).5 I∆n . including those of lightning arresters (see installation layouts in Chapter L. For further details. and that they can be adequately represented by the conventional 1.2 application of RCDs (continued) influence of overvoltages Electrical power networks are subjected to overvoltages of various origins. If the capacitance values are known. on LV systems. the Technical publications nos. by sub-division of circuits. It is essential that RCDs be immune to possible malfunction from the effects of electromagnetic-surge disturbances.2 µs 50 µs t fig. the equivalent leakage disturbance overvoltage transient current type of test 1. such as the extension.2/50 µs.protection against electric shocks . 0.5 electromagnetic compatibility The high-frequency (or unidirectional impulse) transient overvoltages and currents mentioned above. electrostatic discharges. dry contacts).2/50 µs impulse 0.7. G67: standardized voltage-impulse wave 1. together with other electromagnetic disturbance sources (contactor coils. etc. atmospheric. in the case of an IT-earthed installation. or partial renovation of extended IT-earthed installations. G69: standardized symbol used in some countries.). U U max 0. Note: Time-delayed RCDs are normally installed near the service position of installations.

components in the residual current.c.c. 3 classes are distinguished: Class AC: operates due to a. Class A: operates if residual current consists of uni-directional pulses.G33 . transformer energizing current surge. and the proximity of ferrous material (steel enclosure.c.000 could become 1/30. This limit can be increased substantially (i. component. triacs.000. and summarized in table G72. any small deviation from perfect symmetry of the conductors encompassed by the core. measures diameter (mm) protection against electric shocks . recommendations concerning the installation of RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers The detector of residual current is a closed magnetic circuit (usually circular) of very high magnetic permeability. at times of large load currents (motor-starting current.e.) can affect the balance of magnetic forces sufficiently.5 mm ø 80 3 c of length 2 x inside diameter of ring core ø 120 3 c completely surrounding the conductors and overlapping the circular core equally at both ends ø 200 2 These measures can be combined. G71. thyristors).) to cause unwanted tripping of the RCD. G71: means of reducing the ratio I∆n/Iph (max. and using a sleeve. The IEC classifies RCDs according to their ability to function correctly in the presence of d. etc. chassis members.G direct current components Auxiliary d. on which is wound a coil of wire. the ratio 1/1. In the event of an earth fault downstream of a rectifier. the response can be desensitized) by adopting the measures shown in fig. Problems of this kind generally concern industrial applications. The risk depends on the level of insulation of the d. the fault current can include a d. current only. Class A are available for specific requirements as a special variation of Class AC devices.) is generally less than 1/1. and each case must be considered individually. Class B: operates on pure d. table G72: means of reducing the ratio I∆n/Iph (max. supplies for control and indication of electrical and mechanical equipment are common. By carefully centralizing the cables in a ring core of 200 mm diameter. sensitivity diminution factor careful centralizing of cables through the ring core 3 oversizing of the ring core ø 50 > ø 100 2 ø 80 > ø 200 2 ø 120 > ø 200 6 use of a steel or soft-iron shielding sleeve ø 50 4 c of wall thickness 0. Unless particular measures are taken. etc.000. where a 50 mm core would be large enough. Centralize the cables in the ring core Use an oversized magnetic ring core Insert a tubular magnetic screen. the ratio of operating current I∆n to maximum phase current Iph (max. the ensemble constituting a toroidal (or ring-type) current transformer. Note: For general use Class AC RCDs are normally installed. L L = twice the diameter of the magnetic ring core fig. circuits in an appliance. Because of its high permeability.).c.c. and certain appliances include rectifiers (diodes.c.).

protected by circuit breakers.max. estimated in accordance with the methods described in Chapter B Sub-clause 4. and manufacturers generally provide tables associating RCCBs and circuit breakers or fuses (see table G74). (1) A 100 A fuse with several RCCBs downstream: the thermal withstand of the RCCBs is not certain. the rated current of both items will be the same.3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB .) upstream circuit breaker type C60a C60N C60H C60L NC100H NC100L downstream 2 p 25 A 10 16 20 45 45 RCCB 40 A 10 16 20 40 45 63 A 16 20 30 5 45 80 A 5 4 p 25 A 5 8 10 25 22 40 A 5 8 10 25 22 63 A 8 10 15 5 22 Coordination of fuses and RCCBs. G73: residual current circuit breakers (RCCBs). Coordination between the RCCB and the SCPDs is necessary.IEC 1008) rated current The rated current of a RCCB is chosen according to the maximum sustained load current it will carry. short-circuit (not applicable to aM fuses) upstream fuses gl (not applicable to aM fuses) 16 A 25 A 32 A 40 A 50 A 63 A 80 A 100 A downstream 2 p 25 A 100 100 100 RCCB 40 A 100 100 80 10 (1) 63 A 80 50 30 20 10 (1) 80 A 30 20 4 p 25 A 100 100 100 10 (1) 40 A 100 100 80 10 (1) 63 A 80 50 30 20 10 (1) 80 A 30 20 10 (1) table G74: typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs.7.protection against electric shocks . circuit breakers. then the RCCB rated current will be given by In u ku x ks (In1 + In2 + In3 + In4). i. electrodynamic withstand requirements Protection against short-circuits must be provided by an upstream SCPD (Short-Circuit Protective Device) but it is considered that where the RCCB is located in the same distribution box (complying with the appropriate standards) as the downstream circuit breakers (or fuses).m.max. the short-circuit protection afforded by these (outgoing-circuit) SCPDs is an adequate alternative. c if the RCCB is connected in series with.e. G73 (b). c if the RCCB is located upstream of a group of circuits. residual current differential devices (RCDs) (continued) G 7. short-circuit current in kA (r. and downstream of a circuit breaker. Coordination of circuit breakers and RCCBs. and fuses. as shown in fig. G73 (a)). In u In1* (fig. (a) (b) In1 In In In1 In2 In3 In4 fig.s.3. * Some national standards include a thermal withstand test at a current greater than In in order to ensure correct coordination of protection. G34 .

general F 1. etc. constitute the practical realization of an electrical installation. for fire-alarm and protection circuits). c simplification in locating a defective circuit. In general. on the failure of a circuit. The arrangement of groups of insulated conductors and the means of fixing them and of protecting them from mechanical damage. c heating and/or air-conditioning appliances circuits. particular kinds of cable (e. Circuit arrangements The creation of independent circuits to different parts of an installation allows: c the limitation of consequences. c power circuits for motor-driven fixed plant. c maintenance work on.g.). Division of circuits falls logically into several categories. c power-supply circuits for auxiliary services (indication and control).1. the following circuit groups are required: c lighting circuits (the circuits on which the majority of insulation failures occur). and. fire-protection systems and uninterruptible-power-supplies (UPS) circuits for computer systems. conduits. in some cases.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution In a typical LV installation. to supply local distribution and subdistribution boards. distribution within a low-voltage installation . or extension of a circuit may be effected without disturbing the greater part of the installation. the installation of which is normally subject to strict national regulations and codes of practice. distribution circuits originate at a main general-distribution board (MGDB) from which cables are installed in various kinds of cables-ways. The most common distribution arrangements for low-voltage installations are described in the following pages. etc. * IEC 38 (1983). while respecting aesthetic considerations. each requiring an individual circuit or group of circuits. c circuits for safety systems (emergency lighting.F1 . c socket-outlet circuits.

Disadvantages A fault occurring on one of the cables from the main distribution board will cut off supply to all circuits of related downstream distribution boards and sub-distribution boards. Conventional wiring installation (fig. in which the conductor size is the same throughout the circuit. general (continued) F 1. in which conductor sizes are progressively reduced at each point of circuit sub-division are the most commonly used systems in most countries. For socket-outlet circuits in certain countries. Maintenance or extensions to the circuit leaves the remainder of the installation in service. Advantages Virtually unrestricted passage for cable ways. With prefabricated bus channels at the second level of distribution (fig. a ring-main circuit is standard. Circuit wires drawn through conduits. schools. F2 . Location of the defect is simplified. radial branched distribution This scheme of distribution is practically universal.distribution within a low-voltage installation . trays. easy exploitation. ducts. hotels. MGDB (main general distribution board) D1 to lighting and heating distribution board D2 D3 D4 prefabricated bus channel a second prefabricated bus channel M M process M fig. and its realization generally follows arrangements similar to those illustrated below: Advantages One sub-divided circuit only will be isolated (by fuses or MCCB) in case of a fault. F1) in buildings intended for specific use: dwellings. Conductor sizes can be tapered to suit the decreasing current levels towards the final sub-circuits. etc. main distribution board distribution board "A" worhshop power sub-distribution board M process M lighting & heating sub-distribution board fig. conduits. F2) for industrial and tertiary sector installations. Advantages Flexibility of installation in large nonpartitioned work-spaces. etc.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution (continued) radial branched distribution schemes. as well as prefabricated bus channels.1. F2: radial branched distribution using prefabricated bus channels at the second level of distribution. agricultural activities. F1: radial branched distribution by conventional wiring at 3 levels. are commonly used.

F4: simple radial distribution. F3: radial branched distribution using prefabricated pre-wired channels and lighting rails at final-circuits level. Disadvantages Surplus of copper due to a multiplicity of circuits.F3 . Advantages Aesthetically acceptable. maintenance and surveillance. easy exploitation. F3): for offices. its control. main distribution board M M M M fig. simple (unbranched) radial distribution This scheme is used for the centralised control of an installation or process dedicated to a particular application. distribution within a low-voltage installation . skirting-board channels.. Advantages A fault (other than at the busbar level) will clear one circuit only. etc. main distribution board A B C distribution board office C to heating control board prefabricated pre-wired columns. bus rails for luminaires fig. Protective-device characteristics must be at a high level (proximity of source)..F With prefabricated bus-rail and pre-wired channels at final-circuits level (fig. laboratories. etc. flexible in locations where partitioning may change according to consumers requirements.

standby-supply plant. In order to provide the lower voltages for lighting circuits. F6: use of a LV/LV transformer to provide a 3-phase 3-wire TN system from a 3-phase 3-wire IT network. 400 V or 415 V (or exceptionally 480 V) for power circuits. In this way : c a 3-phase 3-wire supply is available at the secondary side of the LV/LV transformer with phase-to-phase voltages of 220 V. fig. the system comprises the three phase wires only.3 transition from IT to TN In large LV installations.1. c all loads are connected phase-to-phase only (see Note). etc network retaining. and correspond respectively to the phase-toneutral voltages given in the second set. 230 V or 240 V as required. and the physical location of distribution and sub-distribution boards. while at the same time residual earth fault device IT power network TN lighting. 1. be placed as near to the electrical centre of the load area as possible. two voltage levels are normally used: c one level which is generally of 380 V. for those circuits requiring them. for both technical and economic reasons. very often only the main LV distribution board can be located at the load centre. fig. PE protective earthing conductor PE protective earthing conductor Note: in this scheme of delta-connected loads. The HV/LV substation. and the main LV distribution board. as shown in fig. general (continued) F 1. The first set of voltages are the phase to phase voltages of 3-phase systems. should.distribution within a low-voltage installation . and its related civil engineering works. In fact. the agreement of the power-supply authority concerning the HV/LV substation. which are mainly motors. etc.2 the main LV distribution board The starting point for the design of an electrical installation. F4 . F5: low-voltage main distribution board. and in particular. F6. c earth faults occurring on the TN system will be cleared rapidly by the TN system circuit breaker and the advantages of the IT scheme will be preserved. and operates as an IT scheme (discussed fully in Chapter G Clause 6). particularly in factories and in some hospitals. is the geographical division of the loads. c and a second level of 220 V. it is essential that balanced loading is maintained in all three phases. the advantages of the IT scheme. the HV/LV substation being on the building line with the public way. Many other factors must be considered however. LV/LV delta/star transformers are used. 230 V or 240 V (or exceptionally 277 V) for lighting and socket-outlet circuits. shown on plans of the building(s) concerned. Very often.

The separation of loads through transformers in this way is sometimes referred to as "de-coupling". Moreover. If delta/star HV/LV transformers are used. uninterruptible static power supply equipment (UPS). c circuits which create excessive voltage changes.). and (where the installed load justifies the expense) two or more HV/LV transformers. loads susceptible to disturbances. TN. with automatic standby supplies provided for essential loads. the sub-division of circuits. it is necessary that the continuity and quality of the electric-power supply be assured. * Known as "triplen" harmonics. In this way. automatic local standby generation for essential services. then triplen harmonic currents on the LV side of one transformer do not appear in the HVside conductors supplying it (the currents circulate internally around the delta winding) and so cannot affect neighbouring transformers.2.) fig.F5 . In general. The use of several transformers allows a measure of separation of loads which would otherwise cause an unacceptable disturbance to other circuits. electric converters of various kinds (thyristor-controlled rectifiers. c the type of earthing scheme (IT for example). A case in particular concerns 3rd harmonics and all multiples of the 3rd harmonic*. 2. inverters. the sub-division of circuits Circuits are divided into groups according to their relative importance. A high degree of power-supply continuity can be achieved by: dividing the installation. i. where the effects are considerably less between one group of loads and the next. Figure F7 shows a typical arrangement of an automatic changeover scheme to provide LV standby power to an "essential" loads distribution board. c the provision of local emergency standby generation.g. These loads and others of similar characteristics. for example: c computer systems which are sensitive to voltage regulation (dips and peaks) and to waveform distortion (harmonics). etc. arc furnaces. motor-speed controllers. the choice of earthing system (IT. F7: essential and non-essential loads are separated. etc. essential services standby supplies F In order to achieve the highest possible plant performance. should preferably be supplied through different HV/LV transformers. etc.) and the use of selective protection devices (fuses. any triplen harmonic voltages which may be present on the HV busbars (from directly-connected HV loads for example) will not be transformed down to LV by a delta/star transformer. two groups. Triplen harmonics are of zero-phase-sequence on balanced 3-phase systems. c circuits which create harmonics. HV LV the provision of standby emergency power supplies Examples of standby emergency power supplies include: two separate HV/LV substations. the division of installations and the provision of more than one source Ring-main type HV supplies. is the most common way of ensuring a high level of supply continuity from the power network. such as large motors. commonly referred to as "essential" and "non-essential" loads are separated and supplied from different busbars. a privately-owned power plant. G standby generator ant automatic changeover contactor NORMAL-STANDBY non-essential loads essential loads inverter sensitive load (computer. e. such as discharge lamps. with provision for interconnection of the LV main distribution boards.1 continuity of electric-power supply continuity of power supply is achieved by: c appropriate division of the installation and the provision of alternative supply sources. a ringmain type service connection. c discriminative protection schemes. etc. and loads creating them. distribution within a low-voltage installation . providing more than one source. diesel-generator sets. and in some cases are completely eliminated. which accounts for their particular behaviour in delta/star transformers. the PCC (point of common coupling) is moved from the LV busbars to the HV busbars. relays). TT. e. c sub-division and duplication of important circuits.

. and quality of wave form.. By "discrimination" is meant that none of the upstream protective devices through which the fault (or overload) current flows will operate before the protective device controlling the faulted circuit has operated. HV LV HV LV essential loads non-essential loads essential loads non-essential loads fig. 5th. discrimination is achieved by increasing the operating time of relays as their location in a network becomes closer to the power source. etc. at the end of a manufacturing process. c high-frequency phenomena. This scheme allows normal (and safe) system operation to continue in the event of an earth-fault (by far the most common type of insulation failure). Among the most onerous are: c voltage drops. is to trip the circuit breaker or blow the fuse(s) which control(s) the faulted circuit only. c flicker. * Chapter F Sub-clause 4-5 discusses the matter of earthing schemes in more detail. 5th.1 continuity of electric-power supply (continued) A sub-group of the essential loads. i. In general. In radial branched installations. F9: the principle of selective discrimination.2. over-loading. F6 . closed closed open fig. hospital operating theatres. c overvoltages. particularly odd-numbered harmonics (3rd. The short-circuit (or overload) current will generally pass through one or more circuit breaker(s) or fuse(s) upstream of the circuit breaker (or fuses) controlling the faulted cable. the failure to operate of the relay closest to the fault means that the next relay upstream will operate in a slightly longer time. stable voltage level. The most important of these. c harmonic voltages and currents. photocopiers. are: c excessive dips (occasional voltage drops. which will cause overcurrent relays to trip the circuit(s).distribution within a low-voltage installation .g. Supply from a HV substation HV from a private power plant or from a different HV substation selective discrimination by protection relays and/or fuses The prime objective in any scheme of automatic protection against insulation faults. leaving all other circuit breakers and fuses unaffected. namely computer and information technology equipment (ITE). c flicker. F8: an example of HV standby power supply. e. from 15 to 90% of Un.. in continuous-process manufacturing. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. A second earth fault (if it occurs on a different phase or on a neutral conductor) will. at any convenient time (e. c high-frequency phenomena.2 quality of electric-power supply public and private power-supply networks are subject to diverse disturbances.e.. repetitive voltage drops of less than 10%. constitute a short-circuit fault. this means the nearest upstream circuit breaker or fuse(s) to the fault position.). These requirements are met by a static UPS inverter system.).. etc. due to welding machines. A shutdown to trace the fault manually or automatically (see G 6. 2. particularly the odd harmonics (3rd.. requires the highest degree of continuity. or sudden peaks and dips. however. the level and frequency of which must be controlled and maintained within acceptable limits.g. from half a cycle to 1 s) and peaks of the supply voltage at normal frequency.). c harmonic currents and voltages. c overvoltage surges. the IT scheme* of earthing is generally adopted. choice of earthing system Where considerations of supply continuity are paramount. etc. All downstream loads then being inevitably deprived of supply. in terms of the design and operation of a network. In this way. Power network disturbances may be of a continuous or transitory nature.g. etc..2) and effect repairs can then be carried out later. e.

which not only assure a high quality level of harmonic-free stable voltage as already described. excessive transient torques may occur. c use of lamps which do not extinguish during dips. where large disturbances are frequent. v the use of voltage limiting devices where required. Consequences and solutions All appliances. while computer installations and related electronic processing equipments are frequently provided with independent (battery based) supplies. and switchgear and transformers. cold incandescent lamps and resistive heating loads. e. there can be the risk of a heavy current surge occurring at the restoration of normal voltage. In certain cases. The dielectric withstand test voltage at normal power frequency for most LV materials is 2U + 1.f.F the undesirable effects of voltage dips are countered in various ways.000 volts for 1 minute (or close to this value . etc. and equipment must have a basic overvoltage withstand ability.F7 . but the universal solution for important installations is the use of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) units. for example: v a direct HV/LV fault occurring between the primary and secondary windings of a transformer. depending on the apparatus in question. A possible solution is a scheme of automatic load shedding and staged re-connection of apparatuses requiring high restarting currents. protection against overvoltage is considered to be achieved if all components of the installation have been successfully tested for power-frequency overvoltage withstand ability. machine-tool control. with a risk of damaging shafts and couplings. the blowing of fuses to clear fault current can also produce relatively severe surges of overvoltage. The remedy is to use other types of lamp or to mix non-extinguishing lamps. c for transitory (generally impulsetype) overvoltages. c for an electric motor.. c overvoltage on an LV installation due to faults on an HV system. plant.). for example). will very likely be out-of-phase with the restored voltage. the damaging effects of overvoltages can be avoided: c for overvoltages at power-system frequency by: v assuring adequate overvoltage withstand capability for the equipment concerned. c some types of discharge lamp (notably mercury-vapour lamps) used for public lighting. with catastrophic consequences. extinguish below a certain voltage level. in sufficient number to maintain a safe level of illumination. which passes through a substation earthing system that is common to both the HV and LV networks. with a corresponding heavy current flow.1. These overvoltages mainly affect overhead transmission and distribution lines. Methods of protection against the dangers of such overvoltages are described in Chapter C Sub-clause 3. c the use of uninterruptible powersupply units. c from 0. voltage depressions of short duration ("dips") Types of voltage dip According to the duration of the undervoltage condition. and so on. The frequency of such surges occurring is related to the so-called keraunic level of the region and to the types of network concerned. c in all computer-based applications.discussions are still underway in the IEC). This kind of dip is the most common in "standard" systems. while on LV networks. Some common remedies include: c automatic load shedding and reconnection. c operational overvoltages. Electric motors are particularly susceptible to winding insulation failure in the presence of high-frequency high-voltage surges. At HV distribution voltage levels. c above 0. etc. in a properly co-ordinated insulation scheme.. c tests at normal power frequency. i. information technology. the origin of the dip may be due to one of the following causes: c less than 0. switching overvoltages are adequately suppressed by standard lightning arresters.5 seconds: most of the faults occurring on HV systems fall into this category. Some consequences and solutions Among the numerous undesirable consequences of voltage dips. This constitutes (more or less. lift motors will affect local consumers. overvoltages Types of overvoltage Overvoltages are distinguished in a general way. underground cables or overhead lines. as opposed to networks close to heavy industry. since the loss of information or destruction of a programme can occur. i. and other solutions. v correct coordination in the insulation scheme noted above. connected directly to such exposed plant. outdoor substation equipment. according to their origin: c overvoltage surges due to lightning are referred to as being of atmospheric origin. and cleared by protective devices (relays. v due to the flow of earth-fault current from a HV fault or lightning stroke. etc.g. Some degree of voltage variation can be tolerated and voltage-stabilizing circuits are built-in for this purpose. In IT-earthed systems a voltage-limiting device between the supply-transformer neutral point and earth is obligatory for protection against power-frequency and possible induced-surge type overvoltages. but effectively isolate sensitive circuits from the kind of voltage surges in question. such as: word processing.. the deceleration during a voltage dip (torque α V2) means that its back-e. and so on.e. etc. The keraunic level is defined as the number of days per annum on which the sound of thunder is heard at the location concerned. depending on the degree of phase difference) conditions of short-circuit. c high-torque motors. A common remedy is to install high-inertia high peak-torque motors where the driven load allows. and the measures described below have been taken to protect against high-frequency high-voltage and unidirectional surge phenomena.m.5 seconds include the starting of local electric motors (central station fire-alarm sirens produce cyclic dips in the neighbouring distribution network. In industrial installations. or a HV line touching a LV overhead-line distributor. and require several minutes (to cool) before re-igniting. fuses. distribution within a low-voltage installation . voltage dips are unacceptable. several successive dips may be experienced before the fault is cleared. Switching at high voltage can produce surges of voltage similar to those of atmospheric origin.5 seconds: on rural networks where auto-reclosing circuit breakers are common. These devices are always necessary in IT earthed systems. Other reasons for voltage dips exceeding 0.. the following may be cited: c depending on the severity of the dip and the type of loads in a given installation. with the consequent tripping of main circuit breakers on overcurrent.1 to 0.1 second: short-circuit faults occurring anywhere on local LV networks.e. by: v the application of lightning arresters. based on trickle-charged storage cells and inverters. associated with automaticallycontrolled diesel-generator sets.

This feature provides additional safety for operating personnel. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.8kV 50% 1. IEC Publication 947 takes account of the rules governing insulation coordination and requires that LV switchgear be impulse tested according to the withstand values shown in the relevant tables.3 kV 9.8 kV 12.000 metres. Note: all Compact* and Masterpact* circuit breakers have the class II front face feature. During the several impulse-voltage tests. Table F10 shows maximum values of peak overvoltage assumed to be possible at different points in a typical LV installation. together with voltage-surge suppression devices at sensitive points in the installation (e. beyond the ranges used for distribution.8 kV 9.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) c measures against transient impulse-type overvoltage surges. levels of distribution main distribution board 230/400 V 400/690 V 6 kV 8 kV local distribution board 4 kV 6 kV final circuits level 2. regardless of the keraunic level. kV 9. v industrial switchgear.8 kV 9. at terminals of large motors). notably for representing switching overvoltages.7 kV table F12: typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled Uimp = 8 kV. Lightning arresters are necessary (obligatory in some countries) where an installation is supplied by a low-voltage overhead line and the keraunic level is 25 or more. * Merlin Gerin brand names.g. Their use is strongly recommended. F8 .8 kV 9. concerning overvoltages. application of impulse voltage between phases across the open circuit breaker between phases and earth impulse-voltage values circuit breakers circuit breakers/ isolators 9. Other impulse test wave-forms. These values are called "front time" and "time to half value" respectively. These two values (in micro seconds) indicate the time interval for the wave to attain its peak value from the (defined) instant of impulse initiation (i. v use of lightning arresters. but at the same time including an accessible manual-operating handle.2. The peak value is designated by Uimp (imp = impulse). for altitudes of 0-2. nominal voltage of the installation The basic test applies a standardized lightning voltage impulse of the form shown in figure F11. Table F12 also includes a test for switchgear.8 kV circuit breakers/isolators + class II front face 9. but these tests are relevant only for very high system voltages. Transformers with earthed screens between HV and LV windings may also be used to provide a costly but effective method of eliminating the problem.3 kV 14.2 µs) and the time for the impulse to fall to 50% of its peak value (50 µs). characterized by the values 1.e. These measures depend. are used for test purposes. Note: Materials tested to IEC standards have an impulse withstand capability of 123% of the values shown in Table F10. F11: standardized impulse voltage wave-form 1. on the application of lightning arresters at the origin of the installation. 1.2/50 µs. compared to that on the HV side. v impulse voltage withstand capability of insulating materials. Such schemes require careful study and are best carried out in cooperation with the relevant manufacturers. in addition to a basic impulse-voltage withstand capability of the insulating materials. The levels indicated in Table F12 are abstracted from IEC Publication 947.8 kV 12. For LV installations.5 kV 4 kV table F10: assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical installation.distribution within a low-voltage installation . where equipment known to be susceptible to damage from overvoltage surges is installed.2/50 µs.2 50 µs fig. no break down of insulation must occur between phases between open contacts or between any phase and earth. the front face of which is insulated to class II level. the transference of surge voltages through the interwinding capacitances of the HV/LV transformer reduces considerably the severity of the overvoltage on the LV side.

the manufacturer of the capacitor banks should be able to advise on suitable filtering arrangements. while (unlike the ferromagnetic sources) the 2nd harmonic may be present. c possibility of resonance between network capacitances and inductances (ferroresonances) or between capacitor banks and the system source impedance (mainly inductive). This non-linearity produces odd-order harmonics (principally 3rd order) with some additional harmonics from rotating machines. c computer installations. then the discharge current through the arresters will raise the potential of the neutral conductor. If not.5 kV. For the latter case. If the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the arresters electrode. Filters are of two kinds: v shunt-connected. for example. to which they present a virtual short-circuit. motors and generators and so on. and results from the non-linear relationship between current and magnetic flux produced by the current in ferro-magnetic materials. v increasing insulation levels v increasing current-carrying capability c isolation of a harmonic source by supplying it through a separate HV/LV transformer. Solutions In general. The action of a series harmonic-suppression reductor is described in Appendix F1. and equipments complying with such standards are therefore adequately protected. harmonic voltages and currents Sources and types of harmonics The principal sources of harmonics are: c electromagnetic machines and devices.1. The withstand value of LV components is normally standardized at 6 kV for a 1.g.c. and add arithmetically). but in general the 5th and 7th harmonics are prominent. v oversizing of neutral conductors (of a 3-phase 4-wire system) particularly for discharge.F9 . v oversizing of alternators (e. according to the resistance of the several different earth electrodes to which it is connected. speed controllers for a. Assuming that the neutral conductor and the lightning arresters are connected to the same earth electrode. generally on the first pole away from the HV/LV transformer position and on the pole at which the consumers service cable is connected to the line. The action of a damped filter is described in Appendix F1. c installing filters. which are related to winding slots in the magnetic circuits (slot ripple). c local overheating of magnetic circuits in motors. series-resonant: extremely effective for a particular harmonic (the 5th for example) and is used in association with others for selective filtration of harmonic voltages. in dieselgenerating sets). c use of harmonics filters. c discharge lamps and ballasts (both lamps and ballasts are highly nonlinear). c arc furnaces create a continuous spectrum of random disturbances. then the more-costly TN-C-S system and equipotential "cage" earthing scheme will be necessary. Reducing the harmonic content of a system to an acceptable level consists of: c using delta/star LV/LV transformers to isolate the 3rd (and odd multiples of the 3rd-harmonic). then a TT-earthed system is commonly used. In this arrangement the voltage will not exceed 3-4. but covering a wide band of frequencies. series connected to a capacitor bank.c.F Arresters are commonly installed at each end of the LV line. Refer to the manufacturers of single-phase static rectifiers and inverters for guidance. This potential will be transferred to the phase conductors of the installation. c static 3-phase converters of various kinds (inverters.g. such as: iron-cored inductances. supplied through static thyristor-controlled rectifiers.2/50 µs impulse. capacitors).or fluorescent-lighting circuits.. rectifiers and so on) which depend on thyristor control and current-chopping techniques. the undesirable effects of harmonic voltages and currents are minimized by: c over-sizing of components (e. v oversizing of capacitor banks. The value of the subtransient reactance of the alternator and the type of loads are important factors. a 33% 3rd-harmonic content in the current of each phase produces 100% 3rd-harmonic current in the neutral conductor (since 3rd harmonic currents have zerophase-sequence on 3-phase systems. If the arc is d. an installation cannot tolerate a significant percentage of harmonics: a value of 5% maximum is a limit often recommended. as described in chapter C sub-clause 3. v oversizing of transformers. Consequences Harmonics give rise to (among others) the following consequences: c the need to oversize certain network and installation components: v oversizing of conductors (refer to the manufacturers of the products concerned). The harmonic generation is variable according to the function. transformers (magnetizing currents). motors. more or less. v damped filter: less efficient. the wave front being chopped at this level. v harmonic-suppression reactor. then the random perturbations are of lower average amplitude and the harmonics produced by the rectifiers are relatively significant. distribution within a low-voltage installation .

etc. Protection against electromagnetic interference (EMI) Lightning currents in a lightning protection system (LPS) or in the vicinity of a building can cause overvoltages in electrical installations of buildings by induction.e.. and vice-versa. certain modern electronic circuits have enormous amplifying power. the field strength in both cases varies inversely with the distance squared from the conductor*. in a low-voltage lowimpedance (high current) circuit. heating or air conditioning. this aspect of EMC will require closer attention than hitherto. With the increasing use of walkie-talkies. Essential differences are as follows: c electric or magnetic fields at power-system frequency and its harmonics do not. where different electrical wiring systems for the supply of different electrical equipment. electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) This subject concerns all cases of coupling. in a high-voltage high-impedance (low current) circuit. The higher the frequency. their zone of influence rapidly diminishes with distance from the conductor. by common impedance and induction (electric or magnetic) at fundamental frequency and harmonic frequencies. and the greater the portion of energy leaving the circuit as radiation. c the amount of energy leaving a conductor in the form of an electromagnetic wave depends on the acceleration of electrons. for water. or different combinations of any number of them. the radiation due to the initial acceleration of electrons can be heard in a radio receiver (i. concerning electromagnetic compatibility. or radiated electromagnetic fields.distribution within a low-voltage installation . F10 .g. the circuit of origin generally being a capacitive/inductive combination where XC = XL at the frequency of natural resonance. etc. for power supply and for information technology.) and abnormal (system faults. However. * except in very close proximity to the conductor. and radiated electromagnetic waves. imposes a maximum level of permitted radiation from electrical installations and their component parts (the practical application of the methods to adopt is still being studied at the time of publication of this guide). c specific studies. This is why. equipotential bonding systems. The value of the induced voltage depends on the rate of rise (di/dt) of the lightning current. equipment It is for the foregoing reasons that electronic equipment requires special care. e. for example: the opening of contactor coils or circuit breaker tripping coils. mobile transmitters and cordless telephones. whether in a unidirectional or oscillatory manner. When non-electrical pipe-systems or metal parts of the building construction are connected with the equipotential bonding system of the building. walkie-talkies. been very important. include: c "white-noise" from fluorescent and other types of discharge lamps. radio-directed taxis. leave the space immediately surrounding their point of origin. c radiation from ignition systems of internal combustion engines. In practice. a very common example is the connection of earthed conductors of power supply cables and of cables for information technology systems in a wide (extensive) mesh.e. It may be noted that in the context of the present discussion. for all practical purposes. until recently.. where it varies inversely as the distance cubed.F. i. i.g. The field strength of a propagated wave varies inversely as the distance from the conductor. these metal parts may contribute to a screening effect which reduces the induction and contributes to the protection against electromagnetic interference. magnetic. The emfs induced by one or more of the three possible modes are generally of the order of milli. will cause a radiated wave to leave the conductor and propagate through space. This is the case if large metal loops exist. gas. The unifying feature of all inductive phenomena is that electric. its zone of influence is much greater than that of the electric or magnetic fields noted above.) operating conditions. the switching-transient current). Furthermore. together with unidirectional and H. All disturbances on power systems which cause electrons to accelerate. namely a charged conductor (electric field) or a current-carrying conductor (magnetic field). lightning. Other sources. The European Directive of 3rd March 1989. surges. the greater the acceleration of electrons.or micro-volts. however. building constructions or pipe systems for non-electrical supplies. etc. are minimized by: c the selection of appropriate materials. Moreover.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) the undesirable effects of inductive (electric or magnetic) or commonimpedance coupling between adjacent circuits at power-system frequency (with its harmonics and superimposed high-frequency disturbances) together with highfrequency radiated electromagnetic waves. and full protection against interference from any propagated or direct-coupled source. are installed on different routes. c commercial and amateur radio transmitters. c mains-borne interference through conductors in the installation. commonly causing problems.e. can also present such induction loops. result in producing emfs in any conducting medium in their paths.e.2. for example. while at the same time in other circuits minute currents and voltages are normal and the circuit components are correspondingly fragile. Whereas in a radiated wave the energy in the electric field is exactly equal to that of the magnetic field. provoked by normal (switching. the effects of a radiated wave have not. etc. earthing arrangements and equipotential bonding-guidance for installation contractors The following notes have been abstracted from November 1993 IEC draft proposal documents. for example. and on the size of the loop. at the instant of switching on a lamp. c a further difference between the above cases is that a non-radiating electric field can be much stronger than its associated magnetic field. i. e. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.

lifts. Recommended measures for reduction in the effect of induced overvoltages depend on adequate equipotential bonding. distribution within a low-voltage installation . L PEN I1 I1 equipment 1 I6 I1 I3 I6 loop equipment 2 I6 I5 I4 I6 I5 fig. 7. there are two possibilities depending on the arrangement for interconnection of equipment and extraneous conductive parts within the building: c avoidance of the "TN-C section" of the TN-C-S system for distribution within the building. Adequate separation of power and signal cables and crossovers at right angles. use of filters and surge suppressors. 4. in order to minimise the possibility of over-current and EMC problems. 5. screening. 9. F13: neutral currents in a TN-S system. busbars or equipment. c avoidance of loops between different "TN-S sections" of the TN-C-S system within the building (see figure F14). 10.2 and clause G5) in installations with sensitive equipment. For TN-C-S systems.e. Location of sensitive equipment relative to heavily loaded centres. Wiring systems with single core conductors should be enclosed in bonded metal enclosures. concerning such situations is currently under consideration). Consideration must be given by the planner and designer of electrical installations to the following: 1.F11 . Bonding of metal enclosures and screening. Bonding connections should be made as short as possible. 11. Provision of filters and/or surge suppressors in the circuits feeding sensitive electrical equipment. significant information technology equipment installed. see figure F13. physical separation. 6. L N PE I equipment 1 loop equipment 2 I fig. e. See also item 17 of this list. screened and/or in twisted pairs. the starting current of lifts or currents controlled by rectifiers) can induce overvoltages in cables of information technology systems. Avoidance of TN-C system (see subclause F 4.F Power cables carrying large currents with a high rate of rise of current (di/dt) (e.g. make the separation (of the PE conductor from the PEN conductor) at the origin of the installation. 2. Use of signal cables. electric or magnetic fields of electrical installations may interfere with medical electrical equipment (a new clause for Section 710 of IEC 364. or are likely to have. In or near rooms for medical use. Avoidance of induction loops by selection of a common route for the wiring systems. 3. For buildings which have. which may influence or damage the related electrical equipment. consideration must be given to the use of separate protective conductors (PE) and neutral conductors (N) beyond the incoming supply point. due to the passage of neutral current through signal cables (see figures F13 and F14). 8. i. F14: neutral currents in a TN-C system.g. Location of potential sources of interferences relative to sensitive equipment.

Equipment must therefore have a high immunity to function satisfactorily. or of clause 413-5. IT earthing systems are defined in sub-clause F 4. Cables and pipes (e. d) to provide a low impedance earth reference plane to minimize earth potential differential voltages and provide shielding. transformers according to IEC 742). In some cases. incident disturbances can be much reduced.2. Method 2: use of a local horizontal equipotential bonding system (mesh) (see figure F17) The normal protective conductors are supplemented by equipotential bonding of the components of the Information Technology system to a local mesh (bonding mat). Avoidance of potential differences between different areas of equipotential bonding should be achieved by the use of metal-free fibre optic cable or other nonconducting interconnecting systems such as microwave or laser links. Use of fibre optic links for signal connections. or where there are EMC problems on signal cables due to inadequate EMC provisions in the electrical installations. for protection by electrical separation (e. As with Method 1. telephone power supply earth electrode embedded in the foundation MEB I V U=0 cable from the antenna I water district heating gas waste water a) a common introduction is suitable. There is a continuous range of earthing and equipotential bonding methods to achieve electromagnetic compatibility. sub-clause 413.1. telephone power supply Information Technology equipment may be subject to malfunction due to currents and voltages induced in equipment or between interconnected equipment. for IT* systems (local IT* systems). U ≠ 0.2. Use of suitable wiring (cabling) routing in order to minimise the enclosed area of common loops formed by the supply cables and signal cables. Method 1: radially connected protective conductors (see figure F16) This uses the normal protective conductors associated with the supply conductors. Use of local transformers with separate windings (double wound transformers) for the supply of the information technology equipment. gas or heating) for feeding the building should enter the building at the same place. By providing a dedicated supply circuit and earthing system serving the Information Technology equipment. either electrically or by use of error correction. taking into account the requirements of IEC 364-3. including the bonding mesh. 13. from other supply circuits and earthing systems and extraneous conductive parts such as building metalwork. Depending on the frequency and the mesh spacing. screens and metal pipes and connections of these parts with the main equipotential bonding (MEB) of the building (see figure F15). The following methods exemplify this range. c) to provide equipotential bonding between equipment for the relevant range of frequencies. b) to separate the Information Technology equipment from the sources of disturbance. 15. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. the star earthing point (e.2. The protective conductor at each equipment provides a relatively high impedance path for electromagnetic disturbances (other than mains-borne transients) such that inter-unit signal cables are subject to a large proportion of the incident noise. this can provide a low impedance earth reference plane for signal interconnections between those system components in close proximity to the mesh. additional immunity may be provided by a separate dedicated Information Technology supply circuit and earthing system. 14. the PE bar in the relevant distribution board) of the radially connected protective and functional earthing conductors for the Information Technology equipment may be earthed by a separate dedicated insulated conductor connected to the main earthing terminal. the following methods may be considered to avoid or minimise the problem.distribution within a low-voltage installation . sub-clause 312. 16. Further examples of basic techniques used to achieve immunity to incoming electromagnetic disturbances are: a) to provide inherent immunity in the Information Technology equipment. Provisions for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Signal connections In buildings which include a PEN conductor. * not to be confused with Information Technology.g.3 and IEC 364-4. I cable from the antenna V U≠0 water district heating gas waste water I fig. Bonding of metal sheaths.g. who may employ other methods.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) 12. Use of Class II equipment. 17. F12 . U = 0 b) introduction at different places is not suitable. for water.5. Note: the problem of earth differential voltages on large public telecommunication networks are the responsibility of the network operator. F15: introduction of armoured cables and metal pipes into buildings (examples).g.

it may be necessary to consult specialists. PE signal cables ITE PE signal cables ITE PE ITE distribution board ITE . For current projects. F16: radially connected protective conductors. and in the absence of more precise information. it is recommended that materials be selected which satisfy the requirements indicated in table F18. Method 1 is most easily implemented. PE signal cables ITE PE signal cables ITE PE ITE distribution board main earthing terminal or earthing-bus-conductor fig. F17: local horizontal bonding mesh.Information Technology Equipment main earthing terminal or earthing-bus-conductor fig. The difficulty and cost of implementation increases through Method 2 and its possible extensions. these are more likely to provide an acceptable environment for unspecified future Information Technology equipment. The foregoing information concerning Methods 1 and 2 has been abstracted from a November 1993 draft proposal for a new section (548) of IEC 364 Part 5 Chapter 54. However. distribution within a low-voltage installation .F Method 2 may be extended where necessary by the installation of bonding meshes on other floors.5 kV 7. In the case of particular difficulties.F13 . disturbance electrostatic discharge field strength high speed repetitive transient "bursts" (contact bounce) transient overvoltages reference IEC 801-2 IEC 801-3 IEC 801-4 IEC 60. especially in existing buildings.5 kV 5 kV 80 A 200 A table F18: compatibility levels for installation materials.2 at the origin 690 V of the installation 400 V other cases 690 V 400 V IEC 8/20 µs (in preparation) level minimum level 3 (8 kV) level 2 (3 V/m) level 2 recommended level 4 (15 kV) level 3 (10 V/m) level 4 current waves (lightning. All such meshes are interconnected by (numerous) vertical bonding conductors to minimize potential differences in the meshes. switch closing) 10 kV 7.

Continuity of supply is assured by means of a diesel-generator set and automatic changeover switch. The High Quality supply is achieved by means of an inverter and its associated battery of storage cells and rectifier (charger). F14 .) from a source which is free from the pollution discussed above. High Quality Supplies The objective is to supply sensitive equipment (information-technology devices. so that an uninterrupted power supply can be maintained indefinitely (if personnel are available to top up the fuel tank) or for several hours if the substation is unattended. micro-processors. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. to provide a supply of High Quality (free from disturbances) for dedicated circuits specifically intended to supply highly sensitive equipments. F19: example of the production of High Quality power supply. HV LV Diesel generator UPS fig. at a reasonable cost. etc. etc. which is supplied.distribution within a low-voltage installation . The diagram of figure F19 represents a scheme at the level of the main general distribution board. within a low-voltage installation. such as computerbased appliances. cash registers. in normal circumstances.2. from one outgoing-way of the main general distribution board.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) it is possible.

Note: power supplies for security lighting are described in Chapter J...6. c telecommunications.). egg-hatching. c scientific research.). boiler feed-water pumps in power stations. c industrial processes (continuity of "feed" material for continuous processing. Safety and emergency-services installations are governed by statutory regulations. c establishments in which people are employed (offices.2 standby reserve-power supplies standby reserve-power plant is an economic necessity in numerous circumstances where loss of supply would have far-reaching consequences. cement works. administrations. c ticketing. and standby power supplies F 3.... c surgical operating theatres. desalination plants.). banking. c food-processing industry (refrigeration plants. 3.1 safety installations the provision of safety and emergency installations is a legal obligation. airport runway lighting.). shops. professional practices. and that the failure of one of them does not affect the normal functioning of the others. c automatic fire detection.F15 .... Among the many applications in which an interruption of power supply cannot be tolerated. on condition that any one of them is available and capable of starting and supplying all safety and emergency circuits.. c fire-extinguishing systems. the following may be cited: c information technology installations (protection of data concerning insurances.. c military.) or services (tunnel lighting. plane reservations. notably: c security and safety lighting. safety and emergency-services installations.. Sub-clause 4. fig. It may be noted that where several emergency-services standby sources exist. F20: examples of reserve power supplies: central storage battery (left) and diesel-generator sets (right). etc. factories. concerning: c establishments receiving the public. they can also be used as reserve-power sources. Apart from the general rules noted above.. c smoke evacuation. c high-rise apartment blocks. c air compressors for the pressure-operated fire-extinguishing system. c alarms and warning systems.. there are certain projects for which the safety regulations are related to a particular process (petro-chemical.3.). distribution within a low-voltage installation . c water pumps for re-filling the fireextinguishing system. cash registers. paper production. They must be provided with the means for ensuring the safe evacuation of personnel.

F16 . c autonomy demanded for the reserve-power source: in general it corresponds to the time necessary to complete all safety operations for persons: for example. UPS systems are essential in these cases. or more.cold-working sequence .biological . to ensure the utmost security. and standby power supplies (continued) F 3. table F21: table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times. As previously noted. v a break of less than 1 second.distribution within a low-voltage installation . choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies Apart from perceptible (albeit very brief) cuts in power supply.3.data banks . Specifications particular to safety installations Regulations covering safety installations contain a number of conditions to be respected concerning their electric-power sources: c duration time of an interruption: according to the case. In large apartment blocks. (2) data-storage time limit.chemical .management systems for production processes zero i1s i 15 s i 15 mn 10 mn 20 mn 1h . except for loads of high inertia which can tolerate an interruption in the order of 1 second. safety and emergency-services installations. the following features are imperative: c supply interruption is not tolerated: v in information technology (IT) systems. c autonomy is desirable for reserve-power supplies installations. c period for conserving data in information technology (IT) systems: 10 minutes. the autonomy of the source must be 36 hours. principal specifications In order to satisfy the requirement of economical exploitation.light machining .indications and control of the process parameters . and are used together with the reserve-power source. the following choices are imposed: v no break.thermal . imperceptible interruptions of several milli-seconds are sufficient to interfere with certain equipments.IT services banking insurance administration.3.process control and monitoring . it is a function of the economics related to exploitation beyond the minimum demanded for the safety (only) of personnel.nuclear . v in continuous-process operations.heavy mechanical (high inertia) conditions allowable duration of break autonomy of source minimum and preferred solutions technique employed c c (1) c (1) c (2) c c c permanent if economical no-break generator or start-up and take over load from an inverter c c c c inverter with or without a generator to take over load of the inverter permanent generation set (1) according to economic circumstances. continuous process requirement programmable controllers interruptible IT equipment sequential telecommunications process applications applications types examples of installations . the time to evacuate an ERP (Establishments for Receiving the Public): 1 hour minimum.packaging assembly chain . v a break of less than 15 seconds. .

reliability (4) constant checking Integrated checks. Minor mechanical Periodic checks. c routine maintenance requirements. 4 to 5 years (for sealed batteries). c c c c c Special location (vibrations noise nuisance. batteries x 2. network.F 3. and 3 for 2. None. System losses. Inertial fly wheel and clutch. Periodic startups Periodic checks. additional batteries indications and are required. according to manufacturers operating instructions or local statutory regulations. Mechanical and starter batteries. 1. c complementary equipment. other parameters maintenance Periodic shut-downs None. (2) Longer if the battery is of the open type. Frequent checking. Fixed maximum load.e. Permanent operating staff.4.. but constraints only except on minimal wear and very clutch and coupling shaft little upkeep required.000 to 10. immediate or delayed load pick-up time. distribution within a low-voltage installation . is important (numerous human errors).. Unless (type of battery). additional equipment (apart from protection and changeover devices) Charger. and according to the source(s) used. access required for maintenance. i. necessary x 2 if installation is typically 2 for 1 redundance (4) permanent. Automatic. 5 to 10 years.F17 . meters. M G load pick-up (1) generators in permanent service c time required to supply load zero time (no break) c c 1 second 1 to 10 minutes (5) total time for a changeover operation zero c c related to the automatic c changeover scheme adopted for each source installation constraints Special location None. Mechanical and system of synchronization. fire protection). Unless Regulator.000 hrs or 1 year. ability to supply the load for a given period without attention (refilling fuel tanks for example). but minimal wear and very little upkeep required. Mechanical particularly clutch assembly and coupling shaft. A battery of storage cells maintains an uninterrupted supply during the start-up and load pick-up time of the standby set. life expectancy (3) 4 to 5 years (2). Fuel tanks. Automatic. Automatic synchronizing equipment.. c operational constraints. by batteries or compressed air. x 2 if the installation is permanent. table F22: table of characteristics of different sources. (3) Before requiring an important overhaul. Unless openfor checking and type batteries. etc. maintenance work. e. On the loss of normal supply. i.g. emergency and/or reserve power supply battery inverter cold-start diesel generator An overall review of the many possibilities and associated constraints often leads to an optimum solution based on an inverter scheme associated with a standby dieselgenerator set. x 2 where security is important.e. It is also necessary to take account of: c constraints imposed by the installation: in particular for specialized locations. (1) A motor-generator set permanently running and equipped with a heavy flywheel. batteries are open Special d. operational mode and constraints Special network. and their autonomy. which could impose less than ideal restrictions during the periods allotted to such work. (5) According to whether the set is pre-heated or not.c. 10. Starter. type. the pick-up of load generally requires less than 1 second. (4) A study of safety requirements allows the definition of an optimal scheme.000 hrs and 5 to 10 years. choice and characteristics of different sources The several possible solutions are characterized by their availability. Manual or automatic.

the output from the inverter is in synchronism with the input supply to the rectifier. is needed so that a local generator (usually driven by a diesel engine) is provided.. In this case the autonomy of the inverter. In normal operation of the inverter.3. e. The time required to effect a changeover from normal power source protection and distribution equipment (complementary) possible transformater * one source to the other depends on the characteristics of the particular installation. power passes into the rectifier section. F23.e. a. This question should be discussed with the UPS equipment manufacturer.e. The coupling is generally carried out at the LV main general distribution board. Such torques occur for suddenlyapplied loads and are due to the oscillating transient torque of the shaft and the steady load torque adding and subtracting at the natural frequency of the shaft oscillations. to adapt the voltages.distribution within a low-voltage installation . such as: start-up sequence for the engine. In the example shown in fig. The rectifier in the conversion system creates harmonic currents which generally means that the reserve-power generator has to be derated (i. by means of an automatic changeover panel.c.g. In the event of a changeover from normal to reserve-power generator supply. taken from Merlin Gerin "Guides Pratiques".5 local generating sets the association of an inverter and local generating set is the optimum solution for ensuring a long autonomy. and fluctuations in frequency. in the event of overloading or failure of the inverter. and a very small part of the d. of the battery must be sufficient to cover the period of starting the diesel and coupling the generator to the load. F18 . power at the output of the rectifier maintains the battery in a fullycharged condition. diesel generator network 1 network 2 battery charger static changeover switch manual by-pass maintenance switch protection and distribution equipment (complementary) battery protection box inverter fig. In order to avoid this phenomenon. instantaneous closure of the static changeover switch will maintain supply.c. i.c.. so that. In certain installations a power supply. independent of the normal public service. and standby power supplies (continued) F 3. Closing down of the inverter is also carried out progressively by similar controls on the rectifier circuits.c. power for the load. it is important (particularly if the load to be supplied from the generator is large. maintaining trickle charge. F23: example of an inverter/generating-set changeover scheme. relative to its rating) that damaging transient torques on the generator shaft and couplings be avoided. F23. gradually increasing the current until the load is taken entirely by the generator and the battery is receiving its * necessary in some cases. The remainder of the d. an example of which is shown diagrammatically in fig. an oversized generator may have to be installed). the latter being due to inertia in the speed-regulation governor system of the prime mover. This operation lasts for 10-15 seconds. and is associated with an inverter. the rectifier is controlled electronically to pass a low current initially. safety and emergency-services installations. A gradual application of load also avoids the possibility of large transient currents. power is converted into interference-free a. possible shedding of inessential loads.

c earth: the conductive mass of the Earth. distribution within a low-voltage installation . and not forming part of the electrical installation (4). connections to earth of metallic sheaths of communications cables require the authorization of the owners of the cables.e. in the event of an incoming extraneous conductor (such as a gas pipe. c extraneous-conductive-part (see table F25): a conductive part liable to introduce a potential.6). whose electric potential at any point is conventionally taken as zero. if any. the original bonding conductors present an unacceptably high resistance. F24. generally earth potential. v extraneous-conductive-parts. the connection to an earth electrode and the interconnection (bonding) of all metal parts of the building and all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment prevents the appearance of dangerously high voltages between any two simultaneously accessible metal parts. definitions The following terms are commonly used in industry and in the literature. c earth electrode (1): a conductor or group of conductors in intimate contact with. c earthing conductor (2): a protective conductor connecting the main earthing terminal (6) of an installation to an earth electrode (1) or to other means of earthing (e.4. branched protective conductors to individual consumers (3) extraneous conductive parts (4) 4 3 3 3 main protective conductor heating water 4 gas 5 5 5 6 possible TN connection 1 7 2 fig. v metal conduits and pipework (not part of the electrical installation) for water. i. TN systems). v the main earthing terminal. c bonding conductor (5): a protective conductor providing equipotential bonding. and providing an electrical connection with Earth (see F4. when correct conditions for protection have not been met. c electrically independent earth electrodes: earth electrodes located at such a distance from one another that the maximum current likely to flow through one of them does not significantly affect the potential of the other(s).1 earthing connections in a building. c protective conductor (3): a conductor used for some measures of protection against electric shock and intended for connecting together any of the following parts: v exposed-conductive-parts. v the earthed point of the source or an artificial neutral.) being raised to some potential due to a fault external to the building. heating. c exposed-conductive-part (see table F25): a conductive part of equipment which can be touched and which is not a live part.F19 . However. gas. c main earthing terminal (6): the terminal or bar provided for the connection of protective conductors. connections The main equipotential bonding system The bonding is carried out by protective conductors and the aim is to ensure that. compressed-air. The bonding must be effected as close as possible to the point(s) of entry into the building. to the means of earthing. and metal materials associated with them. F24: an example of a block of flats in which the main earthing terminal (6) provides the main equipotential connection. and be connected to the main earthing terminal (6). c earth electrode resistance: the contact resistance of an earth electrode with the Earth. etc. no difference of potential can occur between extraneousconductive-parts within the installation. Bracketed numbers refer to fig.g. including equipotential bonding conductors. etc. earthing schemes F 4. Connection of exposed-conductive-parts to the earth electrode(s) The connection is made by protective conductors with the object of providing a lowresistance path for fault currents flowing to earth. For example: v non-insulated floors or walls. The removable link (7) allows an earth-electrode-resistance check. and conductors for functional earthing. but which may become live under fault conditions. v earth electrode(s). metal framework of buildings. Supplementary equipotential connections These connections are intended to connect all exposed-conductive-parts and all extraneous-conductive-parts simultaneously accessible.

diverse service channels. etc. c rubber-covered or linoleum-covered floors. elements used in building construction c metal or re-inforced concrete (RC): v steel-framed structure. and all exposed-conductiveparts of electrical appliances and equipment. appliances c exposed metal parts of class 1 insulated appliances 4. c carpets and wall-to-wall carpeting. component parts to consider as extraneous-conductive-parts 1. cable ladders. 2. armoured or unarmoured c mineral insulated metal-sheathed cable (pyrotenax. installation and measurements of earth electrodes This subject is dealt with at the end of Subclause 4. etc. c metallized papers.6. switchgear c enclosures made of insulating material. c brick walls. c conductors and cables without metallic sheaths. etc.) c metal objects: v close to aerial conductors or to busbars v in contact with electrical equipment. component parts not to be consider as extraneous-conductive-parts c wooden-block floors. c related metal components (furnaces. c metallic covering. ducts.1 earthing connections (continued) the efficient bonding and connecting to earth of all accessible metal fixtures. for gas. etc. cable ways c conduits c impregnated-paper-insulated lead-covered cable. non-electrical elements v metallic fittings associated with cable ways (cable trays. appliances c all appliances having class II insulation. switchgear c withdrawable section 3. toilets.4. radiators). c metallic fittings in wash rooms. v prefabricated RC panels.. c conduits of insulating material. reservoirs. F20 . etc. table F25: list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts. component parts not to be consider as exposed-conductive-parts 1. c surface finishes: v floors and walls in re-inforced concrete without further surface treatment. building services elements other than electrical c metal pipes. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. c dry plaster-block partition. conduits. 2. v re-inforcement rods.) 2. tanks. 3. etc. bathrooms. is essential for effective protection against electric shocks. trunking. c mouldings in wood or other insulating material.. v tiled surface. v metallic wall covering.distribution within a low-voltage installation . component parts component parts to consider as exposed-conductive-parts 1. regardless of the type of exterior envelope. water and heating systems.

TN-S scheme The protective conductor and the neutral conductor are separate. distribution within a low-voltage installation . characterize the method of earthing the LV neutral point of a HV/LV transformer. F26: TT scheme.e. The choice of earthing scheme governs the measures to be taken for the protection of persons against the hazards of indirect contact. At the installation. This electrode may or may not be electrically independent of the source electrode.F 4. all exposed.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes the different earthing schemes described. the two zones of influence may overlap. F28: TN-S scheme. and the earthing of the exposed conductive-parts of the LV installation supplied from it. neutral) conductor. The TN-C scheme requires the establishment of an efficient equipotential environment within the installation with dispersed earth electrodes spaced as regularly as possible.and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to the neutral conductor.and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to a separate earth electrode at the installation. L1 L2 L3 PEN Rn fig. TT scheme (earthed neutral) One point* at the supply source is connected directly to earth. neutral Earth exposed-conductive-parts Earth The earthing schemes to be described characterize the method of earthing the LV neutral point of a HV/LV transformer (or of any other source) and the means of earthing exposed conductive parts of the related LV installation. the TN-S (5 wires) system is obligatory for circuits of crosssectional-area of less than 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium on mobile equipment. TN-C TN-S L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. The use of separate PE and N conductors (5 wires) is obligatory for circuits of cross-sectional area of less than 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium on mobile equipment. Several different schemes of earthing can coexist in an installation if necessary. neutral Earth exposed-conductive-parts Neutral TN schemes The source is earthed as for the TT scheme (above). In the scheme TN-C-S the TN-C (4 wires) scheme must never be used downstream of the TN-S (5 wires) scheme. All exposed. without affecting the operation of protective devices. The choice of these methods governs the measures necessary for protection against indirect-contact hazards. L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. the protective conductor is generally the lead sheath. F27: TN-C scheme. TN-C-S scheme The TN-C and TN-S schemes can be used in the same installation. * Generally the star-point of a star-connected LV winding. is generally at the origin of the installation. This scheme is not permitted for conductors of less than 10 mm2 and for portable equipment.F21 . On underground cable systems where lead-sheathed cables exist. The point at which the PE conductor separates from the PEN (i. The several versions of TN schemes are shown below: TN-C scheme The neutral conductor is also used as a protective conductor and is referred to as a PEN (Protective Earth and Neutral) conductor. 5 x 50 mm2 PEN L1 L2 L3 N PE PE 16 mm2 6 mm2 16 mm2 PEN bad bad 16 mm2 TN-C scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme fig F29: TN-C-S scheme.

fig. with respect to earth. F30: connection of the PEN conductor in the TN-C scheme.000 to 4. All exposed. In parallel with this (distributed) resistive leakage path there is the distributed capacitive current path. Example: In a LV 3-phase 3-wire system. neutral exposed-conductive-parts Earth IT scheme (isolated neutral) No intentional connection is made between the neutral point of the supply source and earth (fig. C3 and R1. HV/LV IT scheme (impedance-earthed) An impedance Zs (in the order of 1. the effect of slightly increasing the first-fault current level (see G 3.000 ohms) is connected permanently between the neutral point of the transformer LV winding and earth (fig. F34). since no insulation is perfect. the two paths together constituting the normal leakage impedance to earth (fig. and the bridging connection is then made to the neutral terminal. HV/LV R1 C1 C2 C3 R2 R3 Zct fig. Zs fig. C2. F22 . F32: leakage impedance in an IT scheme.distribution within a low-voltage installation . F31).and extraneous-conductiveparts are connected to an earth electrode.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes (continued) important: in the TN-C scheme the protective conductor function of the PEN conductor takes priority. The reasons for this form of power-source earthing are to fix the potential of a small network with respect to earth (Zs is small compared to the leakage impedance) and to reduce the level of overvoltages. F33: equivalent impedance to leakage impedances in an IT scheme. TNC 4 x 95 mm2 L1 L2 L3 PEN 6 mm2 16 mm2 10 mm2 6 mm2 PEN N PEN correct incorrect PEN connected to the neutral terminal is prohibited correct incorrect S < 10 mm2 TNC prohibited fig. however. HV/LV Isolated or Impedance-earthed fig F31: IT scheme (isolated neutral). 1 km of cable will have a leakage impedance due to C1. etc.4. such as transmitted surges from the HV windings. earthing schemes (continued) F 4.and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation are connected to an earth electrode. static charges. F34: IT scheme (impedance-earthed).4).000 to 2. Exposed. In particular. It has. F32).000 ohms. R2 and R3 equivalent to a neutral earth impedance Zct of 3. In practice all circuits have a leakage impedance to earth. the PEN conductor must be connected directly to the earth terminal of an applicance.

c design and operation. c power supply continuity. c power supply continuity. fig. The PE and neutral conductors are combined in a single PEN conductor. a current will flow through the earth electrode of the LV neutral and a power frequency voltage will appear between the exposed conductive parts of LV equipment and the distant earth. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. These choices and their consequences will be described for each scheme. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the neutral conductor. TN-C scheme Characteristics c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth and the neutral conductor is earthed at as many points as possible. On installations with a combined neutral and protective conductor.F 4. c overvoltages: v under normal conditions. The result of a high voltage insulation fault is shown here for a TN system. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the neutral conductor. distribution within a low-voltage installation . c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. limited only by the impedance of the live conductors (phase and PEN). c electromagnetic disturbances. c overvoltages. all earth electrodes considered together.3 earthing schemes characteristics Each earthing scheme (often referred to as the type of power system or system earthing arrangement) reflects three technical choices: c earthing method. during a HV insulation fault. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. electromagnetic compatibility and fire: the current of insulation faults is not limited by any earth electrode impedance and is therefore high (several kA). F35: with a TN-S scheme. residual current devices cannot be used for this purpose since an insulation fault to earth also constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. the supply voltage drop. electromagnetic disturbances and the risk of damage (fire. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. L1 L2 L3 N Ω Rm PE Rd Rc The consequences are related to the following points: c electric shock. In practice.F23 . Therefore. a value of 1. Consequences c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth and the neutral conductor is earthed at as many points as possible. the neutral. c protective conductors. c overvoltages: during a LV insulation fault. the potential may vary with the distance from the electrode.45 Un provides a rough approximation. motor windings and magnetic frames) is high. The PE and neutral conductors are combined in a single PEN conductor. exposed conductive parts and earth are at virtually the same potential. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers or fuses. v given the localised effect of earth electrodes. F36: any insulation fault occurring outside a building creates a rapid rise in the potential difference outside the building. During a LV insulation fault. L1 L2 L3 PEN Rn fig. the neutral point of the triangle representing the 3-phase voltage system is displaced and the voltage between phase and the exposed conductive parts of the installation exceed the phase-to-neutral voltage. c fire. fault currents can be very high.

c fire protection The TN-C scheme is prohibited in premises where there is a high risk of fire or explosion. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. The characteristics of the protection devices are determined from these elements. residual current devices cannot be used for this purpose since an insulation fault to earth also constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. These voltage drops are amplified in modern installations by the proliferation of equipment generating 3rd-order harmonics. resulting in a risk of fire and electromagnetic disturbances. These phenomena are the reason for prohibiting the use of the TN-S scheme in premises where the risk of fire is high. The magnitude of this harmonic is tripled in the neutral conductor instead of being cancelled out as is the case for the fundamental. the impedance of the source. it leads to a power frequency voltage drop under normal operating conditions. This phenomenon is amplified in the event of an insulation fault. regardless of its length. L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. coaxial cable and the shielding of computer or telecommunications systems. F38: to determine the breaking capacity of circuit breaker C. 5 A passing one metre from a sensitive device). monitors. On installations with a combined neutral and protective conductor. TNC TNS v in a less apparent manner. etc. that of the replacement source and the length of circuit C protected by circuit breaker C. the PE function has priority. at levels as low as 0.e. c electromagnetic compatibility v when a PEN conductor is installed in a building. creating potential differences and therefore the flow of currents in any circuit formed by the exposed conductive parts of the installation. the characteristics governing the opening of the circuit breaker or the blowing of the fuse must be determined for each configuration and source used. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. certain medical equipment. these circulating currents correspond to an imbalance of the currents in the distribution circuit and therefore the creation of a magnetic field that can disturb cathode-ray tubes. The reason is that the connection of the extraneous conductive parts of the building to the PEN conductor creates a flow of current in the structures.). F24 . the telluric currents that corrode the earth electrodes and metal structures in the case of multiple earthing. it is necessary to know the impedance of the normal source. In the event of a conflict. It is also prohibited for flexible conductors. these circulating currents are considerably increased. This situation therefore presents a risk of fire. c corrosion: corrosion has two sources. Only residual current devices offer this type of protection. first the DC component that the PEN conductor can carry and second. upstream circuits and downstream circuits (the ones to be protected) must be known at the design phase and subsequently remain unchanged unless the protection is also changed. v when the installation can be supplied from two sources (UPS. etc.4. for example in class BE2 and BE3 premises respectively for standard NFC 15-100. the extraneous conductive parts of the building. engine generator set. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers or fuses. 5 x 50 mm 2 L1 L2 L3 N PE PEN PE 16 mm2 6 mm2 16 mm2 PEN incorrect incorrect 16 mm2 TNC scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme fig. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. This impedance must be measured after installation and then at regular intervals (depending on the type of premises concerned).distribution within a low-voltage installation .7 A/m (i. The TN-C scheme is prohibited for all circuits with cross-sectional areas less than 10 mm2 for copper conductors or 16 mm2 for aluminium conductors. c design and operation v when using circuit breakers or fuses to protect against indirect contact. F37: the presence of any length of PEN conductor in a building leads to the flow of currents in the exposed conductive parts and the shielding of equipment supplied by a TN-S scheme.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) The PEN conductor must satisfy the requirements of both its functions. During insulation faults. c fire: protection is not provided for certain types of faults (impedant faults) that are not instantly transformed into solid short-circuits.

v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers. In particular. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. TN-S scheme Characteristics c earthing method. The TN-S scheme is similar in this respect to the TT scheme. limited only by the impedance of the live conductors (phase and PE). c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. Oversized cable cross-sections may be necessary in certain cases. v the neutral point of the transformer (or the power supply system if the distribution uses a TN-C scheme and the installation a TN-S scheme) is earthed just once at the upstream end of the installation. v in the event of an insulation fault.F v each circuit is designed once and for all and cannot exceed a maximum length specified in design tables as a function of the protection device used. the current of insulation faults is not limited by any earth electrode impedance and is therefore high (several kA) (see points 2. fault currents can be very high. fuses or residual current devices since the protection against indirect contact can be separated from the protection against phase-phase or phase-neutral shortcircuits. distribution within a low-voltage installation . Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. exposed conductive parts and earth electrode are at the same potential. the PE conductor. c power supply continuity. fault currents are limited by the earth electrode resistances and the accompanying voltage drops are very small. creating the same transient problems as for the TN-C scheme. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. F40: with a TT scheme. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. is not subject to voltage drop and all the resulting drawbacks of the TN-C scheme are therefore eliminated. as opposed to the PEN conductor. voltage drop and load currents in the protective conductor under normal operating conditions.e. electromagnetic compatibility and fire: the effects of HV/LV faults. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. HV insulation faults and LV insulation faults are similar to those already described for the TN-C scheme. a high impulse voltage appears along the PE conductor. i. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. c overvoltages: under normal conditions. F39: with a TN-S scheme. 3 and 4 of the corresponding part for the TN-C scheme). v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protection conductors which are in turn connected to the transformer neutral. the neutral of the transformer.F25 . Consequences c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer (or the power supply system if the distribution uses a TN-C scheme and the installation a TN-S scheme) is earthed just once at the upstream end of the installation. This avoids creating a TN-C scheme with its inherent disadvantages. fig. even if transient phenomena cannot be excluded and can lead to the use of lightning arrestors on the phases. c electromagnetic compatibility: v under normal conditions. c the neutral conductor cannot be earthed. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. fuses or residual current devices since the protection against indirect contact can be separated from the protection against phase-phase or phase-neutral shortcircuits. neutral and exposed conductive parts. TNC 4 x 95 mm2 L1 L2 L3 PEN 6 mm2 16 mm2 10 mm2 6 mm2 PEN correct incorrect PEN connected to the neutral terminal is prohibited correct incorrect S < 10 mm2 TNC prohibited fig. v any modification to the installation requires reassessment and checking of the protection conditions. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protection conductors which are in turn connected to the transformer neutral. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers.

limited by two earth electrode resistances in series. c electromagnetic compatibility: under normal conditions. The coupling of the two earth earth electrodes is. from an overall point of view. c fire. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. this disconnection is carried out by residual current devices. with an earth electrode resistance of 230V/100A z 2. leading to a risk of fire. design and operation: v the drawbacks already discussed are eliminated and we obtain the advantages of the TT scheme. c fire: protection is not provided for impedant faults. the PE conductor is not subject to voltage drop and all the resulting drawbacks of the TN-C scheme are therefore eliminated. c design and operation: for distribution circuits. the impulse voltage that appears along the PE conductor is low and the resulting disturbances are negligible. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. v any modification to the installation requires reassessment and checking of the protection conditions. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault.distribution within a low-voltage installation the accompanying electromagnetic disturbances and the transient difference in potential between two devices (e. c earthing method. the fault current is only 100 A. Their operating currents must be low enough for the devices to detect the fault currents. v exposed conductive parts of equipment are connected by protective conductors to the earth electrode of the installation which is generally independent with respect to the earth electrode of the transformer neutral. If the protection against indirect contact is provided by residual current devices: to avoid nuisance tripping. this may not be true for the neutral conductor which is galvanically connected to an earth electrode and the exposed conductive parts. different and in some cases relatively far away (often the case for lightning strikes in rural areas). The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. Consequences c the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth. Automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. F26 . this disconnection is carried out by residual current devices. it is often possible to use high residual operating currents in the order of 1 A or more. limited by two earth electrode resistances in series. It is unnecessary to know the upstream source impedance and there is no limit concerning the length of the circuits (except to avoid excessive voltage drop). two interconnected PCs) connected by a shielded cable are much easier to withstand than for a TN-S scheme. v double determination of the disconnection conditions when the installation can be supplied from two sources (UPS. c electromagnetic compatibility: in the event of an insulation fault. Their operating currents must be low enough for the devices to detect the fault currents. engine generator set. In the event of an insulation fault. On industrial sites or urban areas. An installation can be modified or extended without calculations or in-situ measurements. v the presence of residual current devices minimises the design and operating constraints. In practice. For instance. v residual current devices are added in the form of relays for circuit breakers and in the form of RCCBs for fuses. an acceptable compromise. v the use of a replacement source by the distribution utility or the operator is straight forward. They can protect a single circuit or a group of circuits and their operating currents are chosen according to the maximum value of the resistance R of the earth electrode for the exposed conductive parts. c overvoltages: although.g.3 Ω. c design and operation: v calculation of the impedance of the sources and that of the circuit to be protected. TT scheme Characteristics c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth. c exposed conductive parts of equipment are connected by protective conductors to the earth electrode of the installation which is generally independent with respect to the earth electrode of the transformer neutral. v the circuits have a maximum length that cannot be exceeded. the cross-sectional area of the PE conductor can be less than for a TN-S scheme.4. as for the TN scheme. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. . the voltage drop created by the fault. this is not generally the case. etc. v the use of residual current devices with operating currents 500 mA helps to prevent damage of electrical origin which can occur in the event of an impedant fault or due to the high level of insulation faults. the fault current is relatively low.).3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) If the protection against indirect contact is provided by overcurrent protection devices: the same characteristics apply as for the TN-C scheme. As a result. In practice. the potential of the exposed conductive parts and the earth electrode is the same. with checking by measurements after installation and then at regular intervals. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. The installation of lightning arrestors provides the necessary level of protection. c fire: the use of residual current devices with operating currents i 500 mA helps prevent fires of electrical origin.

a result of the capacitances between the live conductors and the expoed conductive parts such as those of the load circuits and HF filters. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. Equipment must be chosen with this constraint in mind. less than 100 ms (or less than 400 ms on distribution circuits) and are low in magnitude. The neutral point of the transformer is isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance and an overvoltage limiter. F41: with an IT scheme. c if lightning arrestors are used. and even when a first insulation fault occurs. c overvoltages: v under normal conditions. Under normal conditions. the equipment continues to be supplied with power and the phase-to-phase voltage gradually appears between the healthy phases and the exposed conductive parts. its potential is maintained close to that of the exposed conductive parts by the earth leakage capacitances of the trunking and equipment. Notes: c standard IEC 950 (or EN 60950) defines a category of information processing equipment that can be used on IT systems. The fault current in the event of a single insulation fault is low and does not represent a hazard. its potential is held close to that of the exposed conductive parts by the earth leakage capacitances of the trunking and equipment. functional earthing conductors.F c electromagnetic compatibility: insulation fault currents last only a short time.F27 . the neutral conductor. c electromagnetic compatibility: under normal conditions. creating a short-circuit and the associated hazards. c power supply continuity and electromagnetic compatibility: v the current of a first insulation fault is low. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. The fault current in the event of a single insulation fault is low and does not represent a hazard. The protection against overvoltages should be implemented according to the criteria common to all the earthing schemes. the standards stipulate that their rated voltages should be chosen according to the phase-tophase voltage. c overvoltages: after a first fault. distribution within a low-voltage installation . c power supply continuity and electromagnetic compatibility: second insulation fault can occur on a different phase. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. The occurrence of a second fault should be made highly improbable by installing an insulation monitoring device that will detect and indicate the occurrence of a first fault that can then be promptly located and eliminated. Under normal conditions. exposed conductive parts and earth electrode are at virtually the same potential. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. HV/LV R1 C1 C2 C3 R2 R3 fig. v a first low voltage insulation fault does not produce any voltage drop on the mains or electromagnetic disturbance over a wide frequency range corresponding to the occurrence of a classical insulation fault current. the PE conductors show no voltage drop. fault currents are limited by the earthing of the neutral and by the overvoltage limiter. Exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts of the building are connected to the building’s earth electrode. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. even if the standards allow for this possibility for safety reasons. exposed conductive parts and the extraneous conductive parts of the building to which they are connected. IT scheme Characteristics c earthing method The neutral point of the transformer is isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance and an overvoltage limiter. v an overvoltage limiter should be installed to prevent a rise in potential between the live parts and the exposed conductive parts that could exceed the withstand voltage of the LV equipment in the event of a fault originating in the high voltage installation. The user of an IT system chooses that this situation must never occur. A high level of equipotentiality is maintained between protective conductors. Exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts of the building are connected to the building’s earth electrode. Consequences c earthing method.

and their earth electrode systems are not connected. etc. Residual current devices can alos be used. . thereby eliminating it immediately. If circuit breakers or fuses are used. the device considers the fault current as a load current and may not trip.the total capacitive earth leakage current downstream of such a device must not exceed 10 mA.. in particular with respect to residual current devices.if the loads powered by such a circuit are not critical. and as long as a residual current device is present upstream. The value is estimated using the phase-to-phase voltage for the phase and for the phase-to-neutral voltage for the neutral. F28 . In final distribution boxes. if distributed. the residual current device can trip on a first insulation fault. This measure prevents one insulation fault on phase 1 of the first site and another on phase 2 of the second site from creating a dangerous situation. v the installation must be designed with great care: use of the IT scheme where justified by requirements related to continuity of supply. c fire: the use of an insulation monitoring device and possibly residual current devices with operating currents i 500 mA prevents fires of electrical origin. must be protected by 4-pole devices including neutral protection or 2-pole devices. v if 30 mA residual current devices are used to protect socket circuits: . the rules are similar to those for the TN scheme. examination of the influence of leakage currents. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. Otherwise the use of sockets should be avoided or other measures taken. A separate residual current device is therefore required for each circuit.4. If two sites have the same installation using an IT scheme. 1-pole + neutral protection devices are permitted as long as the ratings for the phase and neutral are the same or close. c design and operation: v trained maintenance personnel must be available for prompt locating and elimination of the first insulation fault. v comment: the earth conductor. If the two faults occur downstream of the same residual current device.distribution within a low-voltage installation . division of the installation. a residual current device must always be included at the head of each installation.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) The occurrence of a second fault should be made highly improbable by installing an insulation monitoring device that will detect and indicate the occurrence of a first fault that can then be promptly located and eliminated. The protective devices are designed to operate in the event of a double fault. isolation of loads with high leakage currents (certain furnaces and certain types of computer hardware).

F 4. c high insulation fault currents. c protection against electromagnetic disturbances. The TN-C and TN-C-S schemes are not recommended for use. If medium-sensitivity residual current devices are installed. c when correctly implemented. LV consumer with TT scheme c the inside of the equipment is exposed in the event of nearby lightning strikes (Rb-If). TT and TN-S schemes are equally satisfactory if correctly implemented. 3rd criterion: comparison of earthing schemes A comparison of the different earthing schemes leads to the following recommendations for use: The TT scheme is recommended for installations that have only limited surveillance or installations subject to extensions or modifications. all costs must be taken into account. they provide this scheme with improved protection against fire and greater flexibility both in design and use. analyse every case separately. 2nd criterion These solutions must satisfy the following fundamental criteria: c protection against electric shock. This scheme is generally implemented without medium-sensitivity residual current devices. c the incoming systems are exposed to Uf. c currents flowing in the extraneous conductive parts. On the other hand. c production losses. c protection against overvoltages. given the risk of fire and electromagnetic disturbances due to: c voltage drops along the PEN conductors. The IT scheme is recommended if power supply continuity is imperative. c uneliminated impedant faults. v even fire! c a detailed study is required. The TN-S scheme is recommended for installations that have a high level of surveillance or installations not subject to extensions or modifications. c protection against fire of electric origin. INFLUENCE OF EARTHING ELECTRODES Private substation with TN scheme c the inside of the equipment is not exposed (U2 = 230 V). distribution within a low-voltage installation . The best solution often involves several different earthing schemes for different parts of the installation. The presence of any length of PEN conductor in a building leads to the flow of currents in the exposed conductive parts and the shielding of equipment supplied by a TN-S scheme. the needs of the user and the rules laid down by applicable legislation or by the power distribution utility. IT. exposed conductive parts. overvoltage protection must often be provided. A detailed study is required. When it is possible to choose the earthing scheme. the effects of an HV insulation fault are eliminated. including those related to: c design. given the need for two separate LV earthing electrodes. See the section dealing with lightning arrestors.F29 . It however requires: c a detailed study: v organisation of withstand to overvoltages and leakage currents. c maintenance. 4th criterion In terms of overvoltage withstand and electromagnetic disturbances. shielding. basing the final choice on the specific constraints of the electrical installation.1 choice criteria 1st criterion No earthing scheme is universal. c modification or extensions. The main reason is that it is the simplest scheme to implement in private or public distribution. v to supervise extensions to the installation. Drawbacks however include: c insulation fault currents are high and can result in: v transient disturbances. c trained maintenance personnel available at all times: v to promptly eliminate any first fault. c power supply continuity. The IT scheme offers the best guarantee concerning the availability of power. 5th criterion When making an economic comparison. v high risk of damage.4.

TT. metal frames. TN-S and IT schemes can satisfy all electromagnetic compatibility criteria. site) so as to organise the protection of each. This continuous current creates voltage drops between the exposed conductive parts of sensitive equipment connected to the PEN conductor. shielding.4. 3) Implement the necessary protection (lightning arrestors. v by a denser mesh. c the type of supply system: v in particular HV insulation faults.protection against fire of electrical origin For TT schemes and IT schemes. It is therefore prohibited in premises presenting a high risk of fire or explosion. The presence of 3rd order harmonics significantly amplifies this current in modern installations. exposed conductive parts of equipment and cable shielding. 2) If correctly implemented. These schemes are therefore not recommended for use. v nearby direct lightning strikes. sized for the possible fault currents. F30 . for example by using an optical fiber communication link without a conductive sheath. protection against impedant faults is insufficient unless residual current devices are included: c in this case. For TN schemes. etc. 3 .g. in the event of a single fault. exposed conductive parts. the following steps are necessary: 1) Evaluate the disturbances to be taken into account as a function of: c site exposure: v overvoltages due to indirect effects of lightning. c complete isolation.level of protection against electric shock All earthing schemes provide equal protection against electric shock as long as they are implemented and used in accordance with applicable standards. for sites with a number of buildings supplied by the same source and interconnected by communications media. the earthing scheme used is of no importance. c the type of premises: v choose the appropriate level of safety.4. Comment: c the use of a TN-S scheme does not eliminate the need for the above measures. in the event of a solid fault. Furthermore. building. For TN type schemes. etc. it is recommended to use the TN-S scheme together with residual current devices rather than the standard TN scheme. In practice. the earthing scheme used is of no importance.) on the lines of the different incoming and outgoing electrical systems. for IT schemes.protection against electromagnetic disturbances 1) For differential mode disturbances. For all common mode or differential mode disturbances with frequencies greater than 1 MHz.protection against overvoltages For all neutral schemes. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. 3) For TN-C or TN-C-S earthing schemes. 4 . 2) Decide on the number and quality of equipotential zones (room.2 comparison for each criterion 1 . protection against overvoltages due to HV faults must be provided by an overvoltage limiter.). This evaluation should be carried out at power frequency and then at higher frequencies up to several MHz. major disturbances are produced during an insulation fault. c TT installations generally require lightning arrestors (rural).distribution within a low-voltage installation . the insulation fault current is respectively low or very low. one of the following solutions should be used: c equipotentiality by interconnection of the buildings in one of the two following manners: v by at least one accompanying conductor with a cross-sectional area of at least 35 mm2. Note however that for the TN-S scheme. a load imbalance current circulates continuously in the PEN conductor. The same is true for the risk of fire. The TN-C scheme presents a higher risk of fire under normal operating conditions than the other schemes. 2 . the insulation fault current is high and major damage can result. A load imbalance current circulates continuously in the PEN conductors and the connected parts (e.

and c future operational expenditure that can arise from insufficient reliability. The cost of switchgear is reduced (shortcircuit current level is lower). in a TN earthing scheme. quality of materials. etc. The quality and continuity of supply to the whole installation are thereby improved. An ideal structure would comprise: v normal power supply source. etc.F31 . This method has already been noted as a means of de-coupling loads. In this way. HV/LV LV/LV TN system overvoltage device PIM IT system fig.5 choice of earthing method .. which would otherwise cause unacceptable disturbance to other loads. Division of source This technique concerns the use of several transformers instead of employing one large unit. Network islands The creation of galvanically-separated "islands" by means of LV/LV transformers allows an open choice of earthing system to be used on the secondary side. Including: c initial investments. and an isolating LV/LV transformer to supply the arc furnace.. the installation network may be arranged for optimum performance on different types of load. F42: a workshop in which supply continuity is paramount (IT) includes an arc furnace. The technical/ economic appraisal must be made case by case.g. safety.F 4. e. v local reserve power supply source (see Clause 3 of this chapter) and the appropriate earthing schemes. The most suitable arrangement is an IT scheme for the workshop. The latter supply is shown to be provided by an IT Island system. which is independent of any imposed earthing scheme in the primary LV network. example HV/LV overvoltage device PIM LV/LV IT system TN system arc furnace fig. which is difficult to forecast. via a LV/LV transformer. and a painting workshop for which supply continuity has top priority. continuity of service. voltage depression during the start-up period of a large motor.6).implementation After consulting local regulations and relevant codes of practice. F43: a factory with a load consisting mainly of welding machines requiring a TN system of earthing. and so on. conclusion The optimization of the performance of the whole installation governs the choice of earthing system (see the following Sub-clause 4. the tables F40 and F41 can be used as an aid in deciding on divisions and possible galvanic isolation of appropriate sections of a proposed installation. distribution within a low-voltage installation .

and is not dealt with here. or rod u 15 mm diameter. F44) This solution is strongly recommended.distribution within a low-voltage installation . i.3 V. fig. It is important that the bare conductor be in intimate contact with the soil (and not placed in the gravel or aggregate hard-core. c galvanized-steel cable. on the other hand. The approximate resistance R of the electrode in ohms = 2ρ L where L = length of conductor in metres ρ = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see tables F47 and F48). The use of more than one of these materials in the same soil is deprecated. Earthing rods (fig. should ever be in contact with the foundation concrete. Protection of the building against direct lightning strokes.e. however. For existing buildings. care must be taken to avoid the occurrence of corrosion. and where possible any reinforcing rods in concrete work should be connected to the electrode. and for improving (i. The conductor forming the earth electrode. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. particularly when it is laid in an excavation for foundations. The quality of an earth electrode (resistance as low as possible) depends essentially on two factors: c installation method.e. The total resistance (in homogeneous soil) is then equal to the resistance of one rod. must be in the earth.000 V).6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes A low-impedance earth electrode improves considerably the protection of the electrical installation from external electromagnetic influences. Aluminium and lead are not suitable for use as earthing electrodes. The rods may be: c copper or (more commonly) copper-clad steel. the zinc would be sacrificial to the copper. often forming a base for concrete). The latter are generally 1 or 2 metres long and provided with screwed ends and sockets in order to reach considerable depths. Neither the electrode nor the vertical rising conductors to the ground floor. will corrode if connected to steel reinforcing rods in concrete. however.bare cable or multiple-strip u 25 mm2. in the electro-chemical series. Steel rods in soil. c stainless steel cable or multiple strip u 35 mm2. eventually leaving an uncoated (corroding) steel conductor of high surface-to-earth contact resistance. in which case the spacing between them should exceed the depth to which they are driven. since the elementary primary cell (e. particularly in the case of a new building. the watertable level in areas of high soil resistivity) a very effective method of obtaining a low-resistance earth connection is to bury a conductor in the form of a closed loop in the soil at the bottom of the excavation for the building foundations.4. It is often necessary to use more than one rod. F45) Vertically driven earthing rods are often used for existing buildings. not in the concrete. so that copper earth electrodes may be connected to steel reinforcing rods with no danger of corrosion*. * Practical experience has shown that corrosion is not a problem at potential differences of less than 0. Steel reinforcing rods in concrete. all vertical connections from an electrode to aboveground level should be insulated for the nominal LV voltage (600-1. if necessary (for instance. requires specialized studies. notably where dissimilar metals are buried in close proximity. At least four (widely-spaced) vertically arranged conductors from the electrode should be provided for the installation connections. divided by the number of rods in question. have approximately the same galvanic potential. by a factor of 2 to 3. zinc/copper) formed in the damp earth "electrolyte" would result in problems of corrosion. reducing the resistance of) earth electrodes in cases where upper-strata soil-drying can only be countered by deeper penetration into the earth.g. as copper in soil. F32 . the electrode conductor should be buried around the outside wall of the premises to a depth of at least 1 metre. at least 50 cm below the hard-core or aggregate base for the concrete foundation. The electrode should be buried around the perimeter of the excavation made for the foundations. installation methods Three common types of installation will be discussed: A conductor-type electrode forming a ring beneath the perimeter of the building which houses the installation concerned (fig. c nature of the earth. and particularly in the case of overvoltages caused by lightning. The conductors may be: c copper . The resistance R of such an electrode (in homogeneous soil) is given (approximately) in ohms by: R = 2ρ L where L = the length of the buried conductor in metres ρ = soil resistivity in ohm-metres. for n rods: R = ρ ohms nL c galvanized (see note below) steel pipe u 25 mm diameter. As a general rule. In the case noted. u 2 metres long in each case. but is the most suitable from considerations of corrosion. F44: conductor buried below the level of the foundations. Copper is the most expensive material.

dry sand. fissured rocks mean value of resistivity (in Ω.150 5 .F The approximate resistance R obtained in ohms = ρ n L if the distance separating the rods > 4L where: L = the length of the rod in metres ρ = the resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see table F47) n = the number of rods Lu3m rods connected in parallel fig. each side of which u 0. In such circumstances specialist advice is recommended.1000 50 . distribution within a low-voltage installation .40 50 .500 200 . F46) Rectangular plates.8 ρ ohms L 2 mm thickness (Cu) fig.100 10 .5000 500 . roughly banked land stoney soil. leaf mold peat. gravel. are commonly used as earth electrodes. The resistance R in ohms is given (approximately). shale mica schist granite and sandstone decomposed granite and sand stone table F47: resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain.10000 100 .300 800 1500 .100 50 100 . F46: vertical plate.200 30 . nature of the terrain heavy arable land. F45: earthing rods.300 1000 .-m) 1 . sacrificial cathodic protection anodes may be necessary to avoid rapid corrosion of the electrodes where the soil is aggressive. data concerning earth resistivities in analogous terrains provide a useful base for designing an earth-electrode system.30 20 . influence of the nature of the soil nature of the terrain swampy soil.300 1500 .-m) 50 500 3000 resistivity (in Ω.3000 300 . by: 0.8 ρ L where: ρ = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres L = the perimeter of the plate in metres * Note: Where galvanized conducting materials are used for earth electrodes. The plates may be: c copper of 2 mm thickness. bare.500 100 . being buried in a vertical plane such that the centre of the plate is at least 1 metre below the surface of the soil. bogs silt alluvium humus. for a vertical plate electrode: R ≈ 0. c galvanized* steel of 3 mm thickness.5 metres. turf soft clay marl and compacted clay jurassic marl sandy clay siliceous sand stoney ground grass-covered-stoney sub-soil chalky soil limestone fissured limestone schist.600 table F48: mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earthelectrode resistance with respect to zero-potential earth. Specially prepared magnesium anodes (in a porous sack filled with a suitable "soil") are available for direct connection to the electrodes. compacted humid banks light soil arable land. Vertical plates (fig.F33 .

Instruments using hand-driven generators to make these measurements usually produce an a.i2 ) 2 In order to avoid errors due to stray earth currents (galvanic (d. the distance (X) to (C) is increased until readings taken with electrode (P) at three different points viz: at (P) and at approximately 5 metres on either side of (P) give similar values. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. etc. Measurement of the earth-electrode resistance There must always be removable links which allow the earth electrode to be isolated from the installation. generator.4. but at a different frequency to that of the power system or any of its harmonics. v galvanic: due to stray d. voltage at a frequency of between 85 Hz and 135 Hz.. different soils acting on sections of the same conductor can also form cathodic and anodic areas with consequent loss of surface metal from the latter areas. low soil resistivity) are also those in which galvanic currents can most easily flow.c.e. one from the other. according to site convenience. passes a current through the earth and the electrode under test.c. so that periodic check tests of the earthing resistance can be carried out.c. is due to the test current. F49) UTt1 A = RT + Rt1 = i1 Ut1t2 B = Rt1 + Rt2 = i2 Ut2T C = Rt2 + RT = i3 A + C . The distances between the electrodes are not critical and may be in different directions from the electrode being tested. together with that noted above. At a depth of 1 metre the value of resistivity (ρ) can vary in the ratio of 1 to 3 between a wet Winter and a dry Summer in temperate regions. together with two auxiliary electrodes. there must always be a (or a number of) removable link(s) to isolate an earth electrode. Unfortunately. This is one of the reasons. or due to dissimilar metals forming primary cells. therefore. c oxidization: brazed and welded joints are the locations at which oxidization is most likely to occur. c use of a direct-reading earthingresistance ohmmeter (fig. currents in the earth from traction systems. c frost: frozen earth can increase the resistivity of the soil by several orders of magnitude.B = 2RT When the source voltage U is constant (adjusted to be the same value for each test) then: U 1 1 1 RT = ( i1 + i3 . Thorough cleaning of a newlymade joint. and wrapping with a suitable greased-tape binding is the preventive measure commonly adopted. The distance (X) to (P) is generally about 0.c. The test electrode (C) furthest from the electrode (X) under test. the spacing of which must be such that the zone of influence of the electrode being tested should not overlap that of the test electrode (C). F34 . In practical tests. This voltage. It is clear that the distance (X) to (P) must be carefully chosen to give accurate results. for recommending the installation of deep electrodes. the most favourable conditions for low earth-electrode resistance (i. c ammeter method (fig. to allow it to be tested. each consisting of a vertically driven rod.68 of the distance (X) to (C). for example: v chemical reactions (in acidic or alkaline soils). the zones of resistance of electrodes (X) and (C) become more remote. U A T t2 t1 fig. c ageing: the materials used for electrodes will generally deteriorate to some extent for various reasons.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes (continued) measurements and constancy of the resistance between an earth electrode and the earth The resistance of the electrode/earth interface rarely remains constant Among the principal factors affecting this resistance are the following: c the humidity of the soil: the seasonal changes in the moisture content of the soil can be significant at depths of up to 2 meters. 50) These instruments use a hand-driven or electronic-type of a.) or leakage currents from power and communication networks and so on) the test current should be a. If the distance (X) to (C) is increased. A number of tests at differspacings and directions are generally made for cross-checking the test results.distribution within a low-voltage installation . however. two auxiliary electrodes are required. F49: measurement of the resistance to earth of the earth electrode of an installation by means of an ammeter. To make such tests. and the curve of potential (voltage) becomes more nearly horizontal about the point (O). measured between (X) and (P). and is a measure of the contact resistance (of the electrode under test) with earth.c. while the second test electrode (P) picks up a voltage.

F50: measurement of the resistance to the mass of earth of electrode (X) using an earth-electrode-testing ohmmeter. Simplified measurement (TT-system) In a TT-earthed system.F35 . The location of test electrode P is not critical and can be easily determined fig. It consists in measuring the impedance between the earthelectrode and the neutral conductor. distribution within a low-voltage installation . X P C O b) showing the effect on the potential gradient when (X) and (C) are widely spaced. a simplified measurement of the earth-electrode resistance is possible.F VG G V X P I C voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (X) O VG voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (C) a) the principle of measurement is based on assumed homogeneous soil conditions where the zones of influence of electrodes C and X everlap. In case of doubt. but the distributor earth-electrode resistance is generally less than 5 Ω. the location of test electrode P is difficult to determine for satisfactory results. use the general method. This value is always pessimistic. It equals the sum of the consumer earth-electrode resistance and the distributor earth-electrode resistance.

vibrations and other external influences likely to interfere with operational integrity (EMI*. moisture. relays. fig. the load requirements dictate the type of distribution board to be installed. For example MCC (motor-controlcentre). dust. c sub-distribution board (fig.distribution within a low-voltage installation . vermin. etc.5. are supplied from the busbars. Individual circuits. thereby creating three levels of distribution..). may differ according to the kind of application. or an assembly of LV switchgear. and to the design principle adopted (notably in the arrangement of the busbars). A main general distribution board is the point at which the incoming-power supply divides into separate circuits. or c in proximity to the process concerned. F52: local general distribution board. F51). c local general distribution board (fig. the power supply is connected to a set of busbars via a main switch (a circuit breaker or switch-fuse). Distribution boards are generally referred to in written texts by the abbreviation DB.e. while in extensive installations. In general. at which a division of circuits is made. F53). F53: an example of a large industrial main general distribution board. F51: typical sub-distribution board. heating..1 types of distribution board Distribution boards. F36 . which are usually grouped according to the circuit function (lighting. power and so on. distribution boards F a distribution board is among the most important elements in an installation. each of which is controlled and protected by the fuses or switchgear of the board. indicating instruments.. The process-control boards are either: c adjacent to the main general distribution board. Its design and construction must conform with welldefined standards. fig. Modern practice is to enclose LV distribution boards in metal housings. which afford double protection: c the protection of switchgear.). against mechanical shocks. and so on.. fig. c the protection of personnel against the possibility of electric shock. * electromagnetic interference 5. F52). The local and sub-distribution boards are dispersed throughout the installation. fusegear. c process-control i. Some of the circuits feed directly into the busbars of local distribution boards. distribution boards according to specific applications The principal types of distribution board are: c main general distribution board (fig. heating circuits control board. "functional" distribution board. sub-distribution boards are sometimes necessary.

The complete unit can therefore be removed for servicing. are mounted on a drawer-type horizontally withdrawable chassis. fig. which comprise contactor. fixed functional units (fig. and so on. the connections to be made to it. Moreover. Figure F54 is an example of an industrial functional DB. drawer-type motor control units. according to the particular function. Isolation is effected on both the upstream and downstream sides by the complete withdrawal of the unit. together with accessories for mounting and connections. modifications and so on. indicating lamps. without requiring a general shutdown. Using these prefabricated components greatly facilitates the assembly of the board. F56) The switchgear and associated accessories fig. lamps. F55: board with isolating and disconnecting features on each functional unit. distribution within a low-voltage installation . A quick estimation of the area required can be made by multiplying the sum of the areas of the individual items by 2. etc.F37 . the components of these boards have benefited from type tests. thereby ensuring an excellent safety performance. with vacant spaces for later additional units if necessary. etc. and the clearances necessary to ensure safe and trouble-free operation.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards There are three basic technologies in general use for the realization of functional DBs. withdrawable chassis-mounted functional units (fig. are fixed to a chassis at the inside-rear part of the housing c functional DBs for specific applications. The placement of the components within the enclosure requires very careful study. taking into account the dimensions of each item. The use of removable plug-in or withdrawable units however can minimize shutdown times. The function is generally complex and often concerns motor control. F56: board with withdrawable chassismounted units. functional units which have isolating and disconnecting features (fig. requires the shutdown of the entire board. F54: board with fixed functional units. F55) Each functional unit is mounted on a removable panel and provided with a means of isolation on the upstream (busbars) side and disconnecting facilities on the downstream (circuit) side. pushbuttons. recourse is made to functional modules which include switchgear and devices. are normally located on a chassis near the back of the enclosure. 5.and fusegear. etc. Design of the board is rapid. fig. fuses.5. isolating switch. which are then limited to the interval required only to remove or withdraw the unit of the circuit concerned. Functional DBs Dedicated to specific functions. F54) The board is made up of fixed functional units such as contactors and associated relays.F a distinction is made between: c traditional DBs in which switch. control pushbuttons. since it is sufficient to add the number of modules required.) are mounted on the front face of the board. For example. Indications and control devices (meters. These units are not suitable for circuit isolation (from the busbars for example) so that any intervention for maintenance. realization of the two types of DB Traditional DBs Switchgear and fusegear.

one from another. concerned. individual type tests. and instructions to equipment. thereby allowing safer intervention on functional units or their outgoing-circuit components. 5.g. Certains types of distribution boards (in particular. The form of the separation (e. distribution boards (continued) F 5. form 1 form 2 form 3 form 4 fig. etc. is assuming greater importance as Centralized Technical Management techniques become more general. v Form 4: as for Form 3. IEC 439-1 defines four "forms" of assembly. unless the whole distribution board is shut down. according to the degree of internal separation. functional distribution boards) in which all component parts are individually subject to IEC 947. 3 and 4 are generally used since. so that without complete segregation between adjacent units.. at. the busbars are enclosed. c limitation of the probability of initiating arcing faults. Forms 3 and 4 are adopted where the space available for each functional unit is limited. checks and functional tests carried out during manufacture ensure conformity to the standard of the entire assembly. also conform to specific recommendations of IEC 439-1. analogue-todigital. manufactured and type-tested as complete units.g. etc. c finally. In the interests of economy (in communication-cable costs) all data and control-command signals should be processed at the equipment (e. but including separation of the outgoing terminals of all functional units. F38 . except at their output terminals. v Form 3: separation of busbars from the functional units and separation of all functional units. in schemes of remote control. F57: representation of different forms of LV functional distribution boards. in each case. c protection against the passage of foreign solid bodies from one unit of the assembly to an adjacent unit. The organization of data acquisition from.g. The following are typical forms of separation by barriers or partitions: v Form 1: no separation. Forms 2. and supplied with suitable pollutionfree power. or very near to the distribution boards or other equipment. IEC standard 439-1 IEC 439-1 covers LV switchgear and controlgear assemblies.5. electrical-to-optical. for transmission to and reception from the central command post.distribution within a low-voltage installation . metallic or non-metallic) shall be the subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the user.) to suit the data-transmission links must therefore be housed.3 standards conformity with the relevant standards is essential in order to ensure an adequate degree of operational safety. two elements of the standard IEC 439-1 largely contribute to operational safety: c forms of separation between adjacent functional units according to user's requirements c clearly defined individual and type tests. Such signal conversions (e. than that afforded by Form 1. is not possible. The separations provide: c protection against contact with live parts of adjacent functional units. by barriers or partitions. functional DBs) in question. one from another.4 centralized control the integration of functional distribution boards in a system of centralized technical management must be taken into account from the earliest design stage. v Form 2: separation of busbars from the functional units. into different compartments. safe intervention for maintenance.

6. distribution within a low-voltage installation . etc. Distribution by prefabricated cable channels These channels are distinguished by their ease of installation. F58: example 1: radial distribution wiring scheme for a hotel. examples subdistribution board local general distribution board main general distribution board (MGDB) heating. c by prefabricated pre-wired cable channels. and by the number of connecting points possible. flexibility.F39 . etc. general utilities distribution board fig. distributors F 6. and by the number of connecting points possible. The method of installation will affect the maximum current permitted. The latter are distinguished by their ease of installation. as noted in IEC 439 Parts 1 and 2. types Two types of distribution are possible: Distribution by insulated conductors and cables Includes the mechanical protection and fixing of conduits.1 description and choice two types of distribution are possible: c by insulated wires and cables. using conductors in conduits and cables. flexibility.

a. F59: example 2: radial distribution with prefabricated bus trunking and cable channels for an entrepot installation. of wiring conductors and cables. 2. F40 . Where flexibility and ease of circuit modification are important. In the case of a fixed installation which is unlikely to be modified. then the prefabricated cable channelling system should be the first choice.distribution within a low-voltage installation . then the insulated wires-andconduit system is the more-economic solution. the most economic) c. either frequently or extensively. for the case of a wires-and-conduit installation.1 description and choice (continued) transformer bus-duct transformer to MGDB mainbusbar trunking prefabricated pre-wired cable channels prefabricated distribution busbar trunking MGDB prefabricated power and light-current distribution column local general distribution board offices prefabricated pre-wired cable channels fig. distributors (continued) F 6.e. selection of method-criteria The main considerations governing the choice of one method or the other are the first cost and the likelihood of extensive and frequent modifications.6. Design information concerning the smallest allowable (i.3 of Chapter H1.2 and 2.s.1. is given in Sub-clauses 2.

63 52. 14. * Table H52 of IEC 364-5-52 fills seven pages. 16 0 0 12. according to IEC 364-5-52 (1993) The selection of a wiring system may be made from the following table. 32 cable cable on supducting ladder. inport cable sulators wire tray. 74 74 43 43 41. 16 12. 0: Not applicable. 13. 25 0 22. 2. inport cable sulators wire tray. Two of these pages are reproduced below by way of example. table F61: erection of wiring systems. Recommended erection methods are indicated in the table below. cable brackets bare conductors insulated conductors sheathed cables (including armoured and mineral insulated) c multi-core c single-core + - + + - + 0 + + + + + + + + + + 0 0 + + +: Permitted. 15. 5 3 33 31. 13. or not normally used in practice. or not normally used in practice. 13. 73. situations method of installation without with conduit cable fixings fixings trunking (including skirting trunking. 32 71. 16 0 - building voids cable channel 4. 13.F41 . 14. Note: for current-carrying capacity see IEC 364-5-523. based on the principles described in IEC 364-1. concerning cables and conductors. conductors and cables method of installation without clipped conduit cable fixings direct trunking (including skirting trunking. 16 12. 72 34 61 24 4 18 - - - 0 - 18 17 immersed 81 81 0 - 0 - - The number in each box indicates the reference number in table H52 (IEC 364-5-52)*. selection of wiring systems and methods of installation. 0: Not applicable. 23 - - buried in ground embedded in structure surface mounted overhead 62. cable brackets 23 12. 42 31. 14. 15. 15. flush floor trunking) 21. their associated supports or suspensions.F 6. 73. table F60: selection of wiring systems. and their enclosures or methods of protection against external influences. -: Not permitted. -: Not permitted. distribution within a low-voltage installation .2 conduits. conductors and cables IEC 364-5-52 provides information on the selection and erection of wiring systems. 14. 53 - 0 51 11 61 1. their termination and/or jointing. 15. flush floor trunking) + + cable cable on supducting ladder.

spaced from a wall or a ceiling 15 c on ladders 16 F42 .6. conductors and cables (continued) example 1 description 2 insulated conductors in conduits embedded in thermally insulating walls room reference 3 1 multicore cables in conduits embedded in thermally insulating walls room 2 insulated conductors in surface mounted conduits 3 single or multicore cables in surface mounted conduits 3A insulated conductors in cable ducting on a wall single or multicore cables in cable ducting on a wall 4 4A insulated conductors in conduits embedded in masonry 5 single or multicore cables in conduits embedded in masonry 5A sheathed and/or armoured cables or sheathed single or multicore armoured cables c on a wall 11 c on a ceiling 11A c on unperforated trays 12 c on perforated trays 13 c on brackets run horizontally or vertically 14 c on cleats. distributors (continued) F 6.distribution within a low-voltage installation .2 conduits.

Note: the illustrations are not intended to depict actual product or installation practices but are indicative of the method described. distribution within a low-voltage installation .F43 .F example 1 description 2 sheathed single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating suspension wire reference 3 17 bare or insulated conductors on insulators 18 table F62: some examples of installation methods.

6. distributors (continued)

F
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables (continued)
Designation of conduits according to the most recent IEC recommendations
new designation code 3 90 3 2 8 6 1 2 25

obligatory marking code 1st numeral: mechanical properties average mechanical constraints: very light 1 light 2 medium 3 high 4 very high 5 2nd and 3rd numerals: classification according to temperature withstand capabilities: conduit class: -5°C 05 -25°C 25 +90°C 90 complementary marking code: 1st complementary numeral: malleability of conduits: rigid (slight bends only are possible) 1 malleable ("bendable") 2 transversally flexible (will flatten when bent) 3 flexible 4 2nd complementary numeral: electrical properties of conduits: with electrical continuity 1 intended for use as complementary insulation 2 intended for use as complementary insulation but including electrical continuity 3 3rd complementary numeral: resistance of conduits to the penetration of water, including: rain water projections of water (wind-blown rain) jets of water (from hose pipe, etc.) sea spray temporary immersion long-term immersion 4th complementary numeral: resistance to the penetration of solid bodies: conduits providing protection against: solid bodies greater than 2.5 mm solid bodies greater than 1 mm dust dust-proof (total exclusion) 5th complementary numeral: resistance to corrosion: conduits with protection: light, internal and external protection medium external, and light internal protection medium external and internal protection heavy external and light internal protection heavy external and medium internal protection heavy external and internal protection 6th complementary numeral: resistance to solar radiation: conduits with protection: low degree medium degree high degree reference number indicating the exterior diameter in mm 16-20-25-32-40-50-63

3 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3

table F63: designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications.

F44 - distribution within a low-voltage installation

F
designation code for LV conductors and cables
as referred to in this sub-clause a conductor comprises a single metallic core in an insulating envelope.
Definitions c a conductor: as referred to in this subclause a conductor comprises a single metallic core in an insulating envelope. c a cable: a cable is made of a number of conductors, electrically separated, but mechanically solid, and generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath. c a cable-way: the term cable-way refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means of support and protection, etc. for example: cable trays, ladders, ducts, trenches, and so on... are all "cable-ways". Designation Most countries have national standards of codification for conductors and cables. In Europe, a code has been established by CENELEC* which "harmonizes" the several codes of member countries, each of which is progressively replacing its national code by the CENELEC version. It may be noted, that at the time of writing, certain cable types (notably XLPE insulated) have not yet been included in the harmonized code. Table F64 illustrates the form and significance of the designation code. * Comité Européen de Normalisation de l'Electrotechnique.

a cable is made up of a number of conductors, electrically separated, but mechanically solid, and generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath.

the term cable-way refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means of support and protection, etc. for example : cable trays, ladders, ducts, trenches, and so on... are all "cable-ways".

designation code (CENELEC)

H

07

R

N

-

-

F

3

G

1,5

"harmonized" cable H cable derived from a harmonized cable A cable according to a national standard FRN service voltage between conductors 300 volts maximum 03 500 volts maximum 05 750 volts maximum 07 1,000 volts maximum 1 symbols for insulation materials ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) natural rubber or equivalent (Rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) polychloroprene (neoprene) (PCP) symbol of sheath materials ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) natural rubber or equivalent (Rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) polychloroprene (neoprene) (PCP) special constructions flat divisible cable flat indivisible cable core metals copper (no code) aluminium core symbols solid single core (inflexible) core of twisted strands (inflexible) flexible core, class 5 standard flexible core (fixed installation) highly-flexible core, class 6 composition of the cables number of conductors multiplication sign if no green/yellow conductor is present sign when a green/yellow conductor is present cross-sectional area of conductor

B R V X N B R V X N H H2

A U R F K H X X G X

table F64: designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized cables.
CENELEC has undertaken a project of harmonization of different national standards, with a view to facilitating exchanges between European countries.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F45

6. distributors (continued)

F
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables (continued)
Example of decoding: H07 RN-F 3G 1,5 : Harmonized cable - Nominal voltage 450/750 V - Rubber insulated - Neoprene (PCP) sheathed - Flexible-3 conductors: 1 green/yellow conductor - All conductors are 1.5 mm2. conductors and cables designation according to the French national standards code U 1000 R12N U 1000 R2V U 1000 RVFV U 1000 RGPFV
core core insulation non-metallic protective sheath

fig. F65: typical 3-core unarmoured cable. designation according to CENELEC code cable standards not yet harmonized FRN 1X1X2 FRN 1X1G1 FRN 1X1X2Z4X2 FRN 1X1G1Z4G1 H 07 RN-F FRN 07 RN-7 FRN 05VV-U FRN 05VV-R H 05VV-F H 05VVH2-F H 07V-U H 07V-R H 07VK FRN 0...-U FRN 0...-R FRN 0...number of conductors c.s.a.-voltage mm2 V

cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) inflexible cables inflexible cables with halogen-free insulation (1) flexible elastomericinsulated cables PVC-insulated cables

1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 2 to 5 7 to 37 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

1.5 - 630 1.5 - 300 1.5 - 240 1.5 - 630 1.5 - 630 1.5 - 300 1.5 - 300 1.5 - 500 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 35 1.5 - 35 0.75 - 2.5 0.75 1.5 - 400 1.5 - 400 1.5 - 240 1.5 - xxx 1.5 - xxx 1.5 - xxx

PVC-insulated conductors conductors with halogen-free insulation
(1) cable of category C1 (non-fire-propagating cable).

table F66: commonly used conductors and cables.

c rule 1 The green-and-yellow striped marking is reserved exclusively for protective conductors PE or PEN. c rule 2 Where a circuit includes a neutral conductor, it must be coloured lightblue (or marked by the number 1 for multicore cables of more than 5 conductors). Where a circuit does not include a neutral conductor, the light-blue conductor may be used as a phase conductor if it is included in a cable of more than one conductor. c rule 3 Phase conductors may be identified by any colour, except: v green-and-yellow, v green, v yellow, v light-blue (see rule 2).

identification marking of LV conductors
LV wiring and cable conductors are marked either by colouring, or by numbers. These markings, as recommended in IEC 446, are governed by the following three rules: c rule 1 The green-and-yellow striped marking is reserved exclusively for protective conductors PE or PEN. c rule 2 Where a circuit includes a neutral conductor, it must be coloured light-blue (or marked by the number 1 for multicore cables of more than 5 conductors). Where a circuit does not include a neutral conductor, the light-blue conductor may be used as a phase conductor if it is included in a cable of more than one conductor. c rule 3 Phase conductors may be identified by any colour, except: v green-and-yellow, v green, v yellow, v light-blue (see rule 2). Note: if a circuit requires a protective conductor, but the cable which is available for the circuit does not include a green-andyellow striped conductor, the protective conductor may be: c either a separate conductor with green-andyellow striped insulation, or c a light-blue conductor, if the circuit does not include a neutral conductor, or c a black conductor, if the circuit includes a neutral conductor. In the two last cases, the conductor used must be marked by bands or grommets of striped green-and-yellow colours at the extremities of the cable, and along any of its exposed lengths.

F46 - distribution within a low-voltage installation

7. external influences

F
Every electrical installation occupies an environment which presents a more-or-less severe degree of risk c for persons, c for the materials constituting the installation. Consequently, environmental conditions influence the definition and choice of appropriate installation materials and the choice of protective measures for the safety of persons. The environmental conditions are referred to collectively as "external influences".

7.1 classification
external influences shall be taken into account when choosing: c the appropriate measures to ensure the safety of persons (in particular in special locations or electrical installations) c the characteristics of electrical equipment, such as IP degree, mechanical withstand, water ingress.
Many national standards concerned with external influences include a classification scheme which is based on, or which closely resembles, that of the international standard IEC 364-3. This standard (IEC 364-3) devotes many pages to detailed explanations of each class of influence, and for such detail the reader is referred to the standard. Following the IEC codification scheme given below, however, a concise list of external influences, extracted from Appendix A of the IEC document, is presented in table F67. Codification Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising a group of two capital letters and a number as follows: The first letter relates to the general category of external influence. A = environment B =utilization C = construction of buildings The second letter relates to the nature of the external influence. The number relates to the class within each external influence. For example the code AC2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment-altitude AC2 = environment-altitude > 2,000 m Note: the codification given in this chapter is not intended to be used for marking equipment.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F47

7. external influences (continued)

F
7.1 classification (continued)
A AA AA1 AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 AB AC AC1 AC2 AD AD1 AD2 AD3 AD4 AD5 AD6 AD7 AD8 AE AE1 BA BA1 BA2 BA3 BA4 BA5 BB BC BC1 C CA CA1 CA2 materials non-combustible combustible CB CB1 CB2 structure negligible risk fire propagation
building

ambient (°C) -60°C +5°C -40°C +5°C -25°C +5°C -5°C +40°C +5°C +40°C +5°C +60°C humidity altitude (m) ≤ 2000 > 2000 water negligible drops sprays splashes jets waves immersion submersion foreign bodies negligible capability ordinary children handicapped instructed skilled resistance contact with earth none

AE2 AE3 AE4 AF AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AG AG1 AG2 AG3 AH AH1 AH2 AH3 AJ

AK AK1 AK2 BC2 BC3 BC4 BD BD1 BD2 BD3

small very small dust corrosion negligible atmospheric intermittent continuous impact low medium high vibration low medium high other mechanical stresses flora no hazard hazard low frequent continuous evacuation (low density/ easy exit) (low density/ difficult exit) (high density/ easy exit)

AL AL1 AL2 AM AM1 AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 AN AN1 AN2 AP AP1 AP2 AP3 AP4 AQ AQ1 AQ2 AR BD4 BE BE1 BE2 BE3 BE4

fauna no hazard hazard radiation negligible stray currents electromagnetic ionization electrostatics induction solar negligible significant seismic negligible low medium high lightning negligible indirect wind (high density/ difficult exit) materials no risk fire risk explosion risk contamination risk

B

utilization

environnement

CB3 CB4

structure movement flexible

table F67: concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3).

F48 - distribution within a low-voltage installation

F
7.2 protection by enclosures: IP code
The degree of protection provided by an enclosure is indicated in the IP code, recommended in IEC 529 (1989). Protection is afforded against the following external influences: c penetration by solid bodies; c protection of persons against access to live parts; c protection against the ingress of dust; c protection against the ingress of liquids.

IP Code letters (International Protection) First characteristic numeral (numerals 0 to 6, or letter X) Second characteristic numeral (numerals 0 to 8, or letter X) Additional letter (optional) (letters A, B, C, D) Supplementary letter (optional) (letters H, M, S, W)

2

3

C

H

Where a characteristic numeral is not required to be specified, it shall be replaced by the letter "X" ("XX" if both numerals are omitted). Additional letters and/or supplementary letters may be omitted without replacement. fig. F68: IP Code arrangement.
Note: the IP code applies to electrical equipment for voltages up to and including 72.5 kV.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F49

5 mm diameter u 1.2 protection by enclosures: IP code (continued) Elements of the IP Code and their meanings A brief description of the IP Code elements is given in the following chart. F50 .distribution within a low-voltage installation . Element Code letters Numerals or letters IP Meaning for the protection of equipment Against ingress of solid foreign objects 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (non-protected) u 50 mm diameter u 12. external influences (continued) F 7. F69: elements of the IP Code.5 mm diameter u 2.0 mm diameter dust-protected dust-tight Meaning for the protection of persons Against access to hazardous parts with (non-protected) back of hand finger tool wire wire wire First characteristic numeral Second characteristic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Against ingress of water with harmful effects (non-protected) vertically dripping dripping (15° tilted) spraying splashing jetting powerful jetting temporary immersion continuous immersion - Additional letter (optional) A B C D - Against access to hazardous parts with back of hand finger tool wire Supplementary letter (optional) H M S W Supplementary information specific to: High-voltage apparatus Motion during water test Stationary during water test Weather conditions - fig.7.

IPX1C . access doors and removable panels provided for maintenance purposes are closed.protects persons. etc. (3) protects the equipment inside the enclosure against the harmful effects due to water sprayed against the enclosure. using additional letter. Access to the interior of a protective enclosure In the normal operating state.F51 .protects the equipment inside the enclosure against ingress of solid foreign objects having a diameter of 12. box spanners. IP20C . using additional letter. using additional letter. Adjustments through orifices by tools (screw drivers. (S) is tested for protection against harmful effects due to the ingress of water when all the parts of the equipment are stationary (e.omitting first characteristic numeral.omitting first characteristic numeral. IP44 . against access to hazardous parts . but the majority of enclosures are provided with orifices for ventilation. (4) protects the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful effects due to water splashed against the enclosure from any direction.using supplementary letter. IPX5 . Figure F70 shows IEC test probes intended to prove the adequacy of protection against such dangers. lead to accidental contact with live parts.giving two different degrees of protection by an enclosure against both water jets and temporary immersion for "versatile" application. no options.) from the outside are also common. IP3XD .protects the equipment inside the enclosure against ingress of solid foreign objects having a diameter of 2. and the corresponding IP Code for each probe. IP23S . the rotor of a rotating machine).5 mm and greater.5 mm and greater and a length not exceeding 100 mm against access to hazardous parts (the tool may penetrate the enclosure up to its full length). IP2X . IPX5/IPX7 . the reader is referred to IEC Publication 529 (1989). unless interior arrangements are carefully designed to prevent it.using additional letter and supplementary letter. (C) protects persons handling tools having a diameter of 2. Such penetrations could.g. IPXXC .F Examples of the use of letters in the IP Code The following examples are to explain the use and arrangement of letters in the IP Code.omitting second characteristic numeral. c IP Code using optional letters: IP 2 3 C S Code letters 1st characteristic numeral 2nd characteristic numeral Additional letter Supplementary letter An enclosure with this designation (IP Code) (2) . An extensive description of the numerous possible combinations of protective requirements is beyond the scope of this guide.omitting second characteristic numeral. For additional information and full details of application and testing requirements of the IP Code. IP21CM .5 mm and greater.no letters.5 mm and greater. while limited access to some "safe" sections of an enclosure are frequently provided in the form of hand-holes under a removable plate. handling tools having a diameter of 2. Examples of designations with the IP Code c IP Code not using optional letters: IP 3 4 Code letters 1st characteristic numeral 2nd characteristic numeral An enclosure with this designation (IP Code) (3) .omitting both characteristics numerals.protects persons against access to hazardous parts with fingers . distribution within a low-voltage installation .using additional letter.

Specifications for such equipment should therefore include the appropriate AG code (AG1.7. and defined in sub-clause 321 of IEC 364-3.0 mm diameter.distribution within a low-voltage installation . viz: level 1 2 3 4 energy in joules 0.e.255 2. notably impact forces. F70: access probes for the tests for protection of persons against access to hazardous parts. 6 D Ø35 stop face (insulating material) rigid test rod (metal) 1 N ± 10% Ø1 edges free from burrs handle (insulating material) Ø35 stop face (insulating material) rigid test wire (metal) test rod 2. 100 mm long approx. AG2 or AG3) according to the severity of possible impact stresses as listed in table F67. 100 mm long approx. 5. The severity of the corrosive environment may be indicated in the equipment specifications by the AF code (AF1. caused by corrosion must also be given due consideration.0 protection against corrosion For similar reasons to those mentioned above (i. F52 . 100 Ø10 rigid test sphere (metal) handle guard (insulating material) 2 B jointed test finger 80 Ø12 Ø45 10 N ± 10% 4 Ø50 test force 50 N ± 10% jointed test finger (metal) insulating material 3 C stop face (Ø50x20) 3 N ± 10% Ø2.0 20. It is recommended that these values be used in specifications. 100 Ø10 100 test wire 1. external influences (continued) F 7. Tests for standardized impact severities are being "harmonized" November 1993 internationally.5 mm diameter.0 6. the possibility of weakening of enclosures or enlarging of orifices and so on. pending quantification of the AG code in IEC 364-3. possible reduction in the degree of protection required. due to external influences). letter A access probe sphere 50 mm diameter approx. AF2. protection against mechanical impact The selection of equipment according to an adequate IP code can ensure safety only if the enclosure is sufficiently robust to sustain anticipated mechanical stresses.2 protection by enclosures: IP code (continued) first numeral 1 addit.5 edges free from burrs handle (insulating material) 4. AF3 or AF4) as listed in table F67. without distortion which will adversely affect its IP classification. 100 Ø10 100 fig. and are based on four levels of impact energy.

electromagnetic) machines and devices that operate on a.1 the nature of reactive energy alternating current systems supply two forms of energy: c "active" energy measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) which is converted into mechanical work.E1 . S represents kVA of "apparent" power.1. magnetic fields have to be established in the machines. viz: c transmission power losses and c voltage drop.e. which again takes two forms: v "reactive" energy required by inductive circuits (transformers. The effect on generator rotors is to (tend to) slow them during one part of the cycle and to accelerate them during another part of the cycle. in direct phase opposition to the system voltage). The cyclic charging and discharging of capacitive plant reacts on the generators of the system in the same manner as that described above for inductive plant. Figure E1 shows that the kVA of apparent power is the vector sum of the kW of active power plus the kvar of reactive power. light. The power (kW) associated with "active" energy is usually represented by the letter P. The pulsating torque is stricly true only for single-phase alternators. The reactive power (kvar) is represented by Q. An exactly similar phenomenon occurs with shunt capacitive elements in a power system. power factor improvement .). the reactive current is "wattless". This energy is measured by kWh meters. The reason for this is that inductive plant cyclically absorbs energy from the system (during the build-up of the magnetic fields) and re-injects that energy into the system (during the collapse of the magnetic fields) twice in every power-frequency cycle. and S. etc. power capacitors. heat. S (kVA) Q (kvar) P (kW) fig.3 shows the relationship between P. v "reactive" energy required by capacitive circuits (cable capacitance. systems convert electrical energy from the powersystem generators into mechanical work and heat. In this case. For these reasons. power factor improvement E 1. it does cause power losses in transmission and distribution systems by heating the conductors. E1: an electric motor requires active power P and reactive power Q from the power system. c "reactive" energy.e. since. This feature is the basis on which powerfactor improvement schemes depend. etc). The nett result is zero average load on the generators.e.c. etc.Q). All inductive (i. Q. In practical power systems. and these fields are associated with another form of energy to be supplied from the power system. known as "reactive" or "wattless" energy. energy is stored electrostatically. the reactive energy supplied on one (or two) phase(s) is equal to the reactive energy being returned on the other two (or one) phase(s) of a balanced system. and is referred to as "active" or "wattful" energy. In three-phase alternators the effect is mutually cancelled in the three phases. while the impedances of transmission and distribution systems are predominantly inductively reactive. such as cable capacitance or banks of power capacitors. The power-supply authorities reduce the amount of wattless (inductive) current as much as possible. The combination of inductive current passing through an inductive reactance produces the worst possible conditions of voltage drop (i. Inductively-reactive power is conventionally positive (+ Q) while capacitively-reactive power is shown as a negative quantity (. wattless components of load currents are invariably inductive. at any instant. i. Sub-clause 1. motors. etc. It should be noted that while this "wattless" current (more accurately. Wattless (capacitive) currents have the reverse effect on voltage levels and produce voltage-rises in power systems. In order to perform this conversion. but the current flow to and from capacitive plant is in exact phase opposition to that of the inductive plant. the wattless component of a load current) does not draw power from the system.

c 5-10% for transformers. power factor improvement (continued) E 1. while a low value of power factor indicates the opposite condition. for all practical purposes. for optimum transmission-line performance under changing load conditions. or a number of items (for example an entire installation). the ballasts of). The accuracy of this equivalence depends on an absence of harmonic currents and voltages on the system. The proportion of reactive power (kvar) with respect to active power (kW) when an item of plant is fully loaded varies according to the item concerned being: c 65-75% for asynchronous motors. In the latter condition. PF = P (kW) ≈ cos ϕ S (kVA) P = active power S = apparent power definition of power factor The power factor of a load. require some degree of reactive current to create magnetic flux. motors and discharge lamps (i.c. the greater the benefit to consumer and supplier. or depend on magnetically-coupled windings. synchronous condensers were widely used on transmission systems to provide reactivepower compensation. is given by the ratio of P/S i. These machines can be made to operate at lagging (underexcited) or leading (overexcited) power factors. Before capacitor technology had developed sufficiently to guarantee the high standard of reliability of modern capacitors. All a. this angle is given the symbol ϕ. kW divided by kVA at any given moment. E2: power consuming items that also require reactive energy. in which case power factor = cos ϕ. The most common items in this class are transformers and reactors. Conventionally. 1.e. The closer the power factor approaches its maximum possible value of 1. which may be a single power-consuming item. It is generally assumed that these effects are small. The power factor at which a synchronous motor operates may be changed. a synchronous motor is sometimes referred to as a "synchronous condenser".2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current items of plant which require reactive energy. The power diagram of figure E3 shows that the ratio mentioned above gives the cosine value for the angular displacement between the kW vector and the kVA vector.3 the power factor the power factor is the ratio of kW to kVA.e.power factor improvement . fig. plant and appliances that include electromagnetic devices.1. The value of a power factor will range from 0 to 1. A power factor close to unity means that the reactive energy is small compared with the active energy. by adjustment of the excitation current. E2 . so that cos ϕ and power factor are considered to be exact equivalents.

however. the power quantities have direction and magnitude. as shown in figure E3. Since. kVA and kvar are double-frequency functions and cannot be represented on a simple vector diagram. 1. kvar and power factor for a total 3-phase load. A low value of tan ϕ corresponds to a high power factor and to a favourable consumer bill. expressed in kV. which shows the amount of reactive power supplied per kW. E4: current and voltage vector diagram per phase. current and voltage vectors. and derivation of the power diagram The power "vector" diagram is a useful artifice.E3 . lag the voltage by an angle ϕ. The above kW. The component of I which lags 90 degrees behind V is the wattless component of I and is equal to I sin ϕ. A static diagram for these quantities (figure E3) can be obtained. they are referred to as "vectors" for convenience.4 tan ϕ tan ϕ = Q (kvar) P (kW) Some electricity tariffs are partly based on this factor. power vector diagram Active power P (in kW) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = VI cos ϕ c single phase (phase to phase): P = UI cos ϕ c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P = e UI cos ϕ* Reactive power Q (in kvar) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): Q = VI sin ϕ c single phase (phase to phase): Q = UI sin ϕ c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): Q = e UI sin ϕ* Apparent power S (in kVA) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): S = VI c single phase (phase to phase): S = UI c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): S = e UI* where: V: voltage between phase and neutral U: voltage between phases 2 ϕ P kW Q S kVA kvar fig. if V is expressed in kV. If the vector I is multiplied by V. for practically all power-system loads. to provide a visual representation. while VI sin ϕ equals the reactive power (in kvar) in the circuit. while VI cos ϕ equals the active power (in kV) in the circuit. derived directly from the true rotating vector diagram of currents and voltage. E3: power diagram. and the current (I) of that phase will. as follows: The power-system voltages are taken as the reference quantities. power factor improvement . if V is expressed in kV. The component of I which is in phase with V is the wattful component of I and is equal to I cos ϕ. can therefore conveniently represent the relationships of kVA. ϕ P = VI cos ϕ (kW) V S = VI (kVA) Q = VI sin ϕ (kvar) fig. kW. with the aid of the true vector diagram of current components and one phase-voltage (figure E4).E power quantities kA. kvar and kVA values per phase. The reference phase voltage (V) is co-incident with the horizontal axis. P: active power Q: reactive power S: apparent power S= P +Q 2 * for balanced and near-balanced loads on 4-wire systems. then VI equals the apparent power (in kVA) for the circuit. and one phase only is considered on the assumption of balanced 3-phase loading. when multiplied by 3. in the diagram.

0 0.59 Q = P tan ϕ = 56 x 0.power factor improvement .73 1.7 to 0.39 2.85 0.75 0. Alternatively 2 ϕ P = 56 kW Q = 33 kvar S= 65 kVA fig.7 to 0. power factor improvement (continued) E 1. which allows a record over a period of time to be obtained. either: c by a direct-reading cos ϕ meter for an instantaneous value.62 0 1.75 c incandescent lamps c fluorescent lamps (uncompensated) c fluorescent lamps (compensated) c discharge lamps c ovens using resistance elements c induction heating ovens (compensated) c dielectric type heating ovens c resistance-type soldering machines c fixed 1-phase arc-welding set c arc-welding motor-generating set c arc-welding transformer-rectifier set c arc furnace table E7: values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment. on referring to Table E20 or using a pocket calculator.73 0.8 to 0. E6: calculation power diagram.91 S = apparent power = P P = = 65 kVA cos ϕ 0.86 so that.02 to 0.93 0.86 ρ = 0.94 0. equipment and appliances plant and appliances c common loaded at induction motor 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% cos ϕ 0.55 0.5 0.29 to 1.9 0.48 1.85 0.75 0.52 0. of current. Readings taken over an extended period provide a useful means of estimating an average value of power factor for an installation.91 (motor efficiency) apparent power active power S (kVA) P (kW) S = VI P = VI cos ϕ S = UI P = UI cos ϕ 10 kVA 5 kW S = e UI 65 kVA P = e UI cos ϕ 56 kW reactive power Q (kvar) Q = VI sin ϕ Q = UI sin ϕ 8. 1.4 to 0.7 kvar Q = e UI sin ϕ 33 kvar table E5: example in the calculation of active and reactive power.80 0.6 1.5 three phase 3-wires or 3-wires + neutral example motor Pn = 51 kW cos ϕ = 0.6 practical values of power factor an example of power calculations type of circuit single-phase (phase and neutral) single-phase (phase to phase) example 5 kW of load cos ϕ = 0. voltage and power factor.56 = 33 kvar 2 average power factor values for the most commonly-used plant.73 0.1. the value of tan ϕ corresponding to a cos ϕ of 0.75 to 0.5 0.80 1.8 tan ϕ 5.59 = 33 kvar.0 0.02 to 0.9 0. in addition to other information Table E20 gives corresponding cosine and tangent values for given angles. E4 .48 1. Q= S .17 0. The calculations for the three-phase example above are as follows: Pn = delivered shaft power = 51 kW P = active power consumed = Pn 51 = = 56 kW ρ 0.85 1.8 0. or c a recording var meter.86 is found to be 0.P = 2 2 65 .62 0.62 0.33 0 0.5 practical measurement of power factor The power factor (or cos ϕ) can be measured.

and in spring and summer. except in very simple cases. the power supply distributor delivers reactive energy free. and are measured by the kWh meter for the installation.4 corresponds to a PF of 0. This matter is further elaborated in clause 6.4. reduction of losses (P. Thus.4) where kWh is the active energy consumed during the periods of limitation. tan ϕ > 0.0. kW) in cables Losses in cables are proportional to the current squared. than to replace the transformer by a larger unit.1 reduction in the cost of electricity an improvement of the power factor of an installation presents several technical and economic advantages.4 kWh is the amount of reactive energy delivered free during a period of limitation.4) is billed monthly at the current rates. the correction should be effected as close to the individual items of inductive plant as possible. and 0. increase in available power By improving the power factor of a load supplied from a transformer. etc.2. the consumer must balance the cost of purchasing. Good management in the consumption of reactive energy brings with it the following economic advantages. it may be less expensive to improve the power factor*. the quantity of reactive energy billed in these periods will be: kvarh (to be billed) = kWh (tan ϕ . as previously noted. etc.25 1. 2. thereby reducing or eliminating voltage drops.4) for a maximum period of 16 hours each day (from 06-00 h to 22-00 h) during the most-heavily loaded period (often in winter).E5 . the consumer will have nothing to pay for the reactive power consumed. switchgear and cables.93.4 table E8: multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ. designed to encourage consumers to minimize their consumption of reactive energy. and that paying for some of the reactive energy consumed is less expensive than providing 100% compensation. why improve the power factor? E 2. It may be found that it is more economic to provide partial compensation only. reactiveenergy consumption exceeding 40% of the active energy (i. In this particular tariff.2 technical/economic optimization power factor improvement allows the use of smaller transformers. thereby allowing more load to be added. reduction of voltage drop PF correction capacitors reduce or even cancel completely the (inductive) reactive current in upstream conductors.e. and kWh tan ϕ is the total reactive energy during a period of limitation. Against the financial advantages of reduced billing. if steps are taken to ensure that during the limitation periods the PF never falls below 0. power factor improvement . reduction of cable size Table E8 shows the required increase in the size of cables as the power factor is reduced from unity to 0.5 for the cross-sectional area of the cable core(s) cos ϕ 1 0. During the periods of limitation.8 0. but to achieve the best results. as well as reducing power losses and voltage drop in an installation. reactive energy is billed according to the tan ϕ criterion. As previously noted: Q (kvarh) tan ϕ = P (kWh) At the supply service position. A high power factor allows the optimization of the components of an installation. Reduction of the total current in a conductor by 10% for example. In practice. The installation of power-factor correcting capacitors on installations permits the consumer to reduce his electricity bill by maintaining the level of reactive-power consumption below a value contractually agreed with the power-supply authority. These notes are based on an actual tariff structure of a kind commonly applied in Europe. the current through the transformer will be reduced. c without limitation during light-load periods in winter.6 0. Overating of certain equipment can be avoided. Note: Overcompensation will produce a voltage rise at the capacitors. will reduce the losses by almost 20%. installing and maintaining the power-factor-improvement capacitors and controlling switchgear. multiplying factor 1 1. until: c the point at which it reaches 40% of the active energy (tan ϕ = 0. automatic control equipment (where stepped levels of compensation are required) together with the additional kWh consumed by the dielectric losses of the capacitors. notably in the reduction of electricity bills. The question of power-factor correction is a matter of optimization.67 2. tan ϕ = 0.93 so that. * Since other benefits accrue from a high value of PF.

88). Example: A motor consumes 100 kW at a PF of 0. this capacitive current Ic (which leads the system voltage by 90 degrees) is in direct phase opposition to the load reactive current (IL). as noted in sub-clause 1. the magnitude of the apparent power S is seen to reduce to S'. This is indicated in figure E9 (a) and (b) which show the flow of the reactive components of current only.e. the reactive energy consumed by a motor results in a very low power factor (≈ 0. For this reason. IL . as well as the operation of the motors in an unloaded condition. such that if the capacitor bank is sufficiently large and Ic = IL there will be no reactive current flow in the system upstream of the capacitors. the active-power current component has been added. a number of precautions should be observed. the two components flowing through the same path will cancel each other. and in clauses 6 and 7 for transformers and motors.3 (figure E3) to illustrate the principle of compensation by reducing a large reactive power Q to a smaller value Q' by means of a bank of capacitors having a reactive power Qc.e. tan ϕ = 0. It will be seen from diagram (b) of figure E9.1. Note: Before embarking on a compensation project.power factor improvement .88 . This arrangement is said to provide reactive energy compensation. In particular.0.75 (i. that the capacitor bank C appears to be supplying all the reactive current of the load. An inductive load having a low power factor requires the generators and transmission/distribution systems to pass reactive current (lagging the system voltage by 90 degrees) with associated power losses and exaggerated voltage drops. capacitors).tan ϕ'). tan ϕ = 0.IC = 0 IC C IL = IC IL L R load b) when IC = IL.93 (i. In this latter condition.4) = 48 kvar The selected level of compensation and the calculation of rating for the capacitor bank depend on the particular installation. P ϕ ϕ' Q' S' Q S Qc fig. In diagram (c) of figure E9. In doing so. as pointed out in sub-clause 1. all reactive power is supplied from the capacitor bank IR IC C IR + IL IL L IR R load c) with load current added to case (b) fig. capacitors are sometimes referred to as "generators of lagging vars". load a) reactive current components only flow pattern IL . oversizing of motors should be avoided. the reactive power of the capacitor bank must be : Qc = 100 (0.4). E6 . E10: diagram showing the principle of compensation: Qc = P (tan ϕ . its (capacitive) reactive current will take the same path through the power system as that of the load reactive current. E9: showing the essential features of power-factor correction. how to improve the power factor E 3. If a bank of shunt capacitors is added to the load. it is not economical to fully compensate an installation. To improve the PF to 0.IC IC C IL IL L R Figure E10 uses the power diagram discussed in sub-clause 1. The factors requiring attention are explained in a general way in clause 5.17).1 theoretical principles improving the power factor of an installation requires a bank of capacitors which acts as a source of reactive energy. this is because the kW taken by the motor (when it is unloaded) are very small.1. and shows that the (fully-compensated) load appears to the power system as having a power factor of 1. In this figure: R represents the active-power elements of the load L represents the (inductive) reactive-power elements of the load C represents the (capacitive) reactive-power elements of the power-factor correction equipment (i.3.e. Since. In general.

c direct connection to an appliance and switched with it. or banks which allow continuous adjustment according to requirements. compensation can be carried out by a fixed value of capacitance in favourable circumstances.E 3. compensation is more-commonly effected by means of an automatically-controlled stepped bank of capacitors. compensation is provided by: c fixed-valued capacitor. a selected level of power factor. fixed capacitors This arrangement employs one or more capacitor(s) to form a constant level of compensation. and the load is continuous and stable. Note: When the installed reactive power of compensation exceeds 800 kvar. These capacitors are applied: c at the terminals of inductive devices (motors and transformers). c at the terminals of a heavily-loaded feeder cable. E12: example of automatic-compensation-regulating equipment. c in cases where the level of load is reasonably constant. for example: c at the busbars of a general power distribution board. maintaining within close limits.2 by using what equipment? compensation at L.V. automatic capacitor banks This kind of equipment provides automatic control of compensation. fig.E7 . Control may be: c manual: by circuit breaker or load-break switch. power factor improvement . c semi-automatic: by contactor. E11: example of fixed-valuecompensation capacitors. fig. as loading of the installation changes. Such equipment is applied at points in an installation where the active-power and/or reactive-power variations are relatively large. At low voltage. it is often found to be economically advantageous to instal capacitor banks at high voltage. c at busbars supplying numerous small motors and inductive appliance for which individual compensation would be too costly. c equipment providing automatic regulation.

a fixed value of compensation is appropriate. the possibility of producing overvoltages at times of low load will be avoided. or some combination of the latter two. The size of the bank can therefore be increased or decreased in steps.3. A control relay monitors the power factor of the controlled circuit(s) and is arranged to close and open appropriate contactors to maintain a reasonably constant system power factor (within the tolerance imposed by the size of each step of compensation). how to improve the power factor (continued) E 3. E13: the principle of automatic-compensation control. The current transformer for the monitoring relay must evidently be placed on one phase of the incoming cable which supplies the circuit(s) being controlled. and reasons. E8 . and possible damage to appliances and equipment. local (at each individual device). it is advisable to install an automatically-controlled bank of capacitors. In principle. By closely matching compensation to that required by the load. CT In / 5 A cl 1 varmetric relay fig. Above the 15% level. each of which is controlled by a contactor. the principles of. by the closure and opening of the controlling contactors. for using automatic compensation A bank of capacitors is divided into a number of sections. In practice. the ideal compensation is applied at a point of consumption and at the level required at any instant. thereby preventing an overvoltage condition. or equal to 15% of the supplytransformer rating. which may be global (one location for the entire installation). Closure of a contactor switches its section into parallel operation with other sections already in service. partial (section-by-section). 3. Overvoltages due to excessive reactive compensation depend partly on the value of source impedance. The location of low-voltage capacitors in an installation constitutes the mode of compensation. as shown in figure E13.power factor improvement . technical and economic factors govern the choice.2 by using what equipment? (continued) automatically-regulated banks of capacitors allow an immediate adaptation of compensation to match the level of load.3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank of capacitors commonly-applied rules Where the kvar rating of the capacitors is less than.

c reduces the apparent power kVA demand. c relieves the supply transformer. the sizing of these cables. M M M M fig. or will have additional capacity for possible load increases. where to install correction capacitors E 4.4. are not improved by the global mode of compensation. n°2 n°2 M M M M fig. c for the above reason. global compensation can be applied. and the power losses in them. notably the feeder cables from the main distribution board to each of the local distribution boards at which the compensation measures are applied. c for the above reason. n°1 comments c reactive current still flows in all conductors of cables leaving (i. principle The capacitor bank is connected to the busbars of the main LV distribution board for the installation. E14: global compensation.E9 . A significant part of the installation benefits from this arrangement. on which standing charges are usually based. on which standing charges are usually based. power factor improvement . c relieves the supply transformer. c reduces the apparent power kva demand. are not improved by compensation by sector.e. principle Capacitor banks are connected to busbars of each local distribution board. downstream of) the main LV distribution board. kW kvar conductors comments c reactive current still flows in all cables downstream of the local distribution boards. c losses in the same cables will be reduced. E15: compensation by sector.2 compensation by sector compensation by sector is recommended when the installation is extensive. 4. there is always a risk of overcompensation and consequent overvoltage problems. which is then able to accept more load if necessary. and power losses in them. which is then able to accept more load if necessary. advantages The global type of compensation: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars. as shown in figure E14. and where the load/time patterns differ from one part of the installation to another. c the size of the cables supplying the local distribution boards may be reduced. and remains in service during the period of normal load. n°1 advantages The compensation by sector: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars.1 global compensation where a load is continuous and stable. the sizing of these cables. c where large changes in loads occur.

E16: individual compensation. Complementary compensation at the origin of the installation (transformer) may also be beneficial. The kvar rating of the capacitor bank is in the order of 25% of the kW rating of the motor. Individual compensation should be considered when the power of the motor is significant with respect to the declared power requirement (kVA) of the installation.3 individual compensation individual compensation should be considered when the power of motor is significant with respect to power of the installation. E10 .power factor improvement . n°3 n°2 n°2 n°3 n°3 n°3 M M M M comments c significant reactive currents no longer exist in the installation. n°1 advantages Individual compensation: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars. fig. where to install correction capacitors (continued) E 4. principle Capacitors are connected directly to the terminals of inductive plant (notably motors. c reduces the size of all cables as well as the cable losses. c reduces the apparent power kVA demand.4. see further in Clause 7).

93) and to reduce losses.487 = 244 kvar of capacitive compensation is required. etc.93 will require 0.75 to 0. In table E17.75 (before correction) with the column cos ϕ = 0. Several simplified methods applied to typical tariffs (common in Europe) are shown in sub-clauses 5. but is assumed here to be 0. reference can be made to table E17. it can be seen that. The rating of a bank of capacitors at the busbars of the main distribution board of the installation would be Q (kvar) = 0.).4. and may be based on the assumption of a power factor of 0. technical-economic optimization for an existing installation The optimum rating of compensation capacitors for an existing installation can be determined from the following principal considerations: c electricity bills prior to the installation of capacitors.2 simplified method general principle An approximate calculation is generally adequate for most practical cases. 500 x 0.93 (after correction) indicates a value of 0. v cost of dielectric heating losses in the capacitors.1 general method listing of reactive power demands at the design stage This listing can be made in the same way (and at the same time) as that for the power loading described in chapter B. i. c future electricity bills anticipated following the installation of capacitors.E11 . transformer.75 = 500 kW. albeit in the global. From the table. In order to improve the power factor to a value sufficient to avoid tariff penalties (this depends on local tariff structures.8 to 0. is independent of voltage. partial or independent mode. cabinets.. The active power demand is 666 x 0. the intersection of the row cos ϕ = 0. Note: this method is valid for any voltage level. power factor improvement . in the installation. c costs of: v purchase of capacitors and control equipment (contactors. v installation and maintenance costs. etc. volt-drops. The levels of active and reactive power loading. etc.487 kvar of compensation per kW of load.3 and 5. relaying. to raise the power factor of the installation from 0.e.355 x P (kW).8 (lagging) before compensation.355 kvar per kW of load. how to decide the optimum level of compensation E 5.5. For a load of 500 kW. following the installation of capacitors. versus reduced losses in cables. therefore. 5. Example It is required to improve the power factor of a 666 kVA installation from 0.928. This simple approach allows a rapid determination of the compensation capacitors required. at each level of the installation (generally at points of distribution and sub-distribution of circuits) can then be determined.

40 0.242 0.644 1.005 1.512 0.160 1.309 0.567 0.02 0.485 1.230 1.329 0.557 1.530 0.281 table E17: kvar to be installed per kW of load.832 1.502 1.809 0.850 0.364 0.94 0.654 0.124 0.672 0.329 0.484 E12 .159 0.183 0.809 0.743 0.568 0.588 1.48 0.22 0.558 1.55 0.870 0.805 0.855 1.355 1.692 0.899 1.299 0.515 0.268 1.309 0.053 0.501 1.292 0.573 0.179 1.659 1.727 0.463 0.399 0.021 2.345 0.80 0.836 0.007 0.395 0.442 1.874 1.93 0.317 0.592 1.132 0.138 1.04 0.803 0.781 0.043 1.466 0.921 0. to improve cos ϕ (the power factor) or tan ϕ.783 0.392 0.75 0.441 1.230 1.361 0.939 0.386 1.529 1.677 1.40 1.140 0.214 0.939 0.233 1.320 0.553 0.686 1.43 1.265 1.724 0.479 0.076 1.970 1.804 0.700 0.063 1.709 0.450 0.565 0.079 1.958 0.481 1.190 1. how to decide the optimum level of compensation (continued) E before kvar rating of capacitor bank to install per kW of load.175 0.74 0.347 0.172 0.737 1.657 0.60 0.026 0.936 0.623 1.27 0.623 0.255 0.458 1.188 0.500 0.685 0.085 2.738 1.782 1.338 1.098 0.228 1.913 1.95 0.742 1.654 0.870 0.69 0.600 1.33 0.607 0.343 0.538 0.732 1.83 0.56 0.229 1.949 0.369 1.507 0.499 1.559 1.059 0.47 1.86 0.61 0.109 0.935 1.65 0.591 0.157 1.52 0.507 0.54 0.146 2.809 0.369 0.652 0.712 0.541 0.321 0.303 1.871 0.564 0.277 0.691 1.083 1.48 1.841 0.585 1.741 0.620 0.625 0.453 1.397 1.57 0.73 0.447 0.264 0.750 0.131 1.48 0.85 0.374 0.625 1.179 1.578 0.775 0.512 0.079 0.420 0.904 0.217 0.5.713 1.421 0.257 1.398 0.515 0.246 0.343 1.283 0.225 2.419 0.65 0.508 0.263 1.821 0.532 1.679 0.141 0.70 0.593 0.790 1.768 0.power factor improvement .532 1.63 0.299 1.447 0.349 1.561 1.936 0.408 0.786 1.769 1.149 0.397 1.248 1.46 0.167 0.230 1.288 2.829 0. 0.536 0.473 1.963 0.230 0.806 0.489 1.62 0.846 1.271 1.514 0.413 0.25 0.997 1.71 0.36 0.936 0.80 0.262 0.713 0.381 0.647 1.42 1.879 0.629 1.713 0.701 0.59 0.93 0.903 2.357 1.165 1.902 0.538 0.499 0.837 1.784 1.058 1.634 0.364 0.730 0.684 1.982 1.594 0.996 0.884 0.086 0.794 0.337 1.485 0.270 0.935 1.620 0.64 0.41 1.433 0.400 1.395 0.424 0.590 1.720 0.966 1.68 0.291 1.624 1.29 0.395 1.369 0.373 0.40 0.028 0.840 1.976 1.407 0.205 1.882 0.072 0. to improve the power factor of an installation.11 0.334 1.083 0.973 1.087 1.022 1.143 0.82 0.88 0.878 0.843 0.774 0.390 0.996 1.275 0.450 0.384 1.0 1 2.031 0.959 1.237 1.695 1.192 0.358 0.89 0.949 0.042 1.243 0.480 0.473 0.037 2.905 0.020 0.51 0.70 0.64 0.82 0.186 0.421 0.156 1.44 1.381 0.687 0.96 0.918 1.53 0.816 1.16 0.78 0.151 1.740 0.538 0.403 1.713 0.608 0.096 1.800 1.005 1.740 0.483 1.544 1.618 0.567 1.039 1.650 0.67 0.561 1.973 2.077 1.202 1.117 1.582 0.750 0.665 0.749 0.151 1.082 2.905 1.912 0.336 0.459 0.716 0.453 0.020 0.536 0.497 1.604 0.549 0.162 0.308 1.94 0.426 0.99 2.353 1.508 0.909 0.73 0.216 0.663 0.113 1.840 0.281 1.300 1.114 1.90 0.685 0.356 1.519 1.426 0.681 1.136 0.878 0.525 0.356 1.651 1.30 0.14 0.440 0.887 0.008 1.035 1.828 0.86 0.850 1.767 0.78 0.164 0.67 0.130 1.72 0.278 1.251 0.315 1.309 1.60 0.92 0.534 1.030 1.229 0.232 1.992 0.959 1.435 1.771 1.48 0.75 0.798 0.370 1.437 0.191 0.90 0.478 0.77 0.121 0.76 0.387 0.57 0.677 1.316 1.191 1.190 0.369 0.78 0.164 2.895 1.672 0.317 0.79 0.878 0.277 1.425 1.974 1.91 0.929 1.487 0.600 1.618 0.123 1.691 0.355 0.857 0.870 0.936 1.478 0.634 0.567 0.597 0.69 0.526 0.430 1.234 0.502 1.330 1.076 1.188 1.215 1.75 0.533 1.855 0.400 0.169 1.228 1.046 0.59 0.51 0.907 0.673 0.56 0.085 0.591 0.519 1.049 1.924 1.368 1.347 0.88 0.988 1.97 0.745 0.62 0.295 0.593 0.075 1.013 1.826 1.631 0.698 0.453 0.114 0.294 0.393 1.377 1.849 0.937 0.44 0.164 1.798 1.918 0.771 0.492 0.966 0.047 1.303 0.758 0.686 0.54 0.05 0.388 0.417 0.441 1.29 0.130 1.66 0.239 1.600 0.202 0.483 0.779 0.10 0.240 0.297 1.144 1.257 0.776 0.971 1.329 0.33 0.709 1.335 0.52 0.204 0.712 1.716 0.580 0.80 0.405 1.288 0.291 0.090 1.154 1.117 0.998 2.98 0.733 0.569 0.301 0.504 0.14 0.729 0.556 0.815 0.83 0.552 0.46 1.645 0.192 1.343 0.817 0.805 1.117 1.595 0.620 0.249 1.048 1.37 0.230 0.323 1.341 0.876 1.769 0.335 0.441 1.677 1.88 0.99 0.200 1.176 0.489 0.23 0.238 0.395 0.079 1.564 0.96 0.226 1.108 1.242 0.202 1.290 1.769 0.054 0.268 1.645 0.309 0.014 1.45 1.942 0.904 0.000 1.124 1.909 0.103 1.754 0.98 2.091 1.425 0.633 0.460 0.894 1.636 1.84 0.986 1. compensation to a given value tan ϕ 0.480 0.86 0.268 0.062 1.805 0.744 0.861 1.20 tan ϕ cos ϕ cos ϕ 0.116 1.269 0.150 0.196 1.434 0.59 0.742 1.213 0.896 1.266 0.105 0.91 0.171 1.085 1.189 1.624 0.480 1.319 0.836 1.58 0.474 1.08 0.837 0.546 0.614 1.840 1.041 1.982 1.449 0.420 1.534 0.417 1.87 0.847 0.413 1.584 0.198 0.089 0.601 0.276 1.474 0.17 0.961 2.452 0.639 1.684 0.043 1.788 0.778 1.665 0.838 0.010 1.629 0.371 0.83 0.20 0.326 1.682 0.051 1.43 0.530 1.225 0.578 1.155 0.355 0.652 0.725 1.881 1.811 0.680 1.575 1.107 2.209 0.72 0.751 1.758 1.81 0.661 0.658 0.541 0.964 1.030 1.563 0.519 0.50 0.024 1.112 0.058 0.699 0.464 1.831 1.446 1.454 1.777 0.628 1.49 1.

an active-power load of 85. either from 06. thereby avoiding the payment of an excessive price per kVA during the periods of excess. the pay-back period of a bank of power-factor-improvement capacitors and associated equipment is generally about 18 months.4 kW Example: A supermarket has a declared load of 122 kVA at a power factor of 0.691 x 85. for instance: 220 hours (22 days x 10 hours).E13 .7 lagging.00 H to 22. 5.95 ϕ ϕ' Q' cos ϕ = 0. These devices and accompanying documentation advise on suitable equipment and control schemes. where the tariff structure corresponds with (or is similar to) the one described in sub-clause 2. Note: in tropical climates the summer months may constitute the period of heaviest loading and highest peaks (owing to extensive airconditioning loads) so that a consequent variation of high-tariff periods is necessary in this case. For consumers whose tariffs are based on a fixed charge per kVA declared. i.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties in the case of certain (common) types of tariff. during the hours for which reactive energy is charged for the case considered above: 15. i. an examination of several bills covering the most heavily-loaded period of the year allows determination of the kvar level of compensation required to avoid kvarh (reactive-energy) charges.1 kvar Qc = 59 kvar Q' = 28. Table E17 indicates the value of kvar of compensation per kW of load.1 of this chapter. Choose the bill which shows the highest charge for kvarh (after checking that this was not due to some exceptional situation).00 H to 23.e. required to improve from one value of power factor to another.7 to 0.00 H or from 07.966 kvarh in January. it can be seen that a 60 kvar bank of capacitors will improve the power factor of the load from 0. an improvement of 30%. The hours which must be counted are those occurring during the heaviest load and the highest peak loads occurring on the power system. These are given in the tariff documents. Certain manufacturers can provide "sliderules" especially designed to facilitate these kinds of calculation. and 12 kVA steps above that value. based on billing details. power factor improvement .e. The particular contract for this consumer was based on stepped values of declared kVA (in steps of 6 kVA up to 108 kVA. E18: reduction of declared maximum kVA by power-factor improvement.00 H according to the region.95 (0. Such voltages require either overdimensioned capacitors (in terms of heat-dissipation.E 5. voltage and current ratings) and/or harmonic-suppression inductors or filters (see Appendix E3). The method determines the minimum compensation required to avoid these charges which are based on kvarh consumption. and to avoid exceeding it. this is a common feature in many types of two-part tariff). Referring to table E17. no charge is made for kvarh consumption. 0. c evaluate the total period of loaded operation of the installation for that month.4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent power (kVA) for 2-part tariffs based partly on a declared value of kVA. The following method allows calculation of the rating of a proposed capacitor bank. The remainder of this example will assume Winter conditions in France. P = 85. The improvement of the power factor is aimed at (apart from other advantages previously mentioned) reducing the declared level and never exceeding it. and/or tripping of the the main circuit breaker.1 kvar S' Q S Qc fig. In the case being considered. it is evident that a reduction in declared kVA would be beneficial.4 = 90 kVA.966 kvarh Qc = = 73 kvar 220 h The rating of the installed capacitor bank is generally chosen to be slightly larger than that calculated. as well as drawing attention to constraints imposed by harmonic voltages on the power system. For example: 15.4 = 59 kvar in the table). the consumer was billed on the basis of 132 kVA. a table (E16) allows determination of the kvar of compensation required to reduce the value of kVA declared. according to particular tariffs. c the necessary value of compensation kvarh billed in kvar = = Qc number of hours of operation* * in the billing period.95 S = 122 kVA S' = 90 kVA Q = 87. plus a charge per kWh consumed. The diagram of figure E18 shows that as the power factor improves. c identify the line on the bills referring to "reactive-energy consumed" and "kvarh to be charged". the kVA value diminishes for a given value of kW (P). The declared value of kVA will then be 85. and are (commonly) during a 16 hour period each day. The procedure is as follows: c refer to the bills covering consumption for the 5 months of winter (in France these are November to March inclusive).7 cos ϕ' = 0. Outside these periods.4 kW.

The maximum reactive power capability of the 630 kVA transformer when delivering 550 kW is: Qm = S 2 .91 0. E14 .8 The corresponding reactive power 2 2 Q1= S1 − P1 = 337 kvar The anticipated load increase P2 = 100 kW at a power factor of 0.02 cos ϕ 1 0. Steps similar to those taken to reduce the declared maximum kVA. may be avoided by this means.75 0.4. will maximise the available transformer capacity. It should be noted that this calculation has not taken account of peak loads and their duration.48 0.98 0.e. An installation is supplied from a 630 kVA transformer loaded at 450 kW (P1) with a mean power factor of 0.65 0.00 0.307 = 132 kvar.70 0. So that the minimum size of capacitor bank to instal: Qkvar = 439 . to supply more active power. The capacitor bank would then have to be rated at 439 kvar. improvement of the load power factor. The apparent power S1 = 450 = 562 kVA 0.1 compensation to increase the available active power output the installation of a bank of capacitors can avoid the need to change a transformer in the event of a load increase. Q S2 Q2 Q P2 S1 S Q1 P1 Qm P fig. E19: compensation Q allows the installation-load extension S2 to be added.74 0. as the value of power factor increases.76 0. to cater for load growth. in order to avoid a change of transformer? Total power now to be supplied: P = P1 + P2 = 550 kW. The best possible improvement.7 The corresponding reactive power Q2 = S2 − P2 = 102 kvar 2 2 What is the minimum value of capacitive kvar to be installed.80 0.550 = 80 kW.78 0.92 0.94 0. Example: Refer to figure E19. correction which attains a PF of 1 would permit a power reserve for the transformer of 630 .86 0. the output of which is limited to S. when supplying loads at different values of power factor.e. Qm = 630 2 .84 0.90 0.6.P 2 Total reactive power required by the installation before compensation: Q1 + Q2 = 337 + 102 = 439 kvar.96 1.96 0.20 0.82 0.550 2 = 307 kvar tan ϕ 0.86 0.29 0. as discussed in subclause 5. Table E20 shows directly the power (kW) capability of fully-loaded transformers at different load power factors. i.59 0. Cases can arise where the replacement of a transformer by a larger unit.power factor improvement .80 0. The apparent power S2 = 100 = 143 kVA 0. can be obtained. compensation at the terminals of a transformer E 6.72 0. i.7 lagging.54 0.88 0. i. without the need to replace the existing transformer.e.70 nominal kVA rating of transformers (in kVA) 100 160 250 315 400 100 160 250 315 400 98 157 245 309 392 96 154 240 302 384 94 150 235 296 376 92 147 230 290 368 90 144 225 284 360 88 141 220 277 352 86 138 215 271 344 84 134 210 265 336 82 131 205 258 328 80 128 200 252 320 78 125 195 246 312 76 122 190 239 304 74 118 185 233 296 72 115 180 227 288 70 112 175 220 280 500 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 630 630 617 605 592 580 567 554 541 529 517 504 491 479 466 454 441 800 800 784 768 752 736 720 704 688 672 656 640 624 608 592 576 560 1000 1000 980 960 940 920 900 880 860 840 820 800 780 760 740 720 700 1250 1250 1225 1200 1175 1150 1125 1100 1075 1050 1025 1000 975 950 925 900 875 1600 1600 1568 1536 1504 1472 1440 1408 1376 1344 1312 1280 1248 1216 1184 1152 1120 2000 2000 1960 1920 1880 1840 1800 1760 1720 1680 1640 1600 1560 1520 1480 1440 1400 table E20: active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers. from which the increase of active-power output.8 lagging.36 0.43 0.

04 pu Ipu = 1 loss = I2XL = 12 x 0. in normal circumstances. Where metering is carried out at the HV side of a transformer. in transformers..8 % of full-load current) from no load to full load. 1. E22: transformer reactances (per phase). as follows: If per-unit values are used (instead of percentage values) direct multiplication of I and XL can be carried out.01 = 6.04 = 0.E 6.955). series inductances can be compensated by fixed series capacitors (as is commonly the case for long HV transmission lines). In the case of HV metering. and the vector diagram of figure E21 show that: c the power factor at the primary side of a loaded transformer is different (normally lower) than that at the secondary side (due to the absorption of vars). as shown in figure E23. This level depends on the tariff. All reactance values are referred to the secondary side of the transformer.e. c that kvar losses due to leakage reactance vary according to the current (or kVA loading) squared.01 pu = 630 x 0. At half load i. The reason for this is that shuntconnected plant requires (by far) the largest quantities of reactive energy in power systems. Table E24 shows the no-load and full-load kvar losses for typical distribution transformers. with a constant primary voltage. It can be seen that E > V and sin ϕ' > sin ϕ. The difference between EI sin ϕ' and VI sin ϕ gives the kvar per phase absorbed by XL. the reactive power absorbed by a transformer cannot be neglected. however. It can be shown that this kvar value is equal to I2XL (which is analogous to the I2R activepower (kW) losses due to the series resistance of power lines. The magnetizing current remains practically constant (at about 1. I = 0. etc. to compensate for the reactive energy absorbed. From the I2XL formula it is very simple to deduce the kvar absorbed at any load value for a given transformer.3 kvar and so on. all of the kvar of the transformer is being supplied from the capacitor bank. perfect transformer primary winding secondary winding leakage reactance magnetizing reactance fig. the reactive-energy losses in the transformer may (depending on the tariff) need to be compensated. This example. 4% of 630 kVA). but often corresponds to a tan ϕ value of 0. it is sufficient to raise the power factor to a point where the transformer plus load reactive-power consumption is below the level at which a billing charge is made. reactive-power absorption in series-connected (leakage flux) reactance A simple illustration of this phenomenon is given by the vector diagram of figure E21. at the voltage levels covered by this guide.. series-connected reactances. so that a shunt capacitor of fixed value can be installed at the HV or LV side. however. In such a case.2 kvar (or. the reactive-energy losses in the transformer may (depending on the tariff) need to be compensated. a transformer may be represented by the elementary diagram of figure E22.31 (cos ϕ of 0.04 = 0. quite simply. while the input to the HV side of the transformer is at unity power factor. where the shunt branch represents the magnetizing-current path. To determine the total kvar losses of a transformer the constant magnetizing-current circuit losses (approx. i. and PF-correcting capacitor banks etc. As a matter of interest. the nature of transformer inductive reactances All previous references have been to shuntconnected devices such as those used in normal loads. also absorb reactive energy. c that full-load kvar losses due to leakage reactance are equal to the transformer percentage reactance (4% reactance means a kvar loss equal to 4% of the kVA rating of the transformer).. XL E source V load E V ϕ ϕ' IXL I sin ϕ I sin ϕ' fig. E21: reactive power absorption by series inductance. reactive power is absorbed by both shunt (magnetizing) and series (leakage flux) reactances.5 pu the losses will be 0. etc.e. What is its reactive-power (kvar) loss? 4% = 0.04 = 25.8% of the transformer kVA rating) must be added to the foregoing "series" losses. Example: A 630 kVA transformer with a short-circuit reactance voltage of 4% is fully loaded. and can amount to (about) 5% of the transformer rating when supplying its full load.04 pu kvar where 1 pu = 630 kVA power factor improvement . The 3-phase kvar losses are 630 x 0. Complete compensation can be provided by a bank of shunt-connected LV capacitors.). shunt compensation is always applied. such as the inductive reactances of power lines and the leakage reactance of transformer windings. Compensation can be provided by a bank of capacitors. As far as reactive-energy losses only are concerned. In principle.E15 .52 x 0. the kvar losses in a transformer can be completely compensated by adjusting the capacitor bank to give the load a (slightly) leading power factor. The reactive-current component through the load = I sin ϕ so that kvarL = VI sin ϕ. so that. This arrangement is operationally difficult. The reactive-current component from the source = I sin ϕ' so that kvars = EI sin ϕ' where V and E are expressed in kV.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer where metering is carried out at the HV side of a transformer.

3 at no load to 35.9 38. In practical terms.0 155. E16 . Fortunately.8 11.9 5.6 3.5 100.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer (continued) E (input voltage) I ϕ V (load voltage) I0 compensation current IXL load current fig.5 5. Note: for a 630 kVA transformer.e.2 3.7 9.9 2. either globally. rated power kVA 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1 000 1 250 1 600 2 000 2 500 reactive power (kvar) to be compensated oil immersed type cast resin type no load full load no load full load 1.4 57.7 24. the part due to the leakage reactance) changes significantly with variations of load level.0 125.3 5.2 20 66.6 22.0 7. therefore.5 2.5 30. if individual compensation is applied to the transformer.0 140.7 5.5 36.2 45.6 12. so that. E23: overcompensation of load to completely compensate transformer reactive-power losses. Table E24 indicates typical kvar loss values for the magnetizing circuit (“no-load kvar” columns).8 32.2 113.0 191. as well as for the total losses at full load.0 178.5 8.9 19.0 27.0 29. These values correspond closely to those given in the worked example above.3 14. and so mismatching of compensation at times of load change is not likely to be a problem.3 22.5 28.power factor improvement . partially.5 24.7 12. compensation for transformer-absorbed kvar is included in the capacitors primarily intended for powerfactor correction of the load.8 10. for a standard range of distribution transformers supplied at 20 kV (which include the losses due to the leakage reactance).3 35.6 45.0 82.0 88. the transformer absorption (i. then an average level of loading will have to be assumed.8 15.9 6.2 table E24: reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings.9 2. this kvar consumption generally forms only a relatively small part of the total reactive power of an installation.7 8. compensation at the terminals of a transformer (continued) E 6.7 kvar at full load.6. the range of kvar losses extends from 11.5 6.4 9.0 71.3 18.0 19. Unlike most other kvar-absorbing items.7 7. or in the individual mode.

reversing motors.93 table E26: reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation. plugging. Where the overcurrent protection devices of the motor are located upstream of the motorcapacitor connection (and this will always be the case for terminal-connected capacitors). compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E 7. power factor improvement . for reasons explained in preceding sections. general precautions Because of the small kW consumption. the overcurrent relay settings must be reduced in the ratio: cos ϕ before compensation cos ϕ after compensation For motors compensated in accordance with the kvar values indicated in Table E28 (maximum values recommended for avoidance of self-excitation of standard induction motors. special motors It is recommended that special motors (stepping.90 0. after compensation.M. power made available active power C M motor M reactive power supplied by capacitor fig. the power factor of a motor is very low at no-load or on light load. assuming the same motor-driven load conditions. Two good general rules therefore are that unloaded motors should be switched off.P. the current to the motor-capacitor combination will be lower than before.91 0.) should not be compensated. E25: before compensation.88 0. The reactive current of the motor remains practically constant at all loads. connection The bank of capacitors should be connected directly to the terminals of the motor.E17 .2). the capacitor supplies a large part of the reactive power. so that a number of unloaded motors constitute a consumption of reactive power which is generally detrimental to an installation. effect on protection settings After applying compensation to a motor. This is because a significant part of the reactive component of the motor current is being supplied from the capacitor. as discussed in sub-clause 7. as shown in figure E25. the above-mentioned ratio will have a value similar to that indicated for the corresponding motor speed in Table E26. and motors should not be oversized (since they will then be lightly loaded). etc.1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings individual motor compensation is recommended where the motor power (kVA) is large with respect to the declared power of the installation. the transformer supplies all the reactive power. before compensation transformer after compensation speed in R.7. 750 1000 1500 3000 reduction factor 0. inching.

If this precaution is not taken. there is a tendency to spontaneously (and uncontrollably) selfexcite. The rotor flux consequently increases. but will increase. 3-phase motor may have a capacitor bank no larger than 17 kvar according to Table E28. These stator currents will produce a rotating magnetic field in the rotor which acts exactly along the same axis and in the same direction as that of the decaying magnetic field.power factor improvement . generators are not normally operated at leading power factors. in general. the motor will continue to rotate (unless deliberately braked) after the motor supply has been switched off.7. The protection scheme for these motors should therefore include an overvoltage tripping relay. High-inertia motors and/or loads In any installation where high-inertia motordriven loads exist. be applied to the system. The table values are. The (almost 90° lagging) current taken from the supply in normal circumstances by the unloaded motor. the currents circulating are largely reactive. 3. however. immediately following the loss of power supply. When a motor is driving a high-inertia load. sometimes to dangerously-high levels. 400 V. Compensation capacitors however. E27: connection of the capacitor bank to the motor. E18 . Additional compensation can. in the case of an uncompensated motor. since all other banks of capacitors in the installation will effectively be in parallel with those of the high-inertia motors. in the event of total loss of power supply. and the voltage at the terminals of the motor increases. which causes capacitive currents to flow through the stator windings. and the (almost 90° leading) current supplied to the capacitors by the motor acting as a generator. installed for global compensation of a number of smaller appliances. be rapidly tripped. An undervoltage relay would not be suitable because the voltage is not only maintained. then selfexcitation to very high voltages is likely to occur. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor (continued) E 7.9 Io Un e where Io = the no-load current of the motor and Un = phase-tophase nominal voltage of the motor in kV. This phenomenon is known as self-excitation and is one reason why a. With the motor acting as a generator. 2. The "magnetic inertia" of the rotor circuit means that an emf will be generated in the stator windings for a short period after switching off. It is for this reason that the two characteristics may be superimposed on the graph. until the stored inertial energy is dissipated). In order to avoid self-excitation as described above. The characteristics of a motor being driven by the inertia of the load are not rigorously identical to its no-load characteristics. together with reverse-power checking contacts (the motor will feed power to the rest of the installation. the kvar rating of the capacitor bank must be limited to the following maximum value: Qc i 0. i. fig. however. and would normally reduce to zero after 1 or 2 cycles.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided when a capacitor bank is connected to the terminals of an induction motor. so that the braking (retarding) effect on the motor is mainly due only to the load represented by the cooling fan in the motor. Table E28 gives appropriate values of Qc corresponding to this criterion. both have the same phase relationship to the terminal voltage. This assumption. for example an overall bank.e. is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. too small to adequately compensate the motor to the level of cos ϕ normally required. Notes 1. 3 000 Rpm. constitute a 3-phase "wattless" load for this decaying emf.c. Example A 75 kW. the circuit breakers or contactors controlling such motors should. the stator currents increase. it is important to check that the size of the bank is less than that at which self-excitation can occur.

5 10 11 12. power factor improvement . as shown in figure E27. which trips in unison with the main motorcontrolling circuit breaker or contactor.5 37 50 9 11 12. correction applicable to motor terminals without risk of self-excitation. then it should be separately controlled by a circuit breaker or contactor. Note Exact sizing of capacitor unit for a particular motor is only possible when the "no-load current" or "no-load magnetising" kvar is known.E If the capacitor bank associated with a highinertia motor is larger than that recommended in Table E28.5 16 45 60 11 13 14 17 55 75 13 17 18 21 75 100 17 22 25 28 90 125 20 25 27 30 110 150 24 29 33 37 132 180 31 36 38 43 160 218 35 41 44 52 200 274 43 47 53 61 250 340 52 57 63 71 280 380 57 63 70 79 355 482 67 76 86 98 400 544 78 82 97 106 450 610 87 93 107 117 table E28: maximum kvar of P.F. Closing of the main contactor is commonly subject to the capacitor contactor being previously closed.E19 . 3-phase motors 230/400 V nominal kvar to be installed power speed of rotation (RPM) kW hp 3000 1500 1000 750 22 30 6 8 9 10 30 40 7.

75 c reactive energy is supplied through the transformer and via the installation wiring. c apparent power kVA is significantly greater than the kW demand.F. correction ¡¡¡ kVA=kW+kvar kVA kW c kvarh are billed heavily above the declared level.928 c reactive energy is supplied by the capacitor bank. example of an installation before and after power-factor correction E installation before P. cos ϕ = 0. * due to the reactive power losses in the transformer. E29: technical-economic comparison of an installation before and after power-factor correction. As mentioned in Sub-clause 6. the cos ϕ at the HV side of the transformer will be slightly lower. c the installation must be over-dimensioned. c the fixed charge based on kVA demand is adjusted to be close to the active power kW demand.75 workshop cos ϕ = 0.2. 630 kVA Characteristics of the installation 500 kW cos ϕ = 0. cos ϕ = 0. according to the cos ϕ required. (960)2 thereby economizing in kWh consumed. fig.75 S = apparent power 630 kVA 400 V 400 V c the current flowing into the installation downstream of the circuit breaker is P I= = 960 A eU cos ϕ c the current flowing into the installation through the circuit breaker is 778 A.75 but cos ϕ for all the installation upstream of the capacitor bank to the transformer LV terminals is 0. * moreso in the pre-corrected case. c the consumption of kvarh is v eliminated. c losses in cables are calculated as a function of the current squared: (960)2 P=I2R c the losses in the cables are (778)2 reduced to = 65% of the former value.power factor improvement . c the corresponding excess current causes losses (kWh) which are billed. cos ϕ = 0. * the arrows denote vector quantities.928 c transformer no longer overloaded c the power-demand is 539 kVA c there is 14% spare-transformer capacity available. correction *¡¡¡ kVA=kW+kvar kVA kW kvar installation after P. c the tariff penalties v for reactive energy where applicable v for the entire bill in some cases are eliminated. kvar Capacitor bank rating is 250 kvar in 5 automatically-controlled steps of 50 kvar. the cos ϕ of the workshop remains at 0. c the transformer. or v reduced.928 workshop Note: In fact.F. and cables must be over-dimensioned.928. Characteristics of the installation 500 kW cos ϕ = 0. E20 .75 c transformer is overloaded c the power demand is P 500 S= = = 665 kVA cos ϕ 0. circuit breaker.8.

All series elements.. in recent years.s. This possibility. even-numbered harmonics are now sometimes encountered. Harmonics on symmetrical 3-phase power systems are generally* odd-numbered: 3rd. strong resonant conditions with the 3rd harmonic component of a distorted wave would certainly occur. Several solutions to these problems are available. thyristor-controlled rectifiers. however. Capacitors are especially sensitive to harmonic components of the supply voltage due to the fact that capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases. and consequently do not generate harmonics. the greater the degree of distortion . In practice. between the equipment causing the distortion. associated with the capacitors are similarly oversized.m. which aim basically at reducing the distortion of the supply-voltage wave form.) have. In this particular case. with particular reference to capacitor banks.. fuses.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics Equipment which uses power electronics components (variable-speed motor controllers. and associated non-linear components. etc. etc. or fo/60 for a 60 Hz system. this means that a relatively small percentage of harmonic voltage can cause a significant current to flow in the capacitor circuit. result in total or partial resonance occurring at one of the harmonic frequencies.9.93 which shows that the natural frequency of the capacitor/system-inductance combination is close to the 3rd harmonic frequency of the system. together with other overvoltage conditions likely to occur when countering the effects of resonance.. the elevated current will cause overheating of the capacitor. and the magnitude decreases as the order of the harmonic increases. For example: SSC / Q may give a value for ho of 2. The presence of harmonic components causes the (normally sinusoidal) wave form of voltage or current to be distorted. with degradation of the dielectric.3 to 1.2 possible solutions harmonics are taken into account mainly by oversizing capacitors and including harmonic-suppression reactors in series with them. countering the effects of harmonics The presence of harmonics in the supply voltage results in abnormally high current levels through the capacitors. 9. practical means of reducing the influence of harmonics are recommended. The installation of capacitors in a power system (in which the impedances are predominantly inductive) can. This is generally accomplished by shunt connected harmonic filter and/or harmonic-suppression reactors.total elimination is not possible. and the bank of capacitors in question. * With the advent of power electronics devices. fo/50 for a 50 Hz system. Harmonics have existed from the earliest days of the industry and were (and still are) caused by the non-linear magnetizing impedances of transformers. such as connections.3 times the nominal rated current. fluorescent lamp ballasts. The harmonic order ho of the natural resonant frequency between the system inductance and the capacitor bank is given by SSC / Q where Ssc = the level of system short-circuit kVA at the point of connection of the capacitor Q = capacitor bank rating in kvar. Harmonic distortion of the voltage wave frequently produces a "peaky" wave form. 9th. An allowance is made for this by designing for an r. in which the peak value of the normal sinusoidal wave is increased. the greater the harmonic content. In this section. the greater will be the (undesirable) effect. In many instances. From ho = fo/50 it can be seen that fo = 50 ho = 50 x 2. then partial resonance will occur.E21 . are taken into account by increasing the insulation level above that of "standard" capacitors. If the natural frequency of the capacitor bank/ power-system reactance combination is close to a particular harmonic. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank E 9. 7th.93 = 146. as described below. All of these features may be used in various ways to reduce specific harmonics to negligible values . which may result in its eventual failure. considerably increased the problems caused by harmonics in powersupply systems. and ho = the harmonic order of the natural frequency fo i. value of current equal to 1.. between 1.5 times nominal rating. power factor improvement . countering the effects of resonance Capacitors are linear reactive devices. these two counter measures are all that is necessary to achieve satisfactory operation. reactors. with amplified values of voltage and current at the harmonic frequency concerned. etc.5 Hz The closer a natural frequency approaches one of the harmonics present on the system. In the above example. switches.e. 5th.

inverters.e. c Ssc = the 3-phase short-circuit level in kVA at the terminals of the capacitor bank.60 Sn capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% + harmonic suppression reactor Gh > 0. for example. can be made. Gh > Ssc 70 capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% + harmonic-suppression reactor 0. directly connected to) the system level of which the busbars form a part. will significantly change the values of Ssc and Sn.9.3 choosing the optimum solution A choice is made from the following parameters: c Gh = the sum of the kVA ratings of all harmonic-generating devices (static converters.15 Sn < Gh i 0. i. 9. the presence of the reactor increases the fundamental-frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) current by a small amount (7-8%) and therefore the voltage across the capacitor in the same proportion. These frequencies correspond to a value for ho of 3. speed controllers. by reference to the following table. the capacitor bank + reactors to 190 Hz. On 50 Hz systems. assume an average power factor of 0.8 for a 50 Hz system. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank (continued) E 9.60 Sn filters table E30: choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank. the removal from service of one or more. E22 .7 to obtain the kVA ratings. etc. steps are taken to change the natural frequency to a value which will not resonate with any of the harmonics known to be present.25 Sn standard capacitors capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% (except 230 V units) c Sn = the sum of the kVA ratings of all transformers supplying (i. approximately mid-way between the 3rd and 5th harmonics. The reactors are adjusted to 228 Hz for a 60 Hz system. these reactors are often adjusted to bring the resonant frequency of the combination. If a number of transformers are operating in parallel.) connected to the busbars from which the capacitor bank is supplied.power factor improvement . by using capacitors which are designed for 440 V operation on 400 V systems. i.2 possible solutions (continued) countering the effects of resonance (continued) In such cases.15 Sn 0. In this arrangement.25 Sn < Gh i 0. If the ratings of some of these devices are quoted in kW only. From these parameters. This is achieved by the addition of a harmonic-suppression inductor connected in series with the capacitor bank.e.e. capacitors supplied at LV via transformer(s) c general rule valid for any size of transformer Ssc i Gh i Ssc Gh i Ssc 120 120 70 standard capacitors capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% (except 230 V units) c simplified rule if transformer(s) rating Sn i 2 MVA Gh i 0. a choice of capacitor specification which will ensure an acceptable level of operation with the system harmonic voltages and currents. This feature is taken into account.

F.500 kVA 4 Ssc 12. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 50 kVA 100 Ssc = 500 x = 12.m.s. Power-supply authorities generally impose a strict limit on the total-harmonic distortion (THD) permitted at the point of power supply to a consumer.000 kVA transformer having 6% short-circuit voltage.E examples Three cases are presented. correction capacitors. value of the fundamental frequency wave (50 or 60 Hz).667 = = 139 120 120 Ssc 16.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors on the power-supply system it is necessary to ensure that interaction between harmonicgenerating devices and P.750 kVA 4 Ssc 15. Such filters are shuntconnected. Example 1: 500 kVA transformer having 4% short-circuit voltage. The degree of distortion is measured as the ratio of the r. showing (respectively) situations in which standard. Filters connected in this way fortuitously have the added benefit of contributing to reactivepower compensation for the installation. then recourse has to be made to low-voltage L-C series filters. with respect to the r.s.500 = = 104 120 120 Ssc Gh = 50 i 120 Solution: use standard capacitors.E23 . this means that a maximum value of 4 or 5% for voltage THD is permissible at the LV terminals of the transformer. Example 3: 630 kVA transformer having 4% short-circuit voltage. 9. If this value of THD is unattainable.667 kVA 6 Ssc 16. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 250 kVA 100 Ssc = 630 x = 15. and overdimensioned plus harmonic-suppression-equipped capacitor banks should be installed.000 x = 16. and are tuned to resonate at harmonic frequencies to which they present practically zero impedance. Example 2: 1.750 = = 225 70 70 Scc Gh = 250 > 70 Solution: use overated (440 V) capacitors and harmonic-suppression reactors. For LV loads supplied through a transformer from a high-voltage service connection. power factor improvement .m.667 = = 238 70 70 Ssc Ssc Gh = 220 is between and 120 70 Solution: use overated (440 V) capacitors. does not result in unacceptable levels of voltage and/or current wave-form distortion on the power-supply network. overdimensioned. value of all harmonics present. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 220 kVA 100 Ssc = 1.

NF C 54-104. implementation of capacitor banks E 10.10. The protection scheme operates as follows: c a short-circuit through the dielectric will blow the fuse. are not impregnated by liquid dielectric) comprising metallized polypropylene self-healing film in the form of a two-film roll.5 A/kvar E24 . fuse discharge resistor short-circuiting contacts overpressure device fig. electrical characteristics standards operating rated voltage range rated frequency capacitance tolerance temperature maximum temperature range average temperature over 24 h average annual temperature minimum temperature insulation level permissible current overload permissible voltage overload current on 400 V . E31: cross-section of a capacitor element. They are protected by a high-quality system (overpressure disconnector used with an HPC fuse) which switches off the capacitor if an internal fault occurs. i. but insufficient to blow the fuse sometimes occur. v gas produced by vaporizing of the metallisation at the faulty location will gradually build up a pressure within the plastic container. e.g.50 Hz supply IEC 831.e.50 Hz supply consumption on 230 V . the defect may develop into a short-circuit.2 A/kvar 3. UL tests 400 V 50 Hz 0 to + 5% 55 °C 45 °C 35 °C -25 °C 50 Hz 1 mn withstand voltage: 6 kV 1. thereby causing the fuse to blow. v if the leakage current persists. due to a microscopic flow in the dielectric film. Capacitors are made of insulating material providing them with double insulation and avoiding the need for a ground connection.2/50 µs impulse withstand voltage: 25 kV standard range H range 30% 50% 10% 20% 2 A/kvar 2.power factor improvement . and will eventually operate a pressure-sensitive device to short-circuit the unit. and the fuse will blow. Such "faults" often re-seal due to local heating caused by the leakage current. VDE 0560 CSA standards. the units are said to be "self-healing". c current levels greater than normal.1 capacitor elements technology The capacitors are dry-type units (i.e.

c for a single capacitor bank. and based on 1. peak unidirectional currents are lower than the first peaks of high-frequency currents.3 x 1. Approximately 30% of this increase is due to the voltage increases. when charging an initially uncharged capacitor.E 10. For this condition. derating of the components will be necessary. is generally a high-frequency phenomenon. those units which are already in service will initially discharge into an uncharged capacitor group at the instant of switching it into service.5 times rated current.2 choice of protection. in an ambient temperature of 50 °C maximum. the maximum highfrequency peak current is given by: Ip = U 2C A 3 Lo Where U = system phase-to-phase voltage in Volts C = capacitance of capacitor in Farads Lo = inductance of system impedance in Henrys (system resistance is ignored). rapidly falling to normal operating values. For capacitors. so that 1.5 In. is given by: Q A In = 3 Un The permitted range of applied voltage at fundamental frequency. the upstream cables and transformers constitute the predominant part of Lo (the system inductance). while a further 15% is due to the range of manufacturing tolerances. and connecting cables due to the possible presence of harmonic currents and to manufacturing tolerances. c the capacitance value. supplied from a 3-phase system having a phase/phase voltage of Un kilo-volts. The frequency f'o of the current from the energized capacitors is given by 1 fo' = Hz 2Π LC The total inrush current is the sum of the two infeeds. component dimensions The choice of upstream cables and protection and control devices depends on the current loading. plus harmonic components. c where a bank of capacitors is automatically switched in steps. In the case where higher temperatures (than 50 °C) occur in enclosures. the current is a function of: c the applied voltage and its harmonics. from the system and from the previously-charged bank.15 = 1.E25 . The nominal current In a capacitor of kvar rating Q. Generally.e. which is superimposed on the 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) current wave. will occur if the closing switch contacts touch at the instant of peak power-supply voltage. The maximum value attainable. together with manufacturing tolerances of actual capacitance (for a declared nominal value) can result in a 50% increase above the calculated value of current. The frequency fo of the transient current surge is given by: 1 fo = Hz 2Π LoC * In general. i. the frequencies of the two infeeds will not be equal. however. The first peak of transient high-frequency or (sometimes) unidirectional* current has the greatest magnitude. the current is limited only by the impedances of the network upstream of the capacitor. protection At the instant of closing a switch to energize a capacitor. components must be over-sized. power factor improvement . so that high peak values of current will occur for a brief period. control devices. This transient overcurrent however. etc. must be adequate to cover this "worst-case" condition. The transient in-rush current from the previouslycharged units will then amount to an initial peak of I' P = U 2C n ( )A 3 L n +1 where L = the supply cable inductance in series with each capacitor n = the number of capacitor steps already energized before closure of the switch C = capacitance of each group forming 1 step (all steps are electrically identical). All components carrying the capacitor current therefore.

It is sometimes necessary to install small series inductors to achieve this limitation. and closing the switch at the instant of supply-voltage peak. if necessary. the maximum voltage transient peak never (in the absence of steady-state harmonics) exceeds twice the peak value of rated voltage. and connecting cables (continued) The peak value of this transient current must not exceed 100 times the rated current of the capacitors in one step of a multi-step bank (IEC 831-1). etc. care must be taken to ensure that a section of capacitors about to be energized is fully discharged. E26 . The discharge delay time may be shortened. or other types of conductor. there would be no voltage or current transients. voltage transients High-frequency voltage transients accompany the high-frequency current transients. This maximum condition occurs only if: c the existing voltage at the capacitor is equal to the peak value of rated voltage. Note: The short-circuit current-breaking rating of the circuit breaker must be adequate to match the short-circuit level existing at the point of connection of the capacitor bank. therefore.2 choice of protection. and c the switch contacts close at the instant of peak supply voltage. control devices. as a function of their characteristics. implementation of capacitor banks (continued) E 10. in which case the manufacturer of the capacitors should be consulted. viz: twice that of its maximum when closing on to an initially uncharged capacitor.10. as previously noted. This maximum transient current peak occurs when the last step is energized. must be based on 1. by using discharge resistors of a lower resistance value. as previously noted. the current transient will be at its maximum possible value.5 times the nominal current rating for the capacitor bank concerned. In order to avoid undesirable nuisance tripping of controlling circuit breakers at the instant of energizing a capacitor bank.power factor improvement . when switching an uncharged capacitor into service. however. method of installation. Where automatic switching of stepped banks of capacitors is considered. and c the polarity of the power-supply voltage is opposite to that of the charged capacitor. In the particular case of peak rated voltage on the capacitor having the same polarity as that of the supply voltage. and ambient temperature. cross-sectional area of conductors The current rating of cables. the voltage transient can attain a maximum value approaching 3 times the normal rated peak value. In the case of a capacitor being already charged at the instant of switch closure. For any other values of voltage and polarity on the pre-charged capacitor. the transient peaks of voltage and current will be less than those mentioned above. Section H1-2 of chapter H facilitates the selection of suitable cables. In such a situation. the instantaneous elements of overcurrent tripping relays should be given a suitably high setting.

harmonic source protected network and power source B fig. Before the advent of power-electronics. the control signals will be virtually short-circuited.f. so that satisfactory results were achieved (and still are in all but exceptional cases) by the methods described below.m. even-numbered harmonics were rarely encountered. (a) A C L R B (b) A f= 1 2 π v LC An exact analysis of the combination is not simple. AE3-2. The same procedure can be adopted for any number harmonic frequencies known to be present.1 . including a degree of damping caused by the load impedance. as well as by the powersystem source reactance shunting the filter bank (shown dotted in figure AE3-3). high-impedance values occur. Harmonic-producing equipment must create the harmonic e. thereby reducing VAB(h) to practically zero. a series-connected LCR circuit (figure AE3-1(a)) tuned to resonate at the harmonic frequency concerned. Otherwise. will constitute a virtual shortcircuit to the current of that harmonic frequency. and impedance changes with temperature. AE3-1. etc.) relatively straightforward. elementary harmonic filters E For this appendix. the impedance is very low. and resulting currents in order to function correctly. while at intermediate frequencies. is to allow a free flow of harmonic currents to circulate between the harmonic source and the filter bank. the individual filters being connected in parallel across the points A-B (figure AE3-1(b)). so that the 100 Hz (on 50 Hz systems) separating one harmonic frequency from the next made the task of filters (despite manufacturing tolerances. since each filter is affected by those in parallel with it. the response of the filter bank in terms of its impedance at different frequencies is shown in figure AE3-2.s. IZI Ω fh/f50 1 5 7 11 13 (harmonic order) fig. Care should be taken to ensure that frequencies corresponding to the lowimpedance point are not close to control frequencies (such as those of ripple-control schemes used by many power companies for remote control of power-network devices). Appendix E3 . at each harmonic frequency for which a filter has been provided. If it is required to eliminate (almost) a harmonic voltage existing across two points A and B in a network. the more commonlyoccurring odd-numbered harmonics are shown in the diagrams.11. The role of a filter bank. It will be seen that. while practically eliminating these currents and voltages from the rest of the network. as described. When all factors have been taken into account.

IZI Ω R L C r R Hz fo fig. while at all higher frequencies. 2 . AE3-4: damped filter circuit and characteristic impedance/frequency curve. AE3-3. approaching the value of the resistor only (figure AE3-4) as the frequency increases (i. the magnitude of harmonic emfs diminishes as the order of the harmonic increases.1. so that a useful contribution to any power-factor correction requirement is fortuitously available. the impedance will be low (inductive/resistive). In figure AE3-3. There are several variations of damped filters and many combinations of band-pass and undamped filters in service. according to particular requirements. however. the successful application of power electronics devices is largely due to the development of effective filtering techniques which are. it forms a "highpass" filter). by connecting a resistor in parallel with the reactor. so critical for high-order harmonics as those necessary for lower-order harmonics.e. most of the harmonic voltage Vh will be dropped across the internal impedance Zh of the harmonic source and that small harmonic-current components only will pass through the power-system source impedance Xs and the loads (the latter having relatively high impedance). such as that shown in figure AE3-1 (b) is often damped. as shown dotted in figure AE3-3.E A Zh a loads X source Vh harmonic source 5 7 11 filter bank 13 B fig. the filter for the highest harmonic of a bank. In fact.Appendix E3 . Sub-clause 9. The result is a filter which is less effective (but adequate) at its tuned frequency. Since at fundamental frequency the capacitive reactance of each filter is much greater than its inductive reactance. damped harmonic filters As noted in Chapter E. Such a high-pass filter is commonly used for the highest-order harmonic filter (the 11th or 13th for example) of a bank. The filtering requirements are not. most of the power-frequency voltage will appear across the capacitors. For that reason. it will be seen that since the filters are practically short-circuits to harmonics. beyond the scope of these brief notes. therefore.

then the series resonant frequency of each step must be the same. 2 to 9 times) and the parallelresonant frequency depends on L + LS. Appendix E4 . so that the product LC. This branch being in parallel with LS. as described in Appendix E3. It is sufficient that the two resonant frequencies be lower than those of the harmonics to be protected against. remains constant. the parallel resonant condition is moved away from the harmonic frequency towards a lower frequency. AE4-1. it follows that mixed steps of any kvar rating may be paralleled. Such currents must be eliminated by shuntconnected series filters. harmonic suppression reactor for a single (power factor correction) capacitor bank E As shown in Appendix E2.e. providing that every step is tuned to the same series resonant frequency. although a harmonicsuppression reactor protects the capacitor bank against the problem of resonance with the source reactance.12. The addition of further identical steps in parallel will not affect the two resonant frequencies fp and fs. to ensure complete immunity from resonance. C L R (a) LS stepped banks of capacitors Power-factor correction capacitor banks are frequently made up of a number of switched sections. By connecting a reactor L in series with the capacitor bank. the lower frequency is due to the parallel Ls//LCR combination. and the upper due to the series LCR circuit. it does not reduce the amount of harmonic current which passes through the HV/LV transformer to the source. the inductance has reduced to 1/n times its original value. i. the first step in service must fulfill the conditions of series resonance already mentioned and shown in figure AE4-1 (b). as shown in figure AE4-1 (b). This is because. on which the series resonant frequency depends. the crux of the problem for capacitor banks is that a fraction of the total component of a given harmonic current can be magnified to dangerous levels in a parallel LCR circuit if that circuit resonates at the harmonic frequency concerned. IZI Ω (b) parallel resonance fP series resonance fS power source impedance f (Hz) f1 fp fS range of unwanted harmonic frequencies fig. the addition of reactor L means that changes in the power-system source reactance will have much less influence (than formerly) on the parallel-resonant frequency. If all switched steps have the same kvar rating. no resonant condition is possible. In fact. since L generally has a much greater value than LS (e. the circuit now resonates at two different frequencies. so that the amount of compensation can be adjusted to suit the requirements of a changing load. although the capacitance has increased n times (for n steps in service). The reason for this is that for frequencies higher than the series-resonant frequency XL > XC so that the LCR branch behaves as an inductance + resistance series circuit. It may be noted that. Furthermore.g. By similar reasoning.1 . the powersystem source inductance.

but power-supply organizations generally propose a HV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate. fourth edition. those consumers whose loads can be satisfactorily supplied from the low-voltage system in their locality.5 kV 347/600 (A) 120/208 600 (F) 480 (F) 240 (F) 220/380 (A) (3) 220/380 (A) (3) 13.2 kV 6. i. but power-supply organizations generally propose a HV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate.3 Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Czechoslovakia 50 50 60 ± 1 60 50 ± 0.2 kV 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 15 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) 115/230 (H) (3) 220/380 (A) (3) 120/208 (A) 7. or at some intermediate level.6 kV 240/415 (A) 250/440 (A) (9) 10 kV 5.3 ±5 Greece 50 ± 1 table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. as shown in table D1.5 kV 6.1 50 ± 1 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) ± 10 + 10 ± 10 ± 10 Egypt (AR) Finland France 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (E) 127 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 127 (L) 220 (L) (1) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (D) 380 (B) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) Germany Ex-DRG Ex-FRG 50 ± 0.02 115/230 (H) 120/208 (A) 120 (L) 120/240 (K) 115/230 (H) 220/380 (A) 120/208 (A) 347/600 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) (1) 220/380 (A) 120/240 (G) 120 (L) 120/240 (K) 120 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) ±5 (9) ±4 .6 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 200/346 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) low-voltage tolerance % ±6 the adjoining table is extracted from the document "World Electricity Supplies". Western Algeria 50 50 ± 1.* country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 0.1 domestic Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV. the lower or upper extremes of the most common 3-phase levels in general use. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC to be 230/400 V.3 ± 10 50 ± 0. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC to be 230/400 V.1.6 kV 220/380 (A) ±5 Hong Kong (and Kowloon) 50 ± 2 200/346 (A) 200 (L) (1) 11 kV 200/346 (A) 220/380 (A) 200 (L) ±6 * IEC 38 (1983).2/12.D1 .2 kV 120/240 (G) 120/240 (G) (3) 22 kV 15 kV 6 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 30 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.4 50 ± 1 50 ± 0. low-voltage service connections . commercial industrial Australia 240/415 (A) (E) 240 (L) 240/415 (A) 250/440 (A) 440 (N) (6) 22 kV 11 kV 6.5 250/440 (A) 127/220 (E) 220 (L) (1) (9) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) ± 6 (10) + 5 and + 10 Argentina 50 ± 1.* Low-voltage consumers are.8.88 kV 225/390 (A) 220/380 (A) 13.e.1 220 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 120/240 (G) 120 (L) 120 (L) (1) 230/380 (A) 220 (L) (9) ±7 ± 10 (9) ± 10 Denmark 50 ± 0.6 kV 220/380 (A) 13. Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV. by definition. The voltage of the local LV network may be 120/208 V or 240/415 V. low-voltage public distribution networks D 1.8 kV 11.6 kV 220/380 (A) 380/660 (A) 500 (B) 220/380 (A) (D) 20 kV 15 kV 230/400 380 (B) 220/380 (A) (D) 20 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 10 kV 6 kV 380/660 (A) 220/380 (A) 22 kV 20 kV 15 kV 6.1 low-voltage consumers the most-common LV supplies are within the range 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wires. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.0 225 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 225/390 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) Brazil 60 220 (L) (1) 127 (L) (1) ± 10 (9) Belgium 50 ± 3 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) + 5 (day) ± 10 (night) Bolivia Cambodia Canada 50 ± 1 50 60 ± 0. 6.

5 50 ± 1.2 230 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) +6 (9) +6 Italy 50 ± 0.0 60 ± 0. D2 .10 ±6 Malaysia Mexico Morocco Netherlands 50 50 ± 0.c.3 kV 230/400 (A) 20 kV 15 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (C) 6.6 kV 6.8 .13.low-voltage service connections Manila 60 ± 5 240/120 (H) (K) 240/120 (H) ±5 Peru 60 225 (B) (M) 225 (B) (M) (9) .24 kV 3.1 50 ± 1 50 ± 3 50 ± 3 25 d.6 kV 240/120 (H) 10 kV 6 kV 225 (B) +4 +6 +6 +5 + 15 Iraq 50 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) +5 Ireland (Northern) Ireland (Republic of) Israel 50 ± 0.16 kV 2. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams (continued).1 (5) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 105/210 (K) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 220 (L) 100 (L) 240 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 120/208 (A) 240 (L) (1) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) 120 (M) 127/220 (A) 115/200 (A) 220/300 (A) 220 (E) (L) 230/400 (A) (E) 230 (L) 240 (L) 230 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 100/200 (H) (K) ± 10 Japan (West) (4) 105/210 (H) (K) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 220/380 (A) 100/200 (K) 240/415 (A) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 120/208 (A) 240/415 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) 120 (M) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) ± 10 Korea (North) Korea (South) Kuwait Luxembourg 60 + 0 -5 60 50 50 ± 0.4 kV 110/220 (H) 240/120 (H) (K) 240/120 (H) (9) ±5 table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.16 kV 2.6 kV 105/210 (H) 100/200 (H) 220/380 (A) (9) 240/415 (A) (3) 20 kV 15 kV 5 kV 240/415 (A) (3) 13.4 kV 440 V (B) 110/220 (H) 20 kV 6.2 (5) 60 ± 0.10 Hungary 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) Iceland India (4) Bombay New Delhi Romakrishnapuram (2) Indonesia Iran 50 ± 0.4 50 ± 1.8 kV 4.2 + 6.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 2 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % + 5 .8 kV 4.2 230 (B) 220/380 (A) 230 (B) ± 10 Pakistan Philippines 50 60 ± 0.6 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 230/400 (A) (3) 220/380 (A) 10 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 12.8 kV 13.6 (10) (9) (9) ± 5 and ± 10 +5 . 50 ± 1 -2 50 ± 5 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 250/440 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/460 (P) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 250/440 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 220/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/460 (P) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220/380 (A) 20 kV 220 (L) 10 kV 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) (9) 11 kW 250/440 (A) 11 kV 230/400 (A) 22 kV and 11 kV (9) (9) 220/380 (A) (3) 20 kV 11 kV 231/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.6 kV 100/200 (H) 200 (G) (J) 22 kV 6.4 50 50 ± 0.5 (9) ±6 ±5 New Zealand Nigeria 50 ± 1 240/415 (A) (E) 230/400 (A) (E) 230 (L) 240 (L) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) ±5 Norway 50 ± 0.4 220/380 (A) 127/220 (E) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (E) ± 5 (urban) ± 10 (rural) Japan (East) (4) 50 ± 0.2 kV 277/480 (A) 127/220 (B) 220/380 (A) (3) 10 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 230/400 (A) 240/415 (A) 440 (N) (6) 15 kV 11 kV 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 20 kV 10 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 230 (B) 230/400 (A) (3) 13. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.1. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.16 230 (L) (1) 110/220 (K) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 13.

03 120/240 (K) ± 5 (lighting) ± 10 (power) table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.2 60 ± 0.5 25 (8) 11 kV 6.2 Syria 50 220 (L) (1) 115 (L) (1) Taiwan 60 ± 4 Tunisia 50 + 2 50 ± 2 50 ± 1 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 110/220 (K) 110 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 115/200 (A) 115 (L) 220/380 (A) 110/220 (H) 20 kV 10 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) 115/200 (A) ± 10 (9) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) Turkey United Kingdom 240 (L) (1) 240/415 (A) 22.3 120/240 (K) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 4.2 kV 2.8 kV 120/240 (G) 120/240 (K) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 240 (F) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 460 (F) 230 (F) ±5 ±5 New York (New York) 60 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) (9) Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) 60 ± 0.6 kV 3.4 kV 575 (F) 460 (F) 240 (F) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 13. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.8 kV 120/240 (G) 13.2 kV 4.3 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 11 kV 6.2 kV 11.3 kV 250/433 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) ±5 Sweden 50 ± 0.4 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (H) 15 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 15 kV 6. Portland (Oregon) 60 120/240 (K) 227/480 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) (9) low-voltage service connections .6 Los Angeles (California) Miami (Florida) 60 ± 0.2.4 kV 265/460 (A) 120/208 (A) 460 (F) 230 (F) 19.2 kV 2.6 kV 230/400 (A) 15 kV 11 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.A.16 kV 277/480 (A) 480 (F) 13.5 Detroit (Michigan) 60 ± 0.8 kV 4.D 1.5 50 ± 0.4 kV 7.2 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) + 4 . (4) Charlotte (North Carolina) 60 ± 0.6 kV 3.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 1 50 ± 1 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % ±5 ±5 Poland 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) Portugal 220/380 (A) 220 (L) Rumania 50 ± 1 220 (L) (1) 15 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (L) 15 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 15 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 20 kV 10 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 13.D3 .8 kV 11.16 kV 480 (F) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) 4. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams (continued).S.9 kV 12 kV 7.4 kV 480/277 (A) 120/240 (H) 12.47 kV 4.6 kV 3.3 kV 240/415 (A) 14.2 kV 2.4 kV 277/480 (A) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) ± 5 and ± 10 + 10 ± 10 ±6 U.5 kV 2.06 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) + 5 .5 50 ± 3 127/220 (A) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 220/380 (A) (E) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) (E) 127 (L) 250/433 (A) (7) 230/400 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 230/400 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 220/380 (A) 6.6.3 kV 500 (B) ±5 Saudi Arabia Singapore 60 ± 0.8 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 6.6 kV 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) ±5 ±3 ±7 Spain South Africa 50 ± 2.

while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams.1.8 kV 12 kV 4. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.8 kV 4.47 kV 7.1 50 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 127 (L) 220 (L) (1) 120 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) (9) 220/380 (A) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 15 kV 220/380 (A) 10 kV 6.16 kV 480 (F) 277/480 (A) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) Toledo (Ohio) 60 ± 0.08 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 277/480 (C) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (K) ±5 USSR (former) 50 Viet-Nam Yugoslavia 50 ± 0.low-voltage service connections .08 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % ±5 San Francisco (California) 120/240 (K) 277/480 (A) 120/240 (K) 20.6 kV 220/380 (A) ± 10 (9) table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. D4 .2 kV 4.16 kV 277/480 (A) 120/240 (G) 12.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 60 ± 0.

three-wire: earthed neutral (f) three-phase delta: three-wire (g) three-phase delta.c.: three-wire: unearthed * Windings (A) (B) (C) (D) and (F) may be transformer-secondary windings or alternator stator windings. four-wire: earthed mid point of one phase (j) three-phase open delta: earthed junction of phases (k) single-phase. four-wire: non-earthed neutral (e) two-phase star. low-voltage service connections . (2) Frequencies below 50 Hz and d.c. (7) A few towns only have this supply. The examples given show the diversity of possibilities existing. (8) Refers to isolated mining districts. Notes (1) The supply to each house is normally single-phase using one line and one neutral conductor of systems (A) or (G). (3) Information on higher voltage supplies to factories is not available. three-wire: earthed neutral (d) three-phase star. (10) Observed values. (4) More than one area of country is given to illustrate the differences which exist. four-wire: earthed neutral (b) three-phase star: three-wire (c) three-phase star. (9) Information not available.D circuit diagrams* (a) three-phase star. (5) Frequency is 50 Hz (eastern area) and 60 Hz (western area). supplies are used in limited areas only. The dividing line from north to south passes through Shizuoka on Honshu Island. (6) Some remote areas are supplied via a Single Wire Earthed Return (SWER) system. two-wire: earthed end of phase (m) single-phase.D5 . three-wire: earthed mid point (l) single-phase. two-wire: unearthed V kV (n) single-wire: earthed return (swer) (p) d. four-wire: earthed mid point of one phase (h) three-phase open delta.

dedicated supply lines at LV are generally applied (at 220/380 V to 240/415 V) to a load range of 80 kVA to 250 kVA. Factors to be considered include: c the size of an existing distributor to which the new load is to be connected. however: c large loads (e. The current-rating requirements of distributors are estimated from the number of consumers to be connected and an average demand per consumer. for a given percentage statutory limit. In short. The two principal limiting parameters of a distributor are: c the maximum current which it is capable of carrying indefinitely. is necessarily restricted. typical maximum permitted loads connected to a LV distributor might* be: assumed max. c restaurants. c farms. workshops and filling stations.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) residential and commercial consumers The function of a LV "mains" distributor (underground cable or overhead line) is to provide service connections to a number of consumers along its route. commercial and similar buildings. the upper load limit which can be supplied by this means is restricted only by the available spare transformer capacity in the substation. D6 . and will be sufficient for the installations of many administrative. c the total load already connected to the distributor. These constraints mean that the magnitude of loads which power-supply organizations are willing to connect to their LV distribution mains.4 22 80 83 86 * The table D2 values shown are indicative only. permitted current per consumer service 60 A 60 A 60 A 120 A 120 A 120 A kVA 7. and c the maximum length of cable which. The load levels listed above are adequate for all normal domestic consumers. since smaller voltage drops are allowed at these lower voltages. arbitrarily) based on a maximum permitted service current of 120 A. being (arbitrarily) based on 60 A maximum service currents for the first three systems. etc. c many power-supply organizations prefer to supply loads exceeding 200 kVA (this figure varies with different suppliers) at high voltage. a dedicated cable can usually be provided from the LV distribution fuse.low-voltage service connections . For these reasons. etc. c small factories. unless the load centre is close to the substation. c shops and commercial buildings.e.2 14. system 120 V 1-phase 2-wire 120/240 V 1-phase 3-wire 120/208 V 3-phase 4-wire 220/380 V 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wire table D2.g. For the range of LV systems mentioned in the second paragraph of this sub-clause (1. and no "standardized" values can be given. In practice. medium-size and small industrial consumers (with dedicated LV lines direct from a public-supply HV/LV substation) Medium and small industrial consumers can also be satisfactorily supplied at low-voltage. will not exceed the statutory voltage-drop limit. in the power-supply authority substation.1) viz: 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase. For loads which exceed the maximum permitted limit for a service from a distributor. Practices vary considerably from one powersupply organization to another. so that. this method can be economically unfavourable. In principle. > 300 kVA) require correspondingly large cables.(or switch-) board from which the mains distributors emanate.1. Consumers normally supplied at low voltage include: c domestic dwellings. i. each case must be examined individually. or near the remote end of the distributor. close to the substation. c the location along the distributor of the proposed new load. The second group of systems is (again. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. when carrying its maximum current.

standardsized LV distribution cables form a network through link boxes. with (generally) one cable along each pavement and 4-way link boxes located in manholes at street corners. Links are inserted in such a way that distributors form radial circuits from the substation with open-ended branches (see figure D3). flush-mounted in the wall. In European countries the standard 3-phase 4-wire distribution voltage levels are 220/380 V. c one or two 1. as shown in figure D3.2. HV/LV distribution substations. a standard size of distributor is laid to form a network. Recent trends are towards weather-proof cabinets above ground level. D3: showing one of several ways in which a LV distribution network may be arranged for radial branched-distributor operation. where two cables cross. by removing (phase) links. Where a link box unites a distributor from one substation with that from a neighbouring substation. 230/400 V. while the area normally supplied from it is fed from link boxes of the surrounding substations.000 kVA HV/LV transformers. Medium to large-sized towns and cities have underground cable distribution systems. Moreover. but the neutral link remains in place. The output from a transformer is connected to the LV busbars via a load-break switch. or moulded-case circuit breaker boards. are typically equipped with: c a 3-or 4-way HV switchboard. c one or two (coupled) 6-or 8-way LV 3-phase 4-wire distribution fuse boards. so that each (fused) distributor leaving a substation forms a branched openended radial system. generally referred to as “distributors". In densely-loaded areas. the phase links are omitted or replaced by fuses. and one or two HV circuit breakers or combined fuse/ load-break switches for the transformer circuits. Some links are removed. or simply through isolating links.D7 . control and protect outgoing 4-core distribution cables. This arrangement provides a very flexible system in which a complete substation can be taken out of service. The target date for completion is the year 2003. or where possible. or 240/415 V. often made up of incoming and outgoing load-break switches forming part of a ring main.D 1. LV distribution networks in cities and large towns. short lengths of distributor (between two link boxes) can be isolated for fault-location and repair. mutually spaced at approximately 500-600 metres. either against a wall. low-voltage service connections . 4-way link box HV/LV substation service cable phase links removed fig. Many countries are currently converting their LV systems to the latest IEC standard of 230/400 V nominal (IEC 38-1983).

Where more than one substation supplies a village. are widely used in areas of lower load density. improved methods using insulated twisted conductors to form a polemounted aerial cable are now standard practice in many countries. to interconnect corresponding phases at times of emergency. The distribution is effectively carried out at high voltage in a way. which. in which conductors of reduced size are installed as the distance from a substation increases. In this scheme a number of large-sectioned LV radial feeders from the distribution board in the substation each supply the busbars of a distribution pillar. in Europe. In recent years. similar principles have been applied at higher voltages. are solidly earthed at intervals along their lengths. a 3-phase 4-wire system from which single-phase distributors (phase and neutral conductors) supply numerous single-phase transformers. each public-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately 300 metres from the substation. for many years. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. by direct service cable (or line) from the transformer location. Other forms of urban LV network. LV insulated conductors.2 LV distribution networks (continued) in less-densely loaded urban areas a more-economic system of tapered radial distribution is commonly used.500 kVA are sometimes necessary. and transformers up to 1. As a matter of interest. arrangements are made at poles on which the LV lines from different substations meet. The neutral conductors are permanently connected. from which smaller distributors supply consumers immediately surrounding the pillar. villages and rural areas generally has. placed above ground at strategic points in the network. Distribution in market towns. Where the load density requires it.1. North and Central American systems of distribution consist of a HV network from which numerous (small) HV/LV transformers each supply one or several consumers. in that LV networks are practically nonexistent. been based on bare copper conductors supported on wooden. D8 .g. the secondary windings of which are centre-tapped to produce 120/240 V single-phase 3-wire supplies.low-voltage service connections . and 3-phase supplies to domestic premises in residential areas are rare. under-eaves wiring) where they are hardly noticeable. Each HV/LV transformer normally supplies one or several premises directly from the transformer position by radial service cable(s) or by overhead line(s). which again differs from standard European practices. North and Central American practice differs fundamentally from that in Europe. together with the HV neutral conductors. This is particularly so when the conductors are fixed to walls (e. The HV system is. The central conductors provide the LV neutrals. twisted to form a two-core or 4-core selfsupporting cable for overhead use. the substations are more closely spaced. This scheme exploits the principle of tapered radial distributors in which the distribution cable conductor size is reduced as the number of consumers downstream diminish with distance from the substation. in fact. have been developed. based on free-standing LV distribution pillars. and supplied from pole-mounted or ground-mounted transformers. concrete or steel poles. In Europe. and selfsupporting “bundled” insulated conductors for HV overhead installations are now available for operation at 24 kV. and are considered to be safer and visually more acceptable than bare copper lines. each public-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately 300 metres from the substation.

D9 . Note: at primary voltages greater than 72. Figure D4 shows the main features of the two systems. Frequently.4-4. for primary voltages > 72. D4: widely-used American and European-type systems. the star point of which is connected to earth through a resistor.D Many other systems exist in these countries.16 kV N 1 2 3 each HV/LV transformer shown represents many similar units 2 3 N 2. it is common practice in some European countries to use an earthed-star primary winding and a delta secondary winding.8 kV / 2. low-voltage service connections .5 kV in bulk-supply substations.5 kV (see note) primary winding may be : – delta with on-load – earthed star tap changer – earthed zigzag depending on the country concerned 13. The neutral point on the secondary side is then provided by a zigzag earthing reactor. but the one described appears to be the most common. the earthing reactor has a secondary winding to provide LV 3-phase supplies for the substation.4 kV / 120-240 V 1 ph . It is then referred to as an “earthing transformer”.3 wire distribution transformer N 1 1 N HV (2) } tertiary delta normally (not always) used if the primary winding is not delta 1 ph HV / 230 V service transformer to isolated consumer(s) (rural supplies) Ph resistor replaced by a Petersen coil on O/H line systems in some countries N HV (1) } N 2 2 N 1 2 3 N main 3 ph and neutral HV distributor N 3 ph HV / 230/400 V 4-wire distribution transformer N 1 2 3 LV distribution network (1): 132 kV for example (2): 11 kV for example fig.

the supplyauthority fuses (inaccessible to the consumer) and meters were installed. the location of meters is nowadays generally outside the premises. A typical arrangement is shown in figure D5. or due to an appliance fault. The reason for this feature and related leakage-current tripping levels are discussed in Clause 3 of Chapter G. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. where the cable-end sealing box. will cut off supply above the declared value. c in a space inside a building. fig. as shown in figure D8. overcurrent protection by circuit breaker or switch-fuse is required. A further reason for this MCCB is that the consumer cannot exceed his (contractual) declared maximum load.low-voltage service connections . so that if the MCCB is inadvertently tripped on overload. in some cases. For a TN service. D5: typical service arrangement for TT-earthed systems. following a satisfactory test and inspection of the installation. since the overload trip setting. In view of the inconvenience to both the meter reader and consumer. The supply-authority/consumer interface is often at the outgoing terminals of the meter(s) or. supplies can be quickly restored following correction of the anomaly. either: c in a free-standing pillar-type housing as shown in figures D6 and D7. The modern tendency is to locate these items outside in a weatherproof cabinet. but with cable termination and supply authority’s fuses located in a flush-mounted weatherproof cabinet accessible from the public way. which is sealed by the supply authority. as described in chapters F and G. The installation main circuit breaker for a TT supply must include a residualcurrent earth-leakage protective device. Closing and tripping of the MCCB is freely available to the consumer. at the outgoing terminals of the installation main circuit breaker (depending on local practices) to which connection is made by supply-authority personnel. an underground cable service or the wall-mounted insulated conductors from an overhead line service.1. A more recent trend is (as far as possible) to locate these service components in a weatherproof housing outside the building.3 the consumer-service connection service components and metering equipment were formerly installed inside a consumer's building. In the past. D10 . A MCCB which incorporates a sensitive residual-current earth-fault protective feature is mandatory at the origin of any LV installation forming part of a TT earthing system. invariably terminated inside the consumer's premises. A = Service cable tee-joint F = Supply authority fuses C = Metering equipment S = Isolating link DB = Installation main circuit breaker LV consumers are normally supplied according to the TN or TT system.

accessible from the public way. e. D8: town centre installations. In this kind of installation it is often necessary to place the main installation circuit breaker some distance from the point of utilization. D6: typical rural-type installation. The main installation CB is located in the consumer's premises in cases where it is set to trip if the declared kVA load demand is exceeded. fig.D11 .D fig. fig. low-voltage service connections . etc.).g. This method is preferred for esthetic reasons. The service cable terminates in a flushmounted wall cabinet which contains the isolating fuse links. pumping stations. when the consumer can provide a suitable metering and main-switch location. saw-mills. D7: semi-urban installations (shopping precincts. etc.

low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. and recording on magnetic cards is now possible.1. and it is confidently predicted that. D12 . in areas where it is economically justified. or flush-mounted in the boundary wall. Experiments are now well-advanced in the field of electronic metering. in addition to remote reading and recording.3 the consumer-service connection (continued) c for private domestic consumers. reading. Figure D9 shows the general arrangement. the equipment shown in the cabinet in figure D5 is installed in a weatherproof cabinet mounted vertically on a metal frame in the front garden. the modification of tariff structures for a given meter will be possible from a central control location. supply authority/ consumer interface overhead line LV distributor service cable isolation by fuse links installation meter meter cabinet main installation circuit breaker fig. in which removable fuse links provide the means of isolation. D9: typical LV service arrangement for domestic consumers. using information technology (IT) techniques. and accessible to authorized personnel from the pavement.low-voltage service connections .

To ensure that the transformer can maintain the necessary voltage level when fully loaded. for the same volt-drop. c uninterrupted power supply. and so the 3. the cable can be fully loaded for distances normally required in LV distribution systems. an adequate level of voltage at the consumers supply-service terminals is essential for satisfactory operation of equipment and appliances. distributed evenly over 306 metres of the distributor.e. Alternatively.4 + 3 = 3. at locations remote from bulksupply substations a value of 19.4) = 102. while 0. for example) of 5% allowable voltage drop in the installation wiring. practical application With the HV/LV transformer correctly selected at its off-circuit tapping switch.95 = 3. that a medium-sized 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire distribution cable of 240 mm2 copper conductors would be able to supply a total load of 292 kVA at 0. or is corrected by the tapping switch. This would result in a voltage band of 102% to 106% in the present case.3.8 PF lagging. under the worst conditions (of minus 5% at the service position. when nominal voltage is applied at HV. In mixed semi-industrial areas 0. which feed the HV network from a higher-voltage subtransmission system. 0.6 = 0. an unloaded transformer output voltage will be held within a band of ± 2% of its no-load voltage output. and depend on the system powerflow pattern. * Transformers designed for the 230/400 V IEC standard will have a no-load output of 420 V.4 quality of supply voltage The quality of the LV network supply voltage in its widest sense implies: c compliance with statutory limits of magnitude and frequency.e. In this case. as described above. The different levels of voltage in a system are normal.6% to (106 .85 is a more common value.5% tap position.3. then the voltage drop within the transformer when supplying full load at 0.6% voltage margin is not unduly restrictive.D 1.6%. For example. A typical LV distribution transformer has a short-circuit reactance voltage of 5%. If the HV/LV transformer is in a location close to a bulk-supply substation.. based on calculations derived from IEC 287 (1982) is 290 kVA. will be: V% drop = R% cos ø + X% sin ø = 0. 104% at no-load*. in which case the off-circuit tapping switch should be selected to the .5 x 0.8 + 5 x 0. IEC and most national standards recommend that LV appliances be designed and tested to perform satisfactorily within the limits of ± 10% of nominal voltage. This leaves a margin. or as a result of system faults or other emergencies. the ± 2% voltage band may be centred on a voltage level which is higher than the nominal HV value.4) = 98. If it is assumed that its resistance voltage is one tenth of this value. The maximum allowable voltage drop along a distributor is therefore 98.4% The voltage band at the output terminals of the fully-loaded transformer will therefore be (102 .D13 . the voltage could be 20. 105% of the nominal voltage. c preservation of a near-sinusoidal wave form. As a matter of interest. power-supply authorities have a statutory obligation to maintain the level of voltage at the service position of consumers within the limits of ± 5% (or in some cases ± 6% or more-see table D1) of the declared nominal value. This means.5 kV ± 2% on a 20 kV system. Practical values of current. and resulting voltage drops in a typical LV system.5 kV ± 2% is possible. The voltage drops in a typical distribution system occur as follows: the voltage at the HV terminals of a HV/LV transformer is normally maintained within a ± 2% band by the action of automatic onload tapchangers of the transformers at bulk-supply substations.8 PF lagging is appropriate to industrial loads. the maximum rating of the cable. show the importance of maintaining a high Power Factor as a means of reducing voltage drop. Again. c freedom from continual fluctuation within those limits. these voltage differences are the reason for the term “nominal” when referring to the system voltage. except for scheduled maintenance shutdowns. and so on. the winding ratios generally give an output voltage of about low-voltage service connections . in practical terms. Furthermore.8 power factor lagging. the remaining subjects are covered in Clause 2 of chapter F. Moreover.6 . the output voltage at no-load must be as high as possible without exceeding the upper + 5% limit (adopted for this example).5% position. Conversely. In most countries. In this Sub-clause the maintenance of voltage magnitude only will be discussed..6%. In present-day practice. i. the same load at the premises of a single consumer could be supplied at a distance of 153 metres from the transformer. i. the HV/LV distribution transformer should have its HV off-circuit tapping switch selected to the + 2. so that the volt-drop noted above may be considered as a “worst case” example.9 is generally used for calculations concerning residential areas.

2. tariffs and metering

D
tariffs and metering
No attempt will be made in this guide to discuss particular tariffs, since there appears to be as many different tariff structures around the world as there are distribution authorities. Some tariffs are very complicated in detail but certain elements are basic to all of them and are aimed at encouraging consumers to manage their power consumption in a way which reduces the cost to the supply authority of generation, transmission and distribution. The two predominant ways in which the cost of supplying power to consumers can be reduced, are: c reduction of power losses in the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. In principle the lowest losses in a power system are attained when all parts of the system operate at unity power factor, c reduction of the peak power demand, while increasing the demand at low-load periods, thereby exploiting the generating plant more fully, and minimizing plant redundancy.

meters
It will be appreciated that high-quality instruments and devices are necessary to implement this kind of metering, when using classical electro-mechanical equipment. Recent developments in electronic metering and micro-processors, together with remote ripple-control* from a supply-authority control centre (to change peak-period timing throughout the year, etc.) are now operational, and facilitate considerably the application of the principles discussed.
* Ripple control is a system of signalling in which a voicefrequency current (commonly at 175 Hz) is injected into the LV mains at appropriate substations. The signal is injected as coded impulses, and relays which are tuned to the signal frequency and which recognize the particular code will operate to initiate a required function. In this way, up to 960 discrete control signals are available.

reduction of losses
Although the ideal condition noted in the first possibility mentioned above cannot be realized in practice, many tariff structures are based partly on kVA demand, as well as on kWh consumed. Since, for a given kW loading, the minimum value of kVA occurs at unity power factor, the consumer can minimize billing costs by taking steps to improve the power factor of the load (as discussed in Chapter E). The kVA demand generally used for tariff purposes is the maximum average kVA demand occurring during each billing period, and is based on average kVA demands, over fixed periods (generally 10, 30 or 60 minute periods) and selecting the highest of these values. The principle is described below in "principle of kVA maximum-demand metering".

reduction of peak power demand
The second aim, i.e. that of reducing peak power demands, while increasing demand at low-load periods, has resulted in tariffs which offer substantial reduction in the cost of energy at: c certain hours during the 24-hour day, c certain periods of the year. The simplest example is that of a domestic consumer with a storage-type water heater (or storage-type space heater, etc.). The meter has two digital registers, one of which operates during the day and the other (switched over by a timing device) operates during the night. A contactor, operated by the same timing device, closes the circuit of the water heater, the consumption of which is then indicated on the register to which the cheaper rate applies. The heater can be switched on and off at any time during the day if required, but will then be metered at the normal rate. Large industrial consumers may have 3 or 4 rates which apply at different periods during a 24-hour interval, and a similar number for different periods of the year. In such schemes the ratio of cost per kWh during a period of peak demand for the year, and that for the lowest-load period of the year, may be as much as 10: 1.
D14 - low-voltage service connections

D
In most countries, certain tariffs, as noted above, are partly based on kVA demand, in addition to the kWh consumption, during the billing periods (often 3-monthly intervals). The maximum demand registered by the meter to be described, is, in fact, a maximum (i.e. the highest) average kVA demand
kVA maximum average value during the 2 hour interval average values for 10 minute periods

registered for succeeding periods during the billing interval. Figure D10 shows a typical kVA demand curve over a period of two hours divided into succeeding periods of 10 minutes. The meter measures the average value of kVA during each of these 10 minute periods.

0

1

time

2 hrs

fig. D10: maximum average value of kVA over an interval of 2 hours.

principle of kVA maximumdemand metering
A kVAh meter is similar in all essentials to a kWh meter but the current and voltage phase relationship has been modified so that it effectively measures kVAh (kilo-volt-amphours). Furthermore, instead of having a set of decade counter dials, as in the case of a conventional kWh meter, this instrument has a rotating pointer. When the pointer turns it is measuring kVAh and pushing a red indicator before it. At the end of 10 minutes the pointer will have moved part way round the dial (it is designed so that it can never complete one revolution in 10 minutes) and is then electrically reset to the zero position, to start another 10 minute period. The red indicator remains at the position reached by the measuring pointer, and that position, corresponds to the number of kVAh (kilo-volt-ampere-hours) taken by the load in 10 minutes. Instead of the dial being marked in kilo-VAhours at that point however it can be marked in units of average kVA. The following figures will clarify the matter. Supposing the point at which the red indicator reached corresponds to 5 kVAh. It is known that a varying amount of kVA of apparent power has been flowing for 10 minutes, i.e. 1/6 hour. If now, the 5 kVAh is divided by the number of hours, then the average kVA for the period is obtained. In this case the average kVA for the period will be: 1 5x = 5 x 6 = 30 kVA 1/6 Every point around the dial will be similarly marked i.e. the figure for average kVA will be 6 times greater than the kVAh value at any given point. Similar reasoning can be applied to any other reset-time interval.

At the end of the billing period, the red indicator will be at the maximum of all the average values occurring in the billing period. The red indicator will be reset to zero at the beginning of each billing period. Electro-mechanical meters of the kind described are rapidly being replaced by electronic instruments. The basic measuring principles on which these electronic meters depend however, are the same as those described above.

low-voltage service connections - D15

1. supply of power at high voltage

C
At present there is no international agreement on precise limits to define “High” voltage. Voltage levels which are designated as “high” in some countries are referred to as “medium” in others. In this chapter, distribution networks which operate at voltages of 1,000 V or less are referred to as Low-Voltage systems, while systems of power distribution which require one stage of stepdown voltage transformation, in order to feed into lowvoltage networks, will be referred to as HighVoltage systems. For economic and technical reasons the upper nominal voltage limit of high-voltage distribution systems, as defined above, seldom exceeds 36.5 kV.

1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks
the main features which characterize a power-supply system include: c the nominal voltage and related insulation levels, c the short-circuit current, c the rated normal current of items of plant and equipment, c the method of earthing. Note: All voltages and currents are r.m.s. values, unless otherwise stated. in this document, the word “nominal” voltage is used for the network and the word “rated” voltage is used for the equipment.

nominal voltage and related insulation levels
The nominal voltage of a system or of an equipment is defined in IEC 38 as “the voltage by which a system or equipment is designated and to which certain operating characteristics are referred”. Closely related to the nominal voltage is the “highest voltage for equipment” which concerns the level of insulation at normal working frequency, and to which other characteristics may be referred in relevant equipment recommendations. The “highest voltage for equipment” is defined in IEC 38 as: “the maximum value of voltage for which the equipment may be used, that occurs under normal operating conditions at any time and at any point on the system. It excludes voltage transients, such as those due to system switching, and temporary voltage variations”. Notes: 1.- The highest voltage for equipment is indicated for nominal system voltages higher than 1,000 V only. It is understood that, particularly for certain nominal system voltages, normal operation of equipment cannot be ensured up to this highest voltage for equipment, having regard to voltage sensitive characteristics such as losses of capacitors, magnetizing current of transformers, etc. In such cases, the relevant recommendations must specify the limit to which the normal operation of this equipment can be ensured. 2.- It is understood that the equipment to be used in systems having nominal voltage not exceeding 1,000 V should be specified with reference to the nominal system voltage only, both for operation and for insulation. 3.- The definition for “highest voltage for equipment” given in IEC 38 is identical to that given in IEC 694 for “rated voltage”. IEC 694 concerns switchgear for nominal voltages exceeding 1,000 V.

HV/LV distribution substations - C1

1. supply of power at high voltage (continued)

C
1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued)
The following Table C1, taken from IEC 38, lists the most-commonly used standard levels of high-voltage distribution, and relates the nominal voltages to corresponding standard values of “Highest Voltage for Equipment”. Two series of highest voltages for equipment are given below, one for 50 Hz and 60 Hz systems (Series I), the other for 60 Hz systems (Series II - North American practice). It is recommended that only one of these series should be used in any one country. It is also recommended that only one of the two series of nominal voltages given for Series I should be used in any one country. These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated. The values shown are voltages between phases. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future. series I highest voltage for equipement (kV) 3.6 (1) 7.2 (1) 12 (17.5) 24 36 (3) 40.5 (3) nominal system voltage (kV) 3.3 (1) 3 (1) 6.6 (1) 6 (1) 11 10 (15) 22 20 33 (3) 35 (3) Notes: 1 - It is recommended that in any one country the ratio between two adjacent nominal voltages should be not less than two. 2 - In a normal system of Series I, the highest voltage and the lowest voltage do not differ by more than approximately ± 10% from the nominal voltage of the system. In a normal system of Series II, the highest voltage does not differ by more than + 5% and the lowest voltage by more than - 10% from the nominal voltage of the system.

series II highest voltage for equipment (kV) 4.40 (1) 13.2 (2) 13.97 (2) 14.52 (1) 26.4 (2) 36.5 (2) -

nominal system voltage (kV) 4.16 (1) 12.47 (2) 13.2 (2) 13.8 (1) 24.94 (2) 34.5 (2) -

1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems. 2) These systems are generally four-wire systems. 3) The unification of these values is under consideration.

table C1: relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages (r.m.s. values). In order to ensure adequate protection of equipment against abnormally-high shortterm power-frequency overvoltages, and transient overvoltages caused by lightning, switching, and system fault conditions, etc. all HV equipment must be specified to have appropriate Rated Insulation Levels. Switchgear Table C2 shown below, is extracted from IEC 694 and lists standard values of “withstand” voltage requirements. The choice between List 1 and List 2 values of table C2 depends on the degree of exposure to lightning and switching overvoltages*, the type of neutral earthing, and the type of overvoltage protection devices, etc. (for further guidance reference should be made to IEC 71).
* This means basically that List 1 generally applies to switchgear to be used on underground-cable systems while List 2 is chosen for switchgear to be used on overhead-line systems.

C2 - HV/LV distribution substations

C
Based on current practice in most European and several other countries rated voltage U (r.m.s. value) rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak value) list 1 list 2 to earth, across the to earth, between poles isolating between poles and across distance and across open open switching switching device device (kV) (kV) (kV) 20 23 40 40 46 60 60 70 75 75 85 95 95 110 125 145 165 170 250 325 rated I min powerfrequency withstand voltage (r.m.s. value) across the to earth, across the isolating between poles isolating distance and across distance open switching device (kV) (kV) (kV) 46 10 12 70 20 23 85 28 32 110 38 45 145 50 60 195 70 80 290 95 110 375 140 160

(kV) 3.6 7.2 12 17.5 24 36 52 72.5

Note: The withstand voltage values “across the isolating distance” are valid only for the switching devices where the clearance between open contacts is designed to meet safety requirements specified for disconnectors (isolators). table C2: switchgear rated insulation levels. It should be noted that, at the voltage levels in question, no switching overvoltage ratings are mentioned. This is because overvoltages due to switching transients are less severe at these voltage levels than those due to lightning. Transformers The two tables C3A and C3B shown below have been extracted from IEC 76-3, and refer to the current practices in countries other than those of North America (Series I) and to those of North America and some other countries (Series II). The significance of list 1 and list 2 in Series I is the same as that for the switchgear table, i.e. the choice depends on the degree of exposure to lightning, etc. highest voltage for equipment Um (r.m.s.) (kV) i 1.1 3.6 7.2 12 17.5 24 36 52 72.5 rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage (r.m.s.) (kV) 3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) list 1 list 2 (kV) (kV) 20 40 40 60 60 75 75 95 95 125 145 170 250 325

table C3A: transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than in the United States of America and some other countries).

HV/LV distribution substations - C3

1. supply of power at high voltage (continued)

C
1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued)
highest voltage for equipment Um (r.m.s.) rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage (r.m.s.) (kV) 19 rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) distribution other transformers transformers (kV) (kV) 60 75 95 110 150 200 350

(kV) 4.40 13.20 13.97 14.52 26.4 36.5 72.5

}

34 50 70 140

table C3B: transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United States of America and some other countries). Other components It is evident that the insulation performance of other HV components associated with these major items, e.g. porcelain or glass insulators, HV cables, instrument transformers, etc. must be compatible with that of the switchgear and transformers noted above. Test schedules for these items are given in appropriate IEC publications.

the national standards of any particular country are normally rationalized to include one or two levels only of voltage, current, and fault-levels, etc.

General note The IEC standards are intended for worldwide application and consequently embrace an extensive range of voltage and current levels. These reflect the diverse practices adopted in countries of different meteorologic, geographic and economic constraints. The national standards of any particular country are normally rationalized to include one or two levels only of voltage, current, and fault-levels, etc.

a circuit breaker (or fuse switch, over a limited voltage range) is the only form of switchgear capable of safely breaking the very high levels of current associated with short-circuit faults occurring on a power system.

short-circuit current
A circuit breaker (or fuse switch, over a limited voltage range) is the only form of switchgear capable of safely breaking the very high levels of current associated with short-circuit faults occurring on a power system. Standard values of circuit breaker shortcircuit current-breaking capability are normally given in kilo-amps. These values refer to a 3-phase short-circuit condition, and are expressed as the average of the r.m.s. values of the a.c. component of current in each of the three phases. Short-circuit current-breaking ratings For circuit breakers in the rated voltage ranges being considered in this chapter, IEC 56 gives standard short-circuit currentbreaking ratings as follows. kV kA (r.m.s.) 3.6 10 16 25 40 7.2 8 12.5 16 25 40 12 8 12.5 16 25 40 50 17.5 8 12.5 16 25 40 24 8 12.5 16 25 40 36 8 12.5 16 25 40 52 8 12.5 20

table C4: standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56.

C4 - HV/LV distribution substations

Maximum peak of current Another aspect of short-circuit current stresses that may be imposed on the component parts of a power system. reproduced from IEC 56. and feed current (typically 50 % . component in one of the phases will be equal I A E D to the peak value of the a. time constant value which is representative of average HV distribution systems. However.80 % of the motorstarting current) into the fault. currentmaking capacity. a CB having an oversized s. The peak current value is therefore rIrms x 1.m. circuit breakers have a short-circuit current-making rating. For the latter reason.07. component. Explanation The value 2. For such a possibility.c. since the result could lead to an absence of current zeros for several initial cycles*. value of the a.c. currentbreaking rating of a circuit breaker (CB).m.s. expressed in kA of peak current. unless especially designed for the purpose. the d. component of current at instant EE’ IAC = r. value of the a. transient diminishes rapidly from the instant of fault.e. Allowance is made for the diminution in the d.C Where the installation of a circuit breaker is electrically remote from a power source. value of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation.c. 10 ms at 50 Hz). The form of the fully-offset short-circuit current is shown in figure C5.5 times the s.) occurs on a power system. the s.c. it is only necessary to check that the power factor of the faulty circuit is not less than 0.c.5 times the short-circuit current-breaking rating of the circuit breaker.e. * A "natural" current zero is essential for the correct functioning of a CB. decrement) and the power factor of the fault circuit may be less than 0. and of percentage d.c. current-making rating. This is due to the collapsing magnetic flux in each motor and is generally significant only for the first power-frequency cycle from the moment of s.8.c. In IEC 56 this reduction is based on an inductive d. In the great majority of cases. component. The numerical value of this rating is 2.c. therefore.c.8 where A and C are measured at t = 0 IAC = peak value of a. Where circuit breakers are to be installed close to generating plant.c.C5 . C5: determination of short-circuit making and breaking currents. component of current at instant EE’ IDC x 100 = percentage value of the d.s. apart from very exceptional cases.c.s. HV/LV distribution substations . it is then only necessary to ensure that the IEC-rated shortcircuit current-breaking capability of the circuit breaker exceeds the r. while the peak current occurs a half cycle after that instant. current-breaking level at the same location. the a. in the case of s. concerns the maximum possible peak of current which can occur if a circuit breaker is closed on to a dead circuit which is shortcircuited. In such circumstances.m. current-making level will be greater than 2.07 and that the minimum operating time of protective relaying is not less than a half cycle of the power-supply frequency (i. Such a case would need further investigation along the lines indicated in IEC 56. component of current at any instant.c. it is not necessary to take account of its effect on the s.c.8 = 2.54 Irms which is rounded off for standardization purposes to 2. the a. IAC component fig. In the worst possible case.c.c. producing the so-called “doubling effect”. C IMC IAC A’ D’ B IDC C’ X t B’ E’ AA' = envelope of current-wave BB’ BX = normal zero line CC’ = displacement of current-wave zeroline at any instant DD’ = r. It cannot be neglected however. the value of the d. current-breaking capacity is necessary in such circumstances. In order to ensure an adequate s.c. Note: When a short-circuit (s. these conditions will be satisfied in a conventional HV distribution network.c.c.c. component of short-circuit current will diminish rapidly from its initial value (i.c.c.5 Irms.5 is derived as follows: shortcircuit current is normally highly inductive so that at least two of the phases will contain a transient d. If there are large concentrations of motors near the point of installation of a CB. component. component r of current at instant EE’ IDC = d. component by reducing the doubling factor (2) to a value of 1. measured from CC’ EE’ = instant of contact separation (initiation of the arc) IMC = making current = (A-C) 1. all electric motors act for a very brief period (1-2 cycles) as generators.c.

be one of the “R10” series of (ISO) preferred numbers. All HV equipments connected to the system must be capable of withstanding. The most common normal current rating for general-purpose HV distribution switchgear is 400 A. In such a case. etc.600 A. such as: c normal current at HV. the load-break switch must be suitably rated to trip automatically.g. bus-section and bus-coupler CBs. and details of the transformer. 16.c.5 kA to 25 kA. In such a scheme. 40. The IEC recommends that the normal-current rating value. 50. and summarized in Appendix C1 of this guide. 63.c. 25. Appendix C1 gives further information on this arrangement. c permissible overcurrent and its duration. c max.500 A and 4.5 kA to 25 kA. In this way. All HV equipments connected to the system must be capable of withstanding. e. etc. the most common normal current rating for general-purpose HV distribution switchgear is 400 A. by relays.s. 31. or in particular cases (depending on equipment specifications) for 3 seconds. according to the fuse characteristics. 800 A. at low fault-current levels which must cover (by an appropriate margin) the rated minimum breaking current of the HV fuses. as applied to HV switch-fuse combination units. 20. the thermal and mechanical stresses of the maximum short-circuit current for 1 second. The actual rating will be given by the switch-fuse manufacturer. while low fault-current values. peak and duration of the transformer energization inrush magnetizing current. The short-circuit current level of a HV distribution system is frequently limited by design techniques to a pre-determined maximum value typically in the range of 12. a HV switch associated with a set of 3 fuses (or a combination switch-fuse) is generally used to control and protect the transformer.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) the short-circuit current level of a HV distribution system is frequently limited by design techniques to a predetermined maximum value typically in the range of 12.5. 1. In industrial areas and high-load-density urban districts. 80 with multiples (or sub-multiples) of 10 as required. without damage. 1. 12.000 A circuit breakers are listed in IEC 56 as standard ratings for incoming-transformer circuits. that cannot be correctly broken by the fuses. will be cleared by the relay-operated load-break switch. current-making performance must be installed. The rated normal current requirements for switchgear are decided at the substation design stage. assigned to the combination by the manufacturer. There are no IEC-recommended normalcurrent rating tables for the combination in these cases. currentbreaking rating sufficiently high to ensure an adequate s. a CB having a s. C6 . viz: 10.m.1. or in particular cases (depending on equipment specifications) for 3 seconds. while at bulk-supply substations which feed into HV networks. c off-circuit tapping-switch position. 2. Rated normal current The rated normal current is defined as “the r. circuits rated at 630 A are sometimes required. as shown in the example given in Appendix A of IEC 420. the thermal and mechanical stresses of the maximum short-circuit current for 1 second. high values of fault current which are beyond the breaking capability of the load-break switch will be cleared by the fuses. At HV/LV substations which include one (or more) transformer(s) with a normal primary current of less than 45 A. without damage. value of the current which can be carried continuously at rated frequency with a temperature rise not exceeding that specified by the relevant product standard”.5.250 A.HV/LV distribution substations . supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. as a more economic alternative to a CB.

since this arrangement forms an equipotential “cage” in which all conductive material. Oil.5 ohms will raise its voltage to 5. However. at zero potential. to maintain the original IEC rating. This is commonly achieved by earthing the HV system through resistors or reactors at the star points of selected transformers*. so that items which depend on natural cooling by radiation and air-convection will overheat if operated at rated normal current in a tropical climate and/ or at altitudes exceeding 1. is discussed at the end of Sub-clause 3. where physically possible.s. c reducing the substation earthing resistance to the lowest possible value. if this earthing installation were to be connected by a low-impedance conductor to the earthelectrode at the substation. is raised to the same potential. so that the neutral conductor. A particular case of earth-fault current limitation. by means of a Petersen coil. then there is no danger to personnel. i. A relatively high transferred potential cannot be entirely avoided by this means. In such cases. Solutions A first step in minimizing the obvious dangers of transferred potentials is to reduce the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents. and increase the oil-cooling radiator surfaces.000 V. and dielectric losses in cables and capacitors.000 A of earth-fault current passing through an electrode with an (unusually low) resistance of 0. LV consumers (and substation operating personnel) can be safeguarded against this danger by: c restricting the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents. Such currents passing through an earth electrode will raise its voltage to a high value with respect to “remote earth” (the earth surrounding the electrode will be raised to a high potential. earth faults on high-voltage systems can produce dangerous voltage levels on LV installations. HV/LV distribution substations . particularly regarding safety of the LV consumer during the occurrence of a shortcircuit to earth on the HV system.e.e. earthing connections Earth faults on high-voltage systems can produce dangerous voltage levels on LV installations. c creating equipotential conditions at the substation and at the consumer's installation. i. that the insulation between phase and earth of a cable or some part of an installation would fail.m. (where I = r. and the electrode is in the form of (or is connected to) a grid of conductors under the floor of the substation. LV consumers (and substation operating personnel) can be safeguarded against this danger by: c restricting the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents. current in amperes and R = the resistance of the conductor in ohms). * the others being unearthed. there is no possibility of separating a HV electrode sufficiently from a LV electrode to avoid the transference of (possibly dangerous) voltages to the LV system. i. Providing that all exposed metal in the substation is “bonded” (connected together) and then connected to the earth electrode. This is commonly practised in rural systems where the LV neutral-conductor earth electrode is installed at one or two spans of LV distribution line away from the substation. “remote earth” is at zero potential). In the case of force-cooled transformers it is generally sufficient to provide sun shields. and the size of the aircirculating fans. where appropriate. The normal-current values recommended by IEC are based on ambient-air temperatures common to temperate climates at altitudes not exceeding 1. the limited space available in urban substations precludes this practice. Low-voltage distribution cables leaving the substation will transfer this potential to consumers installations.000 metres. together with the heat produced by magnetic-hysteresis and eddy-current losses in motors.e. transformers. including personnel. simply because a cooling fan fixed to the shaft of the motor removes the heat at the same rate as it is produced. and so the temperature reaches a stable value below that which could damage the insulation and result in a burnt-out motor. For example.C7 . then the equipotential conditions existing in the substation would also exist at the consumer's installation. Earthing and equipment-bonding earth connections require careful consideration. the power of the circulating-oil pumps. it is preferable.000 metres. It may be noted that there will be no LV insulation failure between phases or from phase to neutral since they are all at the same potential.C Influence of the ambient temperature and altitude on the rated current Normal-current ratings are assigned to all current-carrying electrical appliances. the amount of cooling oil. It is probable. namely. The equipotential earthing installation at a consumer's premises represents a remote earth. It will be seen in figure C6 that the neutral point of the LV winding of the HV/LV transformer is also connected to the common substation earth electrode. to separate the electrode provided for earthing exposed conductive parts of HV equipment from the electrode intended for earthing the LV neutral conductor. large currents can be passed through electric motor windings without causing them to overheat. located at bulk-supply substations. Earth electrodes In general. the LV phase windings and all phase conductors are also raised to the electrode potential. In most cases. The temperature rise above the ambient temperature will depend mainly on the rate at which the heat is removed. however. 10. c reducing the substation earthing resistance to the lowest possible value. Earth-fault current Earth-fault current levels at high voltage are generally (unless deliberately restricted) comparable to those of a 3-phase shortcircuit. the equipment has to be derated. c creating equipotential conditions at the substation and at the consumer's installation. For example. and upper limits are decided by the acceptable temperature rise caused by the I2R (watts) dissipated in the conductors. however. be assigned a lower value of normalcurrent rating according to IEC 76-2. etc. and so the following strategy has been adopted in some countries.2.and/or air-cooled transformers are among the most widely known examples of such “forced-cooling” techniques. Transferred potential A danger exists however from the problem known as Transferred Potential.

supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1.1. and the result is recognized as the TN system of earthing (IEC 364-3) as shown in diagram A of figure C7.HV/LV distribution substations .1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) HV LV 1 2 3 N fault If consumer If Rs V=IfRs fig. the phase-to-earth insulation of all three phases will be subjected to overvoltage. The combination of restricted earth-fault currents. Low-impedance interconnection This low-impedance interconnection is achieved simply by connecting the neutral conductor to the consumer's equipotential installation. a very effective low-resistance earth electrode. although the transferred potential will not stress the phase-to-phase insulation of the consumer's equipment. equipotential installations and lowresistance substation earthing. in which the neutral conductor is earthed at intervals along its length (every 3rd or 4th pole on a LV overhead-line distributor) and at each consumer's service position. It can be seen that the network of neutral conductors radiating from a substation. The strategy in this case. together with the substation earthing. as previously discussed. each of which is earthed at regular intervals. C6: transferred potential. results in greatly reduced levels of overvoltage and limited stressing of phase-to-earth insulation during the type of HV earth-fault situation described above. It will be seen that in the TT system. Limitation of the HV earth-fault current and earth resistance of the substation Another widely-used system of earthing is shown in diagram C of figure C7. The TN system is generally associated with a Protective Multiple Earthing (PME) scheme. This means that. constitutes. c reduce the resistance of the substation earth electrode. such that the standard value of 5-second withstand-voltage-to-earth for LV equipment and appliances will not be exceeded. C8 . is to: c restrict the value of HV earth-fault currents. the consumer's earthing installation (being isolated from that of the substation) constitutes a remote earth.

HV/LV distribution substations . where Uo is the nominal phase-to-neutral voltage of the LV system concerned. TN(R) IT(R) A HV LV 1 2 3 N RS B cases C and D 1 2 3 N HV LV Rs i Uw . Notes: (R) signifies that the HV and LV exposed conductive parts at the substation and those at the consumer's installations. (S) signifies that the LV neutral point of the transformer is separately earthed outside of the area of influence of the substation earth electrode. and it is therefore the substation LV equipment (only) that could be subjected to overvoltage.Uo Im Where Uw = the rated normal-frequency withstand voltage for low-voltage equipment at consumer installations Uo = phase to neutral voltage at consumer's installations Im = maximum value of HV earth-fault current TT(N) RS IT(N) RS C HV LV 1 2 3 N HV LV D cases E and F 1 2 3 N Rs i Uws . together with the LV neutral point of the transformer are earthed via the substation electrode system. are all earthed via the substation electrode system. Uw and Uws are commonly given the (IEC 644) value 1.5 Uo + 750 V. (N) signifies that the HV and LV exposed conductive parts at the substation.U Im TT(S) RS RN RS RN IT(S) Where Uws = the normal-frequency withstand voltage for low-voltage equipments in the substation (since the exposed conductive parts of these equipments are earthed via Rs) U = phase to neutral voltage at the substation for the TT(s) system. but the phase-tophase voltage for the IT(s) system Im = maximum value of HV earth-fault current E F In cases E and F the LV protective conductors (bonding exposed conductive parts) in the substation are earthed via the substation earth electrode. together with the LV neutral point of the transformer. C7: maximum earthing resistance Rs at a HV/LV substation to ensure safety during a short-circuit to earth fault on the high-voltage equipment for different systems of earthing.C9 . fig.C HV LV 1 2 3 N HV LV 1 2 3 N cases A and B No particular resistance value for Rs is imposed in these cases.

D and F of figure C7 show IT systems in which resistors (of approximately 1. that the system will behave similarly to the case where a neutral earthing resistor is present. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. At positions outside the area of influence of the S/S earthing. In these cases. c through capacitance between the equipotential conductors in the S/S and the cores of LV distribution cables leaving the S/S. is 300 A. All phase wires and the neutral conductor are “floating” with respect to earth. or earthed through a high impedance (u 1. i. Diagrams B. the overvoltage stresses on the LV insulation are small or non-existent. which can be allowed to persist until it is convenient to shut-down the affected circuit to carry out repair work. The principle depends on taking a supply from an unearthed source. an insulation failure to earth in the low-voltage circuits supplied from the secondary windings will result in zero or negligible fault-current flow.e. In general. whether the neutral point is isolated or earthed through a high impedance. Diagram B. all LV phase and neutral conductors will be raised by electrostatic induction to a potential approaching that of the equipotential conductors. on its 20 kV distribution systems.all cores being raised to the same potential). The formula required to determine the maximum value of earthing resistance Rs at the substation. in each case. c maximum earth-fault current on underground systems is 1. is: Uw .5 Uo + 750 V (IEC 644 (1991)) Uo = phase to neutral voltage (in volts) at the consumer's LV service position Im = maximum earth-fault current on the HV system (in amps). All IT-earthed transformers.1.000 ohms) are included in the neutralearthing lead. because of the numerous earth-leakage paths of all live conductors in a number of installations acting in parallel. etc.). or mixed (O/H line and U/G cable) systems. to which they are “connected” via the (normally very high) insulation resistances and (very small) capacitances between the live conductors and earthed metal (conduits. the high potential of the substation (S/S) earthing system acts on the isolated LV phase and neutral conductors: c through the capacitance between the LV windings of the transformer and the transformer tank. etc. C10 . If however. usually a transformer. the following notes apply. continuous-process manufacturing.HV/LV distribution substations .Uo Rs = in ohms Im (see cases C and D in figure C7). The rise in potential at consumers’ installations is not likely therefore to be a problem where the HV earth-fault current level is restricted as previously mentioned. and the insulation resistances to earth are much smaller than those of the corresponding parameters at the S/S. LV cable and installation wiring capacitances to earth are much larger. are routinely provided with an overvoltage limiting device which will automatically connect the neutral point directly to earth if an overvoltage condition approaches the insulation-withstand level of the LV system. e.g. Where Uw = the lowest standard value (in volts) of short-term (5 s) withstand voltage for the consumer's installation and appliances = 1. it is more likely. several other ways in which these overvoltages can occur are described in Clause 3. c through current leakage paths in the insulation. where each “capacitor” is shunted by (leakage path) resistances. the secondary winding of which is unearthed. A third form of system earthing referred to as the “IT” system in IEC 364 is commonly used where continuity of supply is essential. so that the system is unearthed. In practice. In these cases. so that most of the voltage stresses appear at the substation between the transformer tank and the LV winding.1. Assuming perfect insulation. these resistors were removed. The result is essentially a capacitive voltage divider. in hospitals. system capacitances exist between the conductors and earth at zero potential (capacitances between cores are irrelevant . In these cases.000 ohms). to ensure that the LV withstand voltage will not be exceeded. In addition to the possibilities mentioned above. Diagrams D and F.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) Practical values adopted by one national electrical power-supply authority. all conductors will be raised to the potential of the substation earth. are as follows: c maximum earth-fault current on overheadline distribution systems.000 A.

C This kind of earth-fault is very rare. from which a number of these elementary service lines are tapped. and generally control a main overhead-line. HV/LV distribution substations . C8: single-line service. the following supply arrangements are commonly adopted. Protection and switching devices are remote from the transformer. single-line service The substation is supplied by a single circuit tee-off from a HV distributor (cable or line). * Copper is cathodic to most other metals and therefore resists corrosion. overhead line fig. as shown in figure C8. This question is closely related to the safe earthing of boundary fences and is further discussed in Sub-clause 3. the HV service is connected into a panel containing a load-break/isolating switch with series protective fuses and earthing switches.C11 . namely: that the potential between any two exposed metal parts which can be touched simultaneously by any parts of the body must never. 1. exceed 50 V in dry conditions. the basis of which is generally in the form of a widemeshed grid of interconnected bare copper conductors connected to vertically-driven copper-clad* steel rods.2 different HV service connections According to the type of high-voltage network. In general. or 25 V in wet conditions. Up to transformer ratings of 160 kVA this type of HV service is very common in rural areas. The equipotential criterion to be respected is that which is mentioned in Chapter G dealing with protection against electric shock by indirect contact. In some countries a pole-mounted transformer with no HV switchgear or fuses (at the pole) constitutes the “substation”. Safety in situations of elevated potentials depends entirely on the provision of properly arranged equipotential areas. Special care should be taken at the boundaries of equipotential areas to avoid steep potential gradients on the surface of the ground which give rise to dangerous “step potentials”.1 and in Appendix C2. under any circumstances. and when it does occur is quickly detected and cleared by the automatic tripping of a circuit breaker in a properly designed and constructed installation.

or a circuit breaker and isolating switch. C9: ring-main service. the closed incoming switch must be opened and the (formerly open) switch can then be closed. its closure prevents the closure of the other. etc. parallel feeders Where a HV supply connection to two lines or cables originating from the same busbar of a substation is possible. Each end of the interconnector is usually controlled by a circuit beaker. This arrangement provides the user with a two-source supply. On the loss of power supply. or a combined load-break/fuse switch. An interconnector-distributor is an interconnector which supplies one or more distribution substations along its length. The main application for RMUs is in publicsupply HV underground-cable networks in urban areas. The main operational difference between this arrangement and that of a RMU is that the two incoming panels are mutually interlocked. such that the RMU busbars carry the full ring-main or interconnector current (figure C9). In order to improve operational flexibility the busbars are often divided into two sections by a normallyclosed bus-section circuit breaker. An interconnector is a continuous untapped feeder connecting the busbars of two substations. such that one incoming switch only can be closed at a time. This type of switchboard is used particularly in networks of high-load density and in rapidly-expanding urban areas supplied by HV underground cable systems.e. c 1 outgoing and general protection compartment. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. The sequence may be carried out manually or automatically. underground cable ring main fig. C12 . i. integrated to form a single assembly. a similar HV switchboard to that of a RMU is commonly used (figure C10). paralleled underground-cable distributors fig. thereby reducing considerably any interruption of service due to system faults or operational manœuvres by the supply authority. All load-break switches and earthing switches are fully rated for short-circuit current-making duty. together with a circuit-earthing switch in each case. viz: c 2 incoming compartments.2 different HV service connections (continued) ring-main principle Ring-main units (RMU) are normally connected to form a HV ring main* or interconnector-distributor*. which originates and terminates on one set of busbars. and each end of the ring is connected to a different section.1. The RMU consists of three compartments. C10: duplicated supply service. Each end of the loop is controlled by its own circuit breaker. containing a load-break switch and HV fuses. each containing a load-break/isolating switch and a circuit earthing switch.HV/LV distribution substations . * A ring main is a continuous distributor in the form of a closed loop.

3s 0. in dry conditions. polluted surfaces generally cause a flashover to earth only in damp conditions.4s 0.g. before the third (and final) reclosure takes place. (See Chapter F section 2) * Interrupteur Aérien à ouverture dans le Creux de Tension (used by EDF.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks overhead lines High winds.. the intense heat of which dries the current path. restoration of supply by replacing fuses or by re-closing a circuit breaker will be successful. the IACT opens to isolate a section of the network. In the meantime. but are likely to flashover to earth (e. O1 RR O2 SR O3 15 to 30s permanent fault 0. HV/LV distribution substations . the fault is assumed to be permanent. the consumers must.4s 15 to 30s 15 to 30s O1 RR O2 SR1 O3 Other improvements in service continuity are achieved by the use of remotely-controlled section switches and by automatic isolating switches which operate in conjunction with an auto-reclosing circuit breaker. with adjustable time delays between successive attempts (to allow de-ionization of the air at the fault) before a final lock-out of the circuit breaker occurs. careless use of shot-guns. the circuit breaker trips. after all (generally three) attempts fail. protective devices have usually operated to clear the fault.4s 0. Many of these faults are self-clearing. re-establishes its insulating properties. and to some extent. or 2) the fault is on the section upstream of IACT and the circuit breaker will trip and lock out. therefore. Insulation failure due to broken ceramic or glass insulators. C11: automatic reclosing cycles of a circuit breaker controlling a radial HV distributor. make their own arrangements to counter the effects of momentary interruptions to supply (between reclosures). etc. 1-cycle RR + 1SR If In Io fault 0.4s b-fault on section supplied through IACT If In Io fault 0. and. or again.4s O1 RR O2 SR1 O3 SR2 O4 15 to 30s 15 to 30s permanent fault 0. For example. While these measures have greatly improved the reliability of supplies from HV overhead line systems. i.C13 . heavily polluted insulator surfaces. Experience has shown that in the large majority of cases. caused by air-borne debris.e. This last scheme is exemplified by the final sequence shown in figure C11.e. and supply is restored to those consumers connected to the remaining section. There are then two possibilities: 1) the fault is on the section which is isolated by IACT. while the distributor is dead. broken insulators can very often remain in service undetected. For this reason it has been possible to considerably improve the continuity of service on HV overhead-line distribution networks by the application of automatic circuit breaker reclosing schemes at the origin of the circuits concerned.45s SR2 opening of IACT O = circuit breaker opening / RR = rapid reclosing / SR = slow reclosing / In = normal load current / If = fault current / I0 = zero current fig. ice formation. Moreover. after two reclosing attempts.C 1. The principle is as follows: If. provides the possibility of restoration of supplies to some consumers in the event of a permanent fault. can cause the conductors of overhead lines to touch each other.. fuses have blown or a circuit breaker has tripped. not permanent) short-circuit fault. where the isolating switch is referred to as IACT* (voltage-drop-operated outdoor switch). The passage of fault current almost invariably takes the form of an electric arc. c lighting that requires no cooling down before re-striking. can result in a short-circuit to earth. the French supply authority). etc. to a metal supporting structure) during a rainstorm. where considered necessary. thereby causing a momentary (i.3s 0. for example: c uninterruptible standby emergency power. The IACT scheme.3s 2-cycle 2SR a-fault on main distributor If In Io fault 0. These automatic schemes permit a number of reclosing operations if a first attempt fails.

and will affect all consumers downstream of the fault position. The overvoltage in such a case is generally of atmospheric origin. from a central control room is possible. pneumatic drills and trench excavating machines. is becoming more and more common in countries in which the complexity of highlyinterconnected systems justifies the expenditure. In any case. however. the fault occurs on a radial distributor. but are more commonly due to damage from tools such as pick-axes. and electromagnetic-wave reflection effects at the joint box (where the natural impedance of the circuit changes abruptly) can result in overstressing of the cable-box insulation to the point of failure.1.. or part of. particularly at points in a HV system where an overhead line is connected to an underground cable. If. used by other utilities. etc. Overvoltage protection devices. but are almost invariably permanent faults. such as lightning arresters. Insulation failures sometimes occur in cableterminating boxes due to overvoltage. etc. based on SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems and recent developments in IT (Information Technology) techniques. while similar control facilities are also available from the console of a mobile control centre. Standby power equipment is described in Chapter F section 2. and tapchangers. supplies can be quickly restored to all consumers when the faulty section of cable has been determined.1. Faults occurring in cable networks are less frequent than those on overhead (O/H) line systems.HV/LV distribution substations . a standby source must be provided.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks (continued) underground cable networks Faults on underground cable networks are sometimes the result of careless workmanship by cable jointers or by cablelaying contractors. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. C14 . an installation. the delay in locating the fault and carrying out repair work can amount to several hours. Where a cable fault occurs on a ring main. and so on. if supply continuity is essential on all. are frequently installed at these locations. remote control of HV networks Remote control of HV circuit breakers and switchgear. which require more time for localization and repair than those on O/H lines. centralized remote control.

consumers HV substations C Large consumers of electricity are invariably supplied at HV. preliminary information Before any negotiations or discussions can be initiated with the supply authorities. Factors to evaluate at this stage are: v the utilization factor (ku). Services to small but isolated rural consumers are obvious examples. HV/LV distribution substations . As a matter of interest. fire walls and ceilings. lighting. to which the power supplier makes the HV connection. project studies From the information provided by the consumer. e. but the HV/LV transformer(s) is (are) located in transformer chamber(s) inside the premises. entrances corridors and ceiling height. ring-main installation. all to be approved by the supply authority. The decision of a HV or LV supply will depend on local circumstances and considerations such as those mentioned above. to comply with the proposed standard simply by adjusting the off-circuit tapping switches of standard distribution transformers. there are two widely-followed methods of proceeding. and must take into account the possibility of future additional load requirements. the same principles apply in the conception and realization of the project. and so on. The transformer chamber(s) is (are) constructed by the consumer (to plans and regulations provided by the supplier) and include plinths. v safety of personnel and equipment. Both systems of LV distribution are common in many parts of the world. together with possible load (weight) bearing limits. keeping in mind that: v the power-supply personnel must have free and unrestricted access to the HV equipment in the substation at all times. the IEC recommends a “world” standard of 230/400 V for 3-phase 4-wire systems. the power-supply organization must give specific information to the prospective consumer. and will generally be imposed by the power-supply authority for the district concerned. (2) The consumer constructs and equips his own substation on his own premises. or parallel feeders. In method (1) the power supplier owns the substation. close to the load centre.. or close to these values. The distance over which the load has to be transmitted is a further factor in considering an HV or LV service. c layout plans and elevations showing location of proposed substation Plans should indicate clearly the means of access to the proposed substation. the following basic elements must be established: c maximum anticipated power (kVA) demand Determination of this parameter is described in Chapter B. oil drains. to which he has unrestricted access. The tariff structure will cover an agreed part of the expenditure required to provide the service. c degree of supply continuity required The consumer must estimate the consequences of a supply failure in terms of its duration. depending on the development of the system. etc. The following notes refer to procedure (2). while on a 240/415 V 3-phase system a “large” consumer could have a load in excess of 100 kVA. (1) The power-supplier constructs a standard substation close to the consumer’s premises. a load of 50 kVA might be considered to be “large”. v tariff details (consumption and standing charges). and earthing systems. with dimensions of possible restrictions. On LV systems operating at 120/208 V (3-phase 4-wires).g. When a decision to supply power at HV has been made.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation the consumer must provide certain data to the power-supply organization at the earliest stage of the project.2. v power (kVA) limit and fault current level. the transformer(s) and the transformer chamber(s). ventilation. v service connection details: single-line service.C15 . v loss of production. 2. v only qualified and authorized consumer’s personnel are allowed access to the substation. the power-supplier must indicate: c the type of power supply proposed and define: v the kind of power-supply system: overheadline or underground-cable network. c metering details which define: v the cost of connection to the power network. Whichever procedure is followed. v the simultaneity factor (ks). c the nominal voltage and rated voltage (Highest voltage for equipment) Existing or future. the cable(s) to the transformer(s). This is a compromise level and will allow existing systems which operate at 220/380 V and at 240/415 V.

together with earthing-circuit proposals. after testing and checking of the installation by an independent test authority. c layout of equipment and provision for metering components. e. c the consumer has independent control of the HV switch (or CB) of the transformer(s) only. at which the isolation has been carried out.2. implementation Before any installation work is started. commissioning Commissioning tests must be successfully completed before authority is given to energize the installation from the powersupply system. It is also imperative to check that all equipment is provided. c continuity of all equipotential earth-and safety bonding conductors. etc. c insulation checks of HV equipment. together with all associated HV earthing switches. the official agreement of the power-supplier must be obtained.g. On receipt of the certificate of conformity: c personnel of the power-supply authority will energize the HV equipment and check for correct operation of the metering. c inspection and testing of all HV components. c inspection and testing of the LV installation in the substation. consumers HV substations (continued) C 2. c checks on all interlocks (mechanical key and electrical) and on all automatic sequences. a certificate is granted which permits the substation to be put into service. c checks on correct protective-relay operation and settings. c the power-supply personnel has unrestricted access to the HV equipment. such that any properly executed operational manœuvre can be carried out in complete safety. The verification tests include the following: c measurement of earth-electrode resistances. and must request the power-supply authority to isolate and earth the switchgear to allow maintenance work to proceed. c one-line diagram of power circuits and connections. C16 . When finally the substation is operational: c the substation and all equipment belongs to the consumer. largely based on the preliminary exchanges noted above: c location of the proposed substation. c the power-supply authority has operational control over all HV switchgear in the substation. including performance characteristics. The request for approval must include the following information.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation (continued) the power-supply organization must give official approval of the equipment to be installed in the substation. c the installation contractor is responsible for testing and connection of the LV installation.HV/LV distribution substations . c dielectric strength test of transformer oil (and switchgear oil if appropriate). the two incoming load-break switches and the transformer HV switch (or CB) in the case of a RMU. c arrangements provided for emergency standby power plant (HV or LV) if eventually required. c full details of electrical equipment to be installed. and of proposed methods of installation. together with keys of locked-off isolators. The power supplier must issue a signed permit-to-work to the consumers maintenance personnel. c the consumer is responsible for the maintenance of all substation equipment. c arrangements for power-factor improvement if eventually required.

) have well-defined operating limits. It is beyond the scope of a guide to describe in full technical detail the numerous schemes of protection available to power-systems engineers. Interlocking keys and analogous electrical control circuits are frequently used to ensure strict compliance with correct operating sequences.for example structural steelwork. These different aspects of protection can be broadly classified according to the following objectives: c protection of personnel and animals against the dangers of overvoltages and electric shock. not part of an electrical apparatus or the installation . Animals with a relatively long front-to-hind legs span are particularly sensitive to stepvoltage hazards and cattle have been killed by the potential gradients caused by a low voltage (240/415 V) neutral earth electrode of insufficiently low resistance. While some of the protective devices mentioned are of universal application. by the use of electrical and mechanical interlocking. which is alive with respect to earth in normal circumstances. This is referred to as an “indirect contact” hazard. equipment and components of a power system against the stresses of short-circuit faults.) to the protective-earthing conductor. for example.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages protection against electric shocks and overvoltages is closely related to the achievement of efficient (low resistance) earthing and effective application of the principles of equipotential environments.3. This hazard is due to potential gradients on the surface of the ground and is referred to as a “step-voltage” hazard.. and is particular dangerous for four-legged animals. Potential gradients on the surface of the ground can be reduced to safe values by measures such as those shown in Appendix C2. It may be noted that a third type of shock hazard can exist in the proximity of HV or LV (or mixed) earth electrodes which are passing earth-fault currents. reference is made to a related Appendix. c protection of personnel and plant from the dangers of incorrect power-system operation. descriptions generally will be confined to those in common use on HV and LV systems only. Where some technical explanation is necessary to simplify an understanding of the text. plant. substation protection schemes C The subject of protection in the electricalpower industry is vast: it covers all aspects of safety for personnel.C17 . and so on. providing that equipotential conductors properly bond all exposed metal parts of equipment and all extraneous metal (i. and toxic gases. but which has become alive due to insulation failure in the apparatus. 3. explosions. i. as defined in Sub-clause 1.. etc. This is referred to as a “direct contact” hazard. known as a “touch voltage” hazard can occur. Touching the fence would cause shock current to pass through the hand and both feet (Appendix C2)..e.1 of this Chapter. c contact with a conductive part of an apparatus which is normally dead. fire. and protection against damage or destruction of property. This means that the order in which the different kinds of switching device can be safely closed or opened is vitally important. atmospheric surges (lightning) and power-system instability (loss of synchronism) etc. but it is hoped that the following sections will prove to be useful through a discussion of general principles. for instance. where an earthed metal fence is situated in an area in which potential gradients exist. A variation of this danger. shock current enters one foot and leaves by the other foot. HV/LV distribution substations . c protection of the plant. tap-position selector switches on transformers. protection against electric shocks Protective measures against electric shock are based on two common dangers: c contact with an active conductor. and equipment.. etc. All classes of switchgear (including. Potential-gradient problems of the kind mentioned above are not normally encountered in electrical installations of buildings.e.

HV/LV distribution substations . For consumers' substations. as close to the point of entry into the substation as possible. is said to be making an indirect contact.V. providing the potential of the metal envelope is not greater than 50 V* with respect to earth. harmonics of industrial frequency. The most common protective device used at present is a non-linear resistor-type of lightning arrester. for example transformers. which are sometimes connected in series with a device for automatic tripping of a circuit breaker) (see Chapter L) and/or by c the reduction of the substation-earthing resistance to the lowest possible value to avoid (as far as possible) a breakdown of LV insulation due to the rise in potential of the earthing system when discharging the surge current. this protection is achieved by: c lightning arresters (one per phase conductor.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages (continued) Direct-contact protection The main form of protection against direct contact hazards is to contain all live parts in housings of insulating material. temporary. which is connected (one for each phase) between a phase conductor and the substation earthing system. Extensive tests have shown that. as described in Sub-clause 1. as described above. etc. or to any conductive material within reaching distance. it may not be possible to limit the touch voltage to the safe value of 50 V*. it is not generally possible to limit the rise of voltage of the envelope to 50 V or less. electric motors and many domestic appliances. Overvoltages of atmospheric origin Protection against this kind of danger must be provided when a substation is supplied directly from an overhead-line system.3. Other situations which can cause overvoltages to occur on HV and LV systems include: c surges of atmospheric origin. is one of a number of ways in which an abnormal overvoltage condition can occur. It may be noted that. high frequency. the metal envelope is connected to the installation protective earthing system. The solution in this case is to create an equipotential situation. The solution is to create an equipotent-situation as described in Sub-clause 1. switching surges are generally less severe than lightning surges. Methods of eliminating danger to personnel in such a case are described in Sub-clause 1. Overvoltages created by the causes listed above can be divided according to characteristies such as: c duration: permanent. simply by reducing the earthing resistance to a low value. system. protection against overvoltages The situation mentioned immediately above. Total or even partial failure of insulation to the metal. transient. by placing out of reach (behind insulated barriers or at the top of poles) or by means of obstacles. An indirect contact is characterized by the fact that a current path to earth exists (through the protective earthing (PE) conductor) in parallel with the shock current through the person concerned. in the case of a HV fault to a metallic enclosure. 25 V in wet locations (bathrooms. and so devices which are suitable for satisfactory lightning protection are adequate to protect against overvoltages due to switching surges. c case of fault on L. C18 .1 "Earthing connections". lightning-discharge electrodes (Franklin type) and shield wires should be installed and connected to the substation earthing system. Where it is advisable to protect a substation against direct strokes. c ferro-resonance. c energization of capacitor banks. c circuit breaker opening or fuse melting to break short-circuit current. can (depending on the ratio of the resistance of the leakage path through the insulation.1.1 “Earthing connections”. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.). c frequency: industrial frequency. Indirect-contact protection A person touching the metal envelope of an apparatus of which the insulation is faulty. If the insulation failure in an apparatus is between a HV conductor and the metal envelope. c a short-circuit earth fault on an unearthed (or high-impedance earthed) 3-phase system. Where insulated live parts are housed in a metal envelope. * in dry locations. at the voltage levels being considered (i 35 kV). c indirect-contact hazard in the case of a HV fault. no danger exists. describing an indirect-contact hazard resulting from faulty HV insulation. For LV appliances this is achieved through the third pin of a 3-pin plug and socket. to the resistance from the metal envelope to earth) raise the voltage of the envelope to a dangerous level. unidirectional surges.

As indicated above. are the reasons for adopting the IT system. N 2 3 fault current normally restricted to several milli-amps depending on the size of the installation V1 3 I(C+R) √3 I(C+R)2 V1 I(C+R)1 I(C+R)2 <90° √3 I(C+R)1 VNE V3 I(C+R)3 V2 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive / resistive currents voltage conditions and current flowing in an earth fault on an IT system fig.C19 . With one phase short-circuited to earth. cabling and all appliances must be suitably insulated with respect to earth. On an unfaulted system these parameters are sensibly equal in all three phases so that the vector relationship of phase voltages will be as shown below in figure C12. The exact values depend on the capacitance and insulation resistance of each conductor to earth. and transformers. and the neutral point of the transformer secondary winding will be at approximately zero volts with respect to earth. This latter feature. with respect to earth. the phase-tophase voltage values and their phase displacement relationships however. c the faulty phase conductor will be at zero volts with respect to earth. will remain unchanged. where supply continuity must be maintained even in “firstfault” conditions. permanent) condition. when used on IT systems. this is a 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) stable (i. unearthed secondary winding of power transformer 1 insulation resistance conductor capacitance together with the fact that current passing through the earth-fault path will be too small to constitute a hazard.e. HV/LV distribution substations . A short-circuit to earth on one phase will change the values of phase conductor voltages with respect to earth. and the neutral point of the transformer isolated: c the neutral point will rise to phase volts above earth. c the other two phases will rise to etimes the phase voltage. C12: earth fault on IT-earthed systems.C Earth faults on IT-earthed systems In normal conditions the phase conductors of a 3-phase IT system are all approximately at phase volts with respect to earth.

In C14 (a1) the three capacitances and the three inductances each form an independent balanced 3-phase star-connected group. Moreover. The parallel combination of phase-to-earth capacitance and phase-to-earth inductance which.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages (continued) Ferro-resonance Ferro-resonance is a spontaneous condition which occurs due to a complex interaction between intrinsic power-system capacitances and the non-linear voltage-dependent inductances of transformers or reactors. i. Electro-magnetic VTs (which are very commonly used at HV levels covered by this guide) counter the possibility of resonance by: c designing the transformer cores to operate at low levels of flux density. The two states. The problem concerns IT-earthed systems. Apart from the obvious problems presented by false signals given by instrument transformers. * for example. V1E V1N N V3N V3E E V2N V2E fig. and falling clear of the line. earth potential) with the result that excessive values of phase voltage with respect to earth occur on two phases.3. when their magnetic circuits are in a highly-saturated state (generally due to an abnormal system disturbance). resonance may occur on one or two phases only of a 3-phase system. The condition is due to the saturation of two (of the three) single-phase cores of a voltage transformer. c incorporating damping resistors in the transformer secondary or tertiary circuits. which then present a (nonlinear. the following situation may arise (and often did in the past. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. The overvoltage saturates the two singlephase VT cores. and may be provoked by a transitory* overvoltage condition such as that described above and shown in figure C12. viz: before saturation and during saturation are shown in figure C14 (a) and (b) respectively.e. including instrument voltage transformers. as shown in the vector diagram of figure C13. but average) inductance which is much lower than its normal value. behaves overall as a capacitance K (because the capacitive reactance < inductive reactance) suddenly changes character to that of an inductance. etc. a bird causing a brief short-circuit to earth.HV/LV distribution substations . permanent overvoltage conditions can be established. in which the potential of the neutral point becomes displaced (from approx. under normal conditions. the windings of which are connected between phase and earth. as shown in figure C14. the capacitor-type VT (not normally used at the HV levels considered in this guide) is especially prone to sub-harmonic resonance (1/3 of the fundamental frequency). etc. and can be a parallel or series resonance. not corresponding exactly to the classical formulae for LC resonant circuits (which are based on assumed linearity of the LC components). before the phenomenon was identified). or wind-blown debris. All types of transformer can be affected. there is no exchange of current between them. C20 . The resonant condition may be at any frequency. Unless the precautions mentioned above are taken. chokes. C13: vector diagram of a displaced neutral due to ferro-resonance at 50 Hz.

It is clear that an unbalanced 3-phase load on a 3-wire system will displace the “floating” neutral point of the source. the power-frequency values are predominant. further information on ferroresonance can be found in Cahier Technique No. it will be seen that the two inductances. HV/LV distribution substations . A simple calculation in Appendix C3 shows how the vector diagram of figure C13 was determined. Field measurements have confirmed the validity of such a representation. The circuit behaviour therefore. 31 : "Ferroresonance" published by Merlin Gerin. 1 = = N 3 source 2 (a1) (a2) L L L C C C K K K (a) circuits in normal operation K<C at normal system frequency = (b1) source N (b2) H<L H H K XH > XK at a resonant frequency (b) circuits with phase 1 and phase 2 VT cores saturated fig. However. is mainly governed by these power-frequency quantities. the star point of which is the earth. together with one capacitance.C In C14 (b2) however. C14: equivalent circuits for ferro-resonant condition. and justifies an approximate representation by vectors. For interested readers. constitute an unbalanced 3-phase group. but qualitatively useful. picture of the actual phenomenon. Note: it should be appreciated that the vector representation shown in figure C13 gives an approximate.C21 . since harmonic voltages and currents are also present. in the 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) resonant condition.

the deterioration rate (ageing) of the insulation materials is increased. Overload protection devices are usually located downstream of the transformer in consumer-type substations.HV/LV distribution substations . this means that fault conditions must be cleared as fast as possible within the limits set by considerations of the highest attainable reliability. or together with a mechanical tripping attachment. and are operated by the fault (or overload) current passing through them.6. an inverse-time/current characteristic). etc. due to expansion of an enterprise. c relays which act indirectly such as: v electrical relays supplied from current and/or voltage transformers. or to an increase in the apparent power (kVA) demand of an installation. v pressure-operated relays (pressostats). and the role of protective schemes is to ensure that these withstand limits can never be exceeded. c direct-acting tripping coils which form part of a LV circuit breaker. c short-circuit faults between phases. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. The choice and sophistication of the protective schemes will depend on the characteristics of the substation. excessive currents not due to faults). c transformer faults.e. and are discussed later. C22 .-Load increases raise the temperature of the circuit conductors concerned. but are commonly provided on the upstream side in public-supply substations. as noted in Chapter H2. Protective devices upstream of the transformer must be co-ordinated with downstream devices. v oil-surge operated relays. and the working life of the equipment is correspondingly reduced. damage or destruction. v temperature-operated relays (thermostats). All equipments normally used in power-system installations have (standardized) short-time withstand ratings for overcurrent and overvoltage conditions. c short-circuit faults to earth. overload protection Overloading is frequently due to the coincidental demand of a number of small loads. electrical protection is routinely provided against the following abnormal conditions: c overloading (i. When the temperature exceeds the normal design limits of the equipment involved.1. These devices cause the faulty circuit to be cut-off electrically from the power supply. Overcurrents due to overloading can normally be tolerated for longer periods than those of short-circuits and some protective devices are designed to operate with increasing speed as the degree of overloading increases (i. and is commonly realized by: c a circuit breaker downstream of the transformer.2 electrical protection overcurrents due to overloading or to short-circuit faults (between phases and/or to earth) are detected by protective devices up-stream and down-stream of the power transformer(s). c detection and trip-initiating devices which are integral parts of the transformer. In general. v gas-detection relays (Buchholz.3. The devices may be: c fuses which clear the faulty circuit directly. In addition to the protection against overvoltages mentioned in section 3. general The circuits and equipment in a substation must be protected so that excessive currents and/or voltages are rapidly removed from the system before causing danger. which opens an associated threephase load-break switch. and so on. with consequent building extensions. c a circuit breaker or fuses (with or without an associated load-break switch) upstream of the transformer.).e. Sub-clause 4. together with that of the transformer.

a modern counterpart has been developed however. C15: transformer with conservator tank. Internal faults The protection of transformers by transformer-mounted devices. which limits the maximum pressure to a value well below that at which the transformer tank will rupture. while c larger oil-immersed transformers frequently have thermostats with two settings. a second level of detection will trip the upstream circuit breaker. The time delay inherent in this relay ensures that the transformer will not be unnecessarily tripped for overloads of short duration.4. and the third condition trips the downstream circuit breaker of the transformer. The device.C23 . Evidently the Buchholz devices mentioned above cannot be applied to this design. A full description of these transformers is given in Sub-clause 4. c overtemperature. c dry-type transformers use heat sensors embedded in the hottest part of the windings insulation for alarm and/or tripping. HV/LV distribution substations . one for alarm purposes and the other for tripping. by the classical Buchholz mechanical relay. under "Liquid-filled transformers".4 (see figure C16). which measures: c the accumulation of gas. C16: total-fill transformer. Such relays artificially simulate the temperature of the transformer windings with an accuracy which is sufficient to safeguard the insulation. fig. Such a surge can only occur due to the displacement of oil caused by a rapidlyformed bubble of gas. but if the condition deteriorates further. referred to as a "DGPT" unit (Detection of Gas. generated by an arc of short-circuit current under the oil. Other alternatives are: c for pole-mounted transformers “thermalimage” relays are frequently used. Pressure and Temperature) is mentioned further in 4. This first level of detection generally gives an alarm. “totally filled” types of transformer as large as 10 MVA are now currently available. fig. the first two conditions trip the upstream circuit breaker. against the effects of internal faults. is provided on transformers which are fitted with airbreathing conservator tanks (see figure C15). All transformers are fitted with some kind over-pressure relief device. By specially designing the cooling-oil radiator elements to perform a concertina action. Expansion of the oil is accommodated without an excessive rise in pressure by the “bellows” effect of the radiator elements. These relays can detect a slow accumulation of gases which results from the arcing of incipient faults in the winding insulation or from the ingress of air due to an oil leak. An oil-surge detection feature of the Buchholz relay will trip the upstream circuit breaker "instantaneously" if a surge of oil occurs in the pipe connecting the main tank with the conservator tank. c overpressure.C transformer protection Overloads The protection against overloading of a transformer is provided by a time-delayed overload relay (either a thermal bi-metal strip device or an electronic device) which acts to trip the downstream-side circuit breaker.

between a phase conductor and earth. as shown dotted in figure C17 (see note). These overcurrent relays afford protection against overloading and short-circuit faults downstream of the CTs. This arrangement is called a “Restricted Earth-Fault" (REF) protection because it will detect earth faults only on the HV windings or on the circuit downstream of the CTs (current transformers) to the winding terminals. c the minimum value of HV 3-phase shortcircuit current at the installation. c high sensitivity. but must be carefully co-ordinated with LV overcurrent protective devices.). Overcurrent protective relays (2 only) are connected in series with the REF current transformers. it is strongly recommended to be included in any protection scheme which includes a HV circuit breaker. The (extremely unlikely) occurrence of a shortcircuit fault between the high-voltage windings and the low-voltage windings will constitute a short-circuit-to-earth fault on the HV winding if the secondary winding is earthed. c no problems of coordination with downstream protection.HV/LV distribution substations . simply a loadbreak switch. etc. Note: where short-circuit fault levels are low. C24 . v in the case of metering at high voltage: the sum of the nominal rated currents of transformers and other HV plant (e. C17: protection against earth fault on the HV winding. HV 1 2 3 LV 1 2 3 N E/F relay fig. The advantages of the scheme include: c simplicity and low cost. For this reason.3. thereby being undetected by the REF relay (see fig. Again.g. The scheme is shown below in figure C17 and can be applied to transformers having delta or unearthed-star primary windings. Earth faults on the HV winding present a particular danger to personnel. it is recommended to use 3 overcurrent relays (rather than 2) since on delta/star transformers a phase/phase short-circuit at LV gives a 2:1:1 fault-current distribution at HV (see fig. AC1-2(c) of Appendix C1). there is no CB on the LV side. * There is no equivalent IEC standard. choice of protective devices on the upstream side of the transformer in a consumer-type substation In certain national standards*. the choice is made according to two current values: c the reference current Ib.2 electrical protection (continued) protection against short-circuits Short-circuits may occur between phase conductors. In view of the effectiveness of REF protection against the hazards of transferred potentials. the value of which will be: v in the case of metering at low voltage: the nominal rated current of the transformer. motors. in public-supply systems in general. c instantaneous operation.1: “Earthing connections”. Unearthed star-connected LV secondary windings of IT-system transformers have an overvoltage device which will operate in these circumstances to connect the LV neutral point of the transformer directly to earth. and its uncomplicated application. c virtual elimination of the dangers of Transferred Potential (because of its instantaneous operation). substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. LV earth faults appear as phase/phase faults on the HV side of the transformer. which is generally the case. high-speed sensitive earthfault protection is standard on the HV side of power transformers in many public-supply distribution and consumer-type substations. AC1-2(b) of Appendix C1). due to the Transferred Potential hazard mentioned in Sub-clause 1. or in any combination of these conditions on the three phases.

250 1. v when the substation is supplied from an overlead line. the rated current In of the fuse.6 10 11 13. When the reference current is equal to or greater than 45 A.8 15 20 22 33 36.4 Ib and In < Ic/6 Where: In = rated current of the fuse. and the short-circuit current Ic at the primary terminals of the transformer. the protection may be by fuses or by a circuit breaker.3 4. or when there is more than one transformer. a combined switch-fuse). as follows: v when the substation consists of a single HV/LV transformer.5 nominal 3 3. it is recommended that the failure of a fuse causes all three phases to be cut off.e. c protection by fuses The relationships between the reference current Ib.C When the reference current is less than 45 A and there is only one transformer. primary voltage (kV) rated 3. HV/LV distribution substations . the rated current In of the fuse must satisfy the following relationships: In > 1.5 500 800 1.500 3. the protection will be by a circuit breaker. Ib = rated primary current of the transformer. The maximum IEC standard kVA ratings of transformers corresponding to a HV full-load current not exceeding 45 A are given in the table C18.5 6 6.150 table C18: power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A.5 24 36 40.16 5.2 maximum IEC standard ratings for transformers (kVA) 250 12 17.C25 . or when the installation is sensitive to unbalanced-voltage conditions (for example three-phase motor loads). are determined according to the national standards previously referred to. by automatic tripping of the HV load-break switch (i.6 7. as defined above.600 2. Standard current ratings for fuses according to IEC 282-1 are listed in table C19. Ic = the minimum current at the primary side of the transformer when the secondarywinding terminals are short-circuited.

3 10 10 16 6.250 1.3 6.000 2. The high-set relays (2 or 3 as noted in Subclause "protection against short-circuits") will each be connected in series with one of the inverse-time/overcurrent relays. To ensure that this condition can be complied with.3 6.16 5.2 4.5 31. if the current is sufficiently high to operate the relay.HV/LV distribution substations . To ensure correct operation of the protective devices. It may be noted that the high-speed relays used for the REF. The maximum level of a 3-phase short-circuit at the installation was known at the outset of the project. and for distribution-type transformers are generally set to operate at 25 times the full-load current of the transformer. following the operation of a fuse (or fuses) to clear a fault or overload condition. earth faults on the LV system will then appear as phase-to-phase faults on the HV system. When planning the protection scheme for the installation. Such protection will provide adequate sensitivity with high-speed tripping.500 250 200 160 160 100 100 80 80 63 50 40 31. and high-set relays are commonly contained in a single relay case.6 12 10 11 17.5 25 25 16 16 400 100 100 80 63 63 63 50 40 31. this is the HV circuit breaker. the supply authority must specify the longest times permissible for clearing the following faults on the installation: c short-circuit fault between all 3 phases. In extreme cases.2 electrical protection (continued) supply voltages (kV) rated nominal 3.3. the general principle of coordination is that the circuit breaker closest to the power source will have the longest tripping time. however. Differential-protection schemes compare the currents entering the primary windings with those leaving the secondary windings (after correction for current-level and phase changes) and any significant difference will operate the relay. high-set and differential protection schemes are stabilized against false operation due to CT saturation (for example. It is strongly recommended that. all three fuses be replaced.3 6. then the short-circuit must be on the HV side of the transformer.5 40 50 10 16 25 31.e. the minimum value of 3-phase short-circuit current must also be stated by the supply authority. a constraint which generally is satisfied only by protective relays at the HV circuit breaker. c short-circuit fault between any 2 phases.5 31. where the difference between maximum and minimum fault levels is very large.3 6.3 6. Instantaneous tripping for phase-to-phase short-circuit faults occurring on the HV side of C26 . i.5 31.5 31.5 36. which trips the circuit breakers controlling the transformer.3 10 10 10 6. there is no co-ordination problem.3 6. due to the passage of excessive current during the disturbance.3 200 63 63 50 40 40 40 31. without affecting the coordination scheme for downstream protection. As far as earth faults are concerned.3 10 16 25 25 6. since it is possible that the fuse (or fuses) that had not operated may have deteriorated.5 16 16 800 200 200 160 125 100 100 80 63 63 50 50 40 31.3 6.3 6. the REF scheme being very sensitive).3 6. The “high-set” principle depends on the fact that. shown dotted in figure C17. no disturbance occurring within the installation shall cause the operation of any protective relaying in the power-supply network.5 25 1. as already mentioned.5 25 1. provided that the transformer HV winding is a delta. to supplement the transformer-mounted protective devices previously mentioned.3 6.600 2. At periods of the lowest levels of short-circuit fault current.3 10 16 25 6. the high-set scheme may not be sufficiently sensitive.5 250 200 200 125 125 100 80 80 63 50 40 250 250 160 160 160 100 80 80 63 50 200 200 160 160 160 160 80 63 table C19: rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1.6 3 3. HV earth faults occurring in the substation can therefore be cleared instantaneously by a REF scheme.8 15 24 20 22 36 33 40. since. however. c short-circuit fault of any 2 phases to earth. This longest tripping time must not. Overcurrent.or unearthed-star connection.5 31. the transformer can also be achieved very simply by devices which are sometimes referred to as “high-set” relays. REF. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.3 6. In the present case. when energizing the transformer). exceed that given by the supply authority. the current may not be high enough to operate the relay (there is no similar problem with earth faults.3 10 16 25 25 6.5 31.3 10 16 16 6.3 6.5 10 16 25 25 31.5 25 25 25 16 16 6. it may be necessary to provide a differential-protection scheme for the transformer.3 250 80 80 63 50 50 40 31.5 40 10 16 25 31. By these simple means therefore. c protection by circuit breaker When the substation is supplied through a HV circuit breaker.5 6.5 nominal transformer ratings (kVA) 25 50 100 125 160 16 25 40 50 50 16 25 40 50 50 10 25 31. instantaneous clearance of shortcircuit faults on the HV side of a transformer can be achieved.5 13.5 25 25 25 25 16 16 315 80 80 80 63 50 50 40 31.3 6. in order to purchase adequatelyrated equipment. c short-circuit fault of one phase to earth.5 31.5 6 6.3 6. it will be a contractual condition that no disturbance occurring within the installation shall cause the operation of any protective relaying in the power-supply network.000 250 250 200 160 125 125 80 80 63 63 50 50 31. because a short-circuit on the LV terminals or windings of the transformer will not produce sufficient current on the HV side to cause the relay to operate. and will not affect co-ordination of downstream protection.3 7.5 25 16 16 500 125 125 100 80 80 80 50 50 40 40 31.5 16 16 630 160 160 125 100 80 80 63 63 50 50 40 31.

1 34. c in order to achieve discrimination: v all parts of the fuse curve must be above and to the right of the CB curve. C21: discrimination between HV fuse operation and LV circuit breaker tripping.7 7.14 400 550 13.5 22. or more. the fuse curve at the same current level I must pass through a point corresponding to 3 seconds.28 2.4 21. the only electrical protection of the LV windings and the LV connections from the transformer terminals to the upstream terminals of the LV circuit breaker is that provided by the HV inversetime/overcurrent relays.71 1.0 13.1 800 1100 17.65 250 344 8. c in order to leave the fuses unaffected (i.C choice of downstream protective devices The protective device (circuit breaker or fuse-switch)* downstream of the transformer must include and comply with the following requirements (IEC 364).9 17. The factors 1. c have a current rating adequate for the transformer concerned.14 100 137 3.49 5.40 3. that for an overload or short-circuit condition downstream of its location..000 kVA transformer).8 2000 2749 40.1 11. and overload protection must be effected at HV.5 seconds. where a HV circuit breaker incorporates REF. the fuse curve at the same time T must pass through a point corresponding to 135 A. adequate for the secondary 3-phase short-circuit current. where. for transformer protection. transformer rated power (kVA) transformer current Ir (A) oil-immersed transformer Isc (kA) cast-resin transformer Isc (kA) 50 69 1.93 9.4 17. a non-automatic LV load-break isolating switch must be provided. where.C27 .). time minimum pre-arcing time of HV fuse B/A u 1. the HV currents must be converted to the equivalent LV currents.) and. the CB curve passes through a point corresponding to 100 A.4 16.68 315 433 10.4 27. Both curves have the general inverse-time/current form (with an abrupt discontinuity in the CB curve at the current value above which “instantaneous” tripping occurs)..5 10.4 kV transformers. The device must: c include an isolating switch (for the protection of persons) of which the open switch contacts are clearly visible.e. the breaker will trip sufficiently quickly to ensure that the HV fuses will not be adversely affected by the passage of overcurrent through them. * Merlin Gerin “catalogue distribution HT/MT 96” page G29. Where an LV fuse-switch is used.63 5. HV/LV distribution substations . TT and TNS. c have the correct number of poles according to the earthing scheme of the installation.1 34.35 and 2 are based on standard maximum manufacturing tolerances for HV fuses and LV circuit breakers.5 1600 2199 33.28 160 220 5. at time T. By way of an example.g. or vice-versa.2 13. * where no LV circuit breaker or fuse-switch is installed.5 22.38 8. undamaged): v all parts of the minimum pre-arcing fuse curve must be located to the right of the CB curve by a factor of 1.2 21. table C20 lists the nominal currents and corresponding shortcircuit currents at the secondary terminals of IEC-standard 20 / 0. discrimination (selectivity) between the protective devices on the upstream and downstream sides of the transformer The consumer-type substation with LV metering requires discriminative operation between the HV fuses and the LV circuit breaker or fuses. at a current level I the CB curve passes through a point corresponding to 1. The tripping characteristics of the LV circuit breaker must be such. or more.4 43.3 v 4 poles for IT scheme with neutral conductor. etc. c have a breaking-current rating where appropriate*. These curves are shown typically in figure C21.45 3.* In order to compare the two curves. Figure C21 illustrates these requirements. v all parts of the fuse curve must be above the CB curve by a factor of 2 or more (e.63 3.71 1. The tripping performance curves for HV fuses and LV circuit breakers are given by graphs of time-to-operate against current passing through them.4 27.9 table C20: 3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers.9 14.0 40.14 1. Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA 630 866 20.1 52. similar separation of the characteristic curves of the HV and LV fuses must be respected.9 1000 1375 21.2 1250 1718 26.5 26.4 17.9 49.8 33.41 5. and for TNC. This question is considered in Appendix C1 (figure AC1-3).04 500 687 16.07 7.g. Note: In the simple and widely used case.0 2500 3437 49.42 2.4 43.5 8. v 3 poles for IT scheme without neutral conductor.35 or more (e.35 at any moment in time D/C u 2 at any current value D C circuit breaker tripping characteristic A B current fig. high-set and inverse-time/overcurrent relays as previously described.8 11.9% (for the 2.1 52. From these data it can be seen that the short-circuit impedances are in the range of 4% (for the 100 kVA transformer) to 6. and so on. The calibre of the HV fuses will have been chosen according to the characteristics of the transformer.

to fall to practically zero volts. If now. will trip the circuit breaker of the unfaulted circuit. especially if the supply is by underground cable. in principle. there will be no fault current flowing to earth. in view of the location (in an area prohibited to all except authorized personnel) is generally considered to be satisfactory. in consequence. if given an oversensitive setting. and that of all conductors of the faulty phase over a wide area surrounding the fault location. amount to almost 3 Ic. . A short-circuit of one phase to earth. in fact. they are sensitive instruments.g. The phase displacement between the resistor current and the residual capacitive current is practically 90 degrees. commonly adopted in the power-distribution industry. HV earth-fault relay settings Earth-fault relays have low current-setting ranges. e. A conventional minimum value of earth-faultcurrent setting intended to avoid this problem. a method which. If a healthy circuit has a significant capacitance to earth (a long overhead line or a section of underground cable) then 3 Ic will be detected by its earth-fault relay which.e. then this value will be reduced to approximately 8-14 times full-load current on the HV side of the transformer and will flow in two lines only. c the voltage of the two healthy phase conductors over the same area to increase by (up to) etimes their original value with respect to earth. This false operation is due to the inherent capacitance to earth of the power-system phase conductors and connected loads. as shown in figure C23. A 100 % solution would be to install overall protection from the HV circuit breaker to the LV circuit breaker. immediately upstream of the LV circuit breaker however. which. but providing the fault-path resistance is low. be in phase opposition to the residual capacitive current. and to the impracticality of precise coil tuning at all times. the fault current can be reduced to very small values. On healthy circuits close to the fault position. it was shown that the current through the earth fault is the sum of the residual capacitive currents of the system and the current which flows through the resistor. Care must be taken however. As a result of this. This is the principle of Petersen Coil operation. to avoid increasing the sensitivity (by reducing the operating-current setting) to a point where the relay can be caused to operate when an earth fault occurs on a nearby circuit. the reactor current will lag the (reversed) faulted phase voltage by 90 degrees and will.2 electrical protection (continued) There is no compelling need for discrimination between these HV relays and the LV circuit breaker protection. The conventional solution to the problem is to make these LV connections “fault-free” by enclosing the (generously-insulated) conductors in vermin-proof metal bus-ducts. be unacceptably long. leads conveniently to an explanation of the principle of the Petersen coil. a safety factor of 2).3. In normal circumstances. By a suitable choice of reactance value the residual capacitive current through the fault can. the circuit on which the relay is installed being (perfectly) healthy (unfaulted). i. act to clear a developing short-circuit fault in its early stages. u 20 kV. System earthing on overhead-line HV systems by means of a Petersen coil In the resistance-earthed system described above. the residual current will. therefore. as already mentioned in “Earth faults on ITearthed systems” (Sub-clause 3. since a short-circuit on the upstream or downstream side of the LV breaker would result in a total loss of supply. as illustrated in figure C22. i. The foregoing discussion of the presence of residual capacitive components in the earthfault current of impedance-earthed systems. and the HV nominal voltage is high. In practice.1) will cause: c the voltage of the faulted conductor. the residual current in all circuits affected by the voltage changes will no longer approximate to zero. the resistor is replaced by a reactor. and reducing the risk of fire. This phenomenon is only of interest to a HV installation-design engineer in cases where the HV circuit breaker and protective relays C28 . is 6 Ic (i.e. and is especially likely to occur on impedanceearthed systems (which are common at the HV levels covered by this guide). absolute cancellation of fault current is not possible. If the fault is a short-circuit of one phase to earth. a 3-phase short-circuit at the LV terminals of a distribution transformer will cause a current of 14-25 times the transformer full-load current to flow in the LV and HV circuits (at times of maximum shortcircuit fault levels on the system). in this case. in either case. be exactly cancelled. In general. and can. as provided by the differential protective scheme previously described. The tripping time of the inverse-time/overcurrent relays may. Petersen coils are provided with a number of tapping steps on the coil to cover a range of system capacitance values. This resistor current is in phase with the voltage of the faulted phase (the voltage vector being reversed during the fault period) as shown in the vector diagram of figure C22.e. thereby minimizing the damage to insulation at the fault position. the capacitive current from each phase to earth has practically the same magnitude (Ic) and the three currents summate in the earth to give the so-called “residual” current. These effects prevent perfect mutual cancellation of the opposing currents. owing to conductorand fault.path resistances. These coils are associated mainly with isolated O/H line power networks in the HV voltage ranges covered by this guide. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. because of the balanced conditions (in this case) is theoretically zero.HV/LV distribution substations are some distance from the transformer.

owing to the restricted current level. c disturbance to neighbouring systems at the instant of fault is practically non-existent. the system can operate indefinitely with an earth fault on one phase.C Operational advantages Advantages of the system include: c continuity of supply in the (common) event of an earth fault. C22: earth-fault diagram. HV/LV distribution substations . earth-fault protection relays of the healthy circuits A and C will detect an apparent earth fault A eIC2A eIC1A 1 2 3 0 V3 0 c damage at the fault position is limited. In principle.C29 . 3ICA B eIC2B eIC1B 1 2 3 IF IF IF 3ICB 0 V3 0 power supply source IF C I’F eIC1C eIC2C 1 2 3 0 V3 0 3ICC power supply eIc1 eIc2 IF IF I’F I’F eIC1 + eIC2 = 3IC simplified diagram showing current division IF I’F >> 3IC IF = I’F + 3IC V1 IC2 IC1 V3 = 0 V1 3IC VNE V2 √3IC2 3IC V1 √3IC2 V1 I'F √3IC1 VNE V2 V3 IC3 V2 √3IC1 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive currents voltages during short-circuit to earth on phase 3 residual current on healthy circuits during fault fault current IF is the vector sum of the neutral resistor current I’F and the residual capacitive currents of the system 3IC fig.

3. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.HV/LV distribution substations voltages during short-circuit to earth on phase 3 residual current on healthy circuits during fault . C30 . C23: earth fault diagram (with Petersen coil).2 electrical protection (continued) power supply eIc1 eIc2 Petersen coil L IF = 0 0 I’F 0 I’F = 3IC I’F = eIC1 + eIC2 = 3IC simplified diagram showing current division when XC / XL = 3 (where XC = capacitive reactance of one phase to earth) 3IC eIC2 V1 VNE eIC1 E V2 I’F vector diagram for condition I’F = 3 IC V1 IC2 IC1 V3 = 0 V1 3IC VNE V2 eIC2 V1 V3 IC3 V2 √3IC1 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive currents fig.

v access to the interior of each panel if the isolating switch for the panel is open and the earthing switch(es) in the panel is (are) closed. with assured compatibility of keys and locking devices. Where an installation includes one or several liquid-insulated transformers.if the door of the panel is closed. Non-observance of the correct sequence of manœuvres in either case may have extremely serious consequences for the operating personnel. the regulations and arrangements relative to the protection and construction details must be fully respected. v closure of an earthing switch if the associated isolating switch(es) is (are) open*. as a measure of protection against an incorrect sequence of manœuvres by operating personnel. In this way. v access to the compartment(s) occupied by the VT(s) if the HV isolating switch is open.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres Mechanical and electrical interlocks are included on mechanisms and in the control circuits of apparatus installed in substations. Note: It is important to provide for a scheme of interlocking in the basic design stage of planning a HV/LV substation. and . Mechanical protection is afforded by: c compartments enclosing specific parts of equipment in pre-fabricated HV cells. These conditions can be combined in unique and obligatory sequences. access to a HV panel requires a certain number of operations which must be carried out in a pre-determined order.3: “choice of HV/LV transformers”.and protection panel . v access to the HV fuses of a substation supplied by two incomers from parallel feeders if the two isolating switches are open and the two earthing switches in the panel are closed. c a transformer compartment interlocks allow manœuvres and access to different panels in the following conditions: v operation of the load-break/isolating switch if the panel door is closed and the associated earthing switch is open. an interlocking scheme is intended to prevent any operational manœuvre which would expose operating personnel to danger. and these should be suitably interlocked.C 3. 3. HV/LV distribution substations . key interlocking The most widely-used form of locking/ interlocking depends on the principle of keytransfer. v operation of the isolating switches in the VT panel if the door of the panel is closed. thereby guaranteeing the safety of personnel by the avoidance of an incorrect operational procedure.if the circuit breaker is open. * if the earthing switch is on an incoming circuit. v operation of the line-isolating switch of the transformer switchgear . the apparatuses concerned will be equipped during manufacture in a coherent manner. or a circuit breaker and lineisolating switch together with an earthing switch. and are described in Subclause 4. and if the LV isolating device is open. which can include a load-break/ isolating switch with HV fuses and an earthing switch.C31 .3 protection against thermal effects The risk and consequences of a fire are particularly serious. The prefabricated equipments are conceived and manufactured in a way that avoids excessive temperature rise in normal use. The principle is based on the possibility of freeing or trapping one or several keys. according to whether or not the conditions of safety are satisfied. It is necessary to carry out manœuvres in the reverse order to restore the system to its former condition. the associated isolating switches are those at both ends of the circuit. For example. and the earthing switch(es) is (are) open. c key-transfer interlocking. interlocks in substations equipped with metalclad switchgear In a HV/LV distribution substation which includes: c a single incoming HV panel or two incoming panels (from parallel feeders) or two incoming/outgoing ring-main panels. v closure of the door of each panel or compartment if the earthing switch(es) in the panel is (are) closed. as well as for the equipment concerned. c a transformer switchgear-and-protection panel.

closure of one switch automatically blocks the closure of the other. v key “S” is now released. S S Procedure for the isolation and earthing of the power transformer. and removal of the HV plug-type shrouded terminal connections (or protective cover).e.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres (continued) practical example In a consumer-type substation with LV metering. c step 4: v the access panel to the HV fuses can now be removed (i. and is trapped when the HV switch is closed. c to prevent the closure of the earthing switch in a transformer switchgear-and-protection panel. c initial conditions: v HV load-break/isolating switch and LV circuit breaker are closed. C32 . Access to the HV or LV terminals of a transformer. c step 2: v open the HV switch. i. if the LV circuit breaker of the transformer has not been previously locked “open” or “withdrawn”.e. containing a HV load-break / isolating switch. and a HV earthing switch) must comply with the strict procedure described below. Key “S” is located in this panel. * or may be provided with a common protective cover over the three terminals. v HV earthing switch locked in the open position by key “O”. v key “O” is trapped in the LV circuit breaker as long as that circuit breaker is closed. The HV load-break / isolating switch is mechanically linked with the HV earthing switch such that only one of the switches can be closed. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. C24: example of HV/LV/TR interlocking.HV/LV distribution substations . and is illustrated by the diagrams of figure C24.3. the interlocking scheme most commonly used is HV/LV/TR (high voltage/ low voltage/transformer). c step 3: v unlock the HV earthing switch with key “O” and close the earthing switch. exposure of one or more terminals will trap key “S” in the interlock. v key “O” is now trapped. c step 5: v key “S” allows removal of the common locking device of the plug-type HV terminal connectors on the transformer or of the common protective cover over the terminals. Note: The transformer in this example is provided with plug-on type HV terminal connectors which can only be removed by unlocking a retaining device common to all three phase connectors*. c step 1: v open LV CB and lock it open with key “O”. protected upstream by a HV switchgear-and-protection panel. HV fuses. The aim of the interlocking is: c to prevent access to the transformer compartment if the earthing switch has not been previously closed. v check that the “voltage presence” neon indicators extinguish when the HV switch is opened. v turn key “S” to lock the HV switch in the open position. HV switch and LV CB closed O S O S HV fuses accessible S O S O transformer HV terminals accessible legend key absent key free key trapped panel or door fig. v key “O” is then released. In either case. as the case may be. is released by closure of the HV earthing switch).

There are three reasons for this: c the terminals in question are located in a separate inaccessible compartment in the particular switchgear under discussion. Or again. Any scheme of interlocking must evidently include appropriate procedures. the upstream terminals of such a switch (or circuit breaker) will be exposed within the compartment. and sealed for life.e.C The result of the foregoing procedure is that: a) the HV switch is locked in the open position by key “S”. Key “S” is trapped at the transformer terminals interlock as long as the terminals are exposed. a padlock is generally used to lock the earthing switch in the closed position. HV/LV distribution substations . i. filled with SF6 gas. The transformer is therefore safely isolated and earthed. c the envelope containing the switch is moulded from insulating material. c the open contacts of the switch have an earthed screen interposed between them. It may be noted that the upstream terminal of the load-break switch may remain alive in the procedure described. and an earthing switch will be provided. it may be necessary (depending on the type of switchgear) to isolate and lock off the incoming supply cable at its remote end. interlocked mechanically with a line-isolating switch.C33 . the key of the padlock being held by the engineer supervizing the work. may be opened or closed. In the general case. before closing the local earthing switch. When carrying out maintenance work. along similar lines to those described above. which is trapped by the closed HV earthing switch. c) the LV CB is locked open by key “O”. b) the HV earthing switch is in the closed position but not locked.

and so on. c LV protective and distribution functions. C34 . or.HV/LV distribution substations . LV installation circuits A low-voltage circuit breaker. v ring-main service. functions The substation All component parts of the substation are located in one chamber.. Connection to the HV network Connection at HV can be: c either by a single service cable or overhead line. vacuum-cast-resin transformers for locations inside premises. c LV metering and general isolation functions. Metering Metering at low voltage allows the use of small metering transformers at modest cost.250 kVA. c dry-type. c zones of access for interested parties. the preferred available technologies are: c oil-immersed transformers for substations located outside premises. Most tariff structures take account of transformer losses. to: c supply a distribution board. * polychlorinated biphenyl.g. The transformer Since the use of PCB*-filled transformers is prohibited in most countries.. v duplicate service (interlocked mechanically). c via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders. either in an existing building. or.1 general A consumer substation with LV metering is an electrical installation connected to a publicsupply system at a nominal voltage of 1 kV . buildings receiving the public. suitable for isolation duty with visible contacts and locking off facilities. c via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit. v single-circuit (for later change to ring-main service). the consumer substation with LV metering C 4.35 kV.4. multistoreyed buildings. e. one-line diagrams The diagrams on the following page (figure C25) represent: c the different methods of HV service connection. c HV protective functions and HV/LV transformation. or in the form of a prefabricated housing exterior to the building. and includes a single HV/LV transformer generally not exceeding 1. c protect the transformer against overloading and the downstream circuits against shortcircuit faults. which may be one of four types: v single-circuit service.

C power supply system service connection HV protection and HV/LV transformation LV metering and isolation LV distribution and protection supplier/consumer interface transformer LV terminals downstream terminals of LV isolator protection protection single-line service (permitted if IHV nominal i 45 A and one transformer ) single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main) protection duplicatesupply service (permitted if IHV nominal i 45 A and one transformer ) protection + auto-changeover switch ring-main service protection automatic LV standby source (always permitted) authorized access limits consumer testing authority power-supply authority consumer fig.C35 . HV/LV distribution substations . C25: consumer substation with LV metering.

SF6” equipment is distinguished by its reduced dimensions. operational safety of compartmented metalclad panels Description The following notes describe a “state-of-theart” load-break / isolating-switch panel (see figure C26) incorporating the most modern developments for ensuring: c operational safety. c connections: by cable at terminals located on the molded load-break switch unit. c national: French: UTE. The technology of these switchgear units is essentially based on operational safety. C26: compartmented SF6 HV load-break isolating switch. C36 . The units are connected electrically by means of prefabricated sections of busbars. 129. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4.4. such that any number of panels may be assembled side-by-side to form a continuous switchboard. German: VDE.HV/LV distribution substations . Compact substations of modular panels are particularly applicable in the following cases: c ring-main substations (a 3-function monobloc assembly). c severe climatic or heavily-polluted conditions (integral insulation). c control and indication: a control and instrument compartment which can accommodate automatic control and relaying equipment. Operation of the switchgear is simplified by the grouping of all controls and indications on a control panel at the front of each unit. and provisions for later extensions are easily realized. fig. EDF. c extendibility and flexibility. Site erection is effected by following the assembly instructions. American: ANSI. 265-1. An additional compartment may be mounted above the existing one if required. c insufficient space for “classical” switchboards. its integrated functions and by its operational flexibility. Cable connections Cable connections are provided inside a cable-terminating compartment at the front of the unit.24 kV systems and conform to the following international and national standards: c international: IEC 56-1. type of material All kinds of switchgear arrangements are possible when using modular compartmented panels. to which access is gained by removal of the front panel of the compartment. Each panel includes 4 compartments: c switchgear: the load-break switch is incorporated in an SF6-filled hermetically sealed (for life) molded epoxy-resin unit. c minimum maintenance requirements. This “all . 694. British: BS. c minimum space requirements.2 choice of panels standards and specifications The SF6 switchgear and equipments described below are rated for 1 kV . ease of installation and low maintenance requirements. 298. c busbars: modular.

5 375 500 550 825 14.5 79 table C27: standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage.5 40 50 62.C state of isolation clearly apparent The load-break/isolating switch fully satisfies the requirement of “isolation clearly apparent" as defined in IEC 129. 325 435 475 715 12.4 415 555 610 915 16 545 20 25 31. c opening of the access panel to the cableterminations compartment* is only possible if the earthing switch is closed. c all closing-operation levers are identical on all units (except those containing a circuit breaker).s.5 36. c 5 predrilled sets of fixing holes for possible future interlocking locks. * where HV fuses are used they are located in this compartment. c opening or closing of a load-break/isolating switch can be by lever or by push-button for automatic switches. by means of: c a position indicator accurately reflecting the open state of the contacts. (1) I /1 sec: thermal withstand current for 1 second (2) Isc: short-circuit current (3) I : peak rated closing current TH CL HV/LV distribution substations . Closed. etc.5 120 135 150 200 250 300 6 130 150 165 220 275 330 6. c operation of a closing lever requires very little effort. required for switching manœuvres are grouped together on a clearly illustrated panel.m. Choice of short-circuit withstand ratings short-circuit (MVA) (kV) 3 3. c closure of the earthing switch is only possible if the load-break/isolating switch is open.(1) Isc(2) 15 20 22 33 (kA) r. Interlocks c closure of the switch is not possible unless the earth switch is open and the access panel to the cable-terminations compartment* is closed.C37 . Apart from the functional interlocks noted above. c the load-break/isolating switch is blocked in the open position when the above-mentioned access panel is open.16 65 70 90 75 85 105 85 90 115 110 120 150 135 150 190 165 180 227 for nominal system voltages 5 110 125 140 180 230 275 5. c conditions of switches (Open. Operation of the earthing switch is then possible.8 300 345 385 500 ITH/1 sec. Spring-charged). are clearly indicated.5 ICL(3) (kA) peak 31. each switchgear panel includes: c built-in padlocking facilities. levers.6 145 165 185 240 300 360 10 215 250 280 365 455 11 240 275 305 400 500 13. c an earthed metal barrier interposed between the open contacts.3 4. Manœuvres c operating handles.

Characteristics related to the technology and utilization of the transformer This list is not exhaustive: c choice of technology.g.5%) where circumstances require it. on a clock dial (“O” is used instead of “12”) follows any pair of letters to indicate the phase change (if any) which occurs during the transformation. so that no separate tests for switching-surge withstand capability are made.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit Three types of HV switchgear panel are generally available: c load-break switch and separate HV fuses in the panel. The phase change through the transformer is +30 degrees. the rated power of the transformer is chosen according to the maximum apparent power. All combinations of delta.5 % and ± 5 % level about the rated voltage of the highest voltage winding. delta and inter-connected-star windings. overvoltages caused by HV switching operations are generally less severe than those due to lightning. A very common winding configuration used for distribution transformers is that of a Dyn 11 transformer. c the distance from switchgear to the transformer. the second letter to the next highest. v daily maximum average ambient air: 30 °C.1 "Influence of the Ambient temperature and altitude on the rated current". c rated insulation levels: are given by overvoltage-withstand test values at power frequency. c the position of the substation with respect to the load centre. characteristic parameters of a transformer A transformer is characterized in part by its electrical parameters. as determined in B.4. the frequency will be 50 Hz or 60 Hz. on-load tap-changers are available (e. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. v solid (epoxy resin and air). IEC 76-4 describes the “clock code” in detail.1 of this Chapter. but also by its technology and its conditions of use. ± 12. The transformer must be de-energized before this switch is operated.4 choice of HV/LV transformer a transformer is characterized in part by its electrical parameters. phase 1 secondary voltage is at “11 o’clock” when phase 1 of the primary voltage is at “12 o’clock”. The insulating medium is: v liquid (mineral oil) or. however.000 m is standard). v maximum ambient air: 40 °C.g. c frequency: for power distribution systems of the kind discussed in this guide. c temperature (IEC 76-2). IEC standards define the rated (powerfrequency) voltage and the “highest voltage for equipment” in exactly the same terms. v capital letters refer to the highest voltage winding D = delta Y = star Z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) N = neutral connection brought out to a terminal v lower-case letters are used for tertiary and secondary windings d = delta y = star z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) n = neutral connection brought out to a terminal v a number from 0 to 11. and so on. c rated primary and secondary voltages: for a primary winding capable of operating at more than one voltage level. c load-break switch/HV fuses combination. c off-circuit tap-selector switch: generally allows a choice of up to ± 2. c for interior or exterior installation. c the use of separate protection relays (as opposed to direct-acting trip coils). Seven parameters influence the optimum choice: c the primary current of the transformer. six-or twelve-phase rectifier transformers. etc. 4. If a neutral terminal is available then the number appears after the N (or n). the first letter refers to the highest voltage winding. For non-standard operating conditions. At the voltage levels discussed in this guide. corresponding to those.4.) and in an IEC-recommended alphanumeric code.e.6. as noted in Sub-clause 1. c the kVA rating of the transformer. Note: the fuses used in the load-break/fuseswitch combination have striker-pins which ensure tripping of the 3-pole switch on the operation of one (or more) fuse(s). c the insulating medium of the transformer. and by high-voltage impulse tests which simulate lightning discharges. star and zigzag windings produce a phase change which (if not zero) is either 30 degrees or a multiple of 30 degrees. (and combinations of these for special duty. c altitude (i 1. Manufacturing tests and guarantees are referred to this rating. c winding configurations: are indicated in diagrammatic form by standard symbols for star. i. a kVA rating corresponding to each level must be given. as shown in figure C36. c circuit breaker. C38 . v annual maximum average ambient air: 20 °C. Electrical characteristics c rated power (Pn): the conventional apparent-power in kVA on which other design-parameter values and the construction of the transformer are based. This code is read from left-toright. which has a delta HV winding with a star-connected secondary winding the neutral point of which is brought out to a terminal. but also by its technology and its conditions of use. refer to C1.HV/LV distribution substations . e. The secondary rated voltage is its opencircuit value.

thereby guaranteeing a high degree of safety to personnel in emergency situations. See figure C28. c liquid filled (oil-immersed). c fire resistance (transformers exposed to fire risk with low flammability and selfextinguishing in a given time). Mineral oils are specified in IEC 296. C28: dry-type transformer. HV/LV distribution substations . Being flammable. which was the reason for banning askerel. The mouldings of the windings contain no halogen compounds (chlorine. notably in the event of a fire. as well as giving exceptional intrinsic qualities to the insulation in the presence of heat. On request. etc.. These transformers are therefore classified as nonflammable. so that all liquid-filled transformers must be designed to accommodate the extra volume of liquid without the pressure in the tank becoming excessive. Pyroline.C description of insulation techniques There are two basic classes of distribution transformer presently available: c dry type (cast in resin). The DGPT unit (Detection of Gas. This three-component system of encapsulation gives Class F insulation (∆θ = 100 K) with excellent fire-resisting qualities and immediate self-extinction. Pressure and Temperature) ensures the protection of oil-filled transformers. before the situation becomes dangerous. In the event of an anomaly. as follows: c environment class E2 (frequent condensation and/or high level of pollution). It also performs exceptionally well in hostile industrial atmospheres of dust. etc. it expands as the load and/or the ambient temperature increases. safety measures are obligatory in many countries. transport and stockage down to -25 °C).C39 . The insulating fluid also acts as a cooling medium. It is recommended that the transformer be chosen according to the CENELEC standards documents HD 46451. Pyralène. fig. The following description refers to the process developed by a leading European manufacturer in this field. c anhydride hardener modified to introduce a degree of resilience in the moulding. c climatic conditions class C2 (utilization. bromine. Pyrolio.. humidity. The encapsulation of a winding uses three components: c epoxy-resin based on biphenol A with a viscosity that ensures complete impregnation of the windings. especially for indoor substations. Liquid-filled transformers The most common insulating/cooling liquid used in transformers is mineral oil. the DGPT causes the HV supply to the transformer to be cut off very rapidly.e. as required. essential to avoid the development of cracks during the temperature cycles occurring in normal operation. by adapting the transformer.) or other compounds capable of producing corrosive or toxic pollutants. Mineral oil is bio-degradable and does not contain PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl). c pulverulent additive composed of trihydrated alumina Al (OH)3 and silica which enhances its mechanical and thermal properties. Dry type transformers The windings of these transformers are insulated by resin cast under vacuum (which is patented by major manufacturers). and taking appropriate additional precautions if necessary. mineral oil can be replaced by an alternative insulating liquid. i.

before passing through a dessicating device (generally containing silica-gel crystals) before entering the conservator. Expansion of the liquid is compensated by the elastic deformation of the oil-cooling passages attached to the tank. c air-breathing conservator-type tank at atmospheric pressure Expansion of the insulating liquid is taken up by a change in the level of liquid in an expansion (conservator) tank.HV/LV distribution substations .4 choice of HV/LV transformer (continued) There are two ways in which this pressure limitation is commonly achieved: c hermetically-sealed totally-filled tank (up to 10 MVA at the present time) Developed by a leading French manufacturer in 1963. v no need for dielectric-strength test of the liquid for at least 10 years. fig. mounted above the transformer main tank. fig. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. C40 . and is partially expelled when the level rises. The “total-fill” technique has many important advantages over other methods: v oxydation of the dielectric liquid (with atmospheric oxygen) is entirely precluded. In some designs of larger transformers the space above the oil is occupied by an impermeable air bag so that the insulation liquid is never in contact with the atmosphere. water cannot enter the tank. v no need for an air-drying device. The air enters and exits from the deformable bag through an oil seal and dessicator. v simplified protection against internal faults by means of a DGPT device is possible. this method was adopted by the national power authority in 1972.4. When the air is drawn in from the surrounding atmosphere it is admitted through an oil seal. as previously described. and so no consequent maintenance (inspection and changing of saturated dessicant). v immediate detection of (even small) oil leaks. The space above the liquid in the conservator may be filled with air which is drawn in when the level of liquid falls. C30: air-breathing conservator-type tank at atmosphere pressure. A conservator expansion tank is obligatory for transformers rated above 10 MVA (which is presently the upper limit for “total-fill” type transformers). C29: hermetically-sealed totally-filled tank. v simplicity of installation: lighter and lower profile (than tanks with a conservator) and access to the HV and LV terminals is unobstructed. and is now in world-wide service. as shown is figure C30.

or minimum protectagainst fire risk. The main precautions to observe are indicated in Table C32. the choice of transformer is between liquid-filled or drytype. For ratings up to 10 MVA. A choice depends on a number of considerations.28 12 table C31: categories of dielectric fluids. National standards exist which define the conditions for the installation of liquid-filled transformers. vary according to the class of insulation used. HV/LV distribution substations .C41 . c transformers with liquid insulation: v this type of transformer is generally forbidden in high apartment blocks. The national standard is aimed at ensuring the safety of persons and property and recommends. including: c safety of persons in proximity to the transformer. and the minimum calorific power. Local regulations and official recommendations may have to be respected. v dry-type transformers impose no constraints in other situations.C choice of technology As discussed above. installation restrictions. c for liquid dielectrics of class L3 there are no special measures to be taken. The principal categories are shown in Table C31 in which a classification code is used for convenience. code O1 K1 K2 K3 L3 dielectric fluid mineral oil high-density hydrocarbons esters silicones insulating halogen liquids flash-point (°C) < 300 > 300 > 300 > 300 minimum calorific power (MJ/kg) 48 34 . c economic considerations. taking account of the relative advantages of each technique. No equivalent IEC standard has yet been established. the minimum measures to be taken against the risk of fire. c for dielectrics of classes K2 and K3 the measures indicated are applicable only if there are more than 50 litres of dielectric liquid in the transformer. This latter is assessed according to two criteria: the flash-point temperature. c for dielectrics of classes 01 and K1 the measures indicated are applicable only if there are more than 25 litres of dielectric liquid in the transformer. Regulations affecting the choice c dry-type transformer: v in some countries a dry-type transformer is obligatory in high apartment blocks.37 27 . c some countries in which the use of liquid dielectrics is highly developed. v for different kinds of insulation liquids. notably. totally-filled units are available as an alternative to conservator-type transformers. classify the several categories of liquid according to their fire performance.

) in the walls and ceiling of the substation chamber. Measure 4: automatic fire-detection devices in close proximity to the transformer. ducts and so on. K1. and giving an alarm. in the event of liquid ignition there is no possibility of the fire spreading (any combustible material must be moved to a distance of at least 4 metres from the transformer. the fire-proof characteristics of which are not rated for 2 hours. for cutting off primary power supply. the only orifices being those necessary for ventilation purposes. (b) . the walls of which are solid. Measure 1A: in addition to measure 1. arrange that. etc.4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer (continued) class of dielectric fluid no. and by blocking of cable trenches. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. or at least 2 metres from it if a fire-proof screen [of 1 hour rating] is interposed). table C32: safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids of classes 01. by sills around the transformer. and giving an alarm. K2 or K3. of litres above which measures must be taken 25 locations chamber or enclosed area reserved to qualified and authorized personnel. . it will be completely contained (in a sump. (c) it is indispensable that the equipment be enclosed in a chamber. and separated from any other building by a distance D D>8m 4m<D<8m D < 4 m (a) in the direction of occupied areas no special measures interposition of a fire-proof screen (1 hour rating) fire-proof wall (2 hour rating) against adjoining building interposition of a fire-proof screen (1 hour rating) reserved to trained personnel and isolated from work areas by fire-proof walls (2 hours rating) no openings with opening(s) measures (1 + 2) or 3 or 4 no special measures other chambers or locations (b) O1 K1 measures (1 + 2 + 5) measures or 3 (1A + 2 + 4)(c) or (4 + 5) or 3 measures 1A or 3 or 4 measures 1 or 3 or 4 K2 K3 L3 50 no special measures no special measures Measure 1: arrangements such that if the dielectric escapes from the transformer. during construction). C42 . Measure 2: arrange that burning liquid will extinguish rapidly and naturally (by providing a pebble bed in the containment sump). Notes: (a) a fire-proof door (rated at 2 hours) is not considered to be an opening. if gas appears in the transformer tank.HV/LV distribution substations . Measure 3: an automatic device (DGPT or Buchholz) for cutting off the primary power supply.areas situated in the middle of workshops the material being placed (or not) in a protective container. Measure 5: automatic closure by fire-proof panels (1/2 hour minimum rating) of all openings (ventilation louvres.transformer chamber adjoining a workshop and separated from it by walls.

c dry-type Class F transformer: 0.C the determination of optimal power Oversizing a transformer results in: c excessive investment and unecessarily high no-load losses. noting the duration of loads and overloads. but. and in extreme cases. frequent overloading of the transformer.70% full load) so that the optimum loading is not achieved. Recommended air-flow rate. The fan can be controlled by thermostat. c select. c determine the load cycle of the installation. Forced ventilation Forced (i. c decide the utilization (or demand) factor for each individual item of load.. It is important to note that any restriction to the free flow of a sufficient volume of air will result in a reduction of power available from the transformer. the chamber is ventilated by natural convection or forced ventilation. c arrange for power-factor correction. in cubic metres per second at 20 °C: c totally-filled transformer: 0. among the range of standard transformer ratings available. and so on. Undersizing a transformer. taking into account all possible future extensions to the installation. on maximum kVA demand.18 P/√H and S’ = 1.C43 . c on long-term overload.081 P. c lower on-load losses. v the installation. owing to the premature ageing of the windings insulation. A good system of ventilation allows cool air to enter through an orifice of sectional area S at floor level. The formulae are valid for a mean ambient temperature of 20 °C and up to an altitude of 1.1 S Where: P = the sum of the no-load losses and the full-load losses expressed in kW S = the sectional area of the incoming-air orifice (area of louvres or grill to be deducted) expressed in mm2 S’ = the sectional area of the outgoing-air orifice (area of louvres or grill to be deducted) expressed in mm2 H = height (centre to centre) of the outgoing air orifice above the incoming-air orifice. C33: natural ventilation. S' H S fig.000 m.. Definition of optimal power In order to select an optimal power (kVA) rating for a transformer. serious consequences for: v the transformer. electric-fan assisted) ventilation of the chamber is necessary for ambient temperatures exceeding 20 °C. HV/LV distribution substations .05 P where P = total losses in kW. and to leave the chamber through an orifice of sectional area S' on the opposite wall to that of the air entry and at a height H above the incoming-air orifice.e. Natural ventilation The formulae for calculating the sectional area of the ventilation orifices are as follows: S = 0. if overheating of the transformer causes protective relays to trip the controlling circuit breaker. ventilation orifices In the general case of cooling by natural air circulation (AN) the ventilation of the chamber is arranged to remove the heat (produced by losses in the transformer) by natural convection. (the highest efficiency is attained in the range 50% . if the rated temperature limit is not to be exceeded. as shown in figure C33. v reduce the value of declared load (P(kVA) = P (kW)/cos ø). if justified. in order to: v reduce cost penalties in tariffs based. or if the chamber is badly ventilated. It is important to ensure that cooling arrangements for the transformer are adequate. in part. resulting in failure of insulation and loss of the transformer. expressed in metres. causes: c a reduced efficiency when fully loaded. the following factors must be taken into account: c list the power of installed power-consuming equipment as described in Chapter B.

together with the transformer(s) and low-voltage main distribution board(s). or several smaller transformers. or c at LV in transformer rooms. according to requirements: c in stepped HV banks at the main substation. one-line diagrams The diagrams shown in figure C34 represent: c the different methods of HV service connection.250 kVA. having the necessary metering accuracy. The rated current of the HV switchgear does not normally exceed 400 A. Capacitors Capacitors will be installed.HV/LV distribution substations . C44 . a consumer substation with HV metering C 5. A metering panel will be incorporated in the HV switchboard. v duplicate service (interlocked mechanically).5. or c via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit. or by duplicate feeders to each room. v ring-main service. which may be one of four types: v single-circuit service. These substations may be installed. Connection to the HV network Connection at HV can be: c either by a single service cable or overhead line. c protection of outgoing HV circuits. in the event of failure of the power supply system. c or might supply one or more transformer rooms. c general protection at HV. Local emergency generators Emergency standby generators are intended to maintain a power supply to essential loads. Transformers For additional supply-security reasons. Transformer rooms If the installation includes a number of transformer rooms. or c outdoors in prefabricated housings. c protection of LV distribution circuits. functions The substation According to the complexity of the installation and the manner in which the load is divided. Metering Before the installation project begins. or c via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders. 3-panel ring-main units will be required at each transformer room. according to the degree of supply security desired. may be included in the main incoming circuit breaker panel or (in the case of the voltage transformer) may be installed separately in the metering panel.1 general A consumer substation with HV metering is an electrical installation connected to a public supply system at a nominal voltage of 1 kV 35 kV and generally includes a single HV/LV transformer which exceeds 1. the substation: c might include one room containing the HV switchboard and metering panel(s). or for parallel operation. either: c inside a building. by a ring-main. or again. which include local LV distribution boards. similar to that described above. the agreement of the power-supply authority regarding metering arrangements must be obtained. and HV metering functions. supplied at HV from switchgear in a main substation. v single-circuit (for later change to ring-main service). Voltage transformers and current transformers. transformers may be arranged for automatic changeover operation. HV supplies from the main substation may be by simple radial feeders connected directly to the transformers. In the two latter cases.

C34: consumer substation with HV metering. HV/LV distribution substations .C45 .C power supply system service connection HV protection and metering HV distribution and protection of outgoing circuits downstream terminals of HV isolator for the installation LV terminals of transformer LV distribution and protection supplier/consumer interface single-line service protection LV I nominal of transformer u 45 A single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main) a single transformer HV LV automatic LV/HV standby source duplicatesupply service protection + automatic changeover feature protection ring-main service automatic LV standby source authorized access limits consumer testing authority power-supply authority fig.

occurring on the power supply system. HV distribution panels for which standby supply is required automatic changeover panel busbar transition panel to remainder of the HV switchboard In the second case. The standard states that operation of the standby plant must not. c the main HV circuit breaker panel. in addition to the panels described in 4. C36: section of HV switchboard including standby supply panel. This means that.5. metering VT panel main HV CB panel with metering and protection CTs HV distribution panels power-supply network fig. or some equivalent means.2 choice of panels A substation with HV metering includes.2. Setting of protection relays is carried out by the power-supply authority and made inaccessible to the consumer by sealing. which will trip the paralleling circuit breaker in the event of a short-circuit. metering and general protection These two functions are achieved by the association of two panels: c one panel containing the VT. containing the CTs for measurement and protection. panels specifically designed for metering and. the tripping command to the decoupling circuit breaker must operate reliably on undervoltage and reverse-power protection. a consumer substation with HV metering (continued) C 5. for automatic or manual changeover from one source to another. power-supply changeover schemes Some national standards recommend a supplementary protection when an installation includes an emergency automatic changeover to a local generator. The general protection is usually against overcurrent (overload and short-circuit) and earth faults.000 kVA fig. or other anomaly. in any circumstances. result in perturbations on the power-supply network. Both schemes use protective relays which are sealed by the power-supply authority. The tripping supply and switchgear-control switch(es) must also be inaccessible to the consumer. C35: typical arrangement of switchgear panels for HV metering. from standby generator P i 20. if required. or on the installation. apart from protective devices intended to protect the generator: c either a scheme of interlocking must preclude any possibility of parallel operation of the generator with the power system. C46 .HV/LV distribution substations . or c a suitable automatic de-coupling scheme agreed with the power-supply authority.

until the voltage is restored to normal. By making this selection. even a small generator at the end of a long line could probably operate satisfactorily on constant-voltage control. To be more specific.C small generators operating in parallel with public supply networks The following notes indicate some basic considerations to be taken into account when parallel operation of consumer’s generators with the public power-supply networks is planned. When a number of alternators are operating in parallel under AVR control. so that. the short-circuit fault level is low) then constant-voltage control may be satisfactory. and will continue to do so. carried out manually after switching its AVR to Manual control) will have practically no effect on the voltage level. or even more. In the event that the alternator becomes decoupled from the power-system. the AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) is switched to “parallel operation” in which the AVR control circuit is slightly modified (compounded) to ensure satisfactory sharing of kvars with the other parallel machines. such that the load power factor requirements are satisfied. while at the same time maintaining the power factor of the alternator constant at the pre-set value (selected on the AVR control unit). The terms “small” and “large” are relative.C47 . In highly-developed networks where the short-circuit fault levels are high. the AVR will automatically adjust the excitation current to match whatever voltage exists on the power system. which is operating in parallel with all the generation of the public power supply system. until it is eventually tripped out by its overcurrent protective relays. then constant-power-factor operation is generally obligatory.e. and therefore more current) than before. Instead of raising the voltage. the alternator will simply operate at a lower power factor than before. Supposing the power system voltage is reduced for operational reasons (it is common to operate HV systems within a range of ± 5% of nominal voltage. This is a well-known problem and is usually overcome by the provision of a “constantpower-factor” control switch on the AVR unit. Note: The problem is essentially that of a “small” generator and a “large” system. A technical discussion with the power-supply authority will be necessary to resolve the question. an increase in the excitation current of one of them (for example. thereby increasing its current output. as before. for example. An AVR set to maintain the voltage within ± 3% (for example) will immediately attempt to raise the voltage by increasing the excitation current of the alternator. A voltage regulator controlling an alternator is generally arranged to respond to a reduction of voltage at its terminals by automatically increasing the excitation current of the alternator. where load-flow patterns require it). HV/LV distribution substations . the alternator in question will simply operate at a lower power factor (more kVA. the AVR must be automatically (rapidly) switched back to “constant-voltage” control. The power factor of all the other machines will automatically improve. but it is recommended that facilities for both kinds of control be specified when purchasing the generator sets. if the system impedance viewed from the generator location is high (i. When it is intended that the alternator should operate in parallel with others. Consider now the case of a standby generator at a consumer’s substation. In fact.

or differ by less than 10%. zigzag star) of the several transformers have the same phase change between primary and secondary voltages. etc.5. As previously noted.4%. fig.HV/LV distribution substations . delta. so that: v the winding configurations (star.. c lack of space (height) for one large transformer. C48 .3 parallel operation of transformers The need for operation of two or more transformers in parallel often arises due to: c load growth. providing that the voltage ratios are identical and the per-centage impedances (at their own kVA rating) are identical. By far the most common type of distribution transformer winding configuration is the Dyn 11 connection. v all possible information on the conditions of use. v voltage differences between corresponding phases must not exceed 0. c connection of the phase windings. V12 N 3 2 3 1 1 2 N 2 windings correspondence 2 3 3 V12 on the primary winding produces V1N in the secondary winding and so on . which exceeds the capactiy of an existing transformer. a consumer substation with HV metering (continued) C 5. The inevitable circulating currents exchanged between the secondary circuits of paralleled transformers will be negligibly small providing that: c secondary cabling from the transformers to the point of paralleling have approximately equal lengths and characteristics. c the adoption of a standard size of transformer throughout an installation. conditions necessary for parallel operation All paralleled units must be supplied from the same network. a star winding will produce voltages which are 180° displaced with respect to those produced if the opposite ends had been joined to form the star point. total power (kVA) The total power (kVA) available when two or more transformers of the same kVA rating are connected in parallel. c a measure of security (the probability of two transformers failing at the same time is very small). while four different combinations of zigzag connections are possible. polarity) of the phase windings. Similar 180° changes occur in the two possible ways of connecting phaseto-phase coils to form delta windings. zigzag). star. voltage vectors 1 1 common winding arrangements As described in 4. c the transformer manufacturer is fully informed of the duty intended for the transformers. In these cases. Depending on which ends of the windings form the star point (for example). v the short-circuit per-centage impedances are equal. and tertiary windings depend on: c type of windings (delta. viz type of windings and connection (i.. expected load cycles. the kVA ratings of which differ by more than 2: 1. should be given to the manufacturer with a view to optimizing load and no-load losses. It is recommended that transformers. secondary. or very nearly so. providing that the percentage impedances are all equal and the voltage ratios are identical. c the phase displacement of the secondary phase voltages with respect to the corresponding primary phase voltages. a total of more than 90% of the sum of the two ratings is normally available.e. Transformers of unequal kVA ratings will share a load practically (but not exactly) in proportion to their ratings. C37: phase change through a Dyn 11 transformer. is equal to the sum of the individual ratings. this displacement (if not zero) will always be a multiple of 30° and will depend on the two factors mentioned above.4 “Electrical characteristics winding configurations” the relationships between primary. should not be operated permanently in parallel.

6. in which case the power supply authority must have unrestricted access. such that one of its walls. or on private premises. rapid and competitive choice. 6.. which includes an access door. Substations may be built in public places. Prefabricated housings mounted on a concrete base provide a particularly simple. C38: typical arrangment of switchgear panels for LV metering. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations C HV/LV substations are constructed according to the magnitude of the load and the kind of power system in question. HV connections to transformer (included in a panel or free-standing) LV connections from transformer LV switchgear 2 incoming HV panels HV switching and protection panel current transformers provided by power-supply authority connection to the power-supply network by single-core or three-core cables.C49 . or incorporated in an apartment block. This is normally assured by locating the substation. with or without a cable trench transformer oil sump LV cable trench fig. coincides with the boundary of the consumers premises and the public way. HV/LV distribution substations . (“H” structure or 4-pole arrangement) or in a brick-built. or c an outdoor installation mounted on a pole. Remark: the use of a cast-resin dry-type transformer would obviate the need for a fireprotection oil sump.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear conception Figure C38 shows a typical equipment layout recommended for a LV metering substation. The substations may be installed: c either indoors in chambers specially built for the purpose. 6. residential districts. or poles.1 different types of substation Substations may be classified according to metering arrangements (HV or LV) and type of supply (O/H ou U/G). etc. such as parks. concrete or prefabricated housing. etc.

the cover being sealed by the supply authority. c connections between the HV switchgear and the transformers may be: v by short copper bars where the transformer is housed in a panel forming part of the HV switchboard. c the meters are mounted on a panel which is completely free from vibrations.HV/LV distribution substations . and are the responsibility of the power-supply authority. and c are accessible only to the power-supply authority. C50 .8 m.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear (continued) service connections and equipment interconnections At high voltage c connections to the HV system are made by. and not higher than 1. The dials and graduations of the meters should be at a height of approximately 1. C39: plan view of typical substation with LV metering. not lower than 0. above floor level. At low voltage c connections between the LV terminals of the transformer and the LV switchgear may be: v single-core unarmoured cables. 100 common earth busbar for the substation 800 mini safety accessories meters fig. the current transformers are installed in a sealed compartment within the main LV distribution cabinet. c placed as close to the current transformers as possible. Metering c metering current transformers are generally installed in the protective cover of the power transformer LV terminals. v solid copper bars (circular or rectangular section) with heat-shrinkable insulation. v single-core unarmoured cables to 250 A (or more) plug-in type terminals at the transformer.65 m. v by single-core unarmoured cables with synthetic insulation. c alternatively.6. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6.7 m.

Lighting fittings are arranged such that: c switchgear operating handles and positionindication markings are adequately illuminated. substation lighting Supply to the lighting circuits can be taken from a point upstream or downstream of the main incoming LV circuit breaker. c removable links at strategic points for measuring continuity and the resistances of individual electrodes. pushbuttons. together with instructions for first-aid care for victims of electrical accidents.C51 . * in small areas. A separate automatic circuit (or circuits) is (are) recommended for emergency lighting purposes. are normally located immediately adjacent to entrances. v reinforcing rods in the concrete base of the substation. Note: Metal doors and ventilation louvres are not connected to earth.C earthing circuits The substation must include: c an earth electrode for all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment in the substation and exposed extraneous metal including: v protective metal screens. c an earth electrode for the LV neutral point of the transformer*. v a pair of insulated gloves stored in an envelope provided for the purpose. HV/LV distribution substations . In either case. as discussed in “Earthing connections” in Sub-clause 1. c warning signs. appropriate overcurrent protection must be provided. v a DANGER plaque (skull and cross-bones. c fire-extinguishing devices of the powder or CO2 type. notices and safety alarms: v on the external face of all access doors. c all metering dials and instruction plaques and so on. v earthing attachments (according to type of switchgear). In such cases all electrodes are interconnected to form a common earthing system for HV and LV equipments. can be easily read. the resistance zones of earth electrodes overlap. or a local equivalent sign) on each removable panel providing access to live parts. v a voltage-detecting device for use on the HV equipment.1 of this Chapter. v the common point of all current-transformer secondary windings. Operating switches. v inside the substation: a first-aid panel as noted above. a DANGER warning plaque and prohibition of entry notice. c an earth electrode for the installation*. materials for operation and safety The substation must be provided with: c materials for assuring safe exploitation of the equipment including: v a wooden stool and/or an insulating mat (rubber or synthetic). etc.

c from a single transformer not exceeding 160 kVA and at a preferred LV voltage level of 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). C42: separated earth electrodes. Protection of the LV circuit is generally provided by two LV circuit breakers (D1) and (D2). for example) and the manœuvring of heavy vehicles. the settings to be made by the power-supply authority.24 kV. shown in figure C41: c circuit breaker D1 protects the transformer against overloading and the LV service connection against short-circuit faults. RB < 3 ohms to limit the voltage appearing at the consumer's installation in the event of a breakdown of HV/LV insulation due to back-flashover. or may be tripped by a thermal-image relay monitoring the transformer-windings temperature. C40: pole-mounted transformer substation. lightning arresters LV circuit breaker D1 earthing conductor 25 mm2 copper protective conductor cover safety earth mat fig. fig. Lightning arresters are provided. Earthing electrodes are commonly separated as discussed in Sub-clause 1. Constitution These substations are commonly supplied by a single 3-wire line. Tripping discrimination between these two circuit breakers must be established. with no local switchgear or fuses at the HV side of the transformer. however. Rp RB installation RA Rp must have a maximum value derived in the same way as that shown for Rs of case "E" in figure C7. C52 . c circuit breaker D2 is the main LV circuit breaker for the installation. c with low-voltage metering.1 of this Chapter.6. to protect the transformer and consumers as shown in figure C40. See figure C42. LV circuit breaker at the transformer D1 remote pole-mounted load-break/ isolating switch lightning arresters metering pole-mounted transformer installation main circuit breaker D2 fig.3 outdoor substations pole-top public distribution substations Field of application These substations are mainly used to supply isolated rural consumers from HV overhead line distribution systems: c at voltage levels between 1 . General arrangement of equipment As previously noted the location of the substation must allow easy access. C41: diagram showing the principles of a pole-mounted transformer substation. not only for personnel but for equipment handling (raising the transformer.HV/LV distribution substations . and sealed. This circuit breaker is mounted on the pole and has inverse-time/current-relay tripping characteristics. or other causes. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6.

are: c an optimization of materials and safety by: v an appropriate choice from a wide range of available housings. v obviating the need for a temporary “hookup” at the beginning of the site preparation work. v realization. Among the advantages offered by these units. HV/LV distribution substations . and are used for both urban and rural substations. fig. v simplification of civil work. and in the cost of implementation. c a reduction in study and design time. c greatly simplified equipment installation and connection. which consists only of the provision of a reinforced-concrete plinth.C53 . being mounted on a simple concrete base. compact weatherproof and vermin-proof housings are commonly used. v conformity with all existing and foreseeable international standards.C prefabricated housings for outdoor substations For more elaborate substations requiring the use of ring-main units or a switchboard of several circuit breakers. C43: cut-away view of typical HV/LV substation using a prefabricated housing. by: v minimal co-ordination between the several disciplines of building construction and site works. These prefabricated units require the minimum civil work. independent of the main building construction.

6. cable boxes. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6. and for these reasons have been largely supplanted by prefabricated housings and indoor-type equipment in many countries. C54 . The simplicity of this arrangement is countered by the high cost of weatherproof switchgear. This class of substation is not favoured in residential areas or in other locations where visual amenities are important. These comprise a fenced area in which three or more concrete plinths are installed: c for a ring-main unit.HV/LV distribution substations . etc.3 outdoor substations (continued) Other kinds of outdoor substation are common in some countries. or one or more switchfuse or circuit breaker unit(s). c for one or more transformer(s). based on weatherproof equipment exposed to the elements. and c for one or more LV distribution pillar(s). and by an adverse visual impact.

c the permissible periodic overload is 150% F. 40 A.1 second (Clause 4a of IEC 787). c the magnetizing in-rush current surge is: 21 x 12 = 252 A maximum for a duration of 0.87 Isc3 while one HV fuse (only) passes Isc3. To ensure discrimination in this case. The choice of the manufacturer will be based on factory type-tests to the appropriate IEC specifications covering this class of HV switch-fuse combination. and will recommend those fuses necessary for this particular application. be less than 40 A. The installation designers must check that the fuse discriminates with the highest rating of a LV fuse (if existing) in the event of a phaseto-phase fault on the LV system.. Temperature-rise tests carried out by the switch-fuse manufacturer. the timecurrent characteristics of the HV and LV fuses should intersect at a current value which is greater than that of the maximum possible short-circuit current on the LV system.1 second.2 (figure C21) and Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. as shown in figure AC1-2 (b). particularly in the abovestandard ambient temperature conditions. 5 °C higher than the IEC standard. To justify this choice. The fuse can withstand the 252 A of inrush current for 0. c the off-circuit tapping switch is selected to the . assumed in this case to be 1. 4. This information will be obtained by the switch-fuse manufacturer. since the LV fuses pass 0. Such a rating is evidently satisfactory for this application. i. and is intended to clarify some of the operational features of these combination units. or calculations based on such tests. The user has selected a 12 kV switch-fuse combination from a certain manufacturer to protect the transformer.1 . The normal current rating of the combination when using the recommended fuses is adequate to carry 33 A periodically in an ambient-air temperature of 45 °C.e. 3. in fact.7. 16 kA (at least) fuse of a given type from a certain fuse manufacturer.e. Discrimination between HV fuses and LV circuit breakers has been covered in Chapter C Sub-clause 3. Note: the normal current rating of the combination when fitted with the recommended 40 A fuses may. so that the primary current in the overload condition is: 21 x 1.5 x 1. may indicate a normal current rating of (for example) 35 A at 45 °C. The following example is based on a 400 kVA. as shown in figure AC1-3. 5.6 (figures H2-56 and H2-57). The fuses alone will clear a solid 3-phase short-circuit fault at the LV terminals of the transformer. the manufacturer will have ascertained that: 1. This will be done by reference to the timecurrent characteristic of the fuse. it matches the transformer overload capability.000 A.e. i. without any modification to its subsequent performance. Appendix C1 . The pre-arcing current in the fuse is low enough in the 10-second region of the fuse time-current characteristic. Figure AC1-1 shows that the transfer current in this case is 280 A.05 = 33 A. The manufacturer will provide a list of fuses which are suitable for use in the combination. and/or in consultation with the fuse manufacturer. This is generally the worst condition for discrimination.L. The transfer current of the combination when fitted with the 40 A fuses concerned is less than its rated transfer current. the maximum short-circuit primary currrent (based on 5% transformer reactance) is greater than the transfer current (current at which the switch operates concurrently with the fuse(s))* when the combination includes the recommended 40 A fuses. to ensure satisfactory protection of the transformer (Clause 4c of IEC 787). i.5% tap. example in coordination of the characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination protecting an HV/LV transformer C This appendix is based on Appendices A and B of IEC 420. c the ambient-air temperature at site is 45 °C. Suppose the manufacturer recommends a 12 kV. * transfer current is defined below. c the full-load current is 21 A. 2. and/or in consultation with the fuse manufacturer. 11 kV/LV transformer with a maximum fault level at its HV terminals of 16 kA. from the fuse characteristic curves.

is taken into account when calculating the operating time of the second fuse.0 248 A (c) 1 . 430 A 430 A 10. following operation of the first fuse.) 10 full-load current 50% overload current 1.7 kA take-over current The take-over current of the combination is the level of overcurrent at which the fuses take over the duty of protection from overload relays. AC1-2: short-circuit currents for the transformer of the example. the second fuse must melt at the instant of switch opening (by striker action of the first fuse to operate). the fastest fuse to melt clears one pole and operates its striker pin.phase-to-earth S. For greater detail. is that corresponding to a period of 0.C 7.C. not to scale minimum rated breaking current of fuse take-over current level overload relay characteristic 40 A fuse characteristic 0. which will be interrupted by the switch or by the fuses. etc. from the take-over current level up to and beyond the transfer current level. The transfer point is that at which the switch opens and one or both remaining fuses melt simultaneously. 0 248 A 10. reference should be made to IEC 420. 430 A 215 A 9.1 transfer current level rated transfer current of the combination 0. By calculation (demonstrated in Appendix B of IEC 420) it is shown that the level of 3-phase fault current* which will cause the second fuse to melt at a time (equal to the switch-opening time) after the operation of the first fuse.e.C. i. * this is the transfer-current value. fault current (amps) 0. the switch will be tripped by striker-pin action.7 kA 10. and takes no account of maximum and minimum tolerances in the fuse pre-arcing curves. Near the transfer-current level.3 kA 215 A (b) phase-to-phase S. Its reduction to 87%. The two remaining poles are then passing a reduced current (87%).045 secs. time (secs.1 transfer current and take-over current transfer current The transfer current of a combination depends on both the fuse-initiated (striker) opening time of the switch. fig.7 kA 10. Figure AC1-1 is intended only to show the basic principles involved.7 kA 430 A (a) 3 . assuming a 242-420 V secondary winding.045 seconds after fault initiation. and the timecurrent characteristic of the fuse. as shown on the time-current fuse-characteristic curve.01 10 21 33 100 252 420 1000 280 faults cleared by fuses only faults cleared overload cleared by (strikers operate but fault is cleared switch only on operation by fuses and switch through striker action before switch contacts open) of overload relay fig. 2 .Appendix C1 .phase S. during a LV 3-phase short-circuit (at the transformer terminals). For this to occur. AC1-1: principles of HV/LV transformer protection by HV switch-fuse combination.C.

The primary short-circuit currents arising from solid short-circuits at the transformer secondary terminals are shown in figure AC1-2. the fault current will reduce to a very low value. as shown in figure AC1-1. For a phase-to-phase LV terminal fault. before the striker-operated switch opens its contacts. As in the previous case. It is necessary therefore. following the operation of one fuse (assuming that both fuses do not clear simultaneously). diagram (c) of figure AC1-2 shows that the HV fault current is less than the calculated value (280 A) for the transfer-current limit. the current in the two remaining phases will then reduce to practically zero*.3 . that the transfercurrent limit (280 A in the example) shall always be lower than that of a 3-phase LV-terminals short-circuit (430 A at HV). The fuse of that phase will clear rapidly. This condition being fulfilled. and be cleared in the transfer-current region by two of the switch contacts acting in series. The breaking of solid (i. then 3-phase short-circuit transfer currents correspond to faults for which LV arc impedance reduces the magnitude of both the current and TRV values. but will be in direct phase opposition around the fault-current loop. with the advantage of enhanced switchgear performance noted above.C 7. Appendix C1 .e. * because the LV voltages induced in the faulted phases will then be sensibly equal in magnitude. non-arcing) 3-phase faults is associated with severe TRV values which the switch in the combination is not designed to interrupt. as well as improving the power factor of the fault current.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region Primary-side protective devices are particularly concerned with faults in the secondary-terminals zone of the transformer.e. AC1-3: discrimination between HV and LV fuses. This feature improves the switch performance for breaking current which is (in the present case) mainly transformer-magnetizing current. time (seconds) minimum time-current characteristic of HV fuse maximum fault current at LV (referred to HV side) maximum operating time of LV fuse (referred to HV side) 430 A HV fault current (amps) fig. upstream of the LV protection devices. are acting in series. For a phase-to-earth LV terminal fault. i. The switch contacts breaking this low-valued (but highly-inductive) current. This type of fault therefore must be cleared by the fuses only. the diagram (b) of figure AC1-2 shows that the HV fault current of one phase is equal to that of a 3-phase LV short-circuit.

8. as shown in figure AC2-2.4 nature of the potential gradients A vertical-rod electrode is very commonly used.0. located at an infinite distance from the electrode concerned.6 lines .1 + 0. both in the soil and on the ground surface. the potential gradients. c the origin of the fault current (i.7 0. perpendicular to the flow lines of the fault current.1 . 0. either singly.0 pu 0 B (a) plan view of ground-surface equipotential contours ground-surface -1. The current flow and associated potential contours associated with a rod electrode are shown in figure AC2-1. AC2-2: zero-voltage local-earth reference for two electrodes.4 -0. Close to the location of the buried electrode.1 typical current-flow (b) equipotential surfaces in the earth positive potential region vp A negative potential region vp + 1. Earth rod at 1.0.1 -0.2 -0. F52 Chapter F).8 ground surface 0. i. test-electrode P must be located at 0.4 + 0.2 + 0. Note: current-flow lines are identical to the lines of the electric field. a local zero-potential-earth reference is available. The following notes show that. are generally at their maximum values and are therefore (for the ground-surface gradients) the most dangerous. and are based on the following simplifying assumptions: c perfectly homogeneous soil. current-flow lines equipotential contours fig. fig. typical current-flow electrode A electrode B lines +0. ground-surface potential gradients due to earth-fault currents C When earth-fault current flows between an earthing electrode and the surrounding soil. the position of which is not known exactly (see text for fig.0.e.0 pu (per unit) volts with respect to remote-earth.e.3 .3 -0. When two electrodes exchange fault current.vp) V in zone A O VI = (V + vp) in zone B B Vg distance from A of test-electrode P Vg = voltage of test-instrument generator RI = resistance in ohms indicated by an electrode-resistance measuring instrument VI = voltage applied to test instrument V = voltage at electrode A with respect to local-earth reference Vp = voltage at probe P with respect to local-earth reference For an accurate measurement of resistance of electrode A.3 + 0.2 .4 .0. where a current circulates between two electrodes. a single-rod electrode is taken as an example in the following notes.5 0.3 +0. AC2-1: idealized current-flow pattern and associated equipotential contours of a single-rod vertically-driven earth electrode. or in interconnected groups.4 -0.6 + 0. thereby creating a perfectly symmetrical current-flow between the electrode and the surrounding soil.6 0. there exists (at some point between the two electrodes) an equipotential vertical-plane surface of infinite area.2 +0. Appendix C2 .0.0 zero B (c) voltage profile not to scale RI VI -1 (d) measured resistance for different locations of electrode P zero A VI = (V . which can be used in practical electrode-resistance tests. The resulting measured values correspond closely to those calculated by the classical theory.5 .5 0 "local-earth" zero-voltage equipotential reference plane A + 1.5 +0. the power-source electrode and the electrode of an installation at which an earth fault occurs. potential gradients exist in the soil and on the ground surface.0.5 + 0.1 +0. "remote-earth" and "local-earth" zero-potential references In classical theory "remote-earth" is an earthreference point at zero potential.0 pu . a shortcircuit to earth) is at an infinite distance from the electrode.9 0.

e. The spacing between successive surfaces must therefore be greater (i. that. This means that. are concentric circles around the rod location (in the idealized conditions assumed). It can also be seen that the gradient at the ground surface is less severe than those below the surface. systems are being considered. between 0. As a matter of interest. and that the maximum gradient at the surface occurs immediately adjacent to the point at which the rod emerges from the soil. as shown in figure AC2-3.5 pu and 0. expressed in ohm-metres. From the foregoing description. respectively.8 pu of the voltage at the rod is measured between the rod and a point on the ground at 1 metre from it (i. the lengths of the current paths between successive surfaces must increase for R to remain constant (reminder R = ρl/a).0 pu 0. where earth-fault currents are high.1 pu voltage intervals. Since the same current is passing through all the equipotential surfaces. for a given distance (l) along. For equal lengths of current-flow path. When "local-earth" is mentioned in these notes. The location of local-earth in each of the diagrams of F52 (and of diagram (d) in AC2-2) is indicated by 0 (i. as the areas of successive surfaces are larger. approximately the length of a step) for very long-rod and very short-rod electrodes.C The vertical plane surface is the locus at which the strength of the positive* electric field from one electrode (A) is exactly equal to the strength of the negative field of the other electrode (B). it refers to a point on the ground at which the edge of this plane surface is located. potential gradients of a vertical-rod electrode It will be seen in figure AC2-1 that the high current density at the (pointed) tip of the rod results in steep potential gradients in the soil beneath the buried extremity of the electrode. a is the cross-sectional area in square metres through which the current flows. Note: the equipotential contours on the surface of the ground. in which the equipotential contours are shown at 0. reason for potential gradients The resistance to a flow of current in a conducting medium is given in ohms by the ρl formula R = where a ρ is the resistivity coefficient of the medium. and the voltage drops across equally-spaced intervals become less and less.8 m step length ground surface maximum gradient at the rod-soil interface 1. while at points progressively further from the rod. shown in figure F52 (Chapter F) are essentially similar to those mentioned above. Measures taken to reduce such dangers are described later in this appendix. It is clear therefore. it can be seen that the zero-voltage equipotential surface is also the boundary of the two "zones of influence" of the two electrodes.5 0. So that. * Since a. in a homogeneous soil. when viewed from above. the electric fields of the two electrodes (X) and (C) for the electrode-resistance test. It therefore constitutes an equipotential surface at zero volts with respect to the two electrodes. sometimes also referred to as "zones of resistance". so that the voltage gradients are smaller and smaller with distance from the rod.5 rod 0. the current-flow lines R ∝ 1 a The soil in contact with the rod has an area (a) equal to that of the rod surface. Vpu 0. This means that the resultant polarity at the plane is neither positive nor negative.e. Investigations have shown that. the area close to such an electrode will be dangerous. l/a must be constant) and this results in progressively lower potential gradients. the resistance becomes progressively lower and lower. as shown in figure AC2-3. as indicated by the close proximity of adjacent equipotential contours in that region.e. the current passes through increasingly-large areas.c.Appendix C2 . 2 . AC2-3: voltage profile of the single-rod electrode of figure AC2-1. therefore.5 position 1 metres fig. the resistance of the mass of soil between any two adjacent equipotential surfaces will have the same value.32 pu step voltage local-earth datum (zero volts) 1 0. each electrode will change its polarity at every half cycle. l is the length in metres of the conducting path (in the direction of the current-flow lines). Another way of considering the formation of potential gradients is shown in figure AC2-1. zero).

e. AC2-4: voltage profile and potential gradients of an earthing grid. (b) using special low-resistance "soils" in the space surrounding the electrodes. not too large). (d) without insulation α voltage profiles β with insulation insulation ground surface step voltage touch voltage grid voltage with respect to local-earth zero potential fig. S2 and S3 are strip grading electrodes running parallel to the fence and connected to it at frequent intervals. c for electrodes generally (figure AC2-5) by: (a) increasing the length and/or number of rods to reduce the electrode resistance and therefore the voltage rise at the electrode. must also be insulated. Potential gradients in the grid meshes will have the general form shown in figure AC2-4. Note: the connection at the top of the rod. Appendix C2 . In practice. generally that of a switchyard or substation. the whole of the earthing grid and all metallic parts connected to it (together with any personal present) may be raised to several hundreds (or thousands) of volts. The same "grading-electrode" technique is sometimes used around the base of transmission-line towers. boundary fences.3 . (c) reducing earthing-grid-mesh sizes. v where transformers or generators (according to the case) operate permanently in parallel. AC2-5: voltage profiles and methods of reducing maximum potential gradients in some common earthing arrangements. fig. and connected to an insulated connecting lead. from the surface of the ground to a depth of approximately 1 m. and using "grading electrodes" at the grid boundaries. but providing the grid meshes are appropriately dimensioned (i. to reduce the severity of the gradients. (a) α long rod β short rod The resistance of a rod electrode is approximately inversely proportional to its length. (b) α gradient α with original soil β gradient β with special earth fill reducing potential gradients due to earth faults Some of the methods commonly employed in the reduction of potential gradients include: c reduction of earth-fault-current levels: v by using resistance. During an earth fault. some of them are left unearthed. and therefore that of both "touch" and "step" voltages. potential gradients will always occur when earth-fault currents are flowing. as well as the connecting lead. etc. unless adequate precautions are taken. fence special low-resistance earth fill (c) metal fence fence is out of reach S1 grid voltage with respect to local-earth α zero voltage profiles at the ground surface S2 S3 β with grading without grading S1. An alternative method is to bury the rod completely with the top of the rod below ground level. (d) insulating driven rods from contact with the earth over the upper section. This figure also shows that connecting a metallic boundary fence to the earthing grid can be dangerous. i.C voltage gradients associated with earthing grids The purpose of an earthing grid (or mat) is to provide a close approximation to an equipotential condition at the ground surface over a large area.or reactance-earthed sources (generators or transformers as appropriate).e. the permissible maximum values of gradient at the highest anticipated levels of earth-fault current will not be exceeded.

rubber mats. it is necessary to comply with the appropriate local regulations. highly-resistive surfaces..g. and in certain cases. In the present circumstances. then the stepvoltage condition is also considered to be satisfactory. while there is an even greater difference above the recommended IEC 364 values for allowable short-duration (e. but many authorities have adopted the 50 V AC (or 25 V AC in wet conditions) criteria of IEC 364-4-41. If the gradients are such that the touchvoltage criterion is satisfied. etc. a substantial part of the current passes through the vital organs in the thorax). Cenelec Technical Committee 112 is preparing a European HV installation standard. Standards differ in various countries. such as plastic tiles. or clean gravel or pebbles are frequently used. measures are taken to reduce the current passing through a person's feet by providing an insulated floor covering indoors. such as crushed rock. thick layers of asphalt. while for outdoor locations. safe levels of ground-surface potential gradient There is no IEC-recommended safe value of maximum long-duration (> 10 seconds) touch voltage for HV installations at the time of writing (1994).5 seconds) touch voltages. in the former case.Appendix C2 . a touch-voltage is more dangerous to human beings than a step-voltage (since. Gravel or pebbles provide a very effective high-resistance surface. providing the stones are clean. between the stones greatly reduces the insulating performance of such surfaces. Chapter 9 (according to present proposals) of this future standard will include recommendations for safe touchvoltage/time duration levels. therefore. It is recognized that. Leaf mould.C other methods of reducing the dangers of ground-surface potential gradients The easiest method (but wasteful in terms of space) is simply to fence off the area around the electrode(s) with warning notices. 4 .03 to 0. or mud etc. even when wet. for a given voltage level. 0. More commonly. long-duration touch-voltage values which are significantly higher than 50 V AC maximum are permitted. At the time of writing.

ZNE is the impedance of the network measured between terminals N and E when no neutral connection exists. c the source impedance is assumed to be negligible. and XL = j 10 pu. as shown in figure AC3-1.1 0° = 0.j 0.5 .1 . Œ. The vector diagram can be constructed as follows. According to Thévenin's theorem IN also equals VNE where ZNE + Z VNE is the voltage between N and E when no neutral connection exists. ZN = 0) by summating the individual phase currents. Per-unit notation is used to generalize and simplify the calculations: c 1 pu voltage is the nominal phase-toneutral system voltage.066 pu IL1 V 3 E = 0.066 pu IC3 N 1 3 E IL2 IL1 + IL2 = 0.375 pu 210° V1 not to scale complete vector diagram Other values shown in the vector diagram are easily obtained from the above calculations.9. XL1 in parallel with XL2 = j 5 j 5 in parallel with XC3 = j 5 x (-j 1) 5 = = -j 1. In these calculations XC = -j 1 pu impedance.e.circuit and vector diagrams.25 j5-j1 j4 ZNE = . in the resonant condition. ZN is the impedance of the neutral conductor (zero in the present case). 1 L1 imaginary neutral N 3 source 2 C3 E L2 calculation of IN In figure C14 of Chapter C it was stated that. as a result of the particular ferro-resonant condition described. K in figure C14 of Chapter C).e.1 -60° x 1. Appendix C3 .1 Chapter C shows how the neutral of an unearthed 3-phase source can be displaced from its normal near-zero potential.375 -150° or 1.375 pu 2. 1 90° I1 = = 0.1 -120° = -0.375 pu 2. vector diagram of ferro-resonance at 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) C Figure C13 of Sub-clause 3.375 pu not to scale 1 2 I1 + I2 + I3 = IN fig.25 -90° = 1. AC3-2: vector diagram for the resonant condition. ≠ and Ž are the power-supply terminals.05 .953 = 1. The procedure is as follows: c compute the current IN in an imaginary neutral of negligible impedance (i. c 1 pu impedance is equal to the normal capacitive reactance of one phase-to-earth at power frequency (i.j 0.55 . calculation of VNE 1.1 + j 0 10 90° 1 -30° I2 = = 0. This means that VNE = IN ZNE fig.j 0. XL > XC.25 pu ohms.0866 10 90° 1 210° I3 = = 1 300° = 0. AC3-1: calculation of VNE .j 1.866 1 -90° IN = 0. XL2 and Xc. I1 V2 N V3 VNE I2 I1 + I2 1 VNE = 1.1 -60° calculation of ZNE ZNE is the parallel combination of XL1.

the power distribution authority connects the LV neutral point of its HV/LV distribution transformer to earth. domestic and similar premises L Electrical installations for inhabited premises need a high standard of safety and reliability. as being the only sure means of protection against shock when very long flexible leads of small c. Sub-clause 5. TN or IT scheme of earthing is adopted. as treated in detail in Chapter G. on the principles discussed in Chapter F. in such cases. All exposed conductive parts must be bonded together and connected to earth. are supplied from a socket. RCDs are essential for TT. circuits feeding socket-outlets). domestic and similar premises and special locations . but high-speed overcurrent devices (MCBs or fuses) are commonly used to clear earth faults on TN-earthed schemes.and IT-earthed installations. either directly to an electrode at the premises (TT or IT schemes) or by means of the neutral conductor (TN schemes)*. The protection of persons against electric shock therefore depends. Clause 4.1 general related standards Most countries have national regulations andor standards governing the rules to be strictly observed in the design and realization of electrical installations for domestic and similar premises. See also Clause 3 concerning special installations.1.L1 . * for TN-C and TN-S schemes refer to Chapter G. 1. The relevant international standard is the IEC publication 364.a. all Clauses. The measures required depend on whether the TT.s. However. the power network The vast majority of power-distribution authorities connect the low-voltage neutral point of their HV/LV distribution transformers to earth. in particular instances (e. All LV installations must be protected therefore by RCDs (for TT and IT schemes of earthing) or by shortcircuit protective devices for TN schemes.1.g. and Chapter G. RCDs are strongly recommended on TN installations.

Isis L2 . L1-1: presentation of realizable functions on a consumer unit. domestic and similar premises (continued) L 1. and protection against fire differential MCB differential load switch remote control bistable switch THP CDSc energy management IHPc fig.domestic and similar premises and special locations .1.2 distribution-board components control and distribution board enclosure incoming-supply circuit breaker service connection lightning arrester lightning protection overcurrent protection and isolation cartridge fuses MCB phase + neutral protection against direct and indirect contact.

as required. indicating dials (of meters) etc..80 metres from the floor (1... and rails for mounting MCBs. L1-4: control and distribution board. c installation accessories for fixing conductors.. the control and distribution board (consumer unit) This board comprises: c a control panel for mounting (where appropriate) the incoming-supply circuit breaker and other control auxiliaries. fig. are between 1 metre and 1. The consumer has no access to these fuses. L1-3: incoming-supply circuit breaker.g. Distribution boards (generally one only in domestic premises) usually include the meter(s) and in some cases (notably where the supply authorities impose a TT-earthing system and/or tariff conditions which limit the maximum permitted current consumption) an incoming-supply differential circuit breaker. and so on. The differential trip generally has a 500 mA setting to provide indirect-contact protection (and a measure of fire protection) for the whole installation. the installation of a lightning arrester at the service position of a LV installation is prescribed in many national standards and is strongly recommended for installations which include sensitive (e.) in a suitable location close to the distribution board.L the quality of electrical equipment used in inhabited premises is commonly ensured by a mark of conformity situated on the front of each item. c service-cable ducts or conduits. The board should be installed at a height such that the operating handles. L1-2: components of a control and distribution board. On installations which are TN-earthed. to reclose it if the current consumption had exceeded the authorized limit. will not trip unnecessarily each time a lightning arrester discharges the current (of an overvoltage-surge) to earth. fig.60 A four-poles. surface mounted or in cable chases embedded in the wall. the incoming-supply circuit breaker The consumer is permitted to operate this CB if necessary (e. etc.. while. it is recommended to keep all relevant documents (photos.30 metres in situations where han